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Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

ME-402 FLUID MACHINERY EXPERIMENT-1

AXIAL FLOW FAN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS


1. Objective and Test Standard

In this experiment, the aerodynamic characteristic of a 50 cm outer diameter axial flow fan is going to be determined by measuring the static and total pressures in the suction and discharge sides of the fan for various flow rates. The total efficiency of the fan system will be predicted by measuring the power consumed by the electric motor. The axial fan is a scaled down version of a 90 cm outer diameter mine ventilation fan, so a similarity analysis will be performed to predict the performance characteristics of the prototype mine ventilation fan. The aerodynamic performance of the axial flow fan will be performed in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 51-75, AMCA Standard 210-74.

2.

Experiment Set-up and Physical Quantities to be Measured

The type of set-up is Inlet Duct Setup Pitot Traverse in Inlet Duct and the schematic is given in Figure 1.
Outlet duct Dd=0.50m Flowrate adjustment valve

5m
FAN Pitot traverse and temperature measurement Dduct=0.505 m 4.5 m 2.75 m Flow Straightener

Figure 1: Schematic of experiment set-up

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

Ambient pressure (mBar): This is used in the calculation of ambient air density. Ambient dry bulb temperature (oC): This is used in the calculation of ambient air density. Air temperature at measurement plane (oC): This is measured to calculate the air density at measurement plane. Fan rotational speed (rpm): Fan rotational speed should be recorded. Motor input power (kW): Motor input power will be recorded to calculate the efficiency of the fan system (fan + electric motor). Reference manometer height (mm of alcohol): Reference manometer height will be recorded to calculate the difference of static and total pressures measured at fan inlet duct from ambient pressure. Total pressure: Total pressure values at measurement plane will be recorded to calculate total pressure at fan inlet. Static Pressure: Static pressure values at measurement plane will be recorded to calculate static pressure at fan inlet.

3.

Methodology

The performance characteristics of an axial flow fan at a certain rotational speed is obtained by measurement of total pressure rise across the fan at various flowrates. The efficiency of the fan system shall be calculated at each operating point and this is made possible by dividing the fluid power to the motor input power.

The flow rate is obtained by traversing the pitot tube at predetermined locations on measurement plane. The dynamic pressure values at discrete points on measurement plane (Figure 2) are recorded and flow rate is calculated by performing a calculation procedure as follows:

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

Second orientation

First orientation

Figure 2: Pitot tube traverse points

Dynamic pressure values at each measurement point are calculated and average dynamic pressure at suction side measurement m plane (See Figure 1) is calculated as

Pv m

Pv m _ r = n

(1)

where Pv m : Dynamic pressure at m plane Pv m _ r : Dynamic pressure at a certain point (in other words at a certain radial position) n : Number of measurement points

Average velocity on m plane can be calculated by using average dynamic pressure on m plane:
Vm = 2 Pv m

. (2)

Vm

: Average velocity on m plane : Air density on m plane


Pt _ m Td 0 P0 Tdm

m = 0

Where Pt_m is the absolute total pressure at m plane, 0 is the density of air at atmospheric conditions, P0 is ambient pressure, Td0 is the ambient dry bulb temperature and Tdm is m plane dry bulb temperature in Kelvins.

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

Volumetric flow rate on m plane can be calculated as

Qm = Vm Am .
In the equation, Am is the cross sectional area of duct on m plane.

(3)

Volumetric flow rate through the fan is then calculated by correcting the volumetric flow rate measured at m plane by ratio of air stream density on the measurement plane and that through the fan. Q = Qm m . (4)

is defined as "fan air density" and can be calculated as


= 0
Pt _ m P0

Total pressure rise of the fan is calculated as:

Pt = Pt d Pt s
where

(5)

Pt Pt d Pt s

: Fan total pressure rise : Total pressure at fan discharge side : Total pressure at suction side

Total pressure at suction side can be calculated as

Pt s = Ps s + Pv s
where

(6)

Ps s Pv s

: Static pressure on suction side : Dynamic pressure on suction side

Similarly, total pressure at discharge side

Pt d = Ps d + Pv d

..

(7)

where

Ps d Pv d

: Static pressure on discharge side : Dynamic pressure on discharge side

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

Static pressure on the measurement plane can be calculated by taking the average of static pressures measured at each traverse point on the m plane and gage static pressure at the discharge of the fan can be measured from the wall of the outlet duct by averaging pressures from three taps located at circumferentially equal distances. Note that flow area at discharge measurement location is different than inlet duct area and dynamic pressure at the discharge should be corrected accordingly. The flow area at discharge measurement location is 0.1433 m2. Note that the frictional losses between m plane and fan inlet are neglected.

Calculate system efficiency as:

fluid motor

.......

(8)

where Pfluid is power input to fluid and Pmotor is the power input to the electric motor.

4. Experiment Procedure

a) Record atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. b) Bring the flowrate adjustment valve to a desired position. c) Operate the fan and read fan rotational speed from fan driver control panel. d) Record the temperature on measurement plane with digital thermometer. e) Record the reference alcohol height from a manometer tube open to atmosphere. f) Adjust pitot tube position to the first measurement point by using the marker tapes which are previously stuck on the pitot tube. Record manometer deflections for total and static pressures. Record the wall static pressure at discharge side of the fan. Repeat the procedure for the other seven points in this orientation and eight points in the other orientation. g) Repeat f to obtain operating points at different flow rate values by adjusting flowrate adjustment valve at the end of the duct. h) Turn off the fan.

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

5.

Calculations

a) Show the calculation of air density values for ambient, measurement plane and fan; show the calculation of fan flowrate, dynamic and static pressures at discharge and suction sides of the fan for a sample operating point. b) Calculate the flowrate and total pressure rise of the fan at each operating point. Tabulate your results. c) Calculate the efficiency of the system at each operation point. d) Plot Pt vs. Q and vs. Q on the same graph. Use second vertical axis for efficiency curve. e) Perform a similarity analysis and estimate the performance of a similar prototype fan of 0.9m in diameter. Tabulate your results and plot the performance characteristics of the prototype fan as you did in part d.

6.

Reference

ASHRAE Standard 51-75, AMCA Standard 210-74, Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans

for Rating, Publication of Air Moving and Conditioning Association, Inc. and American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 1975.

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

Axial Fan Performance Test Data Sheet


Name: Lab Group Date : Ambient Pressure P0 (mbar) Ambient dry bulb temperature Td0 (oC) Temperature at measurement plane Tdm (oC) Diameter of the inlet duct (m) Fan diameter (m) Density of Alcohol (kg/m ) Reference alcohol height (mmAlcohol) Manometer angle of inclination FAN Rotational speed (rpm) Operating Points Valve position 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation 27
3

0,505 0,5 832

Pressure at discharge, Ps_d (mmAlcohol):

Pinput(kW)

Valve position 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

Pressure at discharge, Ps_d (mmAlcohol):

Pinput(kW)

Middle East Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

Operating Points Valve position 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

Pressure at discharge, Ps_d (mmAlcohol):

Pinput(kW)

Valve position 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

Pressure at discharge, Ps_d (mmAlcohol):

Pinput(kW)

Valve position 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

Pressure at discharge, Ps_d (mmAlcohol):

Pinput(kW)

Valve position 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation

Pressure at discharge, Ps_d (mmAlcohol):

Pinput(kW)