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SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURAL INTERPRETATION OF A GIVEN FIELD IN NIGER DELTA BASIN, NIGERIA. 1.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Sequence stratigraphic concepts in defining sediment accumulation and preservation trends within basin fills have become a highly successful exploration technique in the search for natural resources. Thus, the subdivision of a basins sedimentary fill into time stratigraphically constrained depositional packages is imperative in unraveling its development and inherent hydrocarbon potentials. The petroliferous Niger Delta is one of the highest producing basins with more promising reserves yet to be discovered as exploration proceeds to the deeper water. Sequence stratigraphy is one of the twenty first century exploration and production tools that are used to unravel series of lithological and basinal intricacies bordering on sand packets, depositional sequences and paleoenvironmental analysis. This project is aimed at subdividing the stratigraphic section within the study area into packages of sediments bounded by chronostratigraphically significant surfaces (condensed sections, their associated maximum flooding surfaces and sequence boundaries). The Niger Delta Province has been identified to be a prolific hydrocarbon field and is known to contain one identified petroleum system (Ekweozor & Daukoru, 1984; Kulk e, 1995) referred to as the Tertiary Niger Delta (Akata Agbada) petroleum System. The 12 km thick Niger Delta clastic wedge spans a 75, 000 km2 area in southern Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea offshore Nigeria. This clastic wedge contains the 12th largest known accumulation of recoverable hydrocarbons, with reserves exceeding 34 billion barrels of oil and 93 trillion cubic feet of gas (Tuttle et al., 1999). These deposits have been divided into three large-scale lithostratigraphic units: (1) the basal Paleocene to Recent pro-delta facies of the Akata Formation, (2) Eocene to Recent, paralic facies of the Agbada Formation, and (3) Oligocene-Recent, fluvial facies of the Benin Formation (Evamy et al., 1978; Short and Stauble, 1967; Whiteman, 1982). These formations become progressively younger farther into the basin, recording the long-term progradation of depositional environments of the Niger Delta onto the Atlantic Ocean passive margin. .

2. PREVIOUS WORK Sequence stratigraphy concepts have been used in the Niger Delta. The formation of and sediment deposition in the Niger Delta have been greatly influenced by tectonics and sea level changes. Damuth(1994) considered Neogene gravity tectonics and depositional processes on the modern deep Niger Delta continental margin. He recognized three regional structural styles; (1) an upper extensional zone of listric growth faults beneath the outer shelf, (2) a translational zone of diapirs and shale ridges beneath the upper slope; and (3) a lower compressional zone of imbricate thrust structures (toe thrusts) beneath the lower slope and rise. He suggested these areas with different structural style are linked together on a regional scale and that these variations in style suggest that large portions of this thick sediment prism are slowly moving downslope by gravity collapse. In 1995, Stach produced a chronostratigraphic framework and a sequence stratigraphy chart which is widely used as a reference material by stratigraphers. Also, Ejadawe et al in 2004, using 2D seismic and well data examined the regional sequence stratigraphy and sand fairway as controls on hydrocarbon occurrences in the Niger Delta. Adeogba et al. (2005) discussed transient fan architecture and depositional controls from near-surface 3-D seismic data of Niger Delta continental slope. Corredor et al. (2005) related structural styles in the deep-water fold and thrust belts of the Niger Delta and concluded that there are two complex, imbricate fold and thrust belt systems (the inner and outer fold and thrust belts) that are the product of contraction caused by gravity-driven extension on the shelf. 3. AIMS OF THE PROJECT This project aims at; 1. Developing a high resolution sequence stratigraphic model for a given field of the Niger Delta. 2. Determining and understanding of the system tracts present within the study area and their contribution to the petroleum system. 3. Determination of play types; Stratigraphic or structural. 4. Building a basinal model that will make the prediction of oil and gas occurrence within and around the area of interest

easier.

4. METHODOLOGY and DATA

The data for this study will be obtained from the Department of Petroleum Resources(DPR). For the purpose of this study, 3D seismic reflection lines, composite well logs, Checkshot data will be used. The structural interpretations involve the seismic interpretation of the migrated seismic reflection lines that will be provided. Seismic interpretation is the process of determining from seismic records information about the subsurface. The basic task in interpreting seismic records is that of selecting those events on the records which represents primary reflections, translating arrival times for those events into depths and maping the reflection horizon. Recognition and identification of the seismic events will be based on coherence, amplitude standout, continuity or terminations. In carrying out structural interpretation in this study,the following operations will be performed. 1. Mapping of chosen Reflection Horizons: This involves the identification, selection, correlation and digitization of the seismic events. 2. 3. Marking of Faults Major faults will be identified and marked on the crosslines. Tying of Loops The choosen horizons on the crosslines and inlines will be tied at their intersection positions, their corners will also be checked for closure errors. Time to Depth Conversion. Check shot will be used for depth conversion. The map will then be prepared. Plotting of Faults At every location where the the faults are marked (on the seismic sections), a fault point will be plotted on the base map. Contouring

4. 5. 6. 7.

All points of equal values with will be joined with a smooth line (Contour line).This will be divided into time structure maps and Structure contour maps. Stratigraphic evaluation will be carried out with the aid of the well logs. A log is the graphic representation of the variation of one parameter as a function of another, the latter being generally taken as depth but sometimes as time. The following operations and procedures will be followed during the interpretation. 1 Examination of the Data set The various type of logs provided will be studied carefully and the quality of the logs established. 2 Identification of Lithofacies from the Well logs The Gamma ray logs will be used in identifying the lithologies penetrated by the wells. 3 Correlation of the Well logs The depth scale of the logs will be aligned and slide past one another until good correlation is obtained. 4 Log Depth Measurement The Measured Depth(MD), measured Thickness(MT) of the horizons, subsea true Vertical depth (SSTVD) of each horizon will be calculated. REFERENCES CITED Ainsworth, R. B. (2005): Sequence stratigraphic- based analysis of reservoir connectivity: influence of depositional architecture a case study of a marginal marine depositional setting. Petroleum Geoscience; EAGE/ Geological Society, London; Vol. 11 2005, pp. 257276. Doust, H., Omatsola, M. E. (1990): Niger Delta, In: J. D. Edwards, P. A Santogrossi(eds.), Divergent/passive margin basins, American Association of Petroleum Geologists; pp. 239248. Ekweozor, C. M., Daukoru, E. M. (1984): Petroleum source-bed evaluation of Tertiary Niger Delta; discussion and reply, AAPG Bulletin; Vol. 68, pp.387394. Emery, D. & MYERS, K. (1996): Sequence Stratigraphy. BlackwellScience Ltd.,London, UK. 297.

Van Wagoner, J. C., Mitchum, R. M., Campion, K. M. & Rahmanian, V.D. (1990): Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy in well logs, cores and outcrops: concept for high-resolution correlation of time and facies, AAPG methods in exploration series, No. 7, 55 pp. Weber, K. J. & Daukoru, E. M. (1975):Petroleum geology of the Niger Delta: Proceedings of the 9th World Petroleum Congress, Vol. 2, Geology: London, Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., p. 210221. Wilgus, C. K., Hasting, B. S., Ross, C. A., Posamentier, H. W., Van Wagoner, J. & Kendall , C. G. ST . C. (1998). Sea level changes, an integrated approach, SEPM specialpublication; Vol. 42, 407pp.