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A320 Systems Description

Uncontrolled Document

Geoff Klouth 4 Dec 07

Contents
Contents.........................................................................................................................2 Air Conditioning ...........................................................................................................8 Air Conditioning Pack...................................................................................................9 Ram Air..........................................................................................................................9 Mixer Unit......................................................................................................................9 Hot Air Pressure Regulating Valves..............................................................................9 Trim Air Valves.............................................................................................................9 Temperature and Flow Regulation.................................................................................9 Pack Controller..............................................................................................................9 Pack Flow Control.......................................................................................................10 Engine Pressure Demand.............................................................................................10 APU Flow Demand With APU bleed valve open, the zone controller signals the APUs Electronic Control Box to increase the APU flow output when any zone temperature demand cant be satisfied.........................................................................10 Temperature Regulation...............................................................................................10 Basic Temperature Regulation.....................................................................................10 Optimised Temperature Regulation.............................................................................10 System operation Under Failure Condition.................................................................10 Primary Channel Failure..............................................................................................10 Primary and Secondary Channel Failure.....................................................................10 Pack Controllers...........................................................................................................10 Primary Channel Failure..............................................................................................10 Secondary Channel Failure Has no effect on pack regulation. Backup mode lost. ECAM signals related to the corresponding pack are lost. Primary and Secondary Channel Failure As a backup, corresponding pack outlet temperature is controlled by the anti ice valve and is stabilised between 5 30 C in a max of six minutes. ECAM signals, related to the corresponding pack are lost.......................................................10 Air Cycle Machine Failure...........................................................................................10 Hot Air Pressure Regulating Valve failure..................................................................10 Trim Air Valve Failure Optimised temperature regulation of the corresponding zone is lost............................................................................................................................10 Pressurisation...............................................................................................................11 Automatic Operation............................................................................................11 Cabin Pressure Controllers...........................................................................................11 Outflow Valve On right hand side of aircraft, behind aft cargo compartment below flotation line.The actuator controls the inward and outward opening flaps, and is powered by three motors.Two motors for automatic mode, and one motor for manual mode. Safety ValvesTwo independent pneumatic safety valves prevent cabin pressure from exceeding 8.6 psi or going below 0.25 psi.Located on rear pressure bulkhead, above flotation line...................................................11 Automatic Pressure Control Mode...............................................................................11 Ground.................................................................................................................12 2

Takeoff.................................................................................................................12 Climb....................................................................................................................12 Cruise...................................................................................................................12 Descent Controller maintains cabin rate of descent so cabin pressure equals landing field elevation just before touchdown. The maximum rate is 750 fpm.. 12 Abort This mode prevents cabin from climbing if aircraft does not climb after takeoff. Pressure is set back to takeoff altitude plus 0.1 psi................................12 Manual Pressure Control Mode...........................................................................12 Ventilation....................................................................................................................13 Fans Two electric fans operate as long as electrical power available. Circulate air around avionics....................................................................................................13 Skin Air Inlet And Extract Valves Admit air from outside aircraft, and evacuate hot air from inside aircraft...................................................................................13 Skin Exchange Inlet And Outlet Bypass Valves..................................................13 Air Conditioning Inlet ValvePermits air conditioning circuit to supply fresh air to the avionics bay................................................................................................13 Skin Exchange Isolation ValveThis valve connects or isolates the skin heat exchanger.............................................................................................................13 Normal Operation, Open Circuit Configuration..........................................................13 Ground Operations ...............................................................................................13 Ground Operations ...............................................................................................13 Flight Operations..................................................................................................13 Normal Operation, Intermediate Configuration...........................................................13 Flight Operations..................................................................................................13 Abnormal Operation....................................................................................................13 Blower Fault or Extract Fault Warning................................................................13 Smoke Configuration...........................................................................................13 Controller Failure.................................................................................................14 Avionics Ground Cooling............................................................................................14 Battery Ventilation.......................................................................................................14 Lavatory And Galley....................................................................................................14 Cargo Ventilation.........................................................................................................14 Aft Cargo Compartment Ventilation....................................................................14 Aft Cargo Compartment Heating.........................................................................15 Auto Flight...................................................................................................................15 Dual Mode............................................................................................................15 Master FMGC Logic............................................................................................15 Independent Mode................................................................................................15 Single Mode.........................................................................................................15 Flight Management......................................................................................................16 Position Computation...................................................................................................16 Mix IRS Position..................................................................................................16 GPS Position........................................................................................................16 Radio Position......................................................................................................16 FM Position..........................................................................................................16 Bias.......................................................................................................................16 3

Cost Index............................................................................................................16 Engine Out Case...................................................................................................16 Recommended Maximum Altitude......................................................................16 Predictions for Alternates.....................................................................................16 Return to Trajectory Assumptions.......................................................................16 Energy Circle.......................................................................................................17 Interaction Between AP/FD and Authothrust Modes..........................................17 Soft Altitude.........................................................................................................17 Land Mode...........................................................................................................17 Flare Mode Once a/c reaches approximately 40 radar altitude FLARE mode engages.................................................................................................................17 Align Sub Mode...................................................................................................17 Roll Out Mode.....................................................................................................17 Speed Control.......................................................................................................17 Autoland Warning Light......................................................................................17 Thrust Lock Function...........................................................................................17 Alpha Floor..........................................................................................................18 Ground Speed Mini..............................................................................................18 Vapp Computation...............................................................................................18 Flight Augmentation....................................................................................................18 Yaw Damping......................................................................................................18 Rudder Trim.........................................................................................................18 Rudder Travel Limitation.....................................................................................18 PFD Speed Scale Management............................................................................18 Low Energy Warning...........................................................................................19 Windshear Detection Function.............................................................................19 Electrical......................................................................................................................19 Main Generators...................................................................................................19 External Power.....................................................................................................19 Emergency Generator..........................................................................................20 Static Inverter.......................................................................................................20 DC Generation.............................................................................................................20 Transformer Rectifiers.........................................................................................20 Batteries ..............................................................................................................20 Circuit Breakers...................................................................................................20 Normal Configuration..................................................................................................20 In Flight................................................................................................................20 Abnormal Configurations............................................................................................20 Failure Of One Engine Generator........................................................................20 Failure of AC Bus 1.............................................................................................20 Failure Of One TR...............................................................................................20 Failure of TR 1+2.................................................................................................20 Emergency Generation After Loss of all Main Generators .................................21 Smoke Configuration...........................................................................................21 Fire Protection..............................................................................................................21 Fire Warning and Loop Cautions.........................................................................21 4

Pushing the Engine 1 or 2 Fire push button will :-......................................................21 Pushing the APU Fire push button will :-....................................................................21 Avionics Bay........................................................................................................21 Lavatory...............................................................................................................22 Cargo Compartment Smoke Detection................................................................22 Flight Controls.............................................................................................................22 Basic Principles............................................................................................................22 Electrical Control.................................................................................................23 Electric Control....................................................................................................23 Speedbrakes and Ground Spoilers...............................................................................23 Speedbrake Control..............................................................................................23 Speedbrake extension is inhibited if :-.........................................................................23 The maximum speedbrake deflection in manual flight is :- 40 for spoilers 3&4 and 20 for spoiler 2............................................................................................................24 The maximum speedbrake deflection with autopilot engaged is :- 25 for spoilers 3&4 and 12.5 for spoilers 2.................................................................................................24 Ground Spoilers...................................................................................................24 Full Extension......................................................................................................24 Partial Extension..................................................................................................24 Retraction.............................................................................................................24 Yaw Control.................................................................................................................24 Electrical Rudder Control....................................................................................24 Mechanical Rudder Control.................................................................................24 Rudder Actuation.................................................................................................24 Rudder Travel Limit.............................................................................................24 Rudder Trim.........................................................................................................24 Normal Law.................................................................................................................24 Protections....................................................................................................................25 Pitch Attitude Protection......................................................................................25 High Angle of Attack Protection.........................................................................25 High Speed Protection.........................................................................................26 Normal Law.........................................................................................................26 Bank Angle Protection.........................................................................................26 Sideslip Target.....................................................................................................27 Reconfiguration Control Laws.....................................................................................27 Alternate Law..............................................................................................................28 Ground Mode.......................................................................................................30 Flight Mode..........................................................................................................30 Lateral Control.....................................................................................................30 Yaw Alternate Law..............................................................................................30 Load Factor Limitation........................................................................................30 Pitch Attitude Protection......................................................................................30 Low Speed Stability.............................................................................................30 Bank Angle Protection.........................................................................................30 Direct Law...................................................................................................................30 Pitch Control ........................................................................................................30 5

Lateral Control.....................................................................................................31 Roll Direct Law....................................................................................................31 Yaw Mechanical Control.....................................................................................31 Abnormal Attitude Laws.............................................................................................31 Mechanical Backup......................................................................................................31 Pitch Control ........................................................................................................31 Lateral Control.....................................................................................................31 Flaps and Slats.............................................................................................................31 Fuel System..................................................................................................................32 Outer Tank Inner Tank Centre Tank Inner Tank Outer Tank......................................32 Tank Pumps..........................................................................................................32 Transfer Valves....................................................................................................32 Cross Feed Valve.................................................................................................32 Is controlled by a double motor, which allows both engines to be fed from one side or one engine to be fed from both sides........................................................32 Engine LP Valves.................................................................................................32 Suction Valves.....................................................................................................32 Fuel Feed Sequence.....................................................................................................33 Centre Tank Pumps Control Logic......................................................................33 Fuel Transfer From Outer To Inner Tanks...........................................................33 Fuel Recirculation System...................................................................................33 Refuelling / Defuelling........................................................................................34 Hydraulics....................................................................................................................34 Green System Pump.............................................................................................34 Blue System Pumps.............................................................................................34 Yellow System Pumps.........................................................................................34 Power Transfer Unit.............................................................................................34 Ram Air Turbine..................................................................................................34 System Accumulators ..........................................................................................34 Priority Valves.....................................................................................................34 Fire Shutoff Valves..............................................................................................34 Reservoir Pressurisation.......................................................................................34 Wing Anti Ice...............................................................................................................35 Wipers..................................................................................................................36 Rain Repellent......................................................................................................36 Visual Ice Indicator..............................................................................................36 Electronic Instrument System......................................................................................37 Display Unit.........................................................................................................37 Display Management Computer (DMC)..............................................................37 System Data Acquisition Concentrator................................................................37 Flight Warning Computers...................................................................................37 Landing Gear................................................................................................................38 Main Gear............................................................................................................38 Nose Gear.............................................................................................................38 Normal Operation........................................................................................................38 Emergency Extension..........................................................................................39 6

Nose Wheel Steering...................................................................................................39 Brakes and Anti Skid...................................................................................................39 Anti Skid System.................................................................................................39 Auto Brake...........................................................................................................40 Normal Braking....................................................................................................40 Alternate Braking With Anti Skid.......................................................................40 Alternate Braking Without Anti Skid..................................................................40 Parking Brake.......................................................................................................40 Air Data and Inertial Reference System (ADIRS).......................................................41 Windshear Prediction Function...................................................................................42 Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)...............................................42 Pneumatic System........................................................................................................43 Engine Bleed System...........................................................................................43 Air Bleed Selection..............................................................................................43 Pressure Regulation And Limitation....................................................................43 Temperature Regulation And Limitation.............................................................43 APU Bleed Air Supply.........................................................................................43 Crossbleed............................................................................................................44 Leak Detection.....................................................................................................44 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU).......................................................................................44 APU Engine.................................................................................................................44 Electronic Control Box........................................................................................44 Air Intake System The air intake and an electrically operated flap allow external air to reach the compressor..................................................................................45 Starter The ECB controls the electric starter. The starter engages if the air intake is fully open and the MAST SW and the START push buttons are ON..............45 Fuel System The left fuel feed line supplies the APU. The required pressure is normally available from the tank pumps..............................................................45 Oil System The APU has an integral independent lubrication system (for lubrication and cooling).......................................................................................45 Inlet Guide Vanes The IGVs control bleed air flow, and a fuel pressure powered actuator position the IGVs. The ECB controls the actuator in response to aircraft demand.................................................................................................................45 Air Bleed System Is fully automatic. The APU speed is always 100% except for air conditioning, when the APU speed is 99% if the ambient temperature is above -18, or if ambient temperature is below 35 C..........................................45 Ground Operation Safety Devices The APU may run without crew supervision when the aircraft is on the ground........................................................................45 Power Plant..................................................................................................................45 Low Pressure (LP) compressor / turbine..............................................................45 High Pressure (HP) compressor / turbine............................................................45 Combustion Chamber..........................................................................................45 Accessory Gearbox..............................................................................................45 Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)........................................................45 Power Supply.......................................................................................................45 Thrust Control System.........................................................................................46 7

EPR Mode............................................................................................................46 N1 Modes.............................................................................................................46 Rated N1 Mode....................................................................................................46 Unrated N1 Mode.................................................................................................46 EPR Recovery Logic............................................................................................46 Ignition and Starting....................................................................................................46 Ignition System IS used to start the engines on the ground and in flight. It consists of two identical independent circuits for each engine, normally controlled by FADEC channel A, with channel B on standby. Each FADEC channel can control both igniters. On the ground, automatic start only fires one igniter. The FADEC automatically alternates igniters used on successive starts. The ignition comes on automatically after the dry crank sequence, and cuts off automatically when N2 reaches 43%.On the ground with a manual start, both igniters start firing when the Master switch is switched on.Both stop firing when N2 reaches 43%. In flight, both igniters start firing when the Master switch is switched on .Continuous ignition may be selected either manually or automatically to maintain engine combustion.....................................................46 Engine Starting System (automatic)....................................................................46

Air Conditioning
The air conditioning system operation is fully automatic.It maintains a constant selected temperature in the three zones. Cockpit, fwd cabin, aft cabin.Air is supplied by the pneumatic system via two pack flow control valves, two packs, and the mixing unit, which mixes the air coming in from the cabin and from the packs. Is then distributed to the cockpit and cabin.Temperature regulation is optimised through the hot air pressure regulating valve and the trim air valves which add hot air tapped upstream of the packs to the mixing unit air.In an emergency, a ram air inlet can provide ambient air to the mixing unit. Temperature regulation is controlled by a zone controller and two pack controllers. Flight deck and cabin temperature can be selected from the air conditioning panel in the cockpit.Low pressure air is supplied to the mixing unit by a ground connection.

Air Conditioning Pack Two packs operate automatically and independently of each other. Pack operation is controlled by pack controller signals. Warm pre conditioned bleed air enters the cooling path via the pack valve and is ducted to the primary heat exchanger. Then the cooled bleed air enters the compressor section of the air cycle machine and is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature. Is then cooled again in the main heat exchanger and enters the turbine section, where it expands, and in expanding generates power to drive the compressor and cooling air fan. The removal of energy during this process reduces the temperature of the air, resulting in very low air temperature at turbine discharge.A water separator system dries the air before it enters the turbine section. Pack Flow Control Valve Valve is pneumatically operated and electrically controlled. Regulates the airflow in accordance with signals received from the pack controller.With a loss of air pressure, a spring keeps valve closed.The valve closes automatically in case of pack overheating, engine starting, or operation of the fire or ditching push button.`Valve is controlled from the air conditioning panel. Ram Air An emergency ram air inlet ventilates the cockpit and cabin to remove smoke, or if both packs fail. Is controlled by the ram air push button on the air conditioning panel. This opens the ram air valve, provided that ditching is not selected. When ram air is on, the outflow valve opens about 50%, provided it is under automatic control, and pressure is less than one psi. Outflow valve does not automatically open if under manual control, even with pressure less than one psi. If pressure is greater than one psi, a check valve located downstream of the ram air door will not open, even if selected open. No air then supplied. Mixer Unit Mixes cold fresh air from the packs with the cabin air being recirculated through recirculation fans. The mixer unit is also connected to the emergency ram air inlet and the low pressure ground inlets. Hot Air Pressure Regulating Valves Regulates the pressure of hot air, tapped upstream of the packs.Is pneumatically operated and electrically controlled from the hot air push button.With no air, a spring keeps the valve closed. The valve closes automatically if the duct overheats, or the cockpit trim air valve fails, or both cabin trim air valves fail. The valve remains operative even if either the forward or aft cabin trim air valve fails. Trim Air Valves Are electrically controlled by the zone controller.A trim air valve, associated with each zone, adjusts the temperature by adding hot air. Temperature and Flow Regulation Temperature regulation is automatic and controlled by one zone controller and two pack controllers. Pack Controller Each pack controller regulates the temperature of its associated pack, in accordance with a demand signal from the zone controller, by modulating the bypass valve and the ram air inlet flaps. The ram air inlet flaps close during takeoff and landing to avoid ingestion of foreign matter. During takeoff, the ram air inlet flaps close when takeoff power is set, and main landing gear struts are compressed. During landing they close as

soon as main landing gear struts are compressed, as long as speed at or above 70 knots. They open 20 seconds after speed drops below 70 knots. Pack Flow Control Crew can use pack flow selector to adjust the pack flow for the number of passengers and for external conditions. Lo 80%, Norm 100%, Hi 120%.Regardless of what is selected, high flow is delivered in single pack operation or when the APU is supplying bleed air.System delivers normal flow if low flow selected and temperature demand cant be met. Engine Pressure Demand When the cooling demand in one zone cant be satisfied or if the bleed pressure is too low, the zone controller sends a pressure demand signal to both Engine Interface Units to increase minimum idle and to raise the bleed pressure. APU Flow Demand With APU bleed valve open, the zone controller signals the APUs Electronic Control Box to increase the APU flow output when any zone temperature demand cant be satisfied. Temperature Regulation The zone controller regulates the temperature of the two cabin zones and the cockpit. Basic Temperature Regulation Crew use temperature selectors to select reference temperatures.The zone controller computes a temperature demand from selected and actual temperatures.Actual temperature measured by sensors in the cockpit and in the lavatory extraction circuit and galley ventilation system for the cabin.A signal corresponding to the lowest demanded zone temperature goes to the pack controller, which then makes both packs produce the required outlet temperature. Optimised Temperature Regulation The zone controller optimises the temperature by action on the trim air valves.The temperature selection range is from 18 30 Celsius. System operation Under Failure Condition Each controller consists of a primary channel that is normally in control, and a secondary channel that acts as backup in case of primary failure. Primary Channel Failure The secondary channel operates as backup. Flow setting function and optimised temperature regulation not available. Hot air and trim air valves close.The zones controlled to 24 C. Pack 1 controls cockpit, Pack 2 controls cabin.Alternate mode appears on the ECAM. Secondary Channel FailureHas no effect on zone temperature regulation. Backup mode is lost. Primary and Secondary Channel Failure Optimised and backup regulation lost.Packs deliver a fixed temperature of 20 for pack 1, and 10 for Pack 2.This failure removes all info from ECAM COND page, which then displays Pack Reg. Pack Controllers Primary Channel Failure The secondary channel operates as backup. The regulation is not optimised. Pack flow is fixed at the previous setting. Secondary Channel Failure Has no effect on pack regulation. Backup mode lost. ECAM signals related to the corresponding pack are lost. Primary and Secondary Channel Failure As a backup, corresponding pack outlet temperature is controlled by the anti ice valve and is stabilised between 5 30 C in a max of six minutes. ECAM signals, related to the corresponding pack are lost. Air Cycle Machine Failure If it fails (compressor/turbine seizure), the affected pack may be operated in heat exchanger cooling mode. Warm pre conditioned bleed air enters the cooling path via the pack valve, and goes to primary heat exchanger. Then, the main part of the cooled air goes directly downstream of the ACM turbine through the bypass valve, and the rest goes through the failed ACM.The ACM seizure reduces the pack flow.As for normal pack operation, the pack controller regulates temperature, in accordance with zone controller demand, by modulating the bypass valve and the ram air inlet flap.The zone controller regulates the hot air flow through the trim air valves to optimise temperature regulation. Hot air flow is lower than in normal pack operation, because pack flow is reduced. Hot Air Pressure Regulating Valve failure If it fails open there is no effect.If it fails closed, optimised regulation is lost. Trim air valves go to full closed position. Pack 1 controls cockpit temps to the selected value, and Pack 2 controls cabin temps to the mean value of the selected temperatures. Trim Air Valve Failure Optimised temperature regulation of the corresponding zone is lost.

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Pressurisation
Has four general functions which are: Fully opens the outflow valve on the ground During takeoff, increases cabin pressure to avoid a surge in cabin pressure during rotation. Adjusts cabin altitude, and rate of change to provide passengers with a comfortable flight. After touchdown, gradually releases residual cabin overpressure before the ground function fully opens the outflow valve. System consists of two Cabin Pressure Controllers (CPC).One outflow valve, with an actuator that incorporates three motors (two for automatic operation and one for manual operation).One control panel.Two safety valves. Any one of three independent electric motors may power the outflow valve. Normally, one of the two CPC operates the outflow valve by its associated motor. In a ditching, an override switch allows flight crew to close the outflow valve, and all valves below the flotation line. The flight crew can set the system to operate automatically, semi automatically or manually. Normally system is fully automatic. Automatic Operation Flight crew monitor but do not control. System controls air pressure from signals from the FMGS.When FMGS data not available, the crew only need to select landing field elevation.The system then uses that elevation for internal schedules. Manual Operation The flight crew controls the cabin altitude via the manual motor of the outflow valves. Cabin Pressure Controllers Two identical, independent, digital controllers automatically control the system. They receive signals from ADIRS, the FMGC, the EIU, and the LGCIU. When system is auto or semi auto, one controller is active and other is standby. The controllers also generate signals for the ECAM. In manual mode, each controller has a backup section, which is powered by an independent power supply in the controller N1 position. The controllers communicate with each other via a cross channel link. Outflow Valve On right hand side of aircraft, behind aft cargo compartment below flotation line.The actuator controls the inward and outward opening flaps, and is powered by three motors.Two motors for automatic mode, and one motor for manual mode. Safety ValvesTwo independent pneumatic safety valves prevent cabin pressure from exceeding 8.6 psi or going below 0.25 psi.Located on rear pressure bulkhead, above flotation line. Automatic Pressure Control Mode Two identical, independent, automatic systems with its own motor and controller control cabin pressure. Either system can control the single outflow valve, but only one at a time. Automatic transfer occurs 70

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seconds after each landing, and if operating system fails.The controller controls cabin pressure, limiting it to 8000 feet maximum. The controller uses landing elevation and QNH from the FMGC, and the pressure altitude from the ADIRS. If no FMGC data, controller uses Captains Baro Reference from the ADIRS and the LDG ELEV selection. Ground Outflow valve fully opens to ensure no residual pressure before takeoff, and 55 seconds after landing. Takeoff To avoid pressure surge at rotation, controller pre-pressurises cabin at 500 fpm until pressure reaches 0.1 psi. At lift off, controller initiates climb phase. Climb Cabin altitude varies according to a fixed pre-programmed law. Cruise In cruise, controller maintains cabin altitude at level off value, or landing field elevation, whichever is higher. Descent Controller maintains cabin rate of descent so cabin pressure equals landing field elevation just before touchdown. The maximum rate is 750 fpm. Abort This mode prevents cabin from climbing if aircraft does not climb after takeoff. Pressure is set back to takeoff altitude plus 0.1 psi. Manual Pressure Control Mode Used when both automatic systems fail. Flight crew use cabin pressure control panel to control cabin pressurisation. Press the Mode Selector push button to select Manual, and push the Man V/S control switch up or down to increase or decrease cabin altitude.The first of these actions cuts power to the auto motors, and enables the manual motor to control the outflow valve.There is a 5 second lag on ECAM of the outflow valve position in manual mode.When manually controlled the outflow valve does not open automatically at touch down.

Ditching
Flight crew push ditching push button to close outflow valve, emergency ram air inlet, avionics ventilation inlet and extract valves, and the pack flow control valves.

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Ventilation
This system includes ventilation for the avionics, controlled by the avionics equipment ventilation controller (AEVC), the battery, the lavatories and the galleys. System is fully automatic. It cools the electric and electronic components in avionics compartment and on flight deck, including instrument panel and circuit breaker panels.It uses two electric fans to force circulation of cooling air.Regardless of configuration of system, a part of avionics ventilation air is sucked from flight deck through the different flight deck panels. Fans Two electric fans operate as long as electrical power available. Circulate air around avionics. Skin Air Inlet And Extract Valves Admit air from outside aircraft, and evacuate hot air from inside aircraft. Skin Exchange Inlet And Outlet Bypass Valves Permit air to circulate between avionics bay and the space under cargo compartment floor. Air Conditioning Inlet ValvePermits air conditioning circuit to supply fresh air to the avionics bay. Skin Exchange Isolation ValveThis valve connects or isolates the skin heat exchanger. Avionics Equipment Ventilation Computer (AEVC) Controls operation of all fans and valves in the avionics ventilation system. Normal Operation, Open Circuit Configuration Ground Operations Operates when skin temperature is above the on ground threshold, which is 12 C with temperature increasing, or 9 C with temperature decreasing.Normal Operation, Close Circuit Configuration

Ground Operations
Operates when skin temperature is beneath the on ground threshold, which is 12 C with temperature increasing, or 9 C with temperature decreasing. Flight Operations Operates when skin temperature is beneath the in flight threshold which is 35 C with temperature increasing, or 32 C with temperature decreasing. Normal Operation, Intermediate Configuration Flight Operations Operates when skin temperature is above the in flight threshold which is 35 C with temperature increasing, or 32 C with temperature decreasing. Abnormal Operation Blower Fault or Extract Fault Warning When blower or extract push button is set at override, the system is in closed circuit configuration, and adds air from air conditioning system to the ventilation air.When the blower switch is set to override, the blower fan stops and extract fans continues to run. When the extract switch is set to override, the extract fan is controlled directly from the push button. Both fans to continue to run. Smoke Configuration When smoke detector detects smoke in avionics ventilation air, the blower and extract fault lights illuminate. When blower and extract push buttons are set to override, the air conditioning system supplies cooling air, which is then exhausted overboard. The blower fan stops.

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Controller Failure System goes to above configuration, except skin exchange isolation valve remains open.The inlet valve and skin exchange inlet bypass valve remain in position they were in before the failure occurred. The extract fan continues to run.

Avionics Ground Cooling


System is fully automatic. It ensures cooling of the avionics air on the ground in cases of extreme outside hot air. The system is integrated into avionics ventilation system, but operates independently. Ambient outside air is drawn from outside by the ground cooling fan through the inlet valve. Air from cooling unit is discharged overboard via the outlet valve. All are controlled by the ground cooling controller. The ground cool valves open when aircraft is on ground, engines are stopped and ground cool push button is set at auto position. The cooling unit operates when above conditions are met and temperature of avionics ventilation air is >27 C. The ground cool unit stops when the engines start, or the ventilation air temp is <22 C, or the ventilation air reaches upper limit of 62 C. Battery Ventilation A venturi in the skin draws air from around batteries, and vents overboard. Lavatory And Galley An extraction fan draws ambient cabin air through the lavatories and galleys and exhausts it near the outflow valve. Extraction fan runs continually with electric power available.

Cargo Ventilation

Aft Cargo Compartment Ventilation Air from cabin goes via the inlet isolation valve to aft cargo compartment, driven by extraction fan. Air is controlled by outlet isolation valve and goes overboard via the outflow valve. The cargo ventilation controller controls inlet/outlet isolation valves and extraction fan. When isolation valves are fully open, the extraction valve operates continuously when aircraft is on ground and in flight.The controller closes the isolation valves and stops extraction fan when aft isolation valve push button is off or the aft cargo smoke detection unit detects smoke.

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Aft Cargo Compartment Heating Uses hot engine bleed air upstream of the packs, and mixes with ambient cabin air flowing through cargo compartment. The cargo regulating valve regulates the pressure of the hot air supply, and the trim air valve, which is modulated electrically by the controller, controls the flow. The regulating valve is pneumatically operated and electrically controlled from the Hot Air push button on the cargo heat panel. The hot air is mixed with cabin air and supplied to cargo compartment via the ventilation inlet isolation valve. If inlet temp exceeds 70 C, the controller closes trim air valve. If inlet temp exceeds 88 C, controller interprets as a duct overheat and closes pressure regulating valve. Valve remains closed until flight crew resets system by pressing hot air push button, which it cant do until temp is <70 C.

Auto Flight
The Flight Management Guidance System (FMGS) contains two Flight Management Guidance Computers (FMGC), two Multipurpose Control And Display Units (MCDU), one Flight Control Unit (FCU) and two Flight Augmentation Computers (FAC). Flight Management Guidance Computer (FMGC) Flight management part controls navigation and navaids, flight planning, prediction and optimisation of performance, and management of displays.Flight guidance part controls autopilot command, flight director command and auto thrust command. Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU) The MCDU allows flight crew to interface with the FMGC with selection of a flight plan, etc.Flight Control Unit Located on glareshield. It is the short term interface between the crew and the FMGC. Is used to select or modify the parameters selected in the MCDU. Flight Augmentation Computer (FAC) Controls rudder, rudder trim and yaw damper inputs. It computes data for the flight envelope and speed functions. Also provides warning for low energy and windshear detection. FMGS Modes Of Operation Has 3 modes of operation. Dual mode (normal), independent mode (each FMGC controlled by its associated MCDU), and single mode (using one FMGC only). Dual Mode Normal mode. Both FMGCs synchronised, and exchange data by cross talk bus. One is master, and one is slave. All info transferred to both MCDUs. Master FMGC Logic If both autopilots engaged, then FMGC 1 is master. If one autopilot is engaged, the associated FMGC is master. If no autopilot engaged, and flight director 1 is on, then FMGC 1 is master. If no autopilot engaged, and flight director 2 is on, then FMGC 2 is master. If no autopilot and no flight director engaged, then auto thrust is controlled by FMGC 1. Independent Mode System selects this degraded mode automatically if there is a major mismatch.Both FMGCs work independently, and are linked only to peripherals on own side.There is no cross talk between the FMGCs.Independent Operation appears on MCDU scratch pad. Single Mode System selects this degraded mode automatically if one FMGC fails. The remaining FMGC drives all peripherals. An entry on either MCDU will be transferred to both MCDUs, but only goes to the operating FMGC. Opposite FMGC In Progress is displayed on the MCDU on the side of the failed FMGC. The Nav Display on the side of the failed FMGC has to be set to the same range and mode as the other nav Display, otherwise Select Offside Range/Mode is displayed in amber.

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Flight Management
Position Computation Each FMGC computes its own aircraft position called the FM position, from a mix IRS position, and a computed radio position or GPS position. The FMGS selects most accurate position considering integrity of each, etc. GPS/Inertial is the basic nav mode provided GPS data is valid and successfully tested, otherwise navaids plus inertial or inertial only are used. Mix IRS Position Each FMGC receives a position from each of the 3 IRSs, and computes an average position called the Mix IRS position. If one IRS drifts abnormally, it uses an algorithm to decrease influence of drifting IRS with Mix IRS position. f one IRS fails, each FMGC uses only one IRS, which is continuously tested. If test fails, IRS is rejected. hen the mix IRS position differs from radio position by more than 12nm, check a/c position is displayed on MCDUs. GPS Position Each IRS computes hybrid position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position called GPIRS. Of the 3 GPIRS positions calculated, one is selected based on merit and priority. If GPIRS data does not comply with integrity criteria, the GPS mode is rejected, and radio position updating is used. GPS Primary Lost is displayed on ND and MCDU. During non ILS approach, a triple click is heard with loss of the GPS primary function. All navigation requirements are met if GPS Primary is in use. Radio Position Each FMGC uses onside navaids to compute its radio position. It uses LOC to update lateral position during an ILS approach. f one or more navaids fail, each FMGC can use offside navaids to compute the VOR/DME or the DME/DME radio position. FM Position Each FMGC displays an FM position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position (GPIRS). At takeoff, the FM position is updated to runway threshold. In flight, the FM position approaches the radio position, or GPS position, at a rate that depends on a/c altitude. The update of FM at takeoff is inhibited at takeoff if GPS Primary is active. Bias Each FMGC computes a vector from its mix IRS position to the radio or GPIRS position. The vector is called the bias. Each FMGC continually updates its bias, if a radio or GPIRS position is available.If an FMGC loses its radio/GPIRS position, it memorises the bias and uses it to compute the FM position, which equals the mix IRS position plus the bias. Crew can manually update the FM position. This also updates the bias. Cost Index Is the ratio of flight time cost to fuel cost. (CT/CF) CI = KG/MIN CI = 0 Corresponds to minimum fuel consumption (max range). CI = 999 Corresponds to minimum time. Engine Out Case The FMGS computes an engine out target speed for each flight phase. It also computes an engine out maximum altitude at LRC speed and displays on Progress page. Target speed becomes green dot in climb and EO cruise speed in cruise.System computes flight plan predictions to the primary destination. If a/c above EO max altitude, predicts immediate drift down to be performed to EO max altitude. Recommended Maximum Altitude The recommended max is lowest of that which the a/c can reach with a 0.3g buffet margin, can fly in level flight at max cruise rating, can maintain a v/s of 300 fpm at max climb thrust or can fly at a speed higher than green dot and lower than VMO/MMO for which it is certified. A maximum altitude using a 0.2g buffet margin is also computed, but not displayed to crew. Predictions for Alternates Based on default cruise of F220, if distance <200nm, otherwise F310.Simplified wind/temp, based on crew entries. Airway distance or direct distance as provided by the database.Cost Index 0 (minimum fuel)Initial a/c weight equal to landing weight at primary destination. Return to Trajectory Assumptions If a/c not on lateral flight plan, assumes an immediate return to active leg with a 45 intercept angle, or it will fly direct to the TO waypoint if required intercept is > than 45.

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Energy Circle Is a green arc, centred on aircrafts position and orientated towards the current track line. It represents the required distance to land from the aircrafts position down to the airport elevation at VAPP speed, considering all speed constraints on the vertical profile. Interaction Between AP/FD and Authothrust Modes The AP/FD modes can control a target SPD/MACH or a vertical trajectory, and the A/THR mode can control a fixed thrust or a target SPD/MACH. They cannot control both simultaneously.If the AP/FD pitch mode controls pitch, the A/THR controls the SPD/MACH. If the AP/FD pitch mode controls SPD/MACH, the A/THR controls the thrust. If no AP/FD pitch mode is engaged, the A/THR reverts to controlling the SPD/MACH mode. In other word, the selection of an AP/FD pitch mode, determines which mode the A/THR controls. Soft Altitude Two minutes after ALT CRZ engages, if mach mode is operative, SOFT ALT mode engages. This allows a/c to deviate +/- 50 feet from the target altitude, reducing thrust variations and fuel consumption. Speed Reference System (SRS) SRS mode controls pitch to steer a/c along a path in the vertical plane at a speed defined by the SRS guidance law. SRS automatically engages when thrust levers are set at TOGA or MCT/FLX if V2 inserted in MCDU PERF TO page, slats are extended and a/c been on ground for at least 30 seconds. It disengages automatically when a/c reaches acceleration altitude, or manually when another vertical mode engages. The pitch reference is V2+10 in normal engine configuration, or the current speed or V2, whichever is greater, if the FMGS detects an engine failure. Provides attitude protection to reduce a/c nose up on takeoff (18-22.5 in windshear). Provides FPA protection that ensures a minimum v/s of 120 fpm. Provides speed protection limiting the target speed to V2+15 knots. Land Mode Automatically engages when the LOC and G/S are engaged, and a/c is below 400. FMA displays LAND, indicating that LOC and G/S are locked, and no action on the FCU will disengage LAND mode. LAND mode disengages upon engagement of go-around mode, if the pilot presses the APPR button when a/c on ground for at least 10 seconds with AP disconnected, or when both AP/FDs are disengaged. Flare Mode Once a/c reaches approximately 40 radar altitude FLARE mode engages. The FMA dsplays FLARE in green.At 30 RA, the a/c flares on the pitch axis. Thrust reduces if authothrust is active. When both AP/FDs are disengaged, FLARE mode disengages. After main gear touch down, autopilot if engaged sends a nose down order. Align Sub Mode Is sub mode of LAND, also referred to as decrab. It lines a/c axis with ILS course at approximately 30. Is not displayed to the crew. Roll Out Mode At touch down, ROLL OUT mode engages and guides a/c along runway centreline. FMA displays ROLL OUT in green, and PFD displays yaw bar with no FD bars. Speed Control Autothrust memorises the approach speed at 700 RA, so that it can continue to fly a stable approach even if the FMGS fails. Autoland Warning Light The following, when occurring below 200 RA, with a/c in LAND mode, will trigger the flashing AUTOLAND red warning and triple click aural warning :Both A/Ps off below 200 RA Excessive deviation in LOC (1/4 dot >15RA) Excessive deviation in GLIDE (1 dot.100 RA) Loss of LOC signal above 15, or loss of GLIDE above 100 The difference between both radio altimeters is greater than 15. Thrust Lock Function Is activated when thrust levers in CL detent, or MCT detent on one engine, and the pilot pushes the A/THR push button or the A/THR disconnects due to a failure. The thrust is locked at its level prior to disconnection. Moving the levers out of CL or MCT suppresses the thrust lock, and gives the pilot manual control of the thrust levers. All warnings will then cease.

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Alpha Floor Is a protection that commands TOGA thrust, regardless of thrust lever position when aircraft reaches a very high angle of attack. The FAC generates the signal that triggers alpha-floor mode. This protection is available from lift off to 100 RA on approach. A FLOOR in green, surrounded by flashing amber box on FMA, and in amber on the EWD is displayed as long as alpha floor conditions are met. TOGA LK in green, surrounded by flashing amber box on FMA is displayed when the a/c leaves the alpha floor conditions. TOGA thrust is frozen. To cancel ALPHA FLOOR or TOGA LK thrust, the pilot must disconnect the auto thrust. Ground Speed Mini Purpose of the ground speed mini function is to take advantage of a/c inertia, when wind conditions vary during the approach. Provides crew with an adequate indicated speed target. When the a/c flies this indicated airspeed, the energy of the a/c is maintained above a minimum level, ensuring standard aerodynamic margins above the stall. If authothrust is active in SPEED mode, it will automatically follow the IAS target, ensuring efficient thrust management during the approach. The minimum energy level is the energy level the a/c will have at touch down, if it lands at Vapp speed with the tower reported wind entered in the PERF APPR page. This minimum energy level is represented by the ground speed the a/c will have at touch down. This ground speed is called Ground Speed Mini. During approach, the FMGS continuously computes speed target using actual winds experienced by a/c, in order to keep ground speed at or above ground speed mini. The lowest speed is limited to Vapp, and highest speed is Vfe of next configuration in CONF 1,2 or 3, and Vfe-5 in CONF full. Wind is a key factor in the ground speed mini function. Vapp Computation VAPP = VLS + 1/3 of the headwind component or VAPP = VLS + 5 knots, whichever is the highest. 1/3 of the headwind has 2 limits. 0 knots as the minimum value and +15 kts as maximum value.

Flight Augmentation
The aircraft has 2 flight augmentation computers (FACs) that perform 4 main functions. 1. Yaw function Yaw damping and turn coordination, rudder trim, and rudder travel limitation 2. Flight envelope function PFD speed scale management, min/max speed computation, manoeuvring speed, Alpha-floor. 3. Low energy warning 4. Windshear detection function. Each FAC interfaces with the elevator aileron computers (ELACs) when the APs are disengaged, or with the FMGS when one AP is engaged. Both FACs engage automatically at power up. Pilots can disengage or reset the FACs. If both FACs are valid, FAC1 controls the yaw damper, turn coordination, rudder trim, and rudder travel limit. FAC2 is in standby. If a failure is detected on any channel of FAC1, FAC2 takes over the corresponding channel. Yaw Damping Stabilises the aircraft in yaw and coordinates its turns.In auto flight during takeoff and go around, it assists with rudder application after an engine failure (short term yaw compensation). When AP is engaged, the FMGS sends orders to the FAC to give yaw damping during an approach and yaw control for runway alignment in ROLL OUT mode. Rudder Trim Executes trim orders the pilot enters with the manual trim knob.When AP is engaged, it executes the trim orders from the FMGS, and assists the system in recovering from engine failure in all flight guidance modes. If the pilot pushes the rudder more than 10 degrees out of trim, it disengages the autopilot.When AP is engaged, the rudder trim is inoperative; the master FMGC sends rudder trim orders to the FAC. Rudder Travel Limitation This function limits rudder deflection as a function of speed in order to avoid high structural loads. If both FACs lose the rudder travel limitation function, the value of the rudder deflection limit is locked at the time of the second failure. When the slats are extended, the FACs automatically set the rudder deflection limit at the low speed setting (maximum authorised deflection). PFD Speed Scale Management The FAC computes VSW (stall warning), VLS, VFE, VLE, VMO/MMO, Green Dot Speed, S Speed and F Speed. The FAC also computes speed trend arrow.

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Low Energy Warning Warns pilot that the aircrafts energy level is going below a threshold under which he has to increase thrust, in order to regain a positive flight path angle through pitch control. Speed speed speed is repeated every 5 seconds. Is available in config 2,3 and full. The warning is inhibited when TOGA is selected, or below 100 RA, or above 2000 RA, or Alpha floor, or GPWS is triggered, or a/c is in alternate or direct law or both Radio Altimeters fail. During deceleration, the low energy warning is triggered before alpha floor. The amount of time between the two depends on the deceleration rate. Windshear Detection Function Whenever a FAC detects windshear conditions it triggers a warning. It is active at takeoff, from lift off to 1300, and during approach from 1300 to 50 feet. In both situations, aircraft must be in configuration 1,2,3 or full. In computing the energy level prediction, the FACs use data from different sources. The FACs express this energy level as an angle of attack, and compare it with an angle of attack threshold, above which windshear conditions are most likely, and pilot action is required. In windshear conditions, flight guidance acts on specifically adapted FD pitch orders received from the speed reference system. Pilot must set go-around thrust immediately and follow pitch order to execute the optimum escape manoeuvre.

Electrical

The electrical system consists of a 3 phase 115/200 volt 400 hertz constant frequency AC system and a 28 volt DC system.Nor mally system produced AC, some of which it transforms to DC for certain applications.Each of the aircrafts 3 generators can supply the whole network. If all normal AC generation is lost, an emergency generator can supply AC power. If all AC generation is lost, the system can transform DC power from the batteries into AC power.

AC Generators
Main Generators Two 3 phase AC generators (GEN 1, GEN 2). Each driven by one main engine through an integrated drive. Each generator can supply up to 90 KVA at 115/200 volts and 400 Hertz. A third generator (APU), driven directly by the APU, and producing same power output as both main engine generators at any time. A generator control unit (GCU) controls output of each generator. The GCU controls the frequency and voltage of the generator output, and protects the network by controlling the associated generator line contactor (GLC). External Power A ground power connecter near nose wheel allows ground power to be supplied to all bus bars. A ground power control unit (GPCU) protects the network by controlling the external power contactor.

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Emergency Generator The blue hydraulic drives an emergency generator (ram air turbine RAT), that automatically supplies emergency AC power to the electrical system if all 3 main generators fail. This generates 5 KVA of 3 phase 115/200 volt 400 Hertz power. A generator control unit (GCU) keeps emergency generator at a constant speed, controls the output, protects the network by controlling the GLC and controls the emergency generator start up. Static Inverter Transforms DC power from Battery 1 into 1 KVA of AC power, which is supplied to the AC essential bus. When a/c is above 50 knots, the inverter is automatically activated if only the batteries are supplying the power, regardless if BAT 1+2 push buttons are both on at auto.

DC Generation
Transformer Rectifiers Two main transformer rectifiers, TR 1 + TR 2 supply electrical system with up to 200 amperes of DC current. A third TR (ESS TR) can power the essential DC circuit from the emergency generator, if main generators all fail, or if TR 1+2 both fail. Each TR controls its contactor by internal logic. Batteries Two main batteries, each with a capacity of 23 ampere hours, are permanently connected to the two hot buses.Each battery has an associated Battery Charge Limiter (BCL). The BCL monitors battery charging and controls its battery contactor. Circuit Breakers There are two types of circuit breakers. Monitored (green) : When out for > one minute, the C/B TRIPPED displayed on ECAM. Non Monitored (black) The wing tip breaker C/Bs have red caps on them to prevent them from being reset.

Operations
Gen 1+2 have priority over APU and external power. External power has priority over APU generator when EXT power push button is on. The APU or external power can supply entire network. One engine generator can supply the entire network. The generators cannot be connected in parallel.

Normal Configuration
In Flight Each engine driven generator supplies its respective AC BUS 1+2 via its GLC 1+2. AC BUS 1 normally supplies the AC ESS BUS via a contactor. TR 1 normally supplies DC BUS 1, DC BAT BUS, and DC ESS BUS. TR 2 normally supplies DC BUS 2. The two batteries are connected to the DC BAT BUS if they need charging. When fully charged battery charge limiter disconnects them. On Ground Either the APU generator or external power may supply the complete system. On ground, when only ground services are required, external power can supply the AC and DC GND/FLT BUSES directly without supplying the entire a/c network. Personnel select this configuration with the MAINT BUS switch in the forward entrance area.

Abnormal Configurations
Failure Of One Engine Generator The system automatically replaces failed generator with the APU Gen if available, or the other engine generator (shedding part of the galley load). Failure of AC Bus 1 AC BUS 2 can supply the AC ESS BUS and the ESS TR can supply the DC ESS BUS, both through the AC ESS FEED push button switch. The DC BUS 2 supplies the DC BUS 1 and DC BAT BUS automatically after 5 seconds. Failure Of One TR The contactor opens in case of overheat or minimum current. The other TR automatically replaces the faulty one. The ESS TR supplies the DC ESS BUS. Failure of TR 1+2 If both fail, DC BUS 1 and DC BAT BUS are lost. The DC ESS BUS is supplied by the ESS TR.

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Emergency Generation After Loss of all Main Generators If both AC BUS 1+2 are lost, and a/c speed is above 100 knots, the Ram Air Turbine extends automatically. This powers the blue hydraulic system, which drives the emergency generator by means of a hydraulic motor. This generator supplies the AC ESS BUS and the DC ESS BUS via the ESS TR. If the RAT stalls or if a/c on the ground <100 knots, the RAT has nothing to drive it. Emergency generation transfers over to the batteries and static inverter, and system sheds the AC SHED BUS and DC SHED ESS buses. When a/c is on the ground :<100 knots the DC BAT BUS is connected to the batteries. <50 knots the AC ESS BUS is shed, leading to the loss of all CRTs. During RAT extension and emergency coupling (8 seconds), the batteries power the network. Smoke Configuration Main bus bars are shed. The electrical distribution is the same for emergency configuration (loss of main generators), except that the fuel pumps are connected upstream of the GEN 1 connector. This sheds about 75% of electrical equipment. All equipment that remains powered is supplied through C/Bs on overhead panel, except for that which is supplied by hot buses).

Fire Protection
The engines and APU each have a fire and overheat detection system consisting of two identical gas detection loops (A+B) mounted in parallel. The gas detection loops consist of three sensing elements for each engine. One in the pylon nacelle, one in the engine core and one in the engine fan section. There is one sensing element in the APU compartment. When subjected to heat they send a signal to the fire detection unit. As soon as Loops A+B detect temperature at a preset level, they trigger the fire warning system. A fault in one loop does not affect the warning system. The good loop still protects the aircraft. If an APU fire occurs on the ground, the system shuts down the APU automatically and discharges the extinguishing agent. (does not do so in the air).

Extinguishing
Each engine has two extinguisher bottles equipped with electrically operated squibs to discharge their contents. Each squib has a dual electric supply. The APU has one fire extinguisher bottle with an electrically operated squib. Fire Warning and Loop Cautions Fire detection units process all warnings and cautions. A fire warning occurs with a fire signal from both Loop A+B, or a signal from one loop when other is faulty, or breaks in loops occurring within 5 seconds of each other (flame effect), or a test performed on the control panel. The loop fault cautions appear if one loop is faulty, or both loops are faulty, or the fire detection unit fails. Pushing the Engine 1 or 2 Fire push button will :Silences the aural fire warning and arms the fire extinguisher squibs. Closes the low pressure fuel valve. Closes the hydraulic fire shut off valve. Closes the engine bleed valve. Closes the pack flow control valve. Cuts off the FADEC power supply. Deactivates the IDG. Pushing the APU Fire push button will :Shuts down the APU and silences the aural warning. Arms the squib on the APU fire extinguisher. Closes the low pressure fuel valve. Shuts off the APU fuel pump. Closes the APU bleed valve and cross bleed valve, and deactivates the APU generator. Avionics Bay One smoke detector in the air extraction duct of the avionics ventilation system detects smoke in the avionics compartment.It signals

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the ECAM to display a warning in the cockpit when it detects smoke for longer than 5 seconds. A single chime sounds, the master caution lights up, ECAM displays caution on EWD, the smoke light on the EMER ELEC PWR panel lights up, and the BLOWER and EXTRACT FAULT on the ventilation panel light up. Lavatory One smoke detector in each lavatory and a double channel Smoke Detection Control Unit (SDCU). When a detector senses smoke in a lavatory, it sends a signal to the SDCU. The SDCU transmits it to the flight warning computer (for warning in the cockpit) and to the CIDS (for warning in the cabin). Each lavatory waste bin has an automatic fire extinguishing system. Cargo Compartment Smoke Detection There are two detectors in the forward cargo compartment and 4 detectors in the aft compartment. Each detector is linked to one of two detection loops (dual loop principle). The SDCU receives signals from the detectors and transmits them to the ECAM. The SDCU has two identical channels. If cargo ventilation is installed, and a cargo smoke warning is activated in either compartment, the associated isolation valves automatically close and the extraction fan stops.

Cargo Compartment Fire Extinguishing


One fire bottle supplies three nozzles (one in forward, and two in aft). The bottle has two discharge heads, one for each compartment. When flight crew press discharge button for either compartment, the action ignites the corresponding squib on the fire bottle, which then discharges extinguishing agent into that compartment.

Flight Controls
Basic Principles The flight controls are all electrically controlled and hydraulically activated.The stabiliser and rudder can also be mechanically controlled. Computers interpret pilot input and move the flight control surfaces, as necessary, to follow their orders. However, in normal law, regardless of pilot input, the computers will prevent excessive manoeuvres and exceedance of the safe envelope in pitch and roll axis. The rudder has no such protection, as like conventional aircraft.

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Computers
2 ELACS (Elevator Aileron Computer) For Normal elevator, stabiliser control and aileron control. 3 SECS (Spoilers Elevator Computer) or Spoilers control and Standby elevator and stabiliser control. 2 FACS (Flight Augmentation Computer) For Electrical rudder control. 2 FCDC (Flight Control Data Concentrators) They acquire data from the ELACs and SECs and send to the electronic instrument system and the centralised fault display system. Pitch Control Two elevators and trimmable horizontal stabilisers (THS) control the a/c in pitch. Maximum elevator deflection is 30 nose up and 15 nose down. Maximum THS deflection is 13.5 nose up and 4 nose down. Electrical Control In normal operations, ELAC 2 controls elevators and horizontal stabiliser, and the G&Y hydraulic jacks drive the L&R elevator surfaces respectively.The THS is driven by No1 of 3 electric motors.If ELAC 2, or associated hydraulic systems or jacks fail, pitch control shifts to ELAC 1.ELAC 1 then controls elevators via the blue hydraulics and controls the THS via No2 electric motor.If neither ELAC 1 or 2 is available, pitch control shifts to SEC1 or 2, and to THS electric motor 2 or 3. Mechanical Control Mechanical control of the THS is available from pitch trim wheel at any time if either green or yellow hydraulic systems are available. Mechanical control has priority over electrical control. Roll Control One aileron and four spoilers on each wing control the a/c about the roll axis.Maximum deflection of the ailerons is 25. The ailerons extend down 5 when the flaps are extended (aileron droop). Maximum deflection of the spoilers is 35. Electric Control ELAC 1 normally controls the ailerons.If ELAC 1 fails, aileron control shifts to ELAC 2. IF both ELACs fail, the ailerons revert to damping mode (jack follows surface movement). SEC 3 controls No2 spoilers, SEC 1 controls No 3&4 spoilers, and SEC 2 the No 5 spoilers. If a SEC fails, the spoilers it controls are automatically retracted. If the system loses hydraulic pressure, the spoiler retains the deflection it had at the time of the loss, or a lesser deflection if aerodynamic forces push it down.When a spoiler on one wing fails, the symmetric one on opposite wing is inhibited.

Speedbrakes and Ground Spoilers


Speedbrake Control Pilot uses speed brake lever to control speedbrakes. Speed brakes are actually spoilers 2,3 and 4. Speedbrake extension is inhibited if : SEC 1&3 both have faults. An elevator has a fault (spoilers 3&4 are inhibited). Angle of attack protection is active. Flaps are in Configuration FULL. Thrust levers above MCT position.

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Alpha floor activation. If inhibition occurs with speedbrakes extended, they retract automatically and stay retracted until inhibition condition disappears and pilots reset lever. The speedbrakes can be extended again 10 seconds or more after the lever is reset. When greater than 315 knots/Mach 0.75 with AP engaged, the speedbrake retraction rate is reduced (approximately 25 seconds from full to retracted). The maximum speedbrake deflection in manual flight is :- 40 for spoilers 3&4 and 20 for spoiler 2. The maximum speedbrake deflection with autopilot engaged is :- 25 for spoilers 3&4 and 12.5 for spoilers 2. The maximum speedbrake deflection with the autopilot engaged is achieved with half speedbrake lever deflection. Ground Spoilers Spoilers 1-5 act as ground spoilers. When a ground spoiler surface on one wing fails, the opposite symmetric one is inhibited. Pulling speedbrake lever up into armed position arms ground spoilers. Full Extension The ground spoilers automatically extend during a RTO, at a speed >72 knots, or at landing when both main landing gears have touched down when :Ground spoilers are armed and all thrust levers are at idle or Reverse is selected (on at least one engine, the other thrust lever at idle), if ground spoilers were not armed. In autoland, ground spoilers fully extend at half speed one second after both main landing gear touch down. Partial Extension Ground spoilers partially extend 10 when reverse is selected (on at least one engine and other at or near idle), and one main landing gear strut is compressed. This partial extension, by decreasing the lift, eases the compression of the second main landing gear strut, and consequently leads to full ground spoiler extension. Retraction The ground spoilers retract after landing or a RTO when ground spoilers are disarmed. If not armed, they extend at selection of reverse, and retract when idle is selected.They also retract during a touch and go when at least one thrust lever is advanced above 20. After an a/c bounce, they remain extended with thrust levers at idle. The landing gear touchdown is triggered their wheel speed >72 knots or when struts are compressed and Rad Alt is very low <6 feet. For the ground spoiler logic, idle is when thrust lever position is <4 or <15 when below 10 feet.

Yaw Control
One rudder surface controls yaw. Electrical Rudder Control The yaw damping and turn coordination functions are automatic. The ELACs compute yaw orders for coordinating turns and damping yaw oscillations, and transmit them to the FACs. Mechanical Rudder Control Pilots use conventional rudder pedals to control the rudder. Rudder Actuation Three independent hydraulic servo jacks, operating in parallel, actuate the rudder. In automatic operation, a green servo actuator drives all three servo jacks. A yellow servo actuator remains synchronised and takes over if there is a failure. There is no feedback to the rudder pedals from the yaw damping and turn coordination functions. Rudder Travel Limit The deflection of the rudder and pedals is limited as a function of speed. Each channel of the limiter is controlled and monitored by its associated FAC. If both FACs fail, maximum deflection is available when the slats are extended. Rudder Trim Two electric motors, that position the artificial feel unit, also trim the rudder. In normal operation, motor No1, controlled by FAC 1, drives the trim, and FAC 2 with motor No2 remains synchronised as back up. In manual flight pilot can apply rudder trim with rudder trim switch. Maximum deflection is +/- 20. Rudder trim speed is one degree per second. With the autopilot engaged, the FMGC computes the rudder trim orders. The rudder trim switch and reset button is inoperative.

Normal Law
Flight control normal law covers three axis control, flight envelope protection and alleviation of manoeuvre loads.Pitch Control Ground Mode

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Active when a/c is on the ground. Is a direct relationship between sidestick deflection and elevator deflection, without auto trim. It automatically sets THS at 0. A setting that the pilot enters manually to adjust fro CG has priority for takeoff.When the aircraft reaches 70 knots during takeoff roll, the system reduces the maximum up elevator deflection from 30 to 20, and the a/c performs the rotation in direct law. As soon as a/c becomes airborne, the system blends in the flight mode. The reverse occurs after touchdown. Flight Mode The normal law flight mode is a load-factor-demand mode with automatic trim and protection throughout the flight envelope. The sidestick controllers set the elevator and THS to maintain load factor proportional to stick deflection, and independent of speed. With sidestick at neutral, wings level, the system maintains 1g in pitch, and no need for pilot to trim. In normal turns up to 33 of bank, the pilot does not need to make any pitch corrections once the turn is established. Flight mode is active from takeoff to landing. Automatic pitch trim freezes in the following situations :The pilot enters a manual trim order. The radio altitude is <50 feet (100 feet with AP engaged). The load factor goes below 0.5g. The a/c is under high speed or high mach protection (except when fault in one of elevators). Flare Mode Flight mode changes to flare mode when a/c passes 50 RA as it descends to land. The system memorizes the attitude at 50, and that becomes initial reference for pitch attitude control. As a/c descends through 30, the system begins to reduce the pitch attitude, reducing it to 2 nose down over a period of 8 seconds. This means it takes gentle nose up action by pilot to flare the aircraft.

Protections
Load Factor Limitations Is automatically limited to :+2.5g to 1g for clean configuration. +2g to 0g for other configurations. Pitch Attitude Protection Pitch attitude is limited to :30 nose up in config 0 to 3 (progressively reduced to 25 at low speed). 25 nose up in config FULL (progressively reduced to 20 at low speed).15 nose own.The flight director bars disappear when the pitch attitude exceeds 25 up or 13 down.They return to the display when pitch angle returns to region of 22 up and 10 down.

High Angle of Attack Protection Under normal law, when angle of attack becomes greater than prot, the system switches elevator control from normal mode to protection mode, in which the angle of attack is proportional to sidestick deflection. That is, in the prot range to max, the sidestick

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commands directly. However the angle of attack will not exceed max, even if the pilot gently pulls the sidestick all the way back. If the pilot releases the sidestick, the angle of attack returns to prot and stays there. V prot, V floor, V max vary according to the weight and the configuration. To deactivate the AoA protection, you must push sidestick >8 forward or >0.5 forward for at least 0.5 seconds when < max. Below 200 feet, the AoA protection is also deactivated when sidestick deflection is less than half nose up and actual is less than prot -2. floor is activated through the auto thrust system when : is > than floor (9.5 in config 0; 15 in config 1,2; 14 in config 3; 13 in config FULL or Sidestick deflection is > 14 nose up, with either the pitch attitude or the AoA protection active. The floor function is available from lift off to 100 feet RA before landing. High Speed Protection The aircraft automatically recovers following a high speed upset. Depending on the flight conditions, the High Speed Protection is activated at/or above VMO/MMO.When activated, pitch trim is frozen. Positive spiral static stability is introduced to 0 bank angle (instead of 33 in normal law), so that with the sidestick released, the aircraft always returns to a bank angle of 0. The bank angle limit reduces from 67 to 45. As the speed increases above Vmo/Mmo, the nose down authority is progressively reduced, and a permanent nose up order is applied to aid recovery to normal flight conditions. The High Speed Protection is deactivated when the a/c speed decreases below Vmo/Mmo, where normal laws are recovered. The autopilot disconnects when high speed protection is activated.The ECAM displays O/SPEED warning at Vmo+4 knots and.

Lateral Control
Normal Law When a/c is in ground mode, the sidestick commands the aileron and roll spoiler surface deflection.The amount of deflection that results from a given amount of sidestick deflection depends upon a/c speed. The pedals control rudder deflection through a direct mechanical linkage. When a/c is in flight mode, normal law combines control of the ailerons, spoilers (except No1 spoilers), and rudder (for turn coordination) in the sidestick. While the system gives the pilot control of roll and heading, it also limits the roll rate and bank angle, coordinates the turns, and damps the dutch roll.The maximum roll rate requested by the pilot is 15 per second when the sidestick is at the stop.When the a/c is in the flare mode, lateral control is the same as in flight mode. Bank Angle Protection In normal flight envelope, the system maintains positive spiral static stability for bank angles above 33 If the pilot releases the sidestick at a bank angle greater than 33, the bank angle automatically reduces to 33. Up to 33, system holds the roll attitude constant when sidestick is at neutral. If pilot holds full sidestick deflection, the bank angle goes to 67 and no further. If angle of attack protection or high speed protection is active, the bank angle goes to 45 and no further, if pilot holds full sidestick deflection. If high speed protection is active, with sidestick released, aircraft returns to 0 bank angle. (positive spiral static stability) When bank angle protection is active, auto trim is inoperative.

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If bank angle exceeds 45, the autopilot disconnects and FD bars disappear. The FD bars return when the bank angle decreases to less than 40. Sideslip Target If an engine fails, the FAC modifies the sideslip indication slightly to show the pilot how much rudder to use to get the best climb performance (ailerons to neutral and spoilers retracted). In takeoff configuration (1,2,3), when the FAC detects asymmetric thrust (0.25 EPR), and at least one engine is above 1.25 EPR, the sideslip indication on the PFD changes from yellow to blue.

Reconfiguration Control Laws


There are 3 levels of reconfiguration : Alternate Law (with and without reduced protections). Direct Law. Mechanical.

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Alternate Law

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Pitch Control
Ground Mode Under alternate law ground mode becomes active on ground 5 seconds after touchdown. It is identical to the ground mode of the normal law. Flight Mode In flight, alternate law pitch follows a load factor demand law much as the normal law pitch mode does, but it has less built in protection (reduced protections).Flare Mode In pitch alternate law, the flight mode changes to the flare mode when the pilot selects the landing gear down. The flare mode is a direct stick to elevator relationship (direct law). Lateral Control When the a/c is flying in pitch alternate law, lateral control follows the roll direct law associated with yaw alternate or mechanical. Yaw Alternate Law Only the yaw damping function is available. Damper authority is limited to +/- 5 of rudder deflection.

Reduced Protections
Load Factor Limitation Load factor limitation is similar to that under normal law. Pitch Attitude Protection There is no pitch attitude protection. Amber Xs replace the green double bars = on the PFD. Low Speed Stability An artificial low speed stability replaces the normal AoA protection. Is available for all slat/flap configurations, and the low speed stability is active from about 5-10 knots above stall warning speed, depending on a/c weight and configuration. A gentle nose down single is introduced, which tends to keep speed from falling below these values. The system also injects bank angle compensation, so that operation effectively maintains a constant angle of attack. The PFD speed scale is modified to show a black/red barber pole below the stall warning.The floor protection is inoperative.

High Speed Stability


Above Vmo/Mmo, a nose up demand is introduced to avoid an excessive increase in speed. The pilot can override this demand. The aural overspeed warning (Vmo+4 or Mmo+0.006) remains available. Bank Angle Protection Not provided.The autopilot will disconnect, if speed exceeds Vmo/Mmo, or if bank angle exceeds 45.

Alternate Law Without Reduced Protection


This is identical to alternate law except that it does not include the low speed stability or the high speed stability. It includes only the load factor limitation.

Direct Law
Pitch Control The pitch direct law is a direct stick to elevator relationship. In all configurations the maximum elevator deflection varies as a function of CG. Is a compromise between adequate controllability with the CG forward, and not too sensitive control with the CG aft. There is no automatic trim. The pilot must trim manually. PFD

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displays USE MAN PITCH TRIM No protections are operative. The floor function is inoperative. Overspeed and stall warnings are available as for alternate law. Lateral Control When in direct law, the roll direct law associated with mechanical yaw control governs lateral control. Roll Direct Law Is a direct stick to surface position relationship. With the a/c in the clean configuration, the maximum rate of roll is about 30 per second. With slats extended it is about 25 per second.To limit the roll rate, roll direct law uses only ailerons and spoilers 4/5.If spoiler 4 has failed, spoiler 3 replaces it.If the ailerons have failed, all roll spoilers become active. Yaw Mechanical Control The pilot controls yaw with the rudder pedals. The yaw damping and turn coordination functions are lost.

Abnormal Attitude Laws


The system applies an abnormal attitude law in pitch and roll if the a/c exceeds any of the following limits in flight :Pitch attitude >50 nose up or 30 nose down. Bank angle >125. Angle of attack >30 or < -10 Speed >440 knots or <60 knots. Mach >0.91 or <0.1 The law in pitch is the alternate law with no protection except load factor protection and without autotrim. In roll it is a full authority direct law with a yaw mechanical. When the a/c has recovered from its abnormal attitude, the flight control laws in effect are:In pitch alternate law without protection, with auto trim. In roll full authority direct law with yaw alternate law. There is no reversion to the direct law when the pilot extends the landing gear.

Mechanical Backup
Pitch Control Mechanical backup permits the pilot to control the aircraft during a temporary complete loss of electrical power. He does this in pitch by applying trim manually to the THS. The PFDs display MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY in red. Lateral Control The pilot uses the rudder pedals as the mechanical backup to control the a/c laterally.

Flaps and Slats


The slat and flap systems are similar, comprising :2 slat flap control computers (SFCCs), each containing one slat and one flap channel. A power control unit (PCU) consisting of 2 hydraulic motors coupled by a diff gearbox. The motors use green and blue hydraulic power for the slats, and yellow and green power for the flaps. Pressure off brakes (POBs) lock the transmission when the slat or flaps surfaces have reached their position or if hydraulic power fails. 5 slat surfaces and 2 flap surfaces per wing. An asymmetry position pick off unit (APPU) that measures asymmetry between the wings. A flap disconnect detection system, which detects attachment failure and inhibits flap operations to prevent further damage. Wingtip brakes (WTBs), activated in case of asymmetry, mechanism overspeed, symmetrical runaway, or uncommanded movement of the surfaces. They cannot be released in flight. They use blue and green hydraulic power for the slats and for the right wing flaps, and blue and yellow hydraulic power for the left wing flaps. Feedback position pick off units (FPPUs) that feed back position information to the SFCCs. An indication position pick off unit (IPPU) that send position data to the ECAM. If the flap wing tip brakes are on, you can still operate the slats, and vice versa. If one SFCC is inoperative, slats and flaps both operate at half speed. If one hydraulic system is inoperative, the corresponding surfaces (slats and flaps) operate at half speed. Alpha/Speed Lock Function (Slats) This inhibits slat retraction at high angle of attacks and low speeds. If alpha exceeds 8.6 or airspeed <148 knots, retraction from position 1 to 0 is inhibited. This inhibition is removed if alpha falls below 7.6 or speed exceeds 154 knots. This function is not active when :Alpha >8.6 or airspeed <148 knots after pilot has moved the lever to 0. The aircraft is on the ground with its speed less than 60 knots. Slat / Flap Positions Take off in Configuration 1 (18/10) If pilot does not select configuration 0 after takeoff, the flaps retract automatically at 210 knots. Configuration 1 in flight (18/0)

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Configuration 2 (22/15) Configuration 3 (22/30) Configuration Full (27/40) For take off or go around in configuration 2 or 3, if the pilot selects configuration 1, he gets 1+F (18/10) if airspeed is under 210 knots.

Fuel System
Fuel is stored in the wings and centre section. The wings have inner and outer tanks. There is a vent surge tank outboard of the outer tank in each wing. When a/c is refuelled to maximum capacity, the fuel can expand by 2% (20 temp rise) without spilling. There is an overpressure protector in each vent outer and inner tank, and between centre tank and the left inner tank.

Useable Fuel
Outer Tank Inner Tank Centre Tank Inner Tank Outer Tank 880 Litres 6924 Litres8250 Litres 6924 Litres880 Litres 691 kgs 5435 kgs 6476 kgs 5435 kgs 691 kgs

Total Fuel = 23,858 Litres (18,728 Kgs) The main fuel pump system supplies fuel from the centre tank or the inner wing tanks to the engines. The system has 6 main fuel pumps. Tank Pumps In normal operations, each engine is supplied by one pump in the centre tank, or by two pumps in its own side wing tank. All wink tank pumps remain on throughout the flight. They are fitted with pressure relief sequence valves which ensure that, when all pumps are running, the centre tank pumps will deliver fuel preferentially. Transfer Valves Two electrical transfer valves are mounted in each wing to permit fuel transfer from outer to inner tank. Cross Feed Valve Is controlled by a double motor, which allows both engines to be fed from one side or one engine to be fed from both sides. Engine LP Valves The fuel flow to an engine can be stopped by its low pressure (LP) fuel valve. The closure of the LP valve is by the engine master switch or the ENG FIRE PUSH pushbutton. Suction Valves Closed by pumps pressure in normal operation, they allow engines to be fed by gravity if the inner tank pumps fail. Centre tank pumps are not fitted with suction valves, Therefore, gravity feeding is not possible from the centre tank.

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Fuel Feed

Sequence
The tanks empty in the following sequence :Centre tank, inner tanks (down to 750 kg in each inner), outer tanks (fuel transferred into inners). Centre Tank Pumps Control Logic Each centre tank pump stops until approximately 500 kgs of its associated inner tank fuel has been used (when the fuel level reaches the underfill sensors). With the mode selector in MAN position, the centre tank pumps will run.In manual mode the CTR TK PUMP push buttons must be selected off when the centre tank is empty. Fuel Transfer From Outer To Inner Tanks The transfer valves automatically open when the inner tank fuel reaches the low level (about 750 kgs), thus permitting fuel to drain from the outer to inner tanks. When open, the valves are latched open. They will automatically close at the next refuel operation. Two level sensors are installed in each inner tank. Each sensor controls two transfer valves, one in each wing, ensuring simultaneous transfer in both wings. The 750 kgs is based on a level attitude with no acceleration. During steep descents or accelerations/decelerations, the transfer valves may open with more than 750 kgs in each inner tank and the low level warning may be triggered.

APU Feed
A special fuel pump supplies fuel for APU start up when fuel feed pressure is low (due to loss of tank pumps or loss of normal AC electrical supply). This pump normally runs off the AC ESS SHED, but runs off the AC STAT INV BUS if the AC ESS SHED fails. Fuel Recirculation System Some of the fuel supplied to each engine goes from the high pressure fuel line in that engine, through the integrated drive generator (IDG) heat exchanger (where it absorbs heat), to the fuel return valve, and to the outer fuel tank.This ensures the IDG cooling when the oil temperature is high or when at low engine power. The FADEC controls the fuel return valve. If the outer tank is already full, the

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fuel overflows to the inner tank through a spill pipe.If centre tank is feeding, the wing tank will tend to overfill and the system automatically selects the TR TANK PUMP off when the inner tank is full. The wing tank pumps will feed until the engine has used approximately 500 kgs of fuel when the fuel level reaches the underfill sensors. The logic circuits then restart the centre tank pumps. Refuelling / Defuelling Two refuelling points are installed under the wings to allow refuelling from either side of a/c. A refuelling panel is located on the fuselage under right wing. Refuelling is normally automatic, the required fuel load being set on the preselector. Manual control is also available. Automatic refuelling starts by the outer cells. If selected fuel load exceeds the wing tank capacity, the centre tank is refuelled simultaneously. When an outer cell is full, the fuel overflows into the inner cell through a small pipe. The aircraft can be refuelled if only battery power is available. The wing tanks can be gravity refuelled through points on top of the wing. Approximate refuelling time at nominal pressure is 17 mins for wing tanks and 20 mins for all tanks.

Hydraulics
The a/c has 3 continuously operating hydraulic system : blue, green and yellow.Each system has its own hydraulic reservoir. Normal operating pressure is 3000 psi (2500 psi when powered by the RAT). Hydraulic fluid cannot be transferred from one system to another. Green System Pump A pump driven by engine 1 pressurises the green system. Blue System Pumps An electric pump pressurises the blue system. A pump driven by a ram air turbine (RAT) pressurises this system in an emergency. Yellow System Pumps A pump driven by engine 2 pressurises the yellow system. An electric pump can also pressurise the system, which allows yellow hydraulics to be used on the ground with engines stopped. You can also use a hand pump to pressurise the yellow system in order to operate the cargo doors when no electrical power is available. Power Transfer Unit A bi directional power transfer unit enables the yellow system to pressurise the green system and vice versa. The PTU comes into action automatically when the differential pressure between the green and yellow systems is >500 psi. The PTU therefore allows the green system to be pressurised on the ground when the engines are stopped. Ram Air Turbine A drop out RAT coupled to a hydraulic pump, allows the blue system to function if electrical power is lost or both engines fail. The RAT deploys automatically if AC BUS 1+2 are lost. It can be deployed manually from the overhead panel. It can be stowed only when the aircraft is on the ground. System Accumulators An accumulator in each system helps to maintain a constant pressure by covering transient demands during normal operations. Priority Valves These cut off hydraulic power to heavy load users if pressure in a system gets low. Fire Shutoff Valves The green and yellow systems have a fire shutoff valve in its line upstream of its engine driven pump. The flight crew can close by pushing the ENG 1(2) FIRE push button. Reservoir Pressurisation Normally, HP bleed air from engine 1 pressurises the hydraulic reservoirs automatically. If the bleed air pressure is too low, the system takes bleed air pressure from the crossbleed duct. The system maintains a high enough pressure to prevent their pumps from cavitating.

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Wing Anti Ice


In flight, hot air from the pneumatic system heats 3 outboard slats (3-4-5) of each wing. Air is supplied through one valve in each wing. When a/c is on the ground, the crew can initiate a 30 second test sequence by turning system on. If system detects a leak during normal operation, the affected sides wings anti ice valve automatically closes. When wing ant ice is selected, the EPR limit is automatically reduced, and idle EPR is increased.If the electrical power supply fails, the valves automatically close.

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Engine Anti Ice


An independent air bleed from the high pressure compressor protects each engine nacelle from ice. Air is supplied through a two position (open and closed) valve that the flight crew controls with two push buttons, one for each engine. The valve automatically closes if air is unavailable (engine not running). When an engine anti ice valve is open, the EPR limit is automatically reduced and, if necessary, the idle EPR is automatically increased for both engines in order to provide the required pressure. If electrical power fails, the valves automatically open. Window Heat The aircraft uses electrical heating for anti icing each windshield and demisting the cockpit side windows.Two independent Window Heat Computers (WHCs), one on each side, automatically regulate the system, protecting it against over heating, and indication faults.Window heat comes on automatically when at least one engine is running, or when the a/c is in flight. It also comes on manually before engine start when flight crew switches on PROBE/WINDOW HEAT. Windshield heat operates at low power on the ground and at normal power in flight. Only one heating level exists for the remaining windows.

Probe Heat
Electrical heating protects pitot heads, static ports, AoA probes and TAT probes.Three independent Probe Heat Computers (PHCs) automatically control and monitor the Captain probes, F/O probes and STBY probes.They protect against over heating and indication faults.The probes are heated in the same manner as the windshield heat functions.On the ground, the TAT probes are not heated and pitot heating operates at low level.

Rain Removal
Wipers Each front windshield has a two speed electric wiper. A rotary selector controls each. Rain Repellent In moderate-heavy rain, crew can spray a rain repellent liquid on the windshield to improve visibility. After about 30 seconds, the windows are covered by spray.Separate buttons control the application one each side of the windshield. Visual Ice Indicator An external visual ice indicator is installed between the two windshields.The indicator also has a light.

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Electronic Instrument System


The EIS presents data on 6 identical display units (DUs). The EIS displays mostly flight parameters and nav data on the primary flight displays (PFDs) and navigation displays (NDs). The electronic centralised aircraft monitor (ECAM) presents data on the engine/warning display (EWD) and system display (SD). Display Unit There are six identical units. They are full colour cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Display Management Computer (DMC) Three identical DMCs acquire and process all the signals received from sensors and other computers to generate the images to be displayed on the DUs. Each DMC has two independent channels. An EFIS and an ECAM channel, and is able to drive simultaneously one PFD, one ND, and either of the ECAMS in its engine warning or system status task. System Data Acquisition Concentrator Two identical SDACs acquire data and generate signals. Some go to the 3 DMCs to generate system pages and engine parameters, and others go to the flight warning computers (FWCs) to generate ECAM messages and aural alerts. Flight Warning Computers The two identical FWCs generate alert messages, memos, aural alerts, and synthetic voice messages, For this purpose they acquire data :Directly from a/c sensors or systems to generate red warnings. Through the SDACs to generate amber cautions. The ECAM DUs display the alert messages generated by the FWCs. The FWCs also generate radio altitude callouts, decision height callouts and landing distance and landing speed increments, and the master warning/caution flashing lights on glareshield. Speed Indications on Primary Flight Display (PFD) 1. Minimum Selectable Speed (VLS) The top of the amber strip. It represents the lowest selectable speed, providing an appropriate margin to the stall speed. VLS information is prohibited from touchdown until 10 seconds after liftoff. 2. Alpha Protection Speed The top of the black and amber strip. It represents the speed corresponding to the AoA at which alpha protection becomes active. It is displayed when in pitch normal law. 3. Alpha Max Speed The top of the red strip. It represents the speed corresponding to the maximum AoA that the aircraft can attain in pitch normal law. Is displayed when in pitch normal law. 4. VMAX The lower end of the red and black strip. It is the lowest of the following :Vmo or the speed corresponding to Mmo. VLE VFE 5. Stall Warning Speed (VSW) The top of the red and black strip. It is the speed corresponding to the stall warning. VSW information is inhibited from touchdown until 5 seconds after liftoff. It is displayed when operating in pitch alternate or pitch direct law.

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1. Decision Speed (V1) This is a blue numeral 1 that the crew inserts manually through the MCDU. It disappears after liftoff. 2. Minimum Flap Retraction Speed This is a green letter F. Appears when flap selector is in position 3 or 2. 3. Minimum Slat Retraction Speed This is a green letter S. It appears when the flap selector is in position 1. 4. VFE NEXT This symbol is an amber =, shows the next flap lever position. It appears when aircraft altitude is below 15,000 or 20,000 depending upon the FAC standard. 5. Green Dot (Engine out operating speed in clean configuration) This appears when the aircraft is flying in the clean configuration. It shows the speed corresponding to the best lift-to-drag ratio. Flight Path Vector This symbol appears when the pilot selects TRK/FPA on the FCU. The flight path vector represents the lateral and vertical trajectory of the aircraft with respect to the ground. On the lateral scale it indicates the aircrafts track. On the vertical scale it indicates the aircrafts flight path angle. In the above example the a/c flies a track of 009 (heading 360, wind from the west) and descends with a flight path angle of 7.5. Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) The ND presents the EGPWS terrain picture, when the TERR ON ND switch is selected on, and the ND is not in PLAN mode. The terrain picture replaces the weather radar image.The terrain appears in different colours and densities, according to its relative height.

Landing Gear
The landing gear consists of two main gears that retract inboard and a nose gear that retracts forward. Doors enclose the landing gear bays. Gears and doors are electrically controlled and hydraulically operated. The doors, which are fitted to the landing gear struts, are operated mechanically by the gear, and close at the end of gear retraction. All gear doors open while the gear is retracting or extending. Two Landing Gear Control and Interface Units (LGCIUs) control the extension and retraction of the gear and the operation of the doors. They also supply information about the landing gear to ECAM for display, and send signals indicating whether the aircraft is in flight or on the ground to other aircraft systems.A hand crank on the centre pedestal allows the crew to extend the gear if the aircraft loses hydraulic systems or electrical power. Main Gear Each main gear has twin wheels and an oleo pneumatic shock absorber. Each main wheel has an anti skid brake. Nose Gear The two wheeled nose gear has an oleo pneumatic shock strut and a nose wheel steering system. Normal Operation The flight crew normally operate landing gear by means of lever in flight deck.

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The LGCIUs control the sequencing of gear and doors electrically. One LGCIU controls one complete gear cycle, then switches over automatically to the other LGCIU at the completion of the retraction cycle. It also switches over in case of failure. The green hydraulic system actuates all gear and doors. When the a/c is flying faster than 260 knots, a safety valve automatically cuts off hydraulic supply to the landing gear system. Below 260 knots, the hydraulic supply remains cut off as long as the landing gear lever is up. Emergency Extension If the normal system fails to extend the gear hydraulically, the crew can use a crank to extend it mechanically. When a crew member turns the crank it isolates the landing gear hydraulics from the green hydraulic system, unlocks the landing gear doors and main/nose gear, and allows gravity to drop the gear into the extended position. Locking springs assist crew to crank main gear into locked position, and aerodynamic forces assist the nose gear. The gear doors remain open.

Nose Wheel Steering


A hydraulic actuating cylinder steers the nose wheel. The green hydraulic system supplies pressure to the cylinder, and electric signals from the Brake and Steering Control Unit (BSCU) control it. The BSCU receives orders from the Captain and F/O steering hand wheels, the rudder pedals and the autopilot. The BSCU transforms these orders into a nose wheel steering angle. The steering system receives actuating hydraulic pressure when the A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is on and the towing control lever is in the normal position and at least one engine is running and the aircraft is on the ground. The nose gear doors must be closed in order for the green hydraulic system to apply pressure to the actuating cylinder. The hand wheel can turn nose wheel up to 75 in each direction. A lever on the towing electrical box allows ground crew to deactivate the steering system for towing. This then allows the wheel to be turned 95 in each direction. The pilot can use a push button on either steering wheel to prevent rudder pedal orders or autopilot orders from going to the BSCU. An internal cam mechanism returns the nose wheel to the centred position after takeoff.

Brakes and Anti Skid


The main wheels have multi disc brakes that can be actuated by either of two independent brake systems. The normal system uses green hydraulic pressure. The alternate system uses the yellow hydraulic system backed up by a hydraulic accumulator. An anti skid system and auto braking work through the brake system. Braking commands come from either the brake pedals, or the autobrake system. Two units on each main gear monitor the temperature of the brakes. All braking functions (normal and alternate braking control, anti skid control, autobraking and brake temperature indicating) are controlled by a two channel Brake and Steering Control Unit (BSCU). The main wheels have fusible plugs that prevent the tyres from bursting if they over heat. The main wheels also have brake cooling units. Anti Skid System Produces maximum braking efficiency by maintaining the wheels just short of an impending skid.When a wheel on verge of locking, the system sends brake release orders to the normal and alternate servo valves, and to ECAM which displays the released brakes. The anti skid deactivates when ground speed <20 knots. The ON/OFF switch turns the anti skid system and nose wheel steering on and off. The system compares the speed of each main gear wheel (given by a tachometer) with the speed of the aircraft (reference speed). When the speed of a wheel drops below 0.87 times the reference speed, the system orders brake releasing in order to maintain the brake slip at that value (best braking efficiency). In normal operation, the BSCU determines the reference speed from the horizontal acceleration furnished by ADIRU 1,2 or 3.

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If all three ADIRUs fail, the reference speed equals the greater of either main landing gear wheel speed. Deceleration is limited to 1.7 metres/second squared. Auto Brake The system arms when crew select LO, MED or MAX push button and :- Green pressure is available, the anti skid system has electrical power, there is no failure in the braking system and at least one ADIRS is functioning. Autobrake may be armed with the park brake on. Automatic braking commences when the ground spoilers extend. Therefore if the a/c makes an acceleration stop and begins to decelerate when its speed is under 72 knots, the automatic braking will not function because the ground spoilers will not extend. For autobrake to activate, at least two SECs must be operative. The system disarms when the crew press the push button switch or one or more arming conditions are lost or, crew apply enough deflection to one brake pedal when autobrake is operating, or the ground spoilers retract or the a/c has been in flight for 10 seconds. Normal Braking Braking is normal when green hydraulic pressure is available and A/SKID & NW STRG is on. During normal braking, anti skid operates and autobrake is available. Braking controlled electrically through the BSCU from pilots pedals or autobrake system. The anti skid system is controlled by the BSCU via the normal servo valves. There is no indication of brake pressure in the flight deck. Alternate Braking With Anti Skid Braking uses this mode when green hydraulic pressure is insufficient and :-Yellow hydraulic pressure is available, the A/SKID & NW STRG is on and the parking brake is not on. An automatic hydraulic selector changes from the green to yellow system. The pedals brake through the auxilary low pressure hydraulic distribution line acting on the dual valves. The BSCU controls the anti skid system via the alternate servo valves. A triple indicator in the flight deck shows the pressure delivered to the left and right brakes, as well as the accumulator pressure. Autobrake is inoperative. Alternate Braking Without Anti Skid The anti skid system can be deactivated electrically (A/SKID & N/W STRG OFF, or power failure or BSCU failure), or hydraulically (low pressure in both green and yellow systems or brakes being supplied by the brake accumulator only). The pilot controls the braking with the pedals (acting on the dual valves). Alternate servo valves are fully open. The pilot must refer to the triple indicator to limit brake pressure in order to avoid locking a wheel. The accumulator can supply at least 7 full brake applications. Autobrake is inoperative. Parking Brake Brakes are supplied by yellow hydraulic system or accumulator via the dual shuttle valves. Alternate servo valves open allowing full pressure application.The accumulator maintains the parking pressure for at least 12 hours. If the parking brake is activated and no yellow hydraulic or accumulator brake pressure is available, then the normal braking system can be applied via the brake pedals. Yellow accumulators can be pressurised by pressing the yellow electrical pump switch. Brake pressure indications are available on the triple indicator. The spring loaded MAX, MED, and LO push button switches arm the appropriate deceleration rate. MAX mode is normally selected for takeoff. If the pilot aborts the takeoff, the maximum pressure goes to the brakes as soon as the system generates the ground spoiler deployment orders. MED or LO mode is normally selected for landing. MED mode sends progressive pressure to the brakes 2 seconds after the ground spoilers deploy in order to decelerate the aircraft at 3 metres/second squared. LO mode sends progressive pressure to the brakes 4 seconds after the ground spoilers deploy in order to decelerate the aircraft at 1.7 metres/second squared.

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Exterior Aircraft Lighting

Air Data and Inertial Reference System (ADIRS)


The ADIRS supply temperature, anemometric, barometric and inertial parameters to the EFIS system and to other user systems (FMGC, FADEC, ELAC, SEC, FAC, FWC, SFCC, ATC, GPWS, CFDIU, CPC). The system includes :3 identical Air Data and Inertial Reference Units (ADIRUs). Each ADIRU is divided into two parts, either of which can work separately in case of failure in the other :The ADR part (Air Data Reference) which supplies barometric altitude, airspeed, mach, AoA, temperature and overspeed warnings).The IR part (Inertial Reference) which supplies attitude, flight path vector, track, heading, accelerations, angular rates, ground speed and aircraft position). One ADIRS control panel on overhead panel for selection of modes (NAV, ATT, OFF) and indications of failures. Two GPS receivers, which are connected to the IR part of the ADIRUs for GP/IR hybrid position calculation. 3 pitot probes, 6 static pressure probes, 3 AoA sensors and 2 total air temperature probes. 8 Air Data Modules (ADMs) which convert pneumatic data from pitot and Stat probes into numerical data for the ADIRUs.A switching facility fro selecting ADR3 or IR3 for instrument displays in case of ADIRU 1 or 2 failure. GPS The global positioning system is a satellite based radio navigation mode.Worldwide, 24 satellites broadcast accurate navigation data that the a/c can use to determine precise position. The a/c has two independent GPS receivers. Each GPS receiver is integrated in a modular avionics unit called MMR (Multi Mode Receiver) (GPS 1 receiver in MMR 1, and GPS 2 receiver in MMR 2). The MMR processes the data received and transfers to the ADIRUs, which then perform a hybrid GP-IRS position calculation. The FMGCs use the hybrid position. The GPS MONITOR page can display pure GPS position, true track, ground speed, estimated position, accuracy level, and mode of operation for the information and use of the flight crew. In normal operation, the GPS receiver 1 supplies ADIRU 1+3, and GPS receiver 2 supplies ADIRU 2.

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Windshear Prediction Function


The weather radars have a predictive windshear capability. The Predictive Windshear System (PWS) operates when :The PWS switch is in the AUTO position and the a/c <2300 agl and the ATC is switched to the ON, or AUTO position and either engine is running. The system scans the airspace, within a range of 5nm ahead of the a/c for windshears. Below 1500 feet, when the system detects windshear, depending on the range selected on the ND, a warning, caution or advisory message appears on the ND. Predictive windshear warnings and cautions are associated with an aural warning. During the takeoff roll all warnings are available within a range of 3nm. At takeoff, alerts are inhibited above 100 knots and up to 50 feet. At landing, alerts are inhibited below 50 feet and the visual and aural warning alerts are downgraded to caution alerts between 370 feet agl and 50 feet agl, and range between 0.5-1.5 nm. The PWS aural alerts have priority over TCAS, GPWS and other FWC aural warnings. The PWS aural alerts are inhibited by windshear detection by FAC and stall warning aural messages.

Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)


It detects any aircraft, equipped with a transponder, flying in its vicinity. It displays potential and predicted collision targets. It issues vertical orders to avoid conflict. The TCAS is normally independent of the ground based ATC system. The TCAS detection capability is limited to intruders flying within a maximum range of 30-40 nm (depending on a/c configuration and external conditions), and within a maximum altitude range of 9900 feet above and below the threatened aircraft, The TCAS interrogates transponders of intruders. From the transponder replies, the TCAS determines for each intruder :Its relative bearing, its range and closure rate and its relative altitude if available (ATC mode C or S). Then the TCAS computes the intruder trajectory, the Closest Point Of Approach (CPA) and the estimated time (TAU) before reaching the CPA. Each time the relative position of the intruder presents a collision threat, aural and visual advisories are triggered.

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Pneumatic System
The pneumatic system supplies high pressure air for air conditioning, engine starting, wing anti icing, water pressurisation and hydraulic reservoir pressurisation.High pressure air has 3 sources :-Engine bleed systems, APU load compressor and HP ground connection. A crossbleed duct interconnects the engine bleed systems, and receives air from the APU and ground sources when appropriate.A valve mounted on the crossbleed duct allows the two engines to be interconnected.Two Bleed Monitoring Computers (BMC 1+2), the overhead control panel, and the ECAM control and monitor the operation of the pneumatic system.A leak detection system detects any overheating in the vicinity of hot air ducts. Engine Bleed System The a/c has two similar engine bleed air systems. Each system is designed to select the compressor stage to use as a source of air, regulate the bleed air temperature and regulate the bleed air pressure. Each BMC receives information about bleed pressure and temperature and valve position. Each is connected with other systems using air or information from the bleed system, and the other BMC. Each supplies indications and warnings to the ECAM and CFDS. If one BMC fails, the other one takes over most of the monitoring functions. Each bleed valve is pneumatically operated and controlled electrically by its associated BMC. Air Bleed Selection Air is normally bled from the intermediate pressure stage (IP) of the engines high pressure (HP) compressor to minimise fuel penalty. At low engine speed, when the pressure and temperature of the IP air are too low, the system bleeds air from the HP stage and maintains it at 36 +/- 4 psi. An intermediate pressure check valve downstream of the IP port closes to prevent air from the HP stage from being circulated to the IP stage. The HP valve closes automatically (pneumatically) in case of low upstream pressure and in case of excessive upstream pressure. The HP valve closes automatically (electrically) when the bleed valve is closed electrically and in case of overpressure upstream of the HP valve with wing anti ice off, two packs on and aircraft altitude above 15,000. Pressure Regulation And Limitation The bleed valve, which is downstream of the junction of HP and IP ducting, acts as a shut off and pressure regulating valve. It maintains delivery pressure at 44 +/- 4 psi. The bleed valve is fully closed (pneumatically) if upstream pressure <8 psi and if there is return flow. The bleed valve is fully closed (electrically) by means of the BLEED switch OFF, the ENG FIRE push button pushed, and by the BMC if there is an over temperature, over pressure, leak, open starter valve or APU bleed being ON. If pressure regulation fails, the over pressure valve closes when the pressure goes over 85 psi.

Temperature Regulation And Limitation A pre cooler downstream of the bleed valve regulates the temperature of the bleed air. The pre cooler is an air to air heat exchanger that uses cooling air bleed from the engine fan to limit the temperature to 200 The fan air valve controls fan air flow. A spring keeps the fan air valve closed in the absence of pressure. APU Bleed Air Supply Air from the APU load compressor is available on ground and in flight. The APU bleed valve operates as a shut off valve to control APU bleed air. It is electrically controlled and pneumatically operated. When the crew selects APU BLEED ON, the APU bleed air supplies the pneumatic system if the APU speed is >95%. This opens the crossbleed valve and closes the engine bleed automatically. A check valve near the cross bleed duct protects the APU when

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bleed air comes from another source. Leak detection is disregarded during an engine start, and APU leak detection is lost if BMC 1 is lost. Crossbleed A crossbleed valve on the crossbleed duct allows the air supply systems of the two engines to be isolated or interconnected. Two electric motors, one for automatic mode and one for manual mode, control the valve. In automatic mode, the crossbleed valve opens when the system is using APU bleed air. It closes if the system detects an air leak (except during engine start). Leak Detection Leak detection loops detect any overheating near the hot air ducts in the fuselage, pylons and wings. For the pylon and APU, the sensing elements are tied to form a single loop, and for the wing, a double loop. When the two wing loops detect a leak, or when one loop detects the leak and the other one is inoperative, they activate a wing leak signal. BMC 1+2 each contain identical control logic for the system. A wing leak signal causes :The bleed valve on the related side to close automatically. The associated fault light on the AIR COND panel to come on. The x-bleed valve to close automatically (except during engine start). The APU bleed valve to close automatically (if it is open, and if the leak concerns the left wing) (except during engine start). A pylon leak signal causes :The bleed valve on the related side to close automatically. The fault light for the related engine on the AIR COND panel to come on. The x-bleed valve to close automatically (except during engine start). An APU leak signal causes :The APU bleed valve to close automatically (except during engine start). The fault light on the APU BLEED push button switch on the AIR COND panel to come on. The x-bleed valve to close automatically (except during engine start).

Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)


Is a self contained unit that makes the a/c independent of external pneumatic and electrical power supplies. On the ground it supplies bleed air for starting the engines and for air conditioning, and also electrical power for the electrical system. During takeoff it supplies bleed air for air conditioning, thus avoiding a reduction in engine thrust caused by the use of engine bleed air, when optimum aircraft performance is required. In flight it backs up the electrical system, backs up the air conditioning, and can be used to start the engines.The APU may obtain power for starting from the a/c batteries or normal electrical system, or from ground power.

APU Engine
Is a single shaft gas turbine that delivers mechanical shaft power fro driving the accessory gearbox (electrical generator, starter, etc) and produces bleed air (engine starting and pneumatic supply). Electronic Control Box The ECB is a FADEC controller that performs the bulk of the APU system logic.

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Air Intake System The air intake and an electrically operated flap allow external air to reach the
compressor.

Starter The ECB controls the electric starter. The starter engages if the air intake is fully open and the
MAST SW and the START push buttons are ON.

Fuel System The left fuel feed line supplies the APU. The required pressure is normally available from
the tank pumps. If pressure is not available (batteries only or pumps off), the APU FUEL PUMP starts automatically. The ECB controls the fuel flow. Oil System The APU has an integral independent lubrication system (for lubrication and cooling). Inlet Guide Vanes The IGVs control bleed air flow, and a fuel pressure powered actuator position the IGVs. The ECB controls the actuator in response to aircraft demand. Air Bleed System Is fully automatic. The APU speed is always 100% except for air conditioning, when the APU speed is 99% if the ambient temperature is above -18, or if ambient temperature is below 35 C. Ground Operation Safety Devices The APU may run without crew supervision when the aircraft is on the ground. In case of fire in the APU compartment :-APU fire warnings operate in the flight deck. A horn in the nose gear bay sounds. The AVAIL light goes out. The FAULT light in the MASTER SW lights up. The APU shuts down. The APU fire extinguisher discharges.

Power Plant
The IAE V2500-A5 engine is a high bypass ratio turbofan. Low Pressure (LP) compressor / turbine The low speed rotor (N1) consists of a front fan (single staged) and a four stage LP compressor connected to a five stage LP turbine. High Pressure (HP) compressor / turbine The high speed rotor (N2) consists of a ten stage HP compressor connected to a two stage HP turbine. Combustion Chamber The annular combustion chamber is fitted with 20 fuel nozzles and 2 igniters. Accessory Gearbox Is located at the bottom of the fan case, and receives torque from the horizontal HP rotor drive shaft and drives the gearbox mounted accessories.

Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)


Each power plant has a FADEC system. It is a digital control system that performs complete engine management. FADEC has 2 channel redundancy, with one channel active and the other in standby.If one channel fails, the other automatically takes control. The system has a magnetic alternator for an internal power source. FADEC is mounted on the fan case. The Engine Interface Unit (EIU) transmits to the FADEC the data it uses for engine management. The FADEC performs the following functions :Control of gas generator, protection against engine exceeding limits, power management, automatic engine starting sequence, manual engine starting sequence, thrust reverser control, fuel recirculation control, transmission of engine parameters and engine monitoring information to flight deck, detection, isolation and recording of failures, and FADEC cooling. Power Supply The FADEC system is self powered above 15% N2. In case of FADEC self power loss, the FADEC is automatically supplied by the aircraft electrical network.

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Thrust Control System A FADEC dedicated to each engine controls thrust. The pilot uses thrust levers to set thrust in manual mode, and the FMGS sets the thrust in automatic mode. The FADEC prevents thrust exceeding limits in both manual and automatic modes. Engine thrust is made through control of Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR). EPR = Low Pressure Turbine exhaust pressure (P5) / Engine inlet pressure (P2). EPR Mode Is the normal mode to control thrust. The required EPR is set by controlling the fuel flow. N1 Modes If no EPR is available, the affected FADEC will automatically revert to N1 mode. At the reversion to N1 mode (rated or unrated), an equivalent thrust to that achieved in EPR mode is provided until a thrust lever position change. Auto thrust control is lost. Alpha floor protection is lost. Depending on the failure case leading to EPR mode loss, the FADEC will revert to either rated or unrated mode. Rated N1 Mode Reversion to rated N1 mode occurs in the event of loss of sensed EPR. This occurs when P2 (engine inlet total pressure) and/or P5 (LP turbine exit total pressure) engine parameters are not available. The FADEC will determine N1 power setting as a function of TLA, altitude and engine inlet total temperature. The rated N1 mode can be manually selected through the ENG N1 MODE push button. Unrated N1 Mode Reversion to unrated N1 mode occurs in the event of a loss of computed EPR due to the loss of T2 (engine inlet total air temperature) or ambient pressure (ambient pressure engine sensor) engine parameters. The N1 is defined as a function of TLA only and is limited by the FADEC to either the smaller of maximum N1 or N1 redline (if T2 is available) or N1 redline (if T2 is unavailable). The N1 rating limit, N1 TLA and maximum N1 indications on ECAM E/WD are lost. EPR Recovery Logic With the FADEC in either rated or unrated N1 mode, switching off the ENG N1 MODE push button will permit to return to the EPR mode if the failure has disappeared. Thrust Levers Can only be moved manually. Thrust lever position is transmitted to the FADEC, which computes and displays the thrust rating limit and the N1 for that Thrust Lever Angle (TLA).

Ignition and Starting


The FADEC controls the ignition and starting system. The FADEC receives its inputs from the Engine Interface Unit (EIU). Ignition System IS used to start the engines on the ground and in flight. It consists of two identical independent circuits for each engine, normally controlled by FADEC channel A, with channel B on standby. Each FADEC channel can control both igniters. On the ground, automatic start only fires one igniter. The FADEC automatically alternates igniters used on successive starts. The ignition comes on automatically after the dry crank sequence, and cuts off automatically when N2 reaches 43%.On the ground with a manual start, both igniters start firing when the Master switch is switched on.Both stop firing when N2 reaches 43%. In flight, both igniters start firing when the Master switch is switched on .Continuous ignition may be selected either manually or automatically to maintain engine combustion. Engine Starting System (automatic) The engine starting system consists of an air turbine starter and a start valve. The start valve admits air supplied by the pneumatic system to operate the starter. The FADEC controls the start valve electrically. If electrical control fails when the aircraft is on the ground, a handle allows the start valve to be operated manually. The sequence is under the full authority of the FADEC, which controls the start valve, the igniters and the fuel HP valves. The FADEC detects a hot start, a hung start, a stall or no light up, and announces FAULT and identifies the fault in an ECAM message. The FADEC runs an abort sequence if a start aborts on the ground when N2 < 50%. It closes the HP and start valves, turns off ignition, and cranks the engine after the start abort in order to clear out fuel vapours. During engine start with residual EGT > 250C, an auto crank function motors the engine until EGT decreases below 250C. There is no crew awareness message to indicate the reason for the extended motoring. This auto crank function may be activated in very hot conditions (typically ISA+40) or short turn around times (<20 mins). For an in flight start, the FADEC decides whether the engine is windmilling fast enough or needs assistance from the starter in view of current engine parameters and flight environment parameters. Flight crew may interrupt this start sequence by moving the MASTER switch to OFF.

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Engine Starting Sequence (manual) The FADEC has limited authority over manual starts. It controls the opening of the start valve, when ENG MODE selector is set to IGN/START and the MAN START push button is pressed. It controls the position of the HP fuel valve and the operation of both igniters, when master turned on. It controls the closing of the start valve at 43% N2, and on ground, the cutting off of ignition. The FADEC makes a passive survey of the engine during start (up to 50% N2). The flight crew is made aware of an abnormal start by the ECAM warning, and has to interrupt the start sequence.

The FADEC does not have the authority to abort the manual start. In flight, the FADEC always commands a starter assisted air start.

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