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Evaluation of the response of a water table to a variable recharge rate / Evaluation de la rponse de la surface de la nappe phratique des taux variables de la recharge

K. ZOMORODIa a Department of Civil Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran Online publication date: 29 December 2009

To cite this Article ZOMORODI, K.(1991) 'Evaluation of the response of a water table to a variable recharge rate /

Evaluation de la rponse de la surface de la nappe phratique des taux variables de la recharge', Hydrological Sciences Journal, 36: 1, 67 78 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/02626669109492485 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626669109492485

Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

K. ZOMORODI

Department of Civil Engineering, KN.Too University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract A new method of evaluation of the response of a water table to artificial recharge is presented. The solution is formulated in the form of a simple numerical model. The model has several advantages over the traditional methods of mounding prediction. The effect of the unsaturated zone, which modifies the recharge rate as compared with the infiltration rate, is considered. Mounding is calculated for a variable recharge rate induced by a variable infiltration rate. Also, the effect of in-transit water in reducing the tillable pore space above a rising water table is considered. The validity of the model results is illustrated using several sets of field data collected in the Ghazvin Plain (Iran). Sample calculations proved that the model predicts mounding more accurately than the traditional methods and, therefore, more realistic recommendations for the design and operation of artificial recharge schemes are possible using the model. Evaluation de la rponse de la surface de la nappe phratique des taux variables de la recharge Rsum On prsente une nouvelle mthode d'valuation de la rponse de la surface de la nappe phratique la recharge artificielle. La solution est formule comme un modle numrique simple. Ce modle a plusiers avantages par rapport aux mthodes traditionelles. On considre l'influence de la zone d'aration qui modifie le taux de la recharge par rapport au taux d'infiltration. La diffrence de niveau de la nappe est calcule pour un taux de recharge variable induit par un taux d'infiltration variable. Ainsi l'effet de l'eau en transit dans espace poreux de la zone d'aration qui surmonte la nappe d'eau ascendante est considr. La validit des rsultats du modle est montre par l'utilisation de plusiers sries de donnes pratiques collectes dans la Plaine de Ghazvin (Iran). Les chantillons calculs montrent que le modle prdit plus exactement les rsultats que les mthodes traditionelles et, par suite fournit des recommandations plus ralistes pour l'amnagement et l'exploitation de schmas de recharge artificielle. INTRODUCTION The prediction of the water table response to recharge is required in various

Open for discussion until 1 August 1991 67

K. Zomorodi

68

water management studies. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the changes in a water table under artificial recharge facilities. The water from a recharge basin or pond infiltrates into the unsaturated zone and, as this water reaches the water table, recharge of the groundwater occurs. The arrival of the recharge water at the water table is normally followed by the formation of a local groundwater mound (Fig. 1).

recharge

4 w

^mr

r (t)i

table

f-jffffffr'"teMi*''-'A mpprnipahl p.

l a y e r ,/^ys*/S/SssM///Ms/^*. ^tfi

Fig. 1

In the following discussion, the infiltration rate, which represents the rate at which water enters the unsaturated zone, must be distinguished from the recharge rate, which is the rate of arrival of water entering the saturated zone. Adequate decisions regarding artificial recharge activities can be made only when the size and shape of the groundwater mound can be fairly reliably predicted before project implementation. Depending on the project purposes, large water table rises may be desirable or undesirable. For example, strong mounding is necessary for pumping head reduction and saline water intrusion control. On the other hand, if artificial recharge is used for waste water disposal, excessive mounding may reduce recharge rates and create waterlogging problems. When artificial recharge is used as a water treatment system, the extent and the shape of the mound determines the proper location of extracting wells and galleries. To design and operate properly any recharge facility, a simple and accurate method for evaluation of the response of the water table to artificial recharge is needed. LITERATURE REVIEW The role of artificial recharge in the general management of water resources has been studied by authors such as Reichard & Bredehoeft (1984), Vax (1985) and Helweg (1985).

69

Various equations are available for the prediction of the growth and recession of groundwater mounds beneath recharge basins. Basic solutions are offered by Glover (1960), Baumann (1965), Bittinger & Trelease (1965), Hantush (1967) and Marino (1974a). Other analytical solutions developed for less general problem conditions include the equations presented by Maasland (1959), Marino (1974b), Rao & Sarma (1981a, 1981b) and Latinopoulos (1984, 1986). Warner et al. (1989) present a good review of some of these methods. Morel-Seytoux & Miracapillo (1989) present a method which considers anisotropy of the aquifer and the transient nature of the fillable soil pore space. The proper application of such equations is normally restricted due to the various simplifying assumptions used in their derivation. Some of these assumptions and limitations are: neglecting the effect of the unsaturated zone; assuming a constant and uniform rate of recharge equal to the rate of infiltration through the soil surface; the use of ideal aquifers; neglecting the effect of air flowing ahead of the water table; neglecting the effect of in-transit water within the wetting zone; and the utilization of the Dupuit & Forchheimer theory. Zomorodi (1988) presents a comprehensive review of those equations along with many relative studies which try to analyse these equations, generalize their use, avoid their weak assumptions and define the conditions under which the use of the equations may be justified.

THE EFFECT OF THE UNSATURATED ZONE Probably the most serious fault of the traditional methods of groundwater mounding prediction lies with the assumption of a constant recharge rate. It is normally assumed that the infiltration rate in a basin is constant and that the infiltrated water reaches the water table instantly with no change in its intensity. The recharge rate is taken to be constant and equal to the infiltration rate and the effect of the unsaturated zone is completely neglected. In reality, several factors tend to change the rate of infiltration with time. Initially, soil compaction and saturation of the topsoil reduces the infiltration rate. Within hours, the infiltration rate tends to increase due to displacement of the entrapped air under the recharge basin. This rise of the infiltration rate may take as long as several days to several weeks. After this period, the rate decreases again due to sediment and biological clogging or excessive mounding under the basin. Normally, within several weeks to several months, the infiltration rate reaches a low but fairly constant rate called the basic infiltration rate (for example, see Berend et al, 1971). The prediction of the mound rise is traditionally performed by using this infiltration rate as the recharge rate. This procedure may be adequate for long-term prediction of the mound position under continuous operation of the recharge basin. However, for short-term recharge operations such as flood spreading, or intermittent recharge operations, this procedure could lead to erroneous results. Vauclin et al. (1979), Besbes & De Marsily (1984), and Morel-Seytoux

K. Zomorodi

70

(1984, 1985) have conducted studies to define the difference between infiltration and recharge hydrographs. Those studies led to the conclusion that it is not enough simply to introduce a time lag between the two hydrographs because the unsaturated zone usually makes the recharge curve smoother and longer than the infiltration curve. Although the above studies were primarily concerned with natural recharge problems, the principal conclusions apply as well to artificial recharge activities. TRANSFERRING INFILTRATION RATES TO RECHARGE RATES The difference between the infiltration curve and the recharge curve is particularly pronounced for short-term recharge activities. To illustrate this point, several trial calculations were conducted using the method of MorelSeytoux (1985). These calculations showed that when the unsaturated zone is thick enough such that the recharge water does not reach the water table before the cessation of the infiltration through the soil surface, the recharge curve is very different from the infiltration curve. Figure 2 shows typical observations under this condition.

recharge depth,,--

depth

infiltration

rate

Fig. 2

As is shown in Fig. 2, the recharge curve starts later, with a lower intensity, and extends longer than the infiltration curve. Repeating the calculations for an intermittent schedule of recharge (consisting of recharge and dry periods of equal length) showed that the two curves do not converge and remain different even after several recharge periods. Under continuous recharge operations, the rate of recharge approaches the value of the infiltration rate, but it remains time dependent as long as the infiltration rate varies with time. Accurate prediction of the recharge rate requires complete modelling of the unsaturated flow under a recharge basin which is too complex for most applications. The purpose of this section is to present a simple means by

71

which the infiltration hydrograph can be transformed to a recharge hydrograph. Based on the theory of flow of water in unsaturated soils, MorelSeytoux (1984) presented a simple expression for the conversion of infiltration rate to recharge rate. The general form of this equation is: r(t) = {S(t)/[R * S(t)]} F(t) (1)

where r{t) is the recharge rate at time /; S is the cumulative infiltration depth up to time t; F(t) is the average infiltration rate over an undefined period of time m; and R is a viscous resistance storage-suction characteristic which, depending on the soil type and the thickness of the unsaturated zone, may normally vary from 0.03-0.2 m. Contrary to the case of natural recharge, under the conditions of artificial recharge the value of R is small compared to S(t). Commonly, within a few days the ratio of S(t)/[R + S(t)] approaches unity. Sample calculations for a number of real artificial recharge operations revealed the fact that, for artificial recharge, this ratio may be ignored without introducing large errors in the results. Because of the above reason, the details of the definition of R (although actually used in the calculations of the results presented later) are not given here. The recharge rate at any given time is, therefore, basically equal to a moving average of the infiltration rates F(t) of a few periods prior to the current time period. The required time period (m) is an unknown and is determined later. Having defined a means of estimating the recharge rate, it remains to present an equation which can predict mounding due to this variable intensity of recharge.

CALCULATION OF WATER TABLE RISE As was discussed before, an ideal method of mounding prediction must have the capability of considering the variability of the recharge rate. Bouwer (1962) presented the following equation to predict the rate of rise and fall of the central mound directly below the centre of a recharge basin of rectangular or round shape: dh/dt = [r(t) - q(t)]/f (2)

where h is the mound height above the original water table (as in Fig. 1); r(t) is the recharge rate; q(t) is the transmitted flux of water at the water table; and / is the tillable porosity of the unsaturated zone. q(t), as may be adapted from Bouwer, (1962) is given by: q(t) = [K h(t)Q]/[l + h(t)Q] (3)

K. Zomorodi

72

depends on the thickness of the saturated zone (e) and the width of the recharge basin (w). Using an analogue model, Bouwer (1962) presented graphically a relationship between Q and the ratio w/e. Fitting curves to that graph gives: Q = (12.8/H>)/[10 + (w/e)22] and Q = [2.2S(w/e)ls exp(-w/e)]/w for 2< w/e <4 (4(b)) for 0< w/e <2 (4(a))

Equations (2)-(4) apply to uniform K below the water table, infinite lateral extent of the flow system, and absence of drainage below the water table. Bouwer (1962) showed that the solution becomes excessively inaccurate as the ratio w/e grows larger than 4. Combining equations (3) and (4) and substituting the results back to equation (2) forms the desired expression for the prediction of mound height due to a variable recharge rate. This resulting equation is solvable through the method of finite differences. The outcome gives the height of the mound at the centre. The central mound is very important as it represents the highest point of the mound at any given time. The height of the mound at any other position can be approximated by field observations or theoretical methods.

THE MODEL A finite difference model was written in a spreadsheet format to carry out the necessary calculations. The model combines equations (l)-(4) to arrive at a one-dimensional approximation of the central mound position. Equation (1) is used in its detailed format as modified from Morel-Seytoux (1984) for conditions of artificial recharge. Due to the sensitivity of the results calculated by equation (3) to the value of h(t), the recommended time step used in the finite differences grid is relatively small, particularly at early times. For acceptable results, time steps of 0.2 days or smaller were required for the first couple of days, after which longer time steps could be used. The required input data to the model include the recharge basin width (w), the original thickness of the saturated and the unsaturated zones (e and D respectively), the water content of the soil before and after the passage of the wetting front (Qi and 8 ; respectively), the soil total porosity (), and hydraulic conductivity (K). If 8 / is not known from field measurements, it may be approximated by a value halfway between 82- and the soil total porosity. Alternatively, Bl may be estimated by equation (6) if the transfer time is known. If the infiltration rate, i(t), in a test pond can be predicted (based on experimental or theoretical methods), the model could take this information as input and produce the resulting mound height, hit). The time period, m, which is the period required for the calculation of

73

F(t) in equation (1), was treated as a model calibration parameter. Calibration of the model with field data showed that a good approximation of m is found by: m = [(QlB.)D]fI (5)

where / is the long term average infiltration rate. An alternative way to approximate m is to find the transfer time (u) which is the time delay between the beginning of infiltration and the beginning of recharge. The transfer time is found by field observation, or by determining the required time for water to infiltrate as much as S(u) given by: S(u) = (9 ; - 9.) 0 (6)

where S(u) is the cumulative infiltration depth up to the transfer time. The initial water content is normally close to the water content of the soil at field capacity (this was the field observation at the project site discussed later). It has been suggested that when ponding occurs during rainfall (or during artificial recharge) then the limiting water content Q{ is close to the soil water content at natural saturation. The calculations of this study using equation (6) and real field data, however, gave a much lower value for Q r This is consistent with field observations of Wilson (1971) who actually measured water content changes in the soil during pit recharge. MODEL APPLICATION PROJECT TO THE GHAZVIN PLAIN RECHARGE

To test the model application under real field conditions, the data collected in 18 seepage test sites in Ghazvin Plain (Iran) were used. The details of the test ponds and the results were reported by Berend et al. (1971). Except for a few sites where perched water tables formed under the test basins, the conditions of these tests are consistent with the assumptions of the model. In most tests, the infiltration rate initially rose for a week or two due to the displacement of the entrapped air in the soil. After this period, the infiltration rate declined due to processes such as soil slaking or algal growth. For some of the sites, the rate of infiltration varied by more than an order of magnitude during a test. The mound heights were measured in observation wells located at the edge of each test basin and further away from the basin. Since no direct measurement of the central mound was made, the mound heights calculated by the model had to be transferred to the location of the observation wells to make comparison of the model results to the field observations possible. This was accomplished by a two stage calculation process. First, the mound heights at the basin centre and at the basin edge were calculated for different times by Glover's (1960) method using a constant rate of recharge equal to the average rate of infiltration over the recharge period. The ratio of the

K. Zomorodi

74

calculated mound height at the edge to the calculated mound height at the centre was observed to approach a constant in time quickly. This ratio was taken as a first adjustment factor. Then, the ratio of the observed mound height at the basin edge to the value calculated by Glover's (1960) method for the basin edge was calculated. The average of these ratios over several time steps was used as a second adjustment factor. The model output for the central mound height was then multiplied by these two adjustment factors to yield an approximation of the mound height at the basin edge. Figure 3 compares the results obtained for the test site at Zageh. For this test site D = 35.5 m, e = 300 m, W = 32 m, 8. = 0.12, 6, = 0.19, K = 8 m day 4 , n = 0.42, the product of the two adjustment factors which transfer the predicted values from the centre to the edge of the basin was 0.74, and i(t) was measured in the field and is given later.

Dagan

Observed

Calculated

2 i 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 30

Time (days)

. 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48

Fig. 3

Acceptable agreement is displayed between the observed and the calculated values. The time period m was calculated according to equation (5) and was found to be very close to the observed transfer time which was 4 days. Unacceptable results were obtained when the recharge rate was taken equal to the infiltration rate, proving the merit of considering the effects of the unsaturated zone. The slight water table rise observed before the fourth day (transfer time) may be explained by the effect of air moving ahead of the wetting front which induces a water table rise before the arrival of recharge water (see Bianchi & Haskell, 1966). This phenomenon is considered neither by the traditional methods nor by this model. The broken line in Fig. 3 represents the results obtained by Berend et al. (1971) using the method of Dagan (1966) which calculates mounding under a constant recharge rate (the average infiltration rate of the first three

75

weeks when the infiltration rates were high). As is apparent from Fig. 3, unlike the current model, the traditional methods cannot predict the recession of the mound which occurs as the infiltration rates, and consequently the recharge rates, decline. If a lower infiltration rate (i.e. the average infiltration rate over the entire test period) is used with Dagan's (1966) equation, the maximum mound position will be underestimated. It is interesting to compare the measured infiltration rates and the recharge rates calculated by the model. Figure 4 shows this comparison for the test pond at Zageh. 1,25

i(t)

10,75

Downloaded At: 17:31 3 January 2011

rit)

0.S

Xi

c

3 o

0.25

*1

2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50

Time (days)

8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 I'M 48

Fig. 4 Comparison of infiltration and recharge rates for the test pond at Zageh. As is evident from Fig. 4, the recharge rate starts four days later than the infiltration rate and is much less variable than the infiltration rate. The role of the factor R in equation (1) diminishes very rapidly as S(t) increases with time, making the recharge rate values practically moving averages of the infiltration rate values of previous days. The model responds correctly to the decline of the infiltration rate which begins three weeks after the start of the test. Common methods of mounding calculation neglect the effect of the capillary zone and of the in-transit water both of which actually reduce the available storage capacity of the soil. According to Ortiz et al. (1978a) the effect of the capillary region is of considerable magnitude only when the aquifer is rather thin. In the Ghazvin Plain, the aquifer is very thick and the effect of capillarity may be safely disregarded. Ortiz et al. (1978b) also studied the effect of in-transit water under a recharge basin. They stated that beneath the recharge area, the percolating water occupies a substantial volume of the otherwise tillable pore space and causes the effective specific yield to be less than the drainable porosity. As a result, the mound is expected to rise more rapidly than predicted by assuming

K. Zomorodi

76

that the tillable pore space is equal to the drainable porosity. This is the reason why analytical solutions underestimate the central mound height by as much as nearly 50%. The model presented here avoids this inaccuracy by taking the tillable porosity to be equal to the difference between the total porosity and the limiting water content ( - 8^. Theoretically, however, when the mound is receding, the drainable porosity (n - 8;.) must be used instead of the tillable porosity. The calculations of this study showed only a slight improvement in the results by including this detail in the model. Figure 5 compares the results of the model with the results of the calculations by Glover's method (1960) for the Zageh test pond. A common procedure of mounding prediction has been the use of an equation like Glover's (1960) (which assumes a constant recharge rate) with the so-called basic infiltration rate (the minimum and almost constant rate reached in the long run). The lower curve in Fig. 5 shows the results of Glover's (1960) equation when used with the minimum infiltration rate. The method seems to be adequate for prediction of the final mound position which is the equilibrium state of the mound reached in the long run. However, the maximum position of the mound, which is well predicted by the model, is completely missed by Glover's (1960) method. Using the average infiltration rate over the entire test period (the second lowest curve in Fig. 5) does not improve the situation considerably. Using a higher infiltration rate with Glover's (1960) theory would result in gross overestimation of the final mound position. The point to be made is that prediction of the water table response to recharge activities is much better performed by the model (variable recharge rate) than by the traditional methods (constant recharge rate). The same conclusion was reached for short-term recharge operations when the calculations were repeated for a seven days recharge period.

Observed

0 10

20 30

40 SO

Time ( d a y s )

SO 70

Fig. 5 Comparison of model results to Glover's solution for the Zageh test pond.

77

The validity of the model results was checked for other test sites in the Ghazvin Plain with acceptable success in every case. Figure 6, for example, illustrates the results for Arik test pond.

Observed

Calculated

T3

G 3 o

12 16 20 24 2 8 3 2 ^ 10 14 18 22 26 30 34

Time (days)

Fig. 6 Model results for the Arik test pond. Having acquired confidence in the model, it was used as an analysis tool for the Ghazvin recharge project. Ghavami (1970) recommended that, to avoid excessive mound rises and waterlogging under the large recharge ponds designed for Ghazvin Plain, all artificial recharge activities must be conducted in areas where the unsaturated zone is at least 20 m thick. This recommendation was made in a rather subjective way with no supporting calculations. The calculations performed by the current model provide a more objective means of design and management of recharge activities. The model predictions for the largest pond designed for the area shows a maximum rise of the central mound of nearly 44 m. Therefore, the figure recommended by Ghavami (1970) for the thickness of the unsaturated zone seems to be unacceptable for large ponds. This rise, however, is expected if the infiltration rate in the prototype recharge pond would be the same as in the test pond. Several factors are expected to cause the infiltration rate to be lower for the prototype pond. The water to be used comes from a local river and is colder and more turbid than the water in the test ponds. Also larger recharge basins perform less efficiently and with lower infiltration rates than small test basins (see Zomorodi, 1988). In conclusion, the model presented here provides a new and simple means of predicting the position of the central mound under a recharge basin with a variable recharge rate. The model results are more reliable than the results obtained using previous methods which ignore the variability of the recharge rate, the difference between infiltration and recharge rates, and the effect of in-transit water above the water table.

K. Zomorodi REFERENCES

78

Baumann, P. (1965) Technical development in groundwater recharge. Adv. Hydrosci. 2, 209-279. Berend, J. E., Attarzadeh, A. & Ghavami, S. (1971) Pond seepage tests during the winter of 1969/70. Tahal Consulting Engineers Ltd., Iran Branch, Ghazvin, Iran. Besbes, M. & De Marsily G. (1984) From infiltration to recharge: use of a parametric transfer function. /. Hydro!. 74, 271-293. Bianchi, W. C. & Haskell Jr, E. E. (1966) Air in the vadose zone as it affects water movement beneath a recharge basin. Wat. Resour. Res. 2(2), 315-322. Bittinger, M. W. & Trelease, F. J. (1965) The development and dissipation of a groundwater mound beneath a spreading basin. Trans. Am. Soc. Agiic. Engrs. 15, 103-106. Bouwer, H. (1962) Analyzing groundwater mound by resistance network. /. Irrig. Drain. Div. ylSCE88(IR3), 15-36. Dagan, G. (1966) Linearized solutions of free-surface groundwater flow with uniform recharge. Technion Publ. no. 84, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel. Ghavami, S. (1970) Artificial recharge and the analysis of its results in Ghazvin Plain. MS Thesis, Iranian Institute of Hydrology, Tehran, Iran. Glover, R. E. (1960) Mathematical derivations as pertain to groundwater recharge. Agric. Res. Serv., USDA, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Hantush, M. S. (1967) Growth and decay of groundwater mounds in response to uniform percolation. Wat. Resour. Res. 3, 227-234. Helweg, O. J. (1985) Role of artificial recharge in groundwater basin management. In: Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, ed. T. Asano, Butterworth Publishers, Boston, USA. Latinopoulos, P. (1984) Periodic recharge to finite aquifers from rectangular areas. Adv. Wat. Resour. 7, 137-140. Latinopoulos, P. (1986) Analytical solutions for strip basin recharge to aquifers with cauchy boundary conditions. /. Hydrol. 83, 197-206. Maasland, M. (1959) Water table fluctuations by induced intermittent recharge. /. Geophys. Res. 64(5), 549-559. Marino, M. A. (1974a) Growth and decay of groundwater mounds induced by percolation. J. Hydrol. 22, 295-301. Marino, M. A. (1974b) Water table fluctuation in response to recharge. /. Irrig. Drain. Div. ASCEIWIR2), 117-125. Morel-Seytoux, H. J. (1984) From excess infiltration to aquifer recharge: a derivation based on the theory of flow of water in unsaturated soils. Wat. Resour. Res. 20(9), 1230-1240. Morel-Seytoux, H. J. (1985) Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In: Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, ed T. Asano, Butterworth Publishers, Boston, USA. Morel-Seytoux , H. J. & Miracapillo C. (1989) Prediction of water table mound development and aquifer recharge from an infiltration area. In: Unsaturated Flow in Hydrologie Modeling ed. H. J. Morel-Seytoux, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 241-271. Ortiz, N. V., Duke, H. R., Sunada, D. K. & McWhorter, D. B. (1978a) Artificial groundwater recharge with capillarity. /. Irrig. Drain. Div. ASCE 104(IR1), 79-93. Ortiz, N. V., McWhorter D. B., Sunada, D. K. & Duke, H. R. (1978b) Growth of groundwater mounds affected by in-transit water. Wat. Resour. Res. 14(6), 1084-1088. Rao, N. H. & Sarma, P. B. S. (1981a) Groundwater recharge from rectangular areas. Ground Wat 19(3), 271-274. Rao, N. H. & Sarma P. B. S. (1981b) Recharge from rectangular areas to finite aquifers. /. Hydrol. 53, 269-275. Reichard, E. G. & Bredehoeft J. D. (1984) An engineering economic analysis of a program for artificial groundwater recharge. Wat. Resour. Bull. 20(6), 929-939. Vauclin, M., Khanji, D. & Vachaud, G. (1979) Experimental and numerical study of a transient, two-dimensional unsteady saturated water table recharge problem. Wat. Resour. Res. 15(5), 1089-1101. Vax, H. J. (1985) Economic aspects of groundwater recharge. In: Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, ed. T. Asano,. Butterworth Publishers, Boston, USA. Warner, J. M., Molden, D., Chehata, M. & Sunada, D. K. (1989) Mathematical analysis of artificial recharge from basins. Wat. Resour. Bull. 25(2), 401-411. Wilson, L. G. (1971) Observations on water content change in stratified sediments during pit recharge. Ground Wat. 9(3), 29-40. Zomorodi, K. (1988) Optimization of design and operation of artificial recharge facilities, Phd Dissertation, Utah State Univ., Logan, Utah, USA. Received 1 February 1990; accepted 25 August 1990

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