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1962, un monde 1962, A World

14-16 octobre 2012 Oran / ن ا( 'و Algeria / (.ا-, +ا CRASC - CEMA

Contacts :

Giulia Fabbiano : gfabbiano@hotmail.com Malika Rahal : malika.rahal@ihtp.cnrs.fr

1962, un monde

En raison de la portée exemplaire et symbolique de l’indépendance de l’Algérie, 1962 est un moment clé des histoires algérienne et française, auxquelles il ne saurait cependant se réduire. Le colloque transdisciplinaire « 1962, un monde », qui aura lieu à Oran, en Algérie, du 14 au 16 octobre 2012, se propose dès lors de penser 1962 comme événement matriciel, narration, système de significations plurielles et antagonistes. Autrement dit de le voir comme point de bascule d’un ensemble de mouvements tiers-mondistes, panafricanistes, socialistes, féministes ou encore juvéniles. Il s’agira d’identifier, à la croisée de plusieurs disciplines, les articulations, les circulations, les contradictions, les mises en abyme, les tensions, les tracés sensibles, les avatars de 1962 comme un monde.

1962, A World

The symbolic and exemplary resonance of Algeria’s independence escapes the limits of either Algerian or French history. The interdisciplinary colloquium “1962, A World,” – which will take place in Oran, in Algeria, October 14-16, 2012 – aims to analyze and describe 1962 as a matrix of events; stories and histories; as a system of multiple and antagonistic meanings. In other words, making visible ignored links, contradictions, and repetitions, tensions, touchy subjects, avatars of 1962 perceived as a world.

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1962, un monde

14-16 octobre 2012 CRASC - CEMA Oran, Algérie.

1962 est un des chronotopes majeurs du « siècle des extrêmes », qui renvoie tour à tour à la sortie du joug colonial et à la proclamation de l’indépendance nationale en Algérie, à la fin de l’Algérie française et à la construction d’une république postcoloniale en France, au déclin relatif des empires et à l’inexorable marche (fût-elle un rêve inachevé) vers un autre équilibre mondial. En raison de sa portée exemplaire et symbolique, l’indépendance de l’Algérie, que 1962 comme lieu de mémoire et matrice d’identité incarne, dépasse ainsi l’histoire algérienne et française, à laquelle elle ne saurait se réduire. L'histoire de la guerre d'indépendance algérienne a situé 1962 dans la continuité d’évènements aussi marquants que l’éclatement de la guerre de libération au Maghreb (1952), la bataille de Dien-Bien-Phu (1954), la conférence de Bandoeng (1955), l’indépendance du Maroc et de la Tunisie (1956) puis celle d’autres pays africains (1957/1960) et la conférence de Casablanca (1961). Au- delà, 1962 est non seulement le théâtre des dernières séquences de l’histoire coloniale française mais aussi celui où se jouent les prémisses d’une recomposition des nations marquée par l’épreuve des décolonisations. 1962 peut dès lors se poser en point de bascule historique et anthropologique de l’ensemble des mouvements politiques, culturels, artistiques et sociaux qui, à partir du Maghreb et plus généralement de l’Afrique, jalonnent globalement les années soixante et soixante-dix, jusqu’à nos jours. Ces mouvements, qu’ils soient tiers-mondistes, panafricanistes, socialistes, féministes ou encore juvéniles relient des continents, produisent des récits émancipateurs mêlant arts visuels et populaires, littératures et médias. Dès périphéries, ils forment un univers rhizomatique excédant les nations, qui reste à cartographier.

Le colloque transdisciplinaire « 1962, un monde », qui aura lieu à Oran, en Algérie, du 14 au 16 octobre 2012, se propose dès lors de penser 1962 comme événement matriciel, narration, système de significations plurielles et antagonistes. Il s’agira d’identifier, à la croisée de plusieurs discipline, les articulations, les circulations, les contradictions, les mises en abyme, les tensions, les tracés sensibles, les avatars de 1962 comme un monde.

Quelle est l’étendue de l’événement 1962 ? Quelles sont ses impasses, ses répétitions ? Quelle est sa temporalité, son héritage et son actualité ? Quelle résonnance a-t-il eu et continue-t-il à avoir à l’extérieur du couple franco- algérien, à l’échelle du Maghreb, de l’Afrique, du monde ? Se pencher sur les scènes multiples et différées, anachroniques ou contemporaines, suivre les bifurcations que 1962 produit, informe ou réagence, constitue le parti pris épistémologique et méthodologique de ce colloque, dont l’objectif est de tracer la

généalogie de 1962 en tant que monde et d’en cartographier les points de contact et les superpositions.

Les communications attendues, à la croisée de différentes disciplines et transdisciplinaires (histoire, sociologie, anthropologie, politologie, postcolonial studies, cultural studies, étude des arts visuels et des médias, …) présenteront des études exploratoires et des recherches en cours ou avancées. Divers supports de communication sont les bienvenus : présentation orale, poster, performance… Les propositions pourront s’inscrire dans une ou plusieurs des thématiques non restrictives indiquées ci-dessous et/ou pourront en proposer d’autres. Les organisateurs invitent tout particulièrement les doctorants et les jeunes chercheurs affiliés à des universités ou à des centres de recherche des Suds à proposer des communications. Des possibilités de financements (transport, séjour) sont à l’étude.

Les propositions de communication ne devront pas dépasser les 300 mots et comporteront impérativement les éléments suivants :

- Titre de la communication

- Auteur(s)

- 3 mots clé

- Appartenance institutionnelle (statut et affiliation)

- Coordonnées : adresse postale, pays de résidence, courriel, numéro de téléphone

- Court CV (publications significatives, autres contributions, activités académiques, professionnelles, autres expériences sociales)

Date limite de réception des propositions : 1er mai 2012. Les propositions sont à envoyer à 1962unmonde@rizeway.com. L’acceptation des propositions sera notifiée avant mai 2012. Les frais d'inscription, qui serviront à subventionner des déplacements et des séjours de doctorants et jeunes chercheurs, seront de 35 pour les chercheurs non titulaires et de 60 pour les enseignants et chercheurs titulaires.

Thématiques (indicatives et non restrictives)

- 1962, pour une généalogie du savoir

1962 en tant que nouvelle temporalité inaugure des espaces et des formes de production et de diffusion du savoir, dont il s’agira de relever les logiques et les dynamiques afin de retracer une généalogie du savoir et des disciplines jusqu’à aujourd'hui consacrées à l’étude de la colonisation, de la guerre d’indépendance, de la décolonisation, de la postcolonie. Il sera question d’explorer les frottements, les engagements et les articulations du savoir et du pouvoir, ainsi que leurs usages multiples, contradictoires et ambigus.

> Le pouvoir des archives

Questionner les archives, leur accessibilité, leur nature (trace écrite, mémoire

orale, documents officiels, œuvres d’art, arts populaires, …) et leur existence même méritera une attention particulière afin de repenser les conditions de production de l’histoire et de questionner les logiques d’objectivation et leur possible dépassement. Il serait souhaitable d’explorer les autres formes d’archives qui excèdent et perturbent le cadre traditionnel de la discipline historique et invitent à des coopérations transdisciplinaires.

> L’économie (morale) du savoir

« 1962, un monde » invite à cartographier des différents lieux nationaux et transnationaux de production, de financement, de circulation du savoir sur et autour de 1962, pour en tracer l’économie, en mesurer l’hégémonie, en explorer avec un regard diachronique les lignes de force et d’achoppement.

> Sujets, objets (il)légitimes

Il pourra aussi s’agir de revenir sur ce que les recherches et les récits de 1962 laissent dans l’ombre, de réfléchir sur les sujets (il)légitimes, les terrains battus et les questions hypertrophiées pour entrevoir les impensés de 1962.

- 1962, l’invention de la révolution

1962 peut être appréhendé comme le seuil d’une nouvelle période qui invente

le moment révolutionnaire, ses pratiques, ses récits, ses rhétoriques, et ses échecs. Il s’agira d’explorer une époque – celle des années 1960 – dans son étendue et ses attendus – tiers-mondiste, socialiste, féministe, juvénile, pan- arabe, pan-africaine, internationaliste – et de montrer comment, en retour, l’événement 1962 est lu par elle. Ces courants inventent « leur » révolution algérienne ; ils font de 1962 leur victoire, alors même qu’à l’opposé, les pratiques répressives et les techniques de contrôle et de gouvernement développées dans et par la guerre circulent et s’imposent. Faire le pari de désenclaver 1962 invite à l’extraire de la guerre d’indépendance algérienne pour en cerner, ailleurs, la réception, les lectures et les usages analytiques et politiques qui en sont faits.

> Posture et imposture révolutionnaires

1962 fait de la guerre d’indépendance algérienne la matrice des révolutions à

venir, la validation de la posture et de la pensée révolutionnaires. Il crée, en

expulsant les dissensions et les conflits internes, un nouveau motif et mythe, populiste et genré des mouvements de libération et d’émancipation. Revenir sur cette invention permettra de soulever plusieurs questions : la révolution masculinise-t-elle l’histoire et le peuple, « seul héros » s’étant levé comme un seul homme ? Comment les met-elle en scène pour créer dans le même temps des figures minorées, féminisées, oubliées ? Comment 1962 légitime-t-il une violence au service d’une libération érigée en culte au prix, parfois, d’une involution violente des relations sociales? Comment d’autres utopies, le mouvement national palestinien, l'ANC, le Black Power, les révolutions latino- américaines (Cuba, le Sentier lumineux, les sandinistes, les Chiapas, les Indiens boliviens), appréhendent, discutent et composent, ou pas, avec 1962 ?

> Routes, mouvements, espaces :

L’invention de la révolution est aussi l’invention de la décolonisation. S’interroger sur les routes, les mouvements, les espaces de rétention que 1962

préfigure et anticipe par la mise en place des camps de regroupement en Algérie et en France, mais aussi par l’invention d’Alger comme paradigme de la ville planifiée, insurgée, quadrillée et pacifiée (d’abord ville martyre de la « Bataille d’Alger » puis « Mecque des révolutionnaires ») permettra de repenser les catégories contemporaines des mobilités, et leur réinvention par le bas. Cela permettra aussi de renouveler l’approche des pratiques politiques, juridiques, répressives de maîtrise des flux humains et culturels et de digestion des conflits.

> Relectures d’un vocabulaire mis en actes et de ses effets :

La réitération du moment révolutionnaire suppose qu’on en qualifie les termes, qu’on en localise les formes, qu’on en mesure les disséminations transcontinentales tant elle révoque les typologies européocentrées et fait place à des répertoires inédits d’expression et d’affirmation en cours d’inventaire, tels que les récentes révolutions arabes et l’extension de l’indignation.

- 1962, imaginaires postcoloniaux

1962 est une expérience plurielle : rupture, frontière, narration, représentation, invention, bricolage. Les usages polysémiques de l’événement façonnent des circulations et des imaginaires inédits et parfois inattendus du point de vue culturel, politique, identitaire. Dès lors, on pourra en questionner la dislocation et l’actualité, fut-elle anachronique, les impacts, les diffusions, les déclinaisons ainsi que les contournements et les détournements partout où ils sont observables.

> Les usages de 1962 :

Réfléchir à 1962 en termes d’hypothèse postcoloniale impose un détour non seulement local par ses usages littéraires, artistiques, culturels, sportifs, linguistiques, toujours politiques dans différents contextes régionaux et continentaux saisis à différentes époques. Comment l’Algérie, mais aussi l’Afrique, l’Europe, les Amériques, l’Inde, l’Asie, les îles océaniennes, se sont- elles appropriées cette temporalité révolutionnaire de rupture et de renouvellement ? Quid de ses auteur-e-s et de ses acteurs-trices ? Quels en sont les expressions et les topoï ? Comment les récupérations politiques et militaires, les traitements médiatiques exportent, renversent, déforment et transforment le sens d’une lutte d’émancipation ?

> Politiques des identités, poétique des altérités :

Après 1962, des nouvelles expressions identitaires jusqu’alors inexistantes ou inaudibles (harki(s), beurs, pied-noir(s), maghrébin(s)) sont construites, tandis que d’autres encore sont revisitées et se voient conférées des espaces de narration et de revendication aux contours et aux frontières renégociés (les musulmans, les berbères, les juifs d’Afrique du Nord, les algériens). Se demander ce que fait 1962 aux questions linguistiques, identitaires, mémorielles, bref minoritaires, invite à repenser en termes poétiques et politiques les registres d’altérité qui lui succèdent et s’en inspirent.

> La province européenne

1962 dissout et redessine les frontières nationales et les significations géo-

politiques qui y étaient attachées, non seulement pour le couple franco-algérien, mais aussi pour les espaces et les routes Nord-Nord, Nord-Sud, Sud-Sud, Sud- Nord. Comment se produit le processus de provincialisation des anciens empires et de formation de nouveaux à distance de ceux-ci ? Et quelles formes

concrètes et imaginaires revêtent-ils ? Quelles configurations surgissent alors ? Quelles transformations continentales sont à l'œuvre ?

> Les jaillissements de 1962

Date et imaginaire, 1962 est à la fois dépassé et surpassé par les représentations, les inspirations et les figurations qu’il porte. Les arts plastiques, la littérature d’emblée monde, les musiques et les spectacles vivants se sont emparés de ce moment pour lui faire dire plus et, peut-être, mieux, que

ne l’ont fait les héritages politiques. Que disent ces productions sur le monde de

1962 et après, les formes et les supports qu’elles choisissent et inventent ?

Quelles mémoires sont façonnées par cette profusion de mondes produits aux confins du politique et de l’histoire par des créateurs imprévisibles ? Que peut- on comprendre de l’enjeu politique des mémoires, de leur dissémination et de leur distribution au regard de leur mise en forme et en scène artistique ? Quel(s) dépassement(s) révolutionnaire(s) s’affirment? Quels dialogues sont concevables entres les savoirs attestés comme scientifiques et les appréhensions, les imaginaires dits artistiques ?

- 1962, une galerie des portraits

Il s’agit de s’interroger sur ce que 1962 fait aux paysages socio-politiques dans le

monde des idées scientifiques et artistiques dans lesquels cet événement rayonne et d’aborder les thématiques non restrictives proposées ci-dessus par le truchement de figures intellectuelles et politiques (Germaine Tillion, Mostefa Lacheraf, Jacques Derrida, Che Guevara, Kateb Yacine, Angela Davis, Malcom X, Abdelmalek Sayad, Mohamed Arkoun, Pierre Bourdieu, parmi tant d’autres…) traitées individuellement ou dans leurs interactions en Algérie, en Afrique, en Europe et dans le reste du monde.

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1962, A World

14-16 October 2012 CRASC – CEMA Oran, Algeria

1962 is one of the crucial turning points of the “(20 th ) century of extremes.” It evokes multiple stories: Algeria’s liberation from colonial domination and its proclamation of independence; the end of French Algeria and the construction of

a postcolonial republic in France; the seeming decline of empires and the forward

march — as yet an unfulfilled reverie — toward a different and more equitable world. The symbolic and exemplary resonance of Algeria’s independence, whether as realm of memory or crucible of identities, escapes the limits of either Algerian or French history. Historians of the Algerian War for Independence have situated 1962 in a narrative that includes such markers as the opening shots of the war for liberation (1954-1955), the Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954), the Bandung Conference (1955), Moroccan and Tunisian independence (1956), the independence of other African states (1957-1960), and the Conference of

Casablanca (1961). 1962, that is, has often been viewed over the last fifty years as

a stage on which the closing shots of French colonial history flickered out; it must

also be recognized as the opening nights of a new staging of (inter)national realities, made possible by the struggle over Algeria’s decolonization. 1962, for example, can be understood as a historical and anthropological turning point for the many political, cultural, artistic and social movements that, starting from the Maghreb and elsewhere in Africa, defined the 1960s, 1970s, and after. These movements, whether third-worldist, pan-Africanist, socialist, feminist, or youthful, produced emancipatory stories that interwove visual and folk art, literature, and new medias. Taking off from the margins, they created a rhyzomatic universe that arcs beyond nations and that has yet to be mapped.

The interdisciplinary colloquium “1962, A World,” – which will take place in Oran, in Algeria, October 14-16, 2012 – aims to analyze and describe 1962 as a matrix of events; stories and histories; as a system of multiple and antagonistic meanings. In other words, making visible ignored links, contradictions, and repetitions, tensions, touchy subjects, avatars of 1962 perceive as a world.

What has 1962 as event produced? What are its limits? What are its chronologies, its historical impact, and its current importance? What resonance has 1962 had beyond the Algero-French relationship, in the past and the present? The methodological and epistemological premises of this colloquium are to bring into focus these multiple (often quite distinct) visions and to trace the bifurcations that 1962 produced, shaped, or rearticulated. We aim to trace the genealogy of 1962 as a World and to map the sometimes problematic yet often fecund intersections and superimpositions it produces.

This call for papers is addressed to people working in diverse disciplines as well as interdisciplinary approaches (history, sociology, anthropology, postcolonial studies, cultural studies, the history of visual and audiovisual arts) who want to present advanced, exploratory or preliminary research, studies that bring

ethnographic or discursive interests to bear on what 1962 produced, or efforts to draw links that include it. We welcome diverse forms and means of communication: talks, posters, performances…

Proposal can be linked to one or more of the themes outlined below, but these are meant to suggest rather than limit; proposals linked to other themes are welcomed.

The organizers are particularly interested in proposals from doctoral students or younger scholars affiliated with universities or research centers located in the Global South. We are exploring ways to finance (transportation and housing) such participants.

Proposal should be under 300 words and must be accompanied by the following elements:

-Title of the communication -Name(s) of Communicant(s) -Three (3) key words -Institutional membership (status and affiliation) -Contact information: postal address, country of residence, email -mini-CV (relevant publications, other contributions, academic, professional, and/or other activities)

Proposal should be sent to 1962unmonde@rizeway.com before 1 May 2012 (we will notify those accepted in May 2012). Registration fees (35 for doctoral students and post-docs, and 60 for researchers) will go towards the travel costs of doctoral students and junior researchers.

Themes

- 1962, Towards a Genealogy of Knowledge

As a new chronological frame, 1962 inaugurated novel spaces and forms of knowledge production and diffusion. What is necessary is a genealogy of knowledge that exposes how disciplinary norms and governance have framed research on colonization, the war for independence, decolonization, the postcolony. In other words, how can we analyze the tensions, the commitments, and the ways that power-knowledge have worked?

> The Power of Archives

Particular attention must be given to questioning the archives—their accessibility; their legitimacy; their existence; and their status (written documents; oral transmission; official sources; art work; popular culture…). Critical work on these questions will detail what conditions make possible claims to objectivity about the past and open up new possibilities to think differently. Particularly welcome are efforts to explore types of archives that escape or trouble definitions embraced by the historical profession, notably those that invite interdisciplinary cooperation and inventivity.

> The (Moral) Economy of Knowledge

Can we map the various national and transnational sites that produce, finance, and disseminate knowledge of 1962? Would this allow us to understand the economics, to measure hegemonic power, to historicize the force fields and the impediments that frame and orient them?

> Subjects and Objects, Legitimate and Illegitimate

What can be gained by re-examining existing research as a source base that reveals critical insight into what subjects have been deemed legitimate or illegitimate? Such an approach might make clear what well-trodden topos and over-examined questions block from view.

- 1962, Inventing Revolution

1962 as the entry point into a new era invents the revolutionary moment, its

practices, its narratives, its arguments, and its failures. The aim is to explore the era that 1962 shaped, in its reach and its expectations—Third Worldist; socialist; feminist; youthful; Pan-Arab; Pan-African; internationalist—and to show how this era represented 1962. These currents invent “their” Algerian Revolution, transform 1962 into their victory--at the same time as other states and people

take up the repressive tactics and techniques of control and governance the French government developed during and for the war. When we unmoor 1962 and distinguish it from Algeria’s independence struggle, might it open possibilities to detail how it is taken up elsewhere, the political and analytical readings and uses that are made of it?

>

Revolutionary Postures and Impostures

1962

transforms Algeria’s war for liberation into a revolutionary matrix, the

prototype of revolutionary postures and thought. It creates, through the disappearance of dissension and internal conflicts, a novel orientalist leitmotif and myth, at once populist and gendered, for liberatory and emancipatory movements. Returning to this invention promises to raise several questions: how did the revolution construct and masculinize history and the people—a “singular hero” that rose as if one man—how did it theatricalize them and, in doing so, also create marginalized, feminized, forgotten figures? How, in the sanctification of liberation did 1962 legitimate violence as necessary? What was the cost in terms of what sometimes became a violent denial of the day-to-day complexity of social relations during and after the struggle? How did other utopias, carried by, among others, the Palestinian national movement, the ANC, Black Power, Latin American revolutionaries (Cuba, Shining Path, the Sandinistas, in the Chiapas) take up, discuss, and take account (or not) of 1962?

> Pathways, Movements, Spaces

The invention of revolution is also the invention of decolonization. What can we make of the pathways, the movements, the holding spaces that 1962 prefigures and anticipates--in the establishment of “regroupment” camps in Algeria and France; in the emergence of Algiers as the paradigmatic example of an integrated city; a segregated city; an insurgent city; a pacified city (first the martyred city of “The Battle of Algiers,” then the “Mecca of Revolutionaries”)—which provided crucial references for rethinking contemporary categories of the frontier, of

circulation, of mobility, of exile, and of how ground-up developments redefined them? What of the political, juridical and repressive practices that worked to master human and cultural fluctuations and to diffuse conflict?

> A Word, a Vocabulary: Rereading Implementations and Effects

The reiteration of the revolutionary moment requires that we qualify the terms used, that we localize the forms, in order to measure their transcontinental disseminations. These have undone Eurocentric typologies and opened up new repertoires of claims, which are still being inventoried and deployed, as the Arab Spring and the spread of “Indignation” remind us.

- 1962, Postcolonial Imaginaries

1962 is an event with multiple implications: rupture, frontier, narration,

representation, invention, bricolage. This polysemy has catalyzed new and sometimes counter-intuitive connections and understandings, in terms of culture, politics, and identities.

> 1962 as Tool-Box

From a postcolonial perspective, thinking 1962 requires attention to the politics of how it has been taken up in literature, art, cultural debates, sports, and linguistic debates in different regional and continental contexts at distinct moments. How has this revolutionary imaginary of rupture and renewal been taken up in Algeria, but also in Africa, Europe, the Americas, India, Asia, Oceania? What can we say about the authors and actors who did so? What are the forms and frames through which it has been referenced? How have various political, military, and media efforts to make use of the struggle for emancipation enlarged, inversed, deformed, or transformed its meanings?

> Identity Politics, Poetics of Otherness

After 1962, identities that previously had gone unheard or had not existed (harki(s), beurs, pieds noir(s), Maghrebis) take form while still others are redefined, their possibilities to affirm or make claims reconfigured (Muslims, Berbers, North African Jews, Algerians). In asking what 1962 did to questions of language, identity, and memory—of what it means to be a minority—we are also interested in how 1962 opens up new ways, poetic as well as political, to analyze the various forms of otherness that it produces and inspires.

>

Europe as Province

1962

dissolved and redrew national frontiers and the geo-political meanings

attached to them. This was true not just for France and Algeria, but also in the spaces and connections that link North to North; South to South; and South to North. How do pre-existing empires split and “provincialize”; how do new “empires” take shape (in the Cold War; through neo-liberalism; through religious politics; commerce; etc.)?

> 1962 as Inspiration

The arts, literature, music, the theater, and live performance have all embraced 1962 as a date and a possibility, giving it meaning in ways that go beyond (and, sometimes, tell us more than) its political echoes. What do such representations

tell us about the world of 1962 and since, through the forms and genres that are chosen and invented? How do the creators of such diverse representations--that straddle the historical and the political without ever being wholly reducible to them—frame memories and shape understandings? How does attention to artistic representations, forms, and stagings reveal the politics of memory and how memories and histories are spread and recounted? What types of discussions are possible and interesting between “scholarship” and the understandings and imaginaries produced by artists?

- A Portrait Gallery of 1962

What did 1962 do to the political, intellectual, scientific, and artistic landscapes in which it resonated? How can attention to named individuals (Germaine Tillion, Mostefa Lacheraf, Jacques Derrida, Che Guevara, Kateb Yacine, Angela Davis, Malcom X, Abdelmalek Sayad, Mohamed Arkoun, Pierre Bourdieu, are but a few that come to mind) alone or in their interactions, help us think about topics related to 1962, those suggested above or others?