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The CASCADE Programme

General Aviation ADS-B Workshop

ADS-B Technical Issues

C. Tamvaclis
EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre

European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation

ADS-B system requirements ADS-B infrastructure Equipment availability and certification Safety and Performance issues Interoperability issues Equipment developments Final remarks

ADS-B System Requirements

[ADS-B OUT] Aircraft must broadcast at least 2-D position, barometric altitude, and flight identification
with prescribed characteristics specified in aviation standards
integrity, latency, accuracy, continuity, availability
and including position integrity indication

[ADS-B IN] Ground and airborne ADS-B receivers must report targets within prescribed coverage volumes and with adequate update periods
suitable surveillance data processing and display systems are also needed coverage and update rates are application dependent

ADS-B Infrastructure
Air to ground and air to air broadcast datalink
for global interoperability 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090ES)
locally VDL-4 and/or UAT may also be used

minimum aircraft equipage

1090ES capable Mode S transponder GNSS receiver and baro altimeter

1090ES receiver Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI)

minimum ground equipage

One or more 1090ES ground receivers [stations] [surveillance data processing system]
for tracking and fusion with other surveillance data

situation display

1090ES ADS-B OUT System

Transponder Control Panel Callsign Position HFOM (VFOM) HPL (VPL) Time


Mode S Transponder 24-bit address

Identity Position NUC Velocity

Extended Squitter

FL Barometric Altimeter

1090ES ADS-B IN System



Own Position HFOM (VFOM) HPL (VPL) Time

Mode S Receiver 24-bit address

Ext. Squitter

Identity Position NUC (Velocity)

FL Barometric Altimeter

ADS-B Validation Testbed

ACAS Airborne Tracker A/C Sim
Cockpit ADSP

ATCC simulator
Flight plans



Link Error Emulator

TIS-B Server


ADS-B Server
ADS-B reports AST cat 21 tracks AST cat 62

ADS-B reports AST cat 21

Tracker RMCDE

Aircraft Traffic Generator +recording replays

ADS-B Network



Equipment availability and certification

All ADS-B system components are commercially available Equipment and installation need to be certified for ops use Aircraft equipment:
Mode S Transponder: 1090ES potentially a software upgrade on newer transponder models, certified to
RTCA MOPS 260/A and FAA TSO C166 EUROCAE ED73B/102 and EASA ETSO 2C112b

1090ES Receiver: Few products in the market, standalone or combined with TCAS
RTCA MOPS 260/A and FAA TSO C166

GNSS Receiver: Pre 2003 GPS receivers may not provide integrity signalling. Required certification:
FAA TSO C129a (RAIM), C145/146 (SBAS), C161 (GBAS)

CDTI: Some products in the market but no certification available

Safety and Performance Issues

Requirements under development by the Requirements Focus Group (RFG)
ED-126 will address ADS-B surveillance in non radar airspaces

The current 1090ES system has been designed to meet requirements in the RTCA MASPS [DO-242/A]
therefore current MOPS may need to be updated in the future

Quality of ADS-B installation onboard the aircraft is critical

need for reliable indication of position integrity and low latency

CDTI is critical for airborne surveillance applications [ADS-B IN]

requirements are not agreed as yet
Need for airborne tracking function? HMI factors and placement in cockpit

Interoperability Issues
Multiplicity of 1090ES standards
FAA standardizing on DO-260A while existing equipage is mostly DO-260
DO-260A is backwards compatible with DO-260 RTCA recently published DO -260/A Change 1
need for features added in RTCA DO-260A has to be clarified [RFG work]

1090 MHz Band availability

ADS-B over 1090ES operates in the same RF Band as SSR, Mode S, and TCAS/ACAS interference could become a problem in Core Europe
ADS-B IN will be affected first

There are mitigations

SSR upgrade to Mode S, replacement by ADS-B and more sophisticated ADS-B receivers.

Equipment Developments
The CASCADE Programme is sponsoring development of airborne and ground equipment needed for its ADS-B validation activities
ADS-B and TIS-B ground station [Thales ATM]
ADS-B system TIS-B system delivery Oct 06 April 07 May 07

Airborne 1090ES ADS-B/TIS-B Receiver [ Selex Communications] CDTI [Selex Communications/EUROTELEMATIC]

delivery Dec 06 Usable for air traffic situation awareness applications

for general and business aviation aircraft

Final remarks
ADS-B OUT over 1090ES can be implemented today
existing GPS and Mode S aircraft installations may be upgradeable to ADS-B, need for ADS-B equipment and installation airworthiness approval

ADS-B IN lacks CDTI standards and airworthiness certification

Air Traffic Situation Awareness standards in development [RFG]

There are many ADS-B equipment developments targeting General Aviation, for example:
low power and light weight 1090ES systems
a light transponder standard is in development

integrated systems:
1090ES transponder and receiver GPS and CDTI