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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

INTRODUCTION : At the end of the twentieth century, the major problem faced by the concrete industry was the enormous infrastructure needs of a rapid urbanizing world, premature deterioration of concrete structured, the need of improve concrete durability in a cost-effective way, and increasing public interest in finding ecological solutions for safe disposal of million of tons of industry by products that might be suitable for incorporation into cementations materials and concrete. The three issues confronting the concrete industry are in some details. Enormous infrastructural needs of a rapidly urbanizing society in the world. The need for a balance between industrial development and environmental protection. The crisis in the area of concrete durability.

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Four hundred years ago, since the advent of the industrial revolution, not much attention has been paid to environment and social costs of technology. But it is changing now, with the beginning of the twenty first century. With in three years, we are entering into an era sustainable development, that means, in the future it will not be possible to pursue technological goals without giving equal importance to the public interest in preservation of the ecological balance on the planet earth. Only a holistic approach in concrete technology can help us to meet the material needs of the an increasing urbanized world. One of the objective is to show how seemingly unrelated issues, such as those listed above, are found to be closely inter connected when examined from a holistic stand point. 2. INFRASTRUCTURAL NEED OF THE WORLD : The twentieth century has seen unprecedented growth in human population which, during the last 75 years, has risen from 2 to 6 billion. By the year 2025, it is expected to increase to 9 billion. Industrialization of the world occurred primarily in response to the search for the source of energy minerals, and food as a result of population growth.

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Industrialization has led to urbanization. For the 1st time in the history of the world, more people are now living in and around cities than in rural areas.

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The infrastructure for industrial and urban areas, such as building, mass transit and facilities for handling water and sewage, obviously requires large amounts of construction materials. For numerous structural applications concrete has unquestionably becomes the material of choice due mostly to its low cost, easy availability, versatility and adequate engineering properties. At the same time, during the last 100 years ago, Portland cement has emerged as the principal hydraulic builder for concrete mixtures. The 1994 world consumption of approximately 1.3 million tons of cement consisted mostly of Portland cement, because unlike the oldlime pozzolan cements, it possesses faster setting and hardening characteristics, which are more suited to modern construction speeds. Projected yearly cement consumption rates in different facts of the world in the year 2000-2006 are PROJECTION OF REGIONAL CEMENT CONSUMPTION MILLION TONS Area Europe, including countries of former soviet union Asia 1994 313 608 Years 2000 393 853 2006 432 1000

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Middle East Africa North America South and Central America Miscellaneous

65 63 90 92 7

79 71 92 118 9

82 77 92 142 10

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Total

1310

1625

1835

Nearly 370 million tons out of the projected 500 million ton total increase in cement consumption during the period 1994-2006 (i.e., 75% of the worlds total) comes from Asia, and South and Central America. Due to the capital-intensive nature of the Portland cement industry (US $ 200 per ton of annual installed capacity of cement) and also because of the process of industrialization in developing countries of the world cannot be stopped, and many poor countries will be hard pressed to find the financial resources for construction new cement plants. 3. SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL GROWTH : Lime stone and clay, the basic raw materials for making Portland cement, we plentiful through out the world. The major bottlenecks in increasingly the Portland cement production by almost five hundred million tons annually by the year 2006 appear toile in the high energy requirement and high rate of CO2 is released to the environment. Which result a matter of serious concern to the inter governmental panels on climate change. During the last 100 years, the green house effect has already resulted in global warning by 400C.

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By the middle of the 21st century, CO2 emission from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuel and other sources, if unchecked are expected to rise by 100%, which will have the effort of raising the average atmospheric temperature of the world to un acceptably. Sustainable development is defined as the economic activity that is in harming with the earths ecosystems. The goal of sustainable development of cement and concrete industries is therefore very important and it can be reached by making, a serious effort for complete utilization of the cementations and pozzolanic by products produces by Thermal power plants are metallurgical industries. 4. CONCRETE DURABILITY : Concrete structure are found suffering from deterioration problems much earlier than their expected service life. At the same time, a growing public interest in ecology requires that the earths natural resourced are conserved as much as possible through enhancement of durability of manufactured products. The major causes of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures are the corrosion of reinforcing steel, exposure to cycles of freezing and thawing alkali-silica reaction and sulphate attacks.

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When a freshly placed and hardened concrete is exposed to ambient temperature and humidity, it experiences both thermal and drying shrinkage strains, the two primary causes of early cracking in concrete, where the modern concrete construction practice does not pay adequate attention to this.

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Among researchers in the area of concrete durability now there is an increasing appreciation for a holistic or integrated approach. To attack and cause damage, all the three members of the triad must be present namely sufficient alkali in the concrete, critical amount of the reactive aggregate and sufficient moisture. Similarly, the damage caused Delayed Ettringite formation (DEF) phenomenon that the high risk of damage due to the DEF would occur only if all the three following conditions are present together i.e. late sulphate, release, micro cracks in concrete and exposure to water. 5. CONCLUDING REMARK : If the twenty first century world is governed by the environmental agenda, then the future of cement and concrete industries would very much depend on the ability to interlink the growth of these industries with the goal of sustainable development on the planet earth. A holistic approach and helps to achieve the goals of rising demand for concrete, enhancement of concrete durability with little or no increase in costs, and ecological disposal of large quantities of waste products from other industries.

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CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangements of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner in which it aims to combine the relevant information to the research purpose. The research design is the conceptual structure with in the research is conducted, it constitutes the blueprint of the collection, measurements and analysis of data. The research design comprises both exploratory as well as descriptive design. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM : In this competitive world where many competitive world where many competitors are found in an industry. A business is a social economic entity that functions admit a turbulent environment that is dynamic and influences the industry as a whole. There are host of cement companies in India which are striving to garner a substantial marker share and to become market leaders in the industry. They executed planning directing and controlling etc., by making of strategies to meet the objectives set by them.

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A mission is set, various plan objectives goals and targets are framed so as to achieve growth and prosperity and to flourish. All this is done by keeping an inclination towards customers needs and preferences, their buying behaviour, attitudes etc. By understanding these the manufacturers can satisfy the consumers, and so it is imperative to study the consumer aspect and then match the strategies with the needs to satisfy the same. Hence there is an essential need of market study which highlights the consumer attributes, awareness of the product to know the market share and effectiveness of strategies undertaken by the company, the dealers role and attitude is also important. OBJECTIVES To study the various factors and their influences and its impact on the consumer, while selecting cements. Consumer attitudes towards different bands. To know about the different brads of cements available in Hosadurga town. To know the brands preferred by consumers. To study consumers attitude towards the product and to know the attitude and behaviour of dealers. It gives information about customer acceptance of the brand. To provide necessary suggestions if necessary.
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SCOPE OF THE STUDY : It enables the estimations of potential buying power in various segments. It also helps to know the companies expected share of the market. It aids is assessing the competitive strength and weakness of a particular cement. It gives information about customer acceptance of the brand. METHODOLOGY : DATA BASE : The methodology entails a systematic activities ranging from the source i.e., the primary data. The primary data is collected through a field survey method. Questionnaires are used and face to face interviews are carried out. Separate questionnaire are used for dealers and consumers. Questionnaires were pretested with the acquaintance and friends and then final drafts were prepared. Marketing officer of cement company are interviewed personally and his opinion is recorded. Secondary data is also made use of with news papers, business magazines, internet sources, ACC magazine all about good cement, users manual of cement etc. SAMPLING PROCEDURE :
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The sampling technique use for study in random sampling. The sample size was 15 dealers and 25 consumers include, civil engineers, contractors and customers. The sample was limited to Hosadurga town only. STATISTICAL TOOLS : Many graphs like pie-charts, bar diagrams and tables have been depicted to analyze and interpret the data, and also various statistical techniques were uses. LIMITATIONS : The study is absolutely confined to Hosadurga only. The study is limited to small no of only 25 dealers and consumers. The data collected by questionnaires and interviews are believed to be factual. Some of the customers and dealers were skeptical about this study and did not reveal useful required information. Few of the responders were hesitated to answer and then persuaded to answer. Because of the time and money constraint only limited no of responders were taken in to account.

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CHAPTER SCHEME : This project work comprise of 8 chapters. CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION This chapter clearly explains about the good cements. Chapter 2 : Research Design This chapter briefly explains the statements of problem, aim & objectives, scope for the study, Methodology & finally limitations. CHAPTER 3 : PRODUCT PROFILE This chapter consists of the history of the product, major types of cements and the manufacturing process. CHAPTER 4 : COMPANY PROFILE This deals with industry profile i.e., major players in the industry, sudden slow in the industry ACCS innovations, board of directors, awards and welfare. CHAPTER 5 : DEALERS PROFILE This chapter deals with the dealers profile. CHAPTER 6 : ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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This consist of the tables and graphs related to the classification of dealers and consumers. The data collected is represented in the form of tables and graphs. CHAPTER 7 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS This is about the summary of findings, complaints of the respondents. It also consists suggestion. CHAPTER 8 : ANNEXURES This contains the questionnaire for the consumers and the bibliography.

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CHAPTER 3 PRODUCT PROFILE The word cement is used to define adhesive substance which more commonly implies those binding substances used in building and civil engineering construction. Cement can be used alone but it is usually mixed with sand or stone as concrete. Concrete is most widely used in all construction. Material, the manufactures of cement are widely spread. There are two types of cement widely used in our country. 1) Ordinary Portland cement 2) Pozzolona Portland cement The invention of Portland cement is a attributed to 'Joseph Aspaden' of leads (England) in 1824. It is called Portland because fancied resemblance when set to Portland stone a limestone used for building in England. Today Portland cement is produced all over the world. PRODUCT PROFILE : Today, Portland cement is an essential commodity on which our modern standards of living is greatly dependent on buildings, water supply, projects dams, bridges, roads, hydroelectric power projects, sea ports, airports, irrigation schemes etc. all demands cement.
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Cement is manufactured either by "wet process" or 'dry process' or 'semi-dry process'. Wet process remained popular for many years. With the modern development of the technique of dry making of powered material using compressed air, the dry process gained momentum. Now-a-days in most of the plants, cements is being manufactured by dry process. HISTORY OF CEMENT: The word 'CEMENT' is derived from the Latin word Caementum, which means pieces of rough, uncut stone. Cement is the most important building material. It is a fine, grey powder. The cement should be mixed with water and materials such as sand, gravel and crushed stone to make concrete. Water is added to the cement to form a paste which binds the other materials together as the concrete hardness. Nearly all cements used today is Portland cement which is hydraulic cement, or one that hardens under water. This cement was named Portland because, it has the same texture as the natural stone quarried on the isle of Portland, a peninsula on the routh coast of great Britain. The ancient Ramons developed cement and concrete similar to the kinds used today. Their cement has such great durability that some of their buildings, roads and bridges are still exist. To make cement the Roman
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mixed slacked lime (lime to which water has been added) with a volcanic ash called 'POZZOLONA'. The ash produced hydraulic cement that hardened under water. People last the art of making cement after the fact of the Roman Empire in the AD 400's. In 1756, John Smeaton, a British engineer, again found how to make hydraulic cement by using blue lias lime with a clay content and pazzolona from Italy. The great engineering works of the 1800's required good hydraulic cement. In 1796 James Parker made hydraulic cement from nodules of limestone washed out of London clay. This became to known as roman cement. In 1811 James Frost patented hydraulic cement by calcining a mixture of limestone and clay. Joseph Aspaden improved the process by raising the temperature. Aspaden made a cement superior to natural cement by mixing, grinding, burning and regrinding certain qualities of limestones and clay. I.C. Johnson produced the first reliable Portland cement in 1845. Continuous production kilns were invented around 1880, followed by the first rotary kilns, which are still in universal use. Construction of the eric canal created the first big demand for cement in USA. L.Tin 1818, canvas white, and American engineer, discovered rocks in Madison country, New York, USA that made from this rock was used in building the canal.
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Joseph Monier French, a gardner, developed reinforced concrete in about 1850. In 1927, Eugene Freysinnet, a French engineer, developed prestressed concrete. As a material, concrete was widely adopted by modernist or Brutalist architects who developed on international style, which relied upon exposing large surface of unadorned concrete. One famous example is the south bank complex of buildings in London. Reinforced concrete is also used to provide oil from under the sea. Concrete resists sea water much better than steel or either metals, which corrode when exposed to sea, concrete substructures gradually gave way to steel in British waters, but was retained by the Norwegians because of its superior safety features. Many attempts have been made to improve and cheaper concrete mixtures, most notable with per-last glass reinforced concrete panel, but few of these have become firmly established.

AWARDING (DEALER) :

LICENSE

TO

THE

LICENSE

HOLDER

The government body 'Industry and commerce' played a very important role in according a license holder to supply or sell the cement.

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Deputy Commissioner of the district was the head in the district and he used to accord the final license by authenticating the issue of industry and commerce to allot the cement quantities. A customer who needed cement had to seek the building license from local municipality and with that he had to seek the permission from DC and DC allots the quota i.e. the quantities required and the customers had to take the delivery of cement from the license holder or the dealer. Later on after the decontrol of the industry, there started a direct relationship between the cement company and the distribution network. The company negotiated with the dealer for security deposit and issues a certificate of authorization to the dealer for security deposit and issues a certificate of authorization to the dealer and hence permits the dealer to stock, sell the companies product. Hence customer / end-users started to have a direct dealing with the dealer of the cement. MAJOR TYPES OF CEMENTS : 1) Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) a. 33 grade IS 269 (1976) b. 43 grade IS 8112 (1989) c. 53 grade IS 12269 (1987) 2) Portland pozzolona cement (OPC) IS 1489 (1976)

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3) Portland slag cement (PSC) IS 455 (1986) 4) Rapid hardening cement (RHC) IS 8041 (1988) 5) Sulphate resisting cement (SRC) IS 12330 6) Low heat Portland cement (LHC) IS 269 7) Hydrophobic cement IS 8043 8) White cement (WC) IS 8042 9) Oil well cement (OWC) IS 8229 10) Railway sleeper cement ISRT 40 (1985) 1) ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT : Most commonly used cement in structures is the OPC. The cement is produced in greatest volumes and used in buildings, roads, tanks, pavements, culverts and all such structures where the specified ISI standards for OPC-33 GRADE IS-8112. 2) PORTLAND SLAG CEMENT : It is the cement manufactured by grinding ordinary cement clinkers with granulated blast furnace slag of a selected quality. This cement offers goods resistance to corrosion and good bond with steel reinforcement. 3) SULPHUR RESISTING PORTLAND CEMENT : This cement is used in the concrete mixture intended for the operation in mineralized and fresh waters. To make cement more sulphate
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resistant, the percentage of tricalcium is reduced and that of dicalcium silicate is increased. 4) RAPID HARDENING CEMENT : This cements attains high strength in very short time and thus enables to remove completion of work at the earliest. This rapid handling quality of achieved by higher degree of fitness in grinding and slinkering at higher temperature and adding increased lime content to the composition. 5) ACIMINOUS CEMENT : This cement is obtained by mixing lime, bauxite and calcium luminates and used for urgent repair works, plugging up of oil and gas well and for linding tunnels. 6) POZZOLONA CEMENT : This cement is mixture of Portland cement and pozzolona, may be the volcanic ash. This cement has greater resistance against sulphonic action and sea waters, more over it decreases the cast and is useful in mass concrete works and underground construction. 7) OIL WELL CEMENT :

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This cement is produced by adding retablers to the ordinary cement to attain the property of slow setting and quick hardening of after setting and used for cementing deep oil well. 8) QUICK SETTING CEMENT : The setting action of this cement starts within 15 minutes of its used and it becomes stone hard in less than one hour and advantageously used for under water construction. 9) SUPER SULPHATE CEMENT : This cement is made by grinding a mixture of blast furnace slag calcium sulphate and ordinary. This cement is highly resistant to attack and used in mass concrete works. MANUFACTURING PROCESS : The basic raw material for manufacturing cement is limestone which is available in plenty in limestone beds as deposits. In nature limestone is excavated from mines by mechanical equipment with the help of stocker and reclaimer, the correct blending of limestone is ensured. The stone is passed through crushers to bring it to the required size. The raw materials consisting of limestone, iron are and bauxite or laterite, in the correct proportions are fed into a grinding mill, where they
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are reduced to very fine powder. It is further blinded and corrected for the right composition and mixed by means of compressed air. the powder from the storage siles is fed into rotary klin through per heater cyclones. In the rotary klin, the materials is subjected to a temperature of about 15000C. Chemical reaction takes place between the various materials resulting in the formation of cement compounds like, C35 Tricalcium silicate (about 45%) C25 Dicalcium silicate (about 20%) C3A Tricalcium silicate (about 7-10%) C4AF Tetracalcium alumino ferrite (about 10-12%) It is these compounds that import the strength characteristics to cement. At these high temperatures of 15000C, the clinker is formed. The cooked clinker is the ground in a cement milk or ball mill consisting of several compartments charged with progressively smaller hardened balls. At this stage gypsum required quantity is added (generally about 2-3%) to fascilitate easy working and to prevent flash setting of cement. The mixture is ground to the required fineness and transferred to shortage silos. From here cement is bugged, and packed where from it is transported either by read or rail to the destination. Continuous monitoring

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of the quality of cement is exercised, both at the raw materials stage and also at the finishing stage with the help of x-ray analysis etc.

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CHAPTER 4 ACC COMPANY PROFILE INTRODUCTION : Sixty seven years age, 4 reputable industrial houses i.e. Tatas, khatans, F.E. Dinshaw and Killiks Nixon got together and implemented on amalgamation scheme of tend cement companies to give birth to "THE ASSOCIATED CEMENT COMPANIES LTD (A.C.C.)". The vision was to build a strong and unified cement industry that would not only withstand all difficulties but also fulfill its responsibilities to the nation. The company's care values are based on integrity, respect for the law and strict compliance there-off, emphasis on product quality and a caring spirit. Its policies and practices are based on the highest standards of ethics and transparency in regard to its dealings and disclosers. Soon after when India gained independence ACC was there more than an eyewitness to history helping to make history and to build the new India, waiting in the wings, changing the landscape, the very face of the country. Overs the years, ACC realized that people are as different as they are similar to different needs, different liver, different dreams. With its depth
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knowledge and width of experience ACC, today is poised to fulfill the hopes and aspirations of people across the length and breadth of the country. For more than 6 decades, now ACC has been forgoing a pioneering path making cements. Along the way, it sharpened its expertise on the cutting edge of the latest processes / technologies, learning / adopting not just transplanting to meet the specifies of local operating parameters. In the process setting standards, innovation not just meeting needs, but anticipating them. ACC was incorporated in 1936 and has its registered office at Ahmedabad. It is mainly engaged in the business of manufacture and marketing of cement, refactory and refactory products, in India with an annual turnover of Rs. 28,000 million and assets worth Rs. 20,360 million. Its annual cement capacity is 12 million tons. Companies cement sales including traded cement for the financial year ended March 31st 2006 is 11.82 million tones. Today, the companies operations are spread through out the country with 12 cement factories, 3 refactory plants, 12 regional marketing offices,

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several area offices and a dedicated employees band of about 10,275 people from all corners of India. As the largest cement producers in India, it is one of the biggest customers of the Indian, railways and the foremost uses of the road transport network services for inward and outward movement of materials and products. ACC has also extended its services in overseas to the middle east, Africa and south America, where it has provided technical and managerial consultancy to a variety of consumers and also helps in the operation and maintenance of cement plants in abroad. JOINT VENTURES : Alcoa ACC industrial chemical ltd (AAICL) ACC Rio Tinto Exploration Ltd Ethernit Everest Ltd International Farrites Ltd Floatalass India Ltd (BAIL) ALCOA ACC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL LTD (AAICL) :

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This is a joint venture between Aluminium company of America (ALCOA) (60%) the worlds largest aluminium and alumina chemicals and ACC (40%). AAICL commenced its operation in January 1994. The plant is on 6.3 acres of land, and processing capacity is 10,000 metric tones of white tabular alumina in a single shift operation. ALCOA raw materials (tabular alumina, calcined aluminar, calcium, aluminate cements, magnesium aluminate spinels, dispersing

aluminas etc) are manufactured and marketed for the refactory ceramic markets in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The company provide technical support to its customers for upgrading market capabilities. ACC RIO TINTO EXPLORATION LTD (ARTE) : ARTE is an Indian registered company that is owned equally by ACC and Rio-Tinto, one of the worlds largest mining companies with world-class mines of diamonds, copper, iron ore, bauxite, coal gold and industrial minerals. In June 1998, the corporate office of ARTE was shifted from Bangalore to Thane, near Mumbai.
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ETHERNIT EVEREST LIMITED : The company was established in November 1934 in equity participation with turner and new all PIC U.K., for the manufacturer of fiber based cement products. It has four plants in India and ACC holds 26.01% of paid-up share capital of E.E.L. Iron and India cement engineering consultants (IICEC)-Iron : Over the years, ACC has grown wings and gone to for-off places, prospecting of raw materials for the manufacture of cement in Kuwait, Iraq, Nigeria, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Oman, Tanzania, Kenya, UAE and Djibouti. Supply and erection of cement plants on Turkey basis in Kuwait and Iraq and feasibility studies for the establishment of cement plants in Iran, Nigeria, Guyana, Djibouti and Malaysia. Process diagnostic studies productivity and production enhancement of plants in Iran and Saudi Arabia. YANBU CEMENT COMPANY (YCC) SAUDI ARABIA : ACC has been managing the yanbu plant, which incorporates advanced sophisticated process control system and which call for ACC higher degree of skill, alterness and capacity for finding innovative

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solutions. These challenges have successfully met by the ACC personnel who were deputed to yanbu. ACC has been running this plant over the past 19 years. Following this success, YCC awarded ACC the operation and management of a newly setup 7,000 tpa plant, also belonging to YCC.

IRON AND INDIA CEMENT ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS (IICEC)-IRON : IICEC is a joint venture company between FARS KHUZESTAN CEMENT COMPANY, IRAN AND ACC both are the largest cement companies in their respective countries. IICEC was formed in June 1996 with an equity participation in the ratio of 51:49 between FKCC and ACC respectively. The basic objective of the company is to provide consultancy

service to the Iranian cement industry. This services given by IICEC to the Iranian cement industry have been appreciated both by the Iranian government as well as by the industry. GUJARATH AMBUJA ACC : Gujarath Ambuja and ACC together control nearly of the northern market. With the acquisition of DLF cement the market share of the
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combine in your states Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi will be close to 90%. In Himachal Pradesh, Gujarath Ambuja and ACC together have a capacity of 35 million tones, which is installed capacity in that state. In Punjab Gujarath Ambuja's 1.04 million tones grinding unit is the only cement plant, last year the factory ran at 130% capacity. In Rajasthan, the combine have a 5 million tones capacity that's 40% of the states installed capacity. Gujarath Ambuja's freight cast last year was 21% of total cast, while of ACC it was 16.4%. This will come down substantially in Gujarath Ambuja and ACC unify their marketing logistics. ACC has a nationwide marketing setup as it has cements plants in seven states strung out across the country. While Gujarath Ambuja is strong only in the east and the west. This new alliance will find Gujarath Ambuja readymade market in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, where the company is still planning to go ahead with its 2 million tones green field projects.

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mr. N.S. Seksharia (Chairman) Mr. Paul Hugentobler (Deputy Chairman) Mr. M.L.Narula (Managing Director) Mr. A.L. Kapur Mr. S.M. Palia Mr. Naresh Chandra Mr. Markus Akermann Mr. D.K. Mehrotra Mr. R.A. Shah Dr. Nirmalya Kumar Mr. Shailesh Haribakti Mr. Anil Singhvi Mr. Shikha Sharma Mr. Sumit Banerjee (CEO Designer and Director) SOME ACC INNOVATIONS : First to develop a wide range of cements for a variety of application.

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Custom tailored cement for specific requirement. First in India with a comprehensive, sophisticated in house R and D back up. First with value added products from bulk cement to Jambo bags, to 25kg bags to ready mix concrete. ACC manufactures ordinary partoland cement, fly ash and slag based cements, special cements like low alkali, low heat, sulphate resisting and oil well cements, insulating products, concrete repair and growing materials, high temperature ceramic products like tabular and bubble aluminas. In addition to its range of cements, ACC has more recently started the distribution of cement in bulk from its plant at Kalamboli in Navi, Mumbai. ACC has also commenced the manufactures and supply of ready mix concrete (RMC). It has 13 RMC plant located in 8 cities in India. It has also acquired one of the longest boom pumps for pumping RMC upto 20 storeys.

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ACC also produces a wide range of special products for special applications. Among these ACCONEX-0, silent demolishing agent 4CASAT, a very high early strength binder besides being manufacturer to predetermined standards, the company is in a positive to custom produce for these special products.

WELFARE : It is all too easy to see a company like ACC in abstract terms of balance sheets, technologies and organization charts. Such as view overbooks the fact that the most valuable assets are the commitment and skills of individuals who make the system work and lay the foundations for future growth. ACC offers a host of facilities to its employees to maintain a congenial working environment. Over the years, the company's community welfare schemes have continued to benefit the people around whom ACC moves and has its operations with activities including health care, adult education, irrigation, animal husbandry, cottage industries etc.

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Over the years, there have been several improvements in man-power productivity, thermal manpower productivity is evident through a very significant reduction in man hours / ton of cement from 5.3 in 1991 to 2.4 to 2000. The dedication to consistent product quality is ensured by online monitoring system. 9 out of 12 cement plants already have the ISO 9000 certificate. In addition, 2 units have obtained the ISO 14,000 certification for environmentally friendly production. All ACC factories are equipped with state of the art process control instrumentation and associated quality control and testing laboratories. As a result of this focus on quality. ACC cement specification exceed those set by BIS by a wide margin. AWARDS : National award for outstanding performance in promoting rural and agricultural development in 1976 by ASSOCHAM. Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Award by the ministry of environment and forests for "extraordinary work" carried out in the area of offerestation. FICCI Awards for innovative measures for control of pollution, waste management and conservation of mineral resources in mines and plant.
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Drona Trophy by Indian bureau of mines for extra-ordinary efforts in protection of environment and mineral conservation in the large mechanized mines sector. Indogerman Greentech Environment Excellence Award. Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award. Golden peacock environment management special award for

outstanding efforts in environment management in the large manufacturing sector.

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CHAPTER 5 DEALERS PROFILE This product refers to the sales of ACC cements carried out by "Sri Vijaya Traders". It is situated in the main road, V.V. Mutt Complex, Hosadurga. It is the commercial and the prominent business area of Hosadurga. As the firm is situated in the main road, the people who passes through have a view on the firm. The firm is much more decorated with the fluorescent bulbs with the company's symbol and name of the firm. This attracts the attention of the people who passes through. The firm was established in 1987 as a role trading concern under the proprietorship of S.M. Shadaksharaiah. At present the firm is one of the well known firm in the town. The success and good reputation of the firm is due to the way of dealing with customers and many more has contributed much to the fame of the firm. This makes the firm to get the award in 2005 as "Maximum retail sales (2003-05)" in Chitradurga district by the ACC company. The firm has the total area of 1000 sq. ft. with an well built warehouse. The firm has employed 2 workers. The firm will be having adequate stock of goods, so that they can provide the goods to the
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customers at any time. The firm owns two trucks to provide better transportation facility to the consumers. The firm is having good reputation in Hosadurga taluk, they are having good sales annually. The firm has appointed its sub-dealers in Hosadurga town and in other places of taluk. These sub-dealers takes been interest on sales in their area. This has been appreciated by ACC company ltd. And has asked its dealers network to follow the same procedure to improve sales.

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CHAPTER 6 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ANALYSIS OF DEALER ATTITUDE : The purpose of this dealers survey is to group the aspects of dealer behaviour regarding cement brands they do prefer, reason for choosing a specific brand, awareness, parameters of choosing a brand, to know the market share of the cement and to know their feeling about the prospects of the brand in future. To know and collect their opinion and suggestions about cement brands. It is of immense importance to understand the dealers attitude towards a particular brand of cement in order to achieve marketing goals and to serve the dealers to build the brand image. Dealers play a very important role in pushing the cement and becomes a means of publicity for the cement and hence reduces the cast of promotion by the company.

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CLASSIFICATION OF DEALERS ON THE BASIS OF : TABLE 1 : PARAMETERS CONSIDERED BY THE END USERS ACCORDING TO THE DEALERS Basis of Parameters No. of Respondents Quality 7 Demand 3 Price 2 Incentives 2 Others 1 Total 15 Percentage to Total 46.67 20.00 13.33 13.33 6.67 100

From the above table it is evident that dealer have the opinion that the customers buy cement on looking at various criteria. 46.67% of dealers have the opinion that customers buy cement on ascertaining and looking at the quality of the cement. 20% of dealers opine that customers concentrate on demand of the company. 13.33% of dealers opine that customers concentrate on price. 13.33% of dealers opine that customers choose on the basis of incentives. About 6.67% of dealers opine that customers choose on the basis of any other.

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GRAPH 1 : PARAMETERS CONSIDERED BY THE END USERS ACCORDING TO THE DEALERS

13.33

6.67 46.67 Quality Demand Price Incentives Others

13.33 20

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TABLE 2 : DEALERS SATISFACTION LEVELS FOR THE SUPPORT FROM THE COMPANIES IN VARIOUS ASPECT Criteria Sales promotion Incentives Storage Transport Total No. of respondents 7 4 3 1 15 Percentage to total 46.68 26.66 20.00 6.66 100

From the above it states clearly that nearly about 46.68% of dealers are happy or satisfied with the sales promotion. 26.66% of dealers are satisfied with the incentives that the company offers in them. 20% of the dealers are satisfied with the storage facility given by the company. 6.66% of dealers are satisfied with the transportation facility provided by the company.

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GRAPH 2 : DEALERS SATISFACTION LEVELS FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE COMPANIES IN VARIOUS ASPECTS

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

46.68

Percentage

26.66 20

6.66

Sales promotion

Incentives

Storage

Transport

Criteria

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TABLE 3 : FAST MOVING BRANDS, ACCORDING TO DEALERS PERCEPTION Name of the cement ACC Ultratech Ramco Birla Diamond and others Total No. of respondents 6 3 2 2 2 15 Percentage to total 40.00 20.04 13.32 13.32 13.32 100

From the above table, it is clear that 40% of dealers ray, ACC is the fast moving brand, followed by ultratech with 20.04%, Ramco with 13.32%, Birla with 13.32% and Diamond and others 13.32% respectively. Hence ACC is the fast moving brand in the market.

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GRAPH 3 : FAST MOVING BRANDS, ACCORDING TO DEALERS PERCEPTIONS


40

40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0

20.04 13.32 13.32 13.32

ACC

Ultratech

Ramco

Birla

Diamond and others

Name of cement

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TABLE 4 : CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF BRAND OF CEMENT THEY DEAL IN Name of the cement brands ACC Rasi Ramco Penna Rajashree Others 7 2 3 0 1 2 No. of respondents Percentage to total 46.68 13.32 20.00 00.00 6.68 13.32

(ultratech and birla etc) Total 15 100 The dealers deal with different cement brands as per their convenience and benefit. We shall know how many dealers deal in which brands amongst our sample size of dealers. From the above table it is clear that 46.68% of the dealers are dealing ACC cement. 13.32% of the dealers are dealing in Rassi cement. 20% of them do deal in the Ramco cement. Nil response for Penna cement from the above table. 6.68% of the dealers deal with Rajashree cement. 13.32% of them deal in other cements like Ultratech, Birla etc. Hence we can draw a point that most of the dealers in Hosadurga deal ACC cement to more extent.

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GRAPH 4 : CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF BRAND OF CEMENT THEY DEAL IN

Classification of the respondents on the basis of brand of cement they deal in 50 45 40 Percentage 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
ACC Rasi Ramco

46.68

20 13.32 6.68 0
P enna Rajashree Others (ultratech and birla etc)

13.32

Name of the cement brand

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TABLE 5 : MARKET SHARE OF THE CEMENT BRANDS ON THE BASE OF TONNAGE LIFTED ON AVERAGE / MONTH Name of the cement ACC Rajashree Ramco Rasi L & T (ultratech) Birla Total 1600 720 950 800 500 440 5010 No. of respondents Percentage of market share 32 19 16 14.5 8.5 10 100

With the above classification we will come to know that in our sample size of dealers as they quoted that they sell this much of tones / month. 32% of market share is garnered by ACC, Rajashree has concerned a market share of 19%. Ramco concerned a market share of 16%. In the same manner Rassi, ultratech and Birla enjoying a market share of 14.5%, 8.5% and 10% respectively.

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GRAPH 5 : MARKET SHARE OF THE CEMENT BRANDS ON THE BASE OF TONNAGE LIFTED ON AVERAGE / MONTH

35 30 25 Percentage 20 15 10 5 0

32

19 16 14.5 8.5 10

ACC

Rajashree

Ramco

Rasi

L & T (ultratech)

Birla

Nam e of the cem ent

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ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER : AN ANALYSIS OF CONTRACTORS / CIVIL ENGINEERS / END USERS ATTITUDES: The important purpose to understand the attitude towards cement brands and also to examine what cement they recommend to their clients, criteria of selection of cement for construction, what is their opinion about the future of the cement brands. The attitudes of contractors is so considered because they play an instrumental role in demand and supply of cement by and to the customer. It is collected to know their preference, their suggestion towards cement brands. TABLE 6 : BRAND OF CEMENT THEY PREFER TO RECOMMEND TO THEIR CLIENTS Name of the cement ACC Ultratech Ramco Birla Others Total No. of respondents 6 3 2 2 2 5010 Percentage to total 40.00 20.04 13.32 13.32 13.32 100

It is evident from the above table that 40% of the contractor prefer ACC cement, 20.04% of them prefer ultratech and 13.32% of them prefer
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Ramco, 13.32% of them prefer Birla and 13.32% of them prefer other cements. These are most preferably preferred cement brands by the contractors.

GRAPH 6 : BRAND OF CEMENT THEY PREFER TO RECOMMEND TO THEIR CLIENTS

13.32 13.32 13.32 40

20.04

ACC Ultratech Ramco Birla Others

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TABLE 7 : CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY UNDERTAKEN BY THE RESPONDENTS Construction activity House Commercial buildings Channels / bridges Others Total 13 5 4 3 25 52 20 16 12 100 No. of respondents Percentage to total

From above it is clear that about 52% of the contractors concentrate on house building. 20%, 16%, 12% of them do undertake the activity of commercial buildings, channels / bridges and others respectively.

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GRAPH 7 : CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY UNDERTAKEN BY THE RESPONDENTS

60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0

52

20

16 12

House

Commercial buildings

Channels / bridges

Others

Construction activity

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TABLE 8 : BRAND OF CEMENT THEY ACTUALLY PREFER Brands of cement ACC Ultratech Ramco Birla Others Total No. of respondents 10 6 3 3 3 25 Percentage to total 40 24 12 12 12 100

It is clear from the above table that around 40% of the customers prefer ACC brand, 24% of them prefer ultratech, 12% of them prefer Ramco, 12% of them do prefer Birla, rest of them do prefer to buy various other cements.

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GRAPH 8 : BRAND OF CEMENT THEY ACTUALLY PREFER

12 12 40

12

ACC Ultratech Ramco Birla Others

24

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TABLE 9 : THE CRITERIA CONSIDERED TO PURCHASE THE CEMENT Basis Price Durability Quality Advertisement Services Total No. of respondents 4 2 10 6 3 25 Percentage to total 16 8 40 24 12 100

From the above table we can conclude that 16% of the customers prefers to check in for the price of the cement, 8% of them concentrate on durability, 40% of them consider quality of the cement, 24% of them concentrate on advertisement and remaining 12% of them concentrate on services.

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GRAPH 9 : THE CRITERIA CONSIDERED TO PURCHASE THE CEMENT


40 40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Price Quality Basis Services 8 16 12 24

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OPINION OF THE CONTRACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF THE ACC CEMENT : Majority of the contractors said that the quality of the cement is highly satisfactory, excellent. They usually prefer to recommend ACC cement for their clients and even for the construction of their own buildings. They said ACC brand quality is unrivalling and they are mostly aware of cement through newspapers, friends and relatives, advertisements, company image etc. Some of them were of the view that quality of cement is extremely good and they said occasionally they do prefer to recommended ACC cement for only big buildings they build. The awareness of cement goes through the newspaper, friends and relatives, advertisements, company image etc. Few of them opined that other cements like ultratech, birla, ramco cements are for more better than ACC. They say that, they do not have any negative impression on ACC brands. They said cements brands publicity is must and its price is to be reduced. They are aware of it with the help of medias like newspapers and friends. ANALYSIS OF END USERS ATTITUDES :

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To analyse the attitude of the end user is an important aspect which a marketer of any should be aware of. Today competitive world is so dynamic and customer oriented. It is totally imperative for the markets to know and understand the tastes, needs, preferences attitude, buying behaviour of the customer to have a maximum hold on them by builders brand and loyalty. It is said by business firms that. "Customer is our god. He is not an interruption on our work, he is the purpose of it. He is not depending on us. We are depending on him". Hence it is at most necessary to have a look and to understand this important aspect of consumers and to mould their product in such a way, so as to satisfy his needs to fullest extent by using appropriate strategies.

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CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Here, the findings are summarized in a consolidated and brief way so as to comprehend the aspect and facts of the findings. According to dealers, they opine that the customers buy cement on looking at various criteria, most of customers buy cement by taking into account the quality of the cement. Company provides many facilities and support to the dealers like sales promotion, incentives, storage, transport etc. Among these 46.68% of dealers are happy or satisfied with sales promotion. There are many brands in the market like ACC, ultratech, birla, diamond etc., out of these 40% of the dealers say ACC is the fast moving brand in the market. According to the sales turnover, the dealers do per month, the market share of the companies cement is determined. ACC is enjoying the highest market share followed by ultratech, ramco etc. Most of the contractor / engineers prefer ACC cement to recommend to their clients. Depending upon the kind of construction activity they undertake, the mobilization of cement is more on this basis. 52% of the contractors

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undertake the activity of construction of house, about 20% of them build commercial building often, 16% of them undertake bridges and 12% of them build others. Out of sample size of consumers around 40% of the consumers first they prefer ACC cement. COMPLAINTS : BY END USERS : The price of the cement is too high per bag. Less advertisements compared to other products. Cement is so strong that it injures or slightly burns the fingertips of the users. BY DEALERS : Lack of intensive advertisement Fluctuation in the price regularly. Delivery aspect is satisfactory and it need to be maintained and improved. Few damage bags Improper awarding of the dealership.

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BY CONTRACTORS : High price of the cement Slight damage of the users fingers due to high strength. SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION : Following are some suggestions and conclusions which it would be better if the companies thinks to implement which are going to help for the better prospects of the companies and very essential to maintain and increase its strong position in the cement industry. PRICING : First and foremost aspect is of appropriate pricing. The pricing strategy should be so reasonable and value added, that it should be affordable to buy the cement by all class of people who want to construct their building. Pricing is very crucial aspect in cement industry. Pricing should be made reasonable and conductive and affordable. ADVERTISING : Intensive wall painting with alternative and delightful colours with remembarable and meaningful slogan would be favourable to increase the awareness and sales. Rural advertising is also advisable to attract more number of rural buyers.

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PROMOTION AND PUBLICITIES : They should undertake the promotional strategy very intensively so that a layman should be able to group that the brand name associate or relates to the product cement through hoardings, shutter paintings, wall paintings etc. Making the people aware of the cement by inviting contractors, engineers, masons and introducing them to the companies products, updating them with the new developments happening in the company is also advisable to build a favourable brand image. DELIVERY : Strict and convenient logistics is to be maintained to keep the dealers and customers there of happy with the timely delivery of the material. Damages of the bags are minimum but are to be totally reduced by equipping the hamalis and loaders and unloaders with sophisticated safety equipments. DEALERSHIP PROVIDING :

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This is an important aspect to be taken care of by the company. It is adopting a relative dealership awarding based on performance trial of the dealer but it would be condensive to adopt intensive dealership strategy. MOTIVATION TO DEALERS : Motivation to the dealers based on their performance is very commendable at present through awarding them with best number 1 performer certificate, conferring them with gifts etc. but it is to be made intense and all dealers are to be satisfied with special occasion gifts, foreign tour packages, contests are to be arranged far them occasionally for entertainment to upkeep the motivation and which inturn increases the sale of the product. OTHER SUGGESTIONS : Logistic are to be well maintained. Incentives far the dealers in the form of discounts and commission are to be made effective and attractive further more. It would be better if the companies diversifies in related area like cement pipe business, cement sheets, slabs etc. to add product to earn more benefit and improve strength and to retain the customer loyalty and existing customers base and to attract potential buyers. It is advisable to have links with civil engineering colleges so that more congenital relationship could be maintained with association with the universities which serves even as publicity and to recruit bright students from the same.

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Have good links with the repeated business schools in India, absorb bright and intelligent managerial students with sound analytical and logical and practical knowledge.

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CHAPTER 8 ANNEXURES CONSUMER QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Sir / Madam, I hereby request you to kindly spare a few moments of your valuable time in answering the questionnaire which will help me to know your opinion towards ACC cements The information revealed by you will be purely used for academic purpose.

Thank you

Darshan E.A.

1) Name : 2) Address :

3) Age : a) Below 20 yrs c) 30-40 yrs b) 20-30 yrs d) Above 40 yrs

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4) Educational qualification : a) SSLC c) Degree 5) Occupation : a) Employee c) Student 6) Monthly income : a) Below 6000 c) 8000 10000 7) Have you ever purchased cement ? a) Yes 8) If yes, which brand ? a) Ramco c) Birla b) ACC d) Ultratech b) No b) 6000-8000 d) 10,000 and above b) Professional d) Other specify ________________ b) P.U.C d) P.G

e) Others specify _______________________________________ 9) In making a choice of your cement following factors are found to be very important. Please indicate your opinion to what extent you agree.

Strongly agree
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Agree

Disagree

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a) Price b) Quality c) Durability 10) Overall how do you rate your cement with respect to the features mentioned below : a) Price : a) Very high c) Reasonable b) Durability : a) Excellent c) Satisfactory c) Quality : a) Company 10) b) good c) Normal b) Good d) Unsatisfactory b) High d) low

How did you come to know about the ACC cement : a) Advertisement c) Company image b) Friends and Relatives d) Dealers

11) a) Yes 12)

Have you seen the advertisement of the ACC cement ? b) No If yes, how b) Newspaper c) Magazines

a) Holdings

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13) cement :

What is your opinion about the advertisement of ACC

a) Excellent c) Good 14)

b) Attractive d) Bad

What factors influenced you to purchase of cements ? a) Price d) Advertisement b) Durability e) Services c) Quality

15) What is your opinion about the ACC cement. a) Better c) Satisfactory 16) b) Good d) Unsatisfactory

Are you satisfied with ACC cement ? a) Yes b) No

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Marketing Management Marketing Management

- Philip Katler - Sherlekar

MAGAZINES : Business world India Today

WEBSITES : www.acclimited.com.

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