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Embryology of the Ear Origin Internal ear o Otic vesicle (ectoderm) middle ear o first pharyngeal pouch (endoderm)

rm) o 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches (mesoderm) external ear o first pharyngeal cleft (ectoderm)

Otic Placode (3rd week) ectodermal thickening originating from neck region seen at 22nd day will invaginate to produce otic pit o later ends will meet and form an otic vesicle (4th week)

Otic vesicle dorsal portion o give rise to endolymphatic sav, utricle, semicircular canals ventral portion o give rise to saccule and cochlear duct o saccule and cochlear duct connection is called reunions origin of inner ear

Cochlea gives rise to organ of corti Development of Scala Vestibuli and Tympani lower portion of cochlea will have outer and inner ridge in interior surface gives rise to organ of corti (6th week) Cochlear duct develops at 6-8 weeks o German Measle may lead to deafness Cartilage undergo vacuolization leading to formation of perilymphatic spaces: scala vestibuli and sacala tympani

Semicircular canals From dorsal portion of otic vesicle For equilibrium Developed at 6th week Flattened outpockettings of utricle From neural crest: organ of corti

Congenital Deafness Causes: o Infections: Rubella, toxoplasm, polio


o Erythrobalstosis fetalis o Medical diseases: diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism o Drugs: streptomycin, quanine Auditory Tube Empties into nasopharynx

Primitive Tympanic Cavity Will enlarge due to dissolving of mesenchyme forms primitive tympanic membrane and malleus, incus and stapes Malleus close to tympanic membrane Stapes close to oval window

Middle Ear Tympanic Cavity o Derived from 1st pharyngeal pouch o Distal part (tubotympanic recess) becomes tympanic cavity Ossicles o Malleus and incus (1st pharyngeal arch) o Stapes (2nd pharyngeal arch) o Initially embedded in mesenchyme and mesechmye dissolves forming the ossicles and tympanic membrane

ECTODERMAL proximal end of external acoustic meatus MESODERMAL distal part of middle ear (tympanic cavity) ENDODERM proximal part of middle ear Meatal Plug In external ear Has to dissolve else congenital deafness

External Ear External audiroty meatus Eardrum or tympanic membrane ectodermal epithelial lining

Developmen of Auricle Mesodermal From 6 mesenchymal thickenings surrounding the 2st pharyngeal cleft Initial location: lower neck

Congenital Anomalies Preauricular pits o Shallow depressions due to abnormal development of auricular hillocks


Preauricular appendages o Skin tags caused by accessory hillocks Low-set ear Anotia no ear

Inner Ear Otic vesicle o Dorsal utricle, semicircular canals, endolymphatics o Ventral - saccule, cochlear duct

Middle Ear Ossicles - 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arch Tympanic membrane and auditory tube 1st pharyngeal pouch

External Ear External acoustic meatus 1st pharyngeal cleft Eardrum has origins from mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm