FOR
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
BY
WEBSTER WELLS,
S.B.
BOSTON,
D. C.
U.S.A.
HEATH &
CO.,
PUBLISHERS
1906
3^"
Copyright,
1906,
By WEBSTER WELLS.
All rights reserved.
PREFACE
The
present work
is
While
in the
main similar
additional
many
topics
made; attention is especially invited to the following: 1. The product by inspection of two binomials of the form
mx +
2.
n and px
\
(% 100).
In the chapter on Factoring will be found the factoring of expressions of the forms x^ + ax^y^ + y* and ax^ + bx + c,
when
The
In
3.
by factoring
also taken
up
in
this chapter.
many new
varieties of examples.
In
root
by inspection of polynomials
a'
of the
form
b'
c'
+ 3 a'b
\
Sab'
b'
( 212, 223).
The development
of polynomials
221708
iv
desired from
PREFACE
a theoretical point of view.
(See 213, 214,
In the solution of quadratic equations by formula the equation is in the form aa^ \ bx { c = 0.
5.
6.
( 289),
In
all
is
XXI, the
quadratic
equation
form aof
{
bx
\
= 0.
In the chapter on Ratio and Proportion, in several of the 7. demonstrations of theorems, fractions are used in place of
ratio symbols.
8.
given
plete proof, in
for
proved
it
in 447. Coefficients
9.
The proof
of the
Theorem
of
Undetermined
given in
396
;
is
Algebra
10.
"
given in
450.
The author has thought it best to omit the proof of the Binomial Theorem for Fractional and Negative Exponents, as
a rigorous demonstration
preparatory schools.
11.
is
in
In Chapter
XXXIII will be found Highest Common Common Multiple by Division; and also
its
lowest terms,
when the
Any
teacher
with Chapters
Chapter
all
XXXIII
values of
tion
whose denominator
PREFACE
having a rational denominator, when the denominator
is
V
the
sum
of
of a rational expression
nth. degree, or
An
to
work
is
graphical methods;
of
number.
In 184, 185, and 186 will be found the graphical representations of the solutions of simultaneous
linear equations,
The
305,
subject
is
and 314
to 316.
of
many
schools, a
number
of physi
problems have been introduced; these will be found at the end of Exercises 62, 128, 129, and 145.
At the end
are employed
of problems in physics in
;
of
variation
of graphs in physics.
In nearly every set of numerical equations, beginning with Exercise 58, will be found examples in which other letters
than
X, y,
and
z are
and no example is a duplicate of any in the author's "Academic Algebra" or "Essentials of Algebra." There is throughout the work a much greater variety of
examples than in the above treatises. An important and useful feature of the work
is
the Index,
vi
PREFACE
to
all
To meet
XXXIII.
for Addition
and Multipli
XXXIV.
XXXV. XXXVI.
XXXVII. XXXVIII.
Mathematical Induction.
Equivalent Equations.
Graphical Eepresentation of Imaginary Numbers.
Indeterminate Forms.
XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
The author
ration of the
many
WEBSTER WELLS.
Boston, 1906.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
1 1
.
.
Symbols
Equations
2 2
Axioms
Solution of Problems
by Algebraic Methods
.3
9
11
Algebraic Expressions
II.
Numbers
...
.
.
12
Numbers
14
17
18
21
....
.
.24
26 28
32
Parentheses
IV.
...
.
.
33
34
V.
......43 ....
.
.
36
42
45
46
VI.
.51
.
....
.
52
54
57
Problems leading
/
One
63
74
91
Unknown Number
VII.
VIII.
Factoring
Miscellaneous and Review Examples Solution of Equations by Factoring
vii
.... ....
94
Vlll
CHAPTER
CONTENTS
Highest CojviMon Factor.
Highest
IX.
of Fractions
.
XL
Simultaneous Linear Equations Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Elimination by Comparison
.
Graphical Representation
Graph of a Linear Equation involving Two I'nknown Numbers
Intersections of Graphs
XIV.
Inequalities
XV.
XVI.
Involution
Evolution
Evolution of Monomials
Square Root of a Polynomial Square Root of an Arithmetical Number Cube Root of a Polynomial Cube Root of an Arithmetical Number
.
XVII.
Theory of Exponents
....
Miscellaneous Examples
CONTENTS
I
IX
PAGE
CHAPTER
XVIII
Surds
.........
.
222
222
Reduction of a Surd to its Simplest Form Addition and Subtraction of Surds To reduce Surds of Different Degrees to Equivalent Surds of the Same Degree Multiplication of Surds Division of Surds
Involution of Surds
226
227 228
230
231
Evolution of Surds
233
Denominator
Properties of Quadratic Surds
Imaginary Numbers
XIX.
Quadratic Equations
Pure Quadratic Equations Affected Quadratic Equations
248
248 250
Unknown Number
XX.
XXI.
..
.261
268 273
276
XXII.
....
283
286
CONTENTS
CHAPTEK
PAGE
XXIX.
Undetermined Coefficients
Convergency and Divergency of Series Tlie Theorem of Undetermined CoeflScients
.
357 358
Expansion Expansion
of Fractions of
Surds
.... ....
.
360
361
363
364
Partial Fractions
Reversion of Series
370
. .
XXX.
XXXI.
372
372
376
378
383
388
391
Exponential Equations
393
XXXII.
Miscellaneous Topics
Highest
395 Factor
Common
Multiple by Division
Proof of
nents
Values of
and
)i
405
407
Expo.
.
Undetermined
408
XXXIV.
Symmetry
.... ....
in
.
410
Factoring
413 416
422
426
434 438
XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.
Mathematical Induction
Equivalent Equations
XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
441
445
453
453 455
456
Exponential and Logarithmic Series The Exponential Series The Logarithmic Series
.
.
Calculation of Logarithms
Index
459
ALGIBBRA
I.
The numerals represent known or determinate numbers. The letters represent numbers which may have any values
whatever, or numbers whose values are to be found.
The Sign
of Addition,
+,
is
read "plusJ^
Thus, a{b signifies that the number represented by b is to be added to the number represented by a a \b { c signifies
;
that the
number represented by b is to be. added to the number represented by a, and then the number represented by c added
;
to the result
and so
on.
The
We shall use the expression " the number a," or simply " a," to signify " the number represented hy a^''"' etc.
4.
The Sign
of Subtraction,
is
Thus, a
number
b
c
'
signifies that b is to

be sub
and
2
5.
ALGEBRA
The
Sign
of
Multiplication,
x,
is
read
'Himes/^ or
"
multiplied byJ^
Thus, a X b signifies that the number a is to be multiplied by the number b; a xb x c signifies that a is to be multiplied by b, and the result multiplied by c and so on.
;
usually omitted in Algebra, except between two numbers expressed in Arabic numerals. Thus, 2 X signifies 2 multiplied by x but the product of
sign of multiplication
is
;
The
The Sign
of Division,
i,
is
to be divided
by
number
b.
The
division of a
by
6 is also expressed 
EQUATIONS
7.
The Sign
of Equality,
=,
is
read "equals."
b.
Thus, a
8.
=b
signifies that
is
An
Equation
of an equation is the number to the left Jirst of the sign of equality, and the second member is the number to the right of that sign.
The
member
a;
3 = 5, the
first
member
is
a;
3,
5.
AXIOMS
9.
An Axiom
is
a truth which
is
assumed as
selfevident.
:
2.
3.
4.
Any number equals itself. Any number equals the sum of all its parts. Any number is greater than any of its parts. Two mimbers which are equal to the same number,
ar/i equal.
or
to
equal 7iumbers,
3
to
equal
be equal.
If the same number, or equal numbers, be subtracted from equal numbers, the residting numbers ivill be equal.
7. If equal numbers be multiplied by the same number, or equal number's, the resulting numbers will be equal. 8. If equal numbers be divided by the same number, or equal
braic symbols in the solution of problems. The utility of the process consists in the fact that the unknown numbers are represented by symbols, and that the
The sum
;
the less by 4
of two numbers is 30, and the greater exceeds what are the numbers ?
less
number hj
x.
By
the greater will be represented by x + 4. the conditions of the problem, the sum of the less
is
number and
:
the
greater
30
language as follows
+ + 4 = 30.
a;
(1)
Now, x + x
add
cal
it
= xx2 =2
+
for to multiply
an arithmetical number by
2,
we
twice.
Again, x x 2
numbers
is
the
x aj, or 2 a; ( 5) for the product of two arithmetisame in whichever order they are multiplied.
;
Therefore, x
= 2x;
and equation
2X
(1)
can be written
+ = 30.
4
;
The members of this equation, 2 x + 4 and 30, are equal numbers if from each of them we subtract the number 4, the resulting numbers will
be equal (Ax.
6, 9).
we have
13.
is
number
is 13,
13
+ 4,
or 17.
4
The written work
Let
Then,
ALGEBRA
will stand as follows
:
X
a;
= the = = =
less
number.
+ +
By
the conditions,
jc
+ 4 = 30.
number.
Whence,
Dividing by
2,
ic
2 x
x =
Whence,
+4=
2. The sum of the ages of A and B is 109 years,. and A is 13 years younger than B; find their ages. Let X represent the number of years in B's age. Then, x 13 will represent the number of years in A's age. By the conditions of the problem, the sum of the ages of A and B is
109 years.
Whence,
Adding 13
to
xlS +
2
= = = =
109, or 2
13
109.
5, 9),
122.
61, the 48, the
Dividing by
2,
number
number
And,
13
The
Let
vnitten
work
X x
the
number
Then,
By
the conditions,
Whence,
Dividing by
Therefore,
It
2,
.
x
x
13
= 61,
= 48,
the
number
the
number
must be
number.
Thus, in Ex.
represent the
3.
2,
we
number of years
do, not say "let x represent B's age," but "let x in B's age."
as B,
A has
onehalf as
much
?
How much
has each
X
2 3 the conditions,
ic
jc
= = =
=
the
the
number
of dollars
of dollars of dollars
A
B
C
has.
has, has.
Then,
number
number
and
aj
the
66.
By
2ic
3cc
of x, twice
oj,
and 3 times x
6x
is
6 times
a;,
or 6
x.
= 66.
=
11, the
6,
x
2x 3X
number
number
of dollars
A
B
C
has. has,
has.
Whence,
and
22, the
of dollars of dollars
= 33,
the
number
has, in Ex. 3,
we
avoid
EXERCISE
1.
The
it
exceeds
''
is
8 times the
less,
and
2.
The sum
is
is
A and B
A
and
so that
may
receive
^ 48
so that
A may
receive
5 times as
*
much
as B.
5.
A man
The sum
of three
numbers
is
69; the
first is
14 greater
8. The sum of the ages of A, B, and C is 134 years 13 years younger than A, and 7 years younger than C.
is
Find
their afjes.
6
9.
ALGEBRA
onetwelfth as
'
cow and sheep together cost $91, and the sheep cost much as the cow how much, did each cost ?
;
10.
and
so that
A may
receive
onefourth as
^
much
as B.
11. man has $ 2. After losing a certain sum, he finds that he has left 20 cents more than 3 times the sum which he
lost.
How much
did he lose
12.
A
B
has 4 times as
together.
How
C,
A, B, and C have together $ 100 A has $ 10 less than and C has $ 25 more than B. How much has each ?
;
v.^14. At an election two candidates, A and B, had together 653 votes, and A was beaten by 395 votes. How many did each receive ?

15.
A field is
it is
7 times as long as
feet.
around
16.
240
Find
its
My
horse, carriage,
is
325.
The horse
and harness are worth together worth 6 times as much as the harness, worth $ 65 more than the horse. How
The sum
of three
numbers
is
87
the third
number
is
oneeighth of the first, and the second Find the numbers. first.
18.
number 15
less
than the
At
How many
19. The sum of the ages of A, B, and C is 110 years B's age exceeds twice C's by 12 years, and A is 9 years younger than B. Find their ages.
;
the red
is
pole 77 feet long is painted red, white, and black; onefifth of the white, and the black 21 feet more
How many
first,
21.
Divide 70 into three parts such that the third part shall
be onefifth of the
22.
.
and onefourth
of the second.
receive onehalf as
Divide $ 7.55 between A, B, and C so that C may much as A, and B $ 2.95 less than A and
together.
23. A, B, and C have together $22.50; B has $1.50 more than A, and C has $ 8 less than twice the amount that A has. How much has each ?
24.
The
profits of a
If the total profits for the three years profits in each year ?
of four numbers is 96. The first is 4 times the and exceeds the third by 20 and the second exceeds fourth, the sum of the first and fourth by 4. Find the numbers.
The sum
>
26.
A may
receive onefifth as
much
as D.
as B,
onefifth as
much
as C, and
onefifth as
much
DEFINITIONS
11.
If a
number be multiplied by
is
the product
called a
An Exponent is a number written at the right of, and above another number, to indicate what power of the latter is to be
taken; thus, read " a
a^,
a^,
a*,
^^ or " a second power, denotes a xa', " a third read "a cu&e," or power" denotes a x a X a; read " a fourth" " a fourth power," or " a exponeyit 4,"
square,''^
denotes a
ax
a x
a,
etc.
8
If
ALGEBRA
no exponent is expressed, ihejirst power Thus, a is the same as a\
is
understood.
The
vinculum
parentheses ( ), the brackets [ ], the braces J j, and the indicate that the numbers enclosed by them are
,
;
to be taken collectively
thus,
c,
{a+b)xc,
all
[a
+ 6]
\a\b\
c,
and a{b x
6 to
by adding
is to
be
multiplied by
EXERCISE 2
What
2.
m(xy).
ab
^'
\^
yy
(mn).
9_
(2a + 36)(4c5d).
'
^'*
^.
, + (yz).
7.
^^.
b
10.
d
:
fl+^V^ yj
\x
The
n from 5 times m.
Three times the product of the eighth power of the ninth power of n.
and
y
*
13.
The quotient
d.
of the
sum
of a
and
6,
divided by the
sum
of c
and
14. 15.
x.
The product oi ab and The result of adding the quotient quotient of x by y. 18. The square of m + n.
16.
17.
,
of
by
n,
and the
19.
The cube
of
a
c.
9
x.
The product
y.
by
a;
of
Ihj
13.
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
"
f
An
number expressed
is
2, a,
*^
or
2aj23a&
+ 5.
14. The Numerical Value of an expression is the result obtained by substituting particular numerical values for the letters involved in it, and performing the operations indicated.
1.
when a = 4,
= 3, c = 5,
and d =
4 x 4 o
2.
We
have,
4a +
# =
If the expression involves parentheses, the operations indicated within the parentheses must be performed first.
2.
9, 6
= 7,
and
= 4, of
(_6)(6 +
c)^.
= 16,
and
6
We have,
a
= 2,
+ c = 11,
a\b
 c = 3.
of the expression is
2xllM = 22l^ = a
3 3
EXERCISE 3
;^
J^^
= 4,
1.
= 6, 6 = 3,
a?hcd\
2.
2ahcd.
3.
3a6 + 46c5cd.
10
ALGEBRA
28 cZ^
POSITIVE
11
II.
POSITIVE
There are certain concrete magnitudes which are capatwo opposite states. Thus, in financial transactions, we may have assets or Uahilities, and gains or losses; we may have motion along a
15.
ble of existing in
effect of
nitude of a certain kind another of the opposite kind, diminish the former, destroy it, or reverse its state.
to
Thus,
if
to
a certain
amount
is
of
asset
we add
a certain
or
amount
diminished, destroyed,
and besides denoting addition and subsigns , traction, are also used, in Algebra, to distinguish between the opposite states of magnitudes like those of 15.
16.
The
Thus,
are
by the sign
indicate assets by the sign f, and liabilities for example, the statement that a man's assets 100, means that he has liabilities to the amount of $ 100.
we may
EXERCISE 4
1.
If a
is
much
'
liabilities of
$600,
how
2. If gains be taken as positive, and losses as negative, what does a gain of $ 100 mean ?
3.
In what position
In what position
is
man who
man who
is
miles north of a
certain place ?
4. is
is
50
feet west of a
certain point ?
5. How many miles north of a certain place goes 5 miles north, and then 9 miles south ?
is
man who
12
6.
ALGEBRA
is
How many miles east of a certain place 11 miles west, and then 6 miles east ? goes
17.
Positive
man who
and negative states of any concrete magnitude be expressed without reference to the unit, the results are
If the positive
called positive Thus, in
is
and
+ f 5 and $3, + 5
+
yiegative
3
and
a negative number.
For
'
is
the sign
tive
is
understood to be posi
thus, 5
is
the same as
sign
+ 5.
The negative
number.
18.
The
Absolute Value of a
number
is
We
meaning, so long as
shall give to addition in Algebra its arithmetical the 7iumbers to be added are positive integers
or positive fractions.
may then attach any meaning we please to addition involving other forms of numbers, provided the new meanings are not inconsistent with principles previously established.
20. In adding a positive number and a negative, or two negative numbers, our methods must be in accordance with the principles of 15.
If a man has assets of $ 5, and then incurs liabilities of f 3, he will be worth $2. If he has assets of $ 3, and then incurs liabilities of $ 5, he will be in debt to the amount of $2.
We
POSITIVE
If
13
he has
liabilities of
^ 3,
Now
may
be regarded as adding
the
$3
15,
incurring liabilities of
$3
to his property.
Whence,
sum
of
the
sum
sum
of of
+ 5 f5
 $5
and and
$3
is
and
the
and
+$3 is $3 is
To
5 and
3,
:
parentheses ( 12).
We
^ To add a x>ositive and a negative number, subtract the less absolute value ( 18) from the greater, and prejlx to the result the sign of the number having the greater absolute value.
and
21. Examples.
1.
+ 10
(
and
3.
7.
is 7.
Whence,
2.
10)
+ (  3) = +
and
12
(_
12)
+ 6.
is 6.
Whence,
3.
+ ( + 6) =6.
Add
9
of 9
and 5.
and 5
is 14.
The sum
Whence,
(_
9)
+ (_
5)
=_
14
14
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 5
^1. (6)
2.
3.
v'4.
8.
f5Vf'
(9)+(45).
9.
5. 6.
17.
f+D^fl V V f y
+ (+12j). (+17f) + (10A). (14) + (21A).
(15i)
1011.
12.
NUMBERS
22. If two expressions are multiplied together, the first is called the Multiplicand, and the second the Multiplier. The result of multiplication is called the Product.
shall retain for multiplication, in Algebra, its arith23. metical meaning, so long as the multiplier is a positive integer or
We
a positive fractioyi.
That is, to multiply a number by a positive integer is to add the multiplicand as many times as there are units in the multiplier.
For example,
Thus,
by
3,
we add
times.
is
the same
3x4 and 4 x 3 are each equal to 12. we could assume this law to hold for the product positive number by a negative, we should have
Thus,
If
of a
POSITIVE
Then,
if
15
follow
to hold,
To multiply a 7iumber by a negative number is to multiply it by of the multiplier, and change the sign of
Thus, to multiply + 4 by 3, we multiply giving + 12, and change the sign of the result.
+4
by +3,
That
is,
(+ 4) X ( 3)
=  12.
4 by 3, we multiply 4 by +3, Again, to multiply 12 ( 23), and change the sign of the result. giving
That
25.
is,
( 4) X ( 3)
= + 12.
:
From 23 and 24 we
their
X Make
of like
26.
1.
the
sign,
product plus when the multipUcand and multiplier are and minus whe7i they are of unlike sign.
Examples.
Multiply
the rule,
+8
(+
by 5.
8)
By
2.
x (
5)
=
(8
5)
=  40.
Multiply
the rule,
7
by
 9.
(7
By
3.
( 7) x ( 9) = +
x 9)
= + 63.
b
= 7,
of
+ by.
27.
We
have,
6)3 ^^
= (3)(3)(3) =
EXERCISE 6
Find the values of the following
1.
:
(H,5)x(4).
2.
(11) X (+3).
16 3
17
Monomial, or Term,
is
an expression
or
13)
a?^,
whose
as 2
3 ah,
3 ah,
and
+5
is
2x"^ah^^.
^A. Positive
If no sign
tive.
Term
is
^A Negative
The
Term is one preceded by a sign as 3 ah. sign must never be omitted before a negative term.
;
28. If two or more numbers are multiplied together, each of them, or the product of any number of them,
of the product.
is
called a Factor
Thus,
a, h,
c,
ah, ac,
and
*'29. Any factor of a product is called the Coefficient of the product of the remaining factors. Thus, in 2 ah, 2 is the coefficient of ah, 2 a of 6, a of 2 h, etc. V 30.
als,
If one factor of a product is expressed in Arabic numerletters, the former is called the numerical
latter.
coefficient of
Thus, in 2 ah, 2 is the numerical coefficient of ah. If no numerical coefficient is expressed, the coefficient 1 is
understood
31.
;
thus, a
is
the same as 1
a.
By
is,
25,
That
3 a is
is
(3) X a
=
(3
Then,
a)
= 3a. 3 a.
/Thus,
in
a negative term as in a
18
^'
ALGEBRA
Similar or Like Terms are those which either do not
32.
numerical coefficients
2 x^y and 7 x^y. " Dissimilar or Unlike Terms are those which are not similar
as 3 x^y
as
and 3 xy'^.
ADDITION OF MONOMIALS
33.
The sum
of a
and
h is expressed
+6
( 3).
V 34. define Subtraction, in Algebra, as the process of finding one of two numbers, when their sum and the other number are given. The Minuend is the sum of the numbers.
We
The Subtrahend is the given number. The Remainder is the required number.
35.
h is subtracted
from a
is
6
expressed
Since the
the minuend
sum
of the remainder
( 34),
we have
ah\h = a.
^
Hence, if
the
same number
he both
added
to,
arid subtracted
latter is not
changed.
may
be cancelled.
We
will
to find the
sum
of
a and
b.
By 35,
for adding
and
But by 20,
for
(1)
and
b are
value, but
opposite sign.
Therefore,
{b)
=a
b',
member
19
mials
d, and ab\c d e.
b,c,
e is
^39. We assume that the terms can be united in any order, provided each has its proper sign. Hence, the result of 38 can also be expressed
c\a
This law
"^
etc.
;
is
called the
Law for
Addition
compare
4,
451.
40.
4,
To multiply
3 by
and then
Thus,
We
a by
c,
then assume
c,
we multiply
to the
first.
and then
by
Thus,
This law
is
(a
+ b)c = ac
will
\
be.
its
number
proof
We have,
2.
3a
(5 + 3)a = 8 a.
( 40)
5 a and
3 a.
(31) (40) (20) (81)
We
(_ 5a) + ( 3a) = (
3.
Required the
sum
of 5 a
and
3 a.
(40)
( 20)
We have,
20
4.
ALGEBRA
Required the sum of
(_ 5)a +
5a
3 a
and 3a.
(40)
2 a.
We have,
=[(
5) + 3] x a = (2)x a (20) = 
/ Therefore, to add two similar terms, find the sum of their numerical coefficients ( 20, 30, 31), and affix to the result the
common
5.
letters.
a,
a, 8a,
12 a,
and 6
a.
may be performed in any order, we may add the and then the negative terms, and finally combine
and 6 a
is
of 2 a, 3 a, of
11 a.
a and
12 a
is
is
11
13 a. a + ( 13 a),
or
2 a.
Add 3(ab), 2(ab), 6(ab), and 4(a6). of 3(a  b) and 6(a  b) is 9(a  b). of 2(a &) and 4(a &) is 6(a 6).
is
[9
+(^ 6)](a
6), or
3(a
6).
If the terms are not all similar, we may combine the similar terms, and unite the others with their respective signs ( 38).
7.
a,
5x,
3 y^, Ba,
Sx, and
of 12 a and
of
6x,
5a Sx, and
is
is
7 a.
a;
 3 is 7 a Sy^.
( 36).
EXERCISE 7
Add
^1.
2. 3.
the following
11 a and
6 a.
a;.
6.
7.
abc
and 12 abc.
7x and 10
4n
and 9w.
and 5a6.
v8. 9(a
9.
^^
4.
v*
13ab
5.
17 a^
and loa^.
10.
21
15m, m,
16 xyz,
12.
13.
14.
5 4 xyz,
711,
and
12 m.
xyz,
and
6 xyz.
and 147il
6(x y),
18
n2,
13^2,
7i',
15. 16.
rl7.
18.
19.
^20.
3a% 17a% and 10a6. 3 ax, and 2 9 7 ax, 8 5 llz, 2x, and 10?/. (m + n), 4 (m n), 3 (m 4 n), and 7 (m 14 a, Ad, 8c, 6, 2a, 3c, 15 and 4 3 9 and 2 6 X, 7 52;, Sy,
19a3?>, 2a^b,
6?/,
6?/.
a;,
2;,
2/,
'8
ri).
c?,
c.
2/,
2,
a;,
?/,
2;,
a;.
i^ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS
42.
Polynomial
;
is
as a
b,
or 2x^
xy 3 y^.
;
A A A
polynomial
Binomial
Trinomial
is is
is
b.
as a
+6
c.
polynomial is said to be arranged according to the descending powers of any letter, when the term containing the highest power of that letter is placed first, that having the next lower immediately after, and so on.
43.
Thus,
is
x'
+3
ar^2/
2a^/ + 3a;/4/
x.
?/*, which does not involve x at all, is regarded as containing the lowest power of x in the above expression.
polynomial is said to be arranged according to the ascending powers of any letter, when the term containing the lowest j)ower of that letter is placed first, that having the next higher immediately after, and so on.
Thus,
is
x'\3a^y2x^y^\Sxf4:7/^
y.
22
ALGEBRA
,
Let
it
+ c to
and
a.
a.
Since 6
+c
is
the
c
sum
a
of h
c ( 3),
we may add
+c
to
a by adding h and
separately to
Then,
The above assumes
+ (6 + c) = a + & + c.
of &
c,
we
enclose
it
in parentheses.)
that, to
of a set of terms,
we add
the
its
45. Let
it
By
37,
Then, to
( 44).
be required to add h
of b
cto and
h
a.
c.
we add
and
separately to a
Whence,
46.
'"^To
1.
f
(6
c) = a + & c.
following rule
:
Add 6a 7a^,
3a^ 2a + 3?/^,
and
.2 a^
a m/i.
We set the expressions down one underneath the other, similar terms being in the same vertical column. We then find the sum of the terms in each column, and write the results with their respective signs thus,
;
7  2a + 3 + 3 a + 2aj2 a 2 4 3
6a
a:2 a:2 a;2
?/3
?/3
mn _ ^^
12a;2_
7_8 a^15a;,
and
( 43)
Qx^+lOx+U  X A
23
Add
9(a
+ ^>)8(6 + c),
8(6
and
4(c
+ a)5(tt + 6).
9(a+6)5(a+6) 4(a + 6)
3(6
a) a) a)
ll(&
4.
EXERCISE 8
Add
the following
1.
2.
i^.
17am{4.bn
Sa7b
6a^16y^
5+46
a2b
4.
6amllbn
9am{19bn
2!.
7 x{6y
9z
and 4ic
8?/
+5
5.
6.
4m^ 4mwHn', 5 a 7 6, 4 6 9
m' + 4 m?i H 4
c,
w',
and
5m' + 5n'.
S
and 6
2 a.
x'6 xy4.y\
Vrt.
8.
a98a2 + l6a^
^(a
(a;
2/).
10.
Vll.
and
f a
7 m.
+ i6^c.
10 + 8a; + 2m,
2/
3a;72/6n,
and JVa;2/i2;.
and n\lly
12.
+ H2
24
13.
ALGEBRA
4(y{.z)9(z + x\ 7{z\x). 6c + 2aSb, 4.d7 c{12 a, Sb5d + and 10 a 11 6 + 9 d. _7(a6)2 + 8(a6)+2, 4(a  6)2  5 (a  6),
and S(x^y)
14.
c,
n5.
16.
and
17.
+ 2a;2/' + 3i^
o^^/'
4
2/^
_ 5 ^^^^
6a^
+ 5tf7 xy',
a^.
V2l.
 15 m7^2 + 3 m^n + 16 + 8 m%_ 5 m^ + 3 mn^ 6 + 10 m^n. 5n3 + 2n1215<,  14 + 7 n  n^  9 n^, 6?i2+137i3^3_ll^^ and ^nn + 10n^ + 4.n\
71^
and
?i^
t SUBTRACTION OF MONOMIALS
47.
h is subtracted
from a
is
expressed
a6(4).
We will
By
34,
now show how to subtract h from a. the sum of the remainder and the subtrahend equals
the minuend.
that,
Then, the required remainder must be an expression such when it is added to 6V:^he sum shall equal a. But if a + 5 is added to 6, the sum is a ( 35). Therefore, the required remainder is a + b.
That
48.
is,
a(6) = a + 6.
47,
Prom
we have
To
the
subtract
a monomial, change
and add
the result to
minuend.
25
Subtract 5 a from 2
a.
'
result to the
min
2 a
+ (
5 a)
= 3 a
( 41).
Subtract
2a from 5 a,
5a^(2a) = 5a + 2a = 7a.
3.
Subtract
5a from 2a.
2a(5a)=2a +
5 = 3a.
4.
 2(a: +
The
?/) 5(a;
?/)
=
7(x
?/).
pupil should endeavor to put down the results, in examples like the above, v^^ithout writing the intermediate step ; changing the sign of the subtrahend mentally, and adding the result to the minuend.
5.
From
23 a take the
23 a
sum
of 19 a
and
5 a.
is to
It is
subtracted,
convenient to change the sign of each expression which and then add the results.
19 a
he
We
then have
+ 5 a,
or
37 a.
EXERCISE 9
Subtract the following
1.
:
9 from
3.
4.
5.
'''e.
5
from
12.
Y.
8. 9.
y^2.
3.
42 from
15.
 28
from
 61.
v*12.
a?
13.
14 a
^^a^
4
g^
8a
15.
16.
11a;
6c.
15 mn  1 mn
12 x'y
7 x'y
5 6c from
xyz from
19.
 8 xyz.
'
20.
21. 22.
17.
18.
25
a^x^
from 13 ax\
26
23.
ALGEBRA
From
the
sum sum
of
18 ab and
9ab
take the
sum
of
21 ab
24.
and 11
ab.
From
the
of
13 n^
and 24
n^ take the
sum sum
of
46 n^ and
19 n^.
the
aj?/^,
sum
and
47
of 16 xy^
ic^/^.
and 37
a;?/^
take the
of
SUBTRACTION OF POLYNOMIALS
may be regarded as the sum we have the following rule
:
Since a polynomial
of its
the sign
of each of
its
terms,
Subtract 7 a^^
_ 9 a'b \Sb^
from 5
a^
 2 a'b
\ 4.
ab\
subtrahend under the minuend, so that similar terms shall be in the same vertical column. We then mentally change the sign of each term of the subtrahend, and
It is
add the
result to the
minuend
thus,
4:
,6a^2a^b +
ah^
Subtract the
sum
of 9x^
Sx{x^
and d
is
a^ + x
from
and
6a;37ic4.
We change the sign of each expression which add the results. ^ ^ a; 4 6x^ 7 x^9 xl+ 8 X
6
aj3
to be subtracted,
+ x'^ x5 _ 8 x2 9
10
EXERCISE
Subtract the following:
1.
aj^
2.

3.
4 13
a?
11
3a^\6x5
2 m^ 4 mn 9n^ 8m^ 7 mn +, 14 n^
ab \bc + ca ab bc^ ca
27
5.
6.
7.
From Sx + 2y 7z subtract Sx 2y\7z. From 4:a^ 5a^ 15a6 take a^ 120,' 3a
+ ll.
From
7a 9c 6
subtract
5c + 12 a 85.
8.
9.
10.
V 11.
12.
+ 6 a^?/ 4 11 9 xry + 14: xy^ Sy^? Take 8 a  12 a^^ + 6 aft^  6^ from a^6 o?h + 12 a^^ _ 8 h\ What expression must be added to 3 a^ + 5 By how much does 2 m 4 m^ 15 + 17 m^ exceed 9 + 6 m^ 11 m 14 m^ ?
By how much
does 15
or^
a??/^
2/^
exceed Sx^
a?
to give
13.
14.
15.
From
+ 15 ar^ 18 subtract ~2x' 13 + 41 Take 3 616 d + 7 a 10c from 13chl4 a5d^9 Subtract 12a; 7^6?/ from lln + 3m 8a;.
a?
ix^.
6.
v'le.
17. 18. 19.
From
7r5+20 7i3+13n
take
914
71^
+16ii+5
rz^.
From fa tV^ + to^ subtract ia + 6 fc. Subtract 15 a 21^2 + 17 from 12d' + 22a^9a
Take a^Qo? Ua^Sa\4:
from 7a^
+ 3a'^5a2lla9. \7i\^p take fm J7i + Jj9. ^m From n^10A'nV + 8wa;=^ + 3a;4 ^1. take 5 n^ + 4 n^a;  9 n^a;^ + 2n:x? 12 a;^ 22. Take 18a;*8a; + 6a;^ + 128a;3 from 10a;3^215a;2 + llar^4a;.  10 a%'' + 13 a'W  7 ah'' 5 b' 23. Take from 9 (f + 3 a'b + 6 r///  a^fts _ ig 5 xy  ?/ and 7 x^ 3xy\9y^ ^ 4. From the sum of 2 ^ Ql subtract 4x^ 6xy{S y^. O' ^ 25. From 5 a^ 1. subtract the sum of 4 a^ and 3 a
20.
From
a^
55^
.r
'^
"*.
28
26.
ALGEBRA
From 7x 5z~3y
and
subtract the
4tX.
sum
of S y
\
2x
11 z
27.
28.
29.
6z~12y + 6 n 11 subtract the sum of 2 4 n 3, 77i2107i + 4, and 3n2 + 8n12. From the sum of 36 + 2a4c and 9G\3b~5d subtract the sum of 6 7 a and 8a 7d + 9& + 5c. From the sum of 4al + 5a^8a^ llda'+Sa^T a,
From
671^
r^^
c?
and
3a^7+10aa^
subtract
30.
a*^
+ 9 a 6 a^ + 2.
3a^10a;5
From
the
sum
of 7 a^4.x^\Gx and
take the
PARENTHESES
50. Removal of Parentheses.
By
45,
a+
(6
c) = a + 6
c.
Hence, parentheses preceded by a \ sign may he removed without changing the signs of the terms enclosed.
Again, by
may
{
be
to
removed if
the sign
, and from
to
^.
rules apply equally to the removal of the brackets,
The above
braces, or
( 12). It should be noticed in. the case of the latter that the sign apparently prefixed to the first term underneath is in reality
vinculum
thus, 4 a
ab
same as
6 means (a b).
the same as
61.
1.
Eemove
2a36(5a4 6)4(4a6).
By
the rules of
50,
2a3&5a + 46 + 4a6 = a.
29
may
by the rules of 50. Beginners should remove one at a time, commencing with the innermost pair but after a little practice, they should be able
in succession
;
removed
to
at
{ 2 x x a)\.
then the parentheses, and finally the
We
braces.
first,
Thus,
Simplify the following by removing the signs of aggregation, and then uniting similar terms
:
1.
2.
Z.
4.
5.
6.
^7.
*8.
9.
m + ( 4 m + 6 2x^y[px + y]+\^xly\. a62c + 2abc ^2bc. 4.y^2x'l4.x^7xy + 5y^^ + (Sx^9xy). Sa^5abl4.a'{2ab9b^7a'6ab + b\ 5a(7a[9a + 4]).
9
?i)
(3 m n).
10.
^11.
12.
/13.
2a(3b\clab])(Sa\2c[^2b{ScJ).
30
14.
ALGEBRA
15.
16. 17. 18. 19.
(56 28
m (3 n +
71
71
20. 21.
22.
3a[6(467c)f2a(365c)66 + cn.
To
enclose
rules of 50.
may
may
Any mimber
by a
of terms
or fiom
to
\.
Ex.
parentheses preceded by a
Result,
b + c d\e
in
sign.
e).
{c\d
12
EXERCISE
In each of the following expressions, enclose the last three terms in parentheses preceded by a sign
:
1.
a b c\d.
5. 6.
7.
"2.
3. 4.
m3
+ 2?7i2 + 3m + 4.
x'^xhjxy''7f.
x'^2xy^7f + 3x4.y.
a2462 + l269.
+ l.
31
in
by a
sign.
Coeffi
To add two
or
of a
certain letter, with literal, or numerical and literal, coefficients, it is convenient to put the coefficient of this letter in parentheses.
1.
Add ax and
x.
Bji 40,
ax\2x
(2
(a
2)x.
'
2.
Add
n)ij
m + n)y
3 7i)y
and (m
3 n)y.
(2
m+
+ (m 
down
Subtract (b
48,
c)a^ from
ax2
ax^.
By
(6
c)a;2
50).
EXERCISE
Add
1.
the following
bx.
cc^.
ax and
4.
5.
y 2.
3
.
VQ.
2 bx from 3 ax.
9.
aa;^/.
mny from
V 11.
a6?/,
10.
+ g)a;
from
ma;.
(2
3
b)y^
from
(5 a
 4 b)y\
32
ALGEBRA
IV.
and
25^
(+ a) X (+ &)= + ab,
(a)x({b) =
ab,
we may
state
:
From
these results
TJie product of two terms of like sign of two terms of unlike sign is 7iegative.
is
55.
We
have by
54,
( a) X (
6)
X (
c)
= (ab) x ( c) = abc
;
(1)
(1),
( a) X (
6)
= abcd',
etc.
That is, the product of three negative terms is negative the product of four negative terms is positive and so on. ^ In general, the product of any number of terms is positive or
;
;
is
even or odd.
56. The
Let
it
By
and
lly
Whence,
a^
= a X a X a, a^ = axa. a^ = a X a x a x a x a =
a""
a'^.
We
Let
will
it
now
be required to multiply
by
a",
where
m and n
are
38
We
and
have
a'^^axax
a''
to
m factors,
n
factors.
?
Then,
(r
a''
= axax =a x ax
, is
" to
to
m+
factors
= "*+".
read ''and so
ony)
^tlence, the exponent of a letter in the product is equal to its exponent in the multiplicand plus its exponent in the multiplier.
This
is
called the
Law
similar result holds for the product of powers of the same letter.
Thus,
a^xa^x
a'
= a^+'*+^ = a^.
MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS
57.
1.
Let
it
be required to multiply 7 a by
2 5.
By
31,
7
_,26=(2)x&.
a x ( 2
Then,
6)=
7 7
a x
(
2)
&
=
In the above solution,
ivritten in
x(2)x
a X
6=14a&.
(54)
we assume
any order.
called the
This
is
proof for
2.
(
2 a^h^,
6 ab^, and
7 a^c,
 2 a^b^) X
Q ab^ X
(
7 a^c)
6^
6^
We
number
monomials
>^To the product of the numerical coefficients ( 30, annex the letters ; giving to each an exponent equal to
its
sum
of
34
3.
ALGEBRA
Multiply
Ba^bhj S
5
aW.
(4.
a%) X
8 ah^)
40 a^+i^i+s
^ 40 a^^i,
n^,
3 n^,
and 2 w^
3 w6) X 2 w*
=  24 ^2+6+4. =  24 n".
5.
Multiply x'^hj 7 x\
6.
Multiply 6
6
c
(?.
+ ny by
7
(m
+ nf= 42 (m +
14
w)^
(m + ny X
(m +
w)^
EXERCISE
Multiply the following:
1.
a;''
by 4
a;2.
V 9.
10.
HI.
1^12.
a.^?/.
15
6V by
a^ft^
1^
13.
v6.
7.
^8.
14.
15.
+ 5)^ by 6(a + &)'  6 aV/ by 11 x^zK  2 a^ft^n by  5 a"^6^. 14 xPy""^ by 8 4 m^  7 m^ and  3 m\ 2 a^ 6 6^ and  8 c^
9(a
a;*?/*^.
(aj
a^^6,
ft^c"*,
and cV^.
17.
V 18.
y
19.
20.
21.
a'^^'^c^ 16.  5 a^y,  9^V, and z'x x^, 6 and 4 2  3 a%  5 5^c,  2 c^a, and  a^ftV. 3 mhi^a?, 4 mhi^y^, 5 m^o^y'^, and 6 Ay.  WPd',  a'^d^, and  0. a2"tc^ 2 mx^, 3 my, 5 iiV, and 4 n^?/*. m^Ti^,
a)^,
aj'',
aj^.
we assumed
+6
by
was
+ he.
35
We
nomial by a monomial
V Multiply
add
Ex.
(2a;2_5x+7)x(8a:3)
EXERCISE
Multiply the following
/I.
2.
:
15
5a;12 by 7 x.
10 a^b ^7 ah' by
5.
8a;^
by 6x^\5x17.
6ab\
by
6.
7.
4:a^b^ by
7
x'^y^''
3a^2ahib\
by 3xhf.
^. x^ 4:X^y^ + 4:y^
,4.
Sm^'m^S
k
9.
by
xYl 5m^
7i^
S x^y"
e,
8.
6a^4a^5a^ by 9a^
m^n + 8
2
a'b'
^ 10.
by
kll. 9?i2_62n357i
/12.
by
3n^
bo^2x'y{4.xy''3f hy llxy.
Let
it
As
in 40,
we multiply
(a
a\b by
c,
d,
to the first;
\
We then
add
36
60.
1.
ALGEBRA
Multiply 3 a
46
by 2 a 5b.
In accordance with the rule, we multiply 3 a 5 &, and add the partial products.
ib
by 2
a,
and then by
is
shown below,
similar terms
3a 4& 2a 5b
6a2 Sab
6 a2
 15 a5 + 20 62 _ 23 a6 + 20 h^
verified
Multiply 4 aa^
+ a^ Sa^ 2a^x
hj 2x
+ a.
convenient to arrange the multiplicand and multiplier in the same order of powers of some common letter ( 43), and write the partial
It is
products in the same order. Arranging the expressions according to the descending powers of a, ^^^^
we
a32a2x + 4ax28a;3
a
a*
+2x
 2 a^x + 4 a'^x^  8 ax^ 2 a^x  4 a2y2 + Sax^16 x*
o^
16x*
EXERCISE
Multiply the following
:
16
VI.
2. 3.
V^4.
5.
6.
+ 8 by 5a;?/4. m 3 by m + 3. m^ a^ a 12 by a 7.
10a;?/
4.m^h9n^6m7ihj3n{2m.
10.
/ 11.
iai6byiai6.
x 4:yhjx^{4:xy
+ 16 y^.
37
13.
14.
15.
16.
+ & + c by a 6 3 m 5 m^ by 6 m^ 4 5 m\ "  4 + 2 _ n3 by 2 + 8 2ci23a + 5by a2 + a2. + 1 by 7(m + w) 2. 6(m + n)2  5(m +
a
c.
{4:
71
7i2
71.
ii)
17.
18. 19.
2ar^3aj2_5^_jLby
2
3a.'5.
6x\2af\Shy 4:\x^3x.
^20.
21.
*
22.
23.
9aj
+ 2a;2_5by4 + 3.r27a;.
j3n4rhy9n'5n 6.
10 n'
^24.
x^p+'^y
a^
xhf
by
a^^i'i
+ ^/^"^
62.
25. 26.
V
27. 28.
29.
30.
+ 2a26 + 2a62 + &'by a22a& + m^  3 m^ + 9 m^  27 m + 81 by m + 3. 3(a + &)'2(a + ?>)+l by 4(a + 6)2(a + 5) + 5. 3 + aV7a4a2by a + a27. 8 m' + 12 mhi + 18 m^i^ + 27 by 2 m^^i  3 innK 4 a'^+'b'  3 a'b'' by a^+'b  2 a6"\.
71^
V'31.
32.
a^2cv'Jr6a5hya'2a{10.
5a;*6a:^4a^ + 2ic3by 3a;2.
m^'
V33. 4
+ 6 m^n  5 7^71^3 yf by 3
wo?
771^
+ 2 mri  tiI
'
'^
35.
mx + my nx ny by
my + nx ny.
36. 37.
^
38.
+ 3 a'x + 3 ax + a^, a^6a;?/ + 9/by 0^390^2^ + 27 a;?/227 c^ by a'" 6" + a"' +
a^
2/3.
Z)'*
a^3a'x + 3ax'a^hj
c^.
38
39.
40.
ALGEBRA
41.
42.
a^2a'6aj3hj2d'a6.
by
im
fm^fml
a
+ im.
43.
44.
+ 3,
4 4,
and
a 5.
45. 46.
^47.
48. 49.
m^
8 nK
771
7>i
0^
.T
a;
+ 2&,
3a45, and3a2a6862.
7n
50.
51.
V52.
61.
+ + 2, a2, a + 3, 3al,
722
71
same power
If the product has more than one term involving the of a certain letter, with literal, or numerical and
literal, coefficients,
we put
theses, as in
53.
Ex.
Multiply x^
x^
ax bx + ab
by x a.
ax
xa
39
4.
V^ 5.
:k? \
6.
7.
8.
mx nx mn by xp. hx cx\hc by x a. ax hx Z ah hj X h. x^ + ax + 2bx\2 ab by x + 5 gaj 5 j)g by 3ax bx\8ab by + 2 a. x' mx ^nx mn by x\'dn.
x^
x'^
{
\
c.
ic^
2>a;
a?
r.
ic^
cc
4:
4:
^9.
10. 11.
}/ 12.
{ah)x3ab hj 2x(ab).
ic^"
c.
(a
 2)x  a.
^a?. Simplify {a2 xf 2{3 a^x){ax). yC.62. To simplify the expression, we first multiply a 2 aj by itself
2,
3a
x,
and a
( 11)
we
x,
from the
a
first.
3a +
a
aj
40
4.
5. 6.
ALGEBRA
^
7.
3x{5y + 2z)]\Zx{by2z)].
8.
9.
/
10. 11.
ix^^y + \z)\
2x2+(3^l)(4.T + 5)][5x2(4a; + 3)(aj2)].
12.
13. 14.
15.
16.
^17.
^
18.
+ 2 &  c  3 c^)l a  2)(a + 3)  (a  3)(a + 4)  (a  4)(a + 5). + 2) (2  1) (3  4)   2) (2 4 1)(3 + 4).   ^)] [^  (^ 2/)]^{ya  h) {o? + [a(a \h) + a + 62c)2(& + c2a)2+(c + a26)2.
a
aj ic
aj
(a;
a;
a;
2^)] [2/
(^^
?>3)
Z)^].
#19.
20.
'
21. 22.
23.
24.
+ l)3+(2a;l)l + & + c)(a& 4 &c 4 ca) (a + b)(h + c)(c + a). aJr'2hf2{a + 2h){2a + h) + {2a + hf. x + y + zf3{y + z)(z + x)(x + y). aJ^hf + 3{a^rh)\ah) + ?>{a + h){ahf{{ahY
2aj
DEFINITIONS
monomial is said to be rational and integral when it number expressed in Arabic numerals, or a single letter with unity for its exponent, or the product of two or more such numbers or letters.
63.
is
either a
&
6, is
rational
and
integral.
41
A
term
polynomial
is
is
said to be rational
;
rational
and integral
as
2 a^ a6 + cl
letter
64. If a term has a literal portion which consists of a single with unity for its exponent, the term is said to be of the
fifbt degree.
Thus, 2 a
is
and integral monomial ( 63) is of the lirst degree which are multiplied
3 a%^, being equivalent
;
&
&
5, is
etc.
The degree cf a rational and integral monomial equals the sum of the exponents of the letters involved in it.
Thus,
a6V
is
of the
eiglith
degree.
is
and integral polynomial of its term of highest degree. degree 3c d'^ is of the third Thus, 2 a^h degree.
of a rational
The degree
the
65. Homogeneity.
Homogeneous terms are terms of the same degree. Thus, a^, 3 bh, and 5 x^y'^ are homogeneous terms.
A polynomial
homogeneous ;
is
said to be
homogeneous when
its
terms are
as a^ 4 3 &^c 4 xyz.
66. If the multiplicand and multiplier are homogeneous, the product will also be homogeneous, and its degree equal to the sum of the degrees of the multiplicand and multiplier.
The examples
the third,
first,
thus,
and of
respectively.
possible, apply the prinhomogeneity to test the accuracy of algebraic work. Thus, if two homogeneous expressions be multiplied together, and the product obtained is not homogeneous, it is evident that
ciples of
the work
is
not correct.
42
ALGEBRA
V.
67.
We
one of two numbers, when their product and the other number
are given.
The Dividend is the product of the numbers. The Divisor is the given number. The Quotient is the required number.
68. The Rule of Signs.
is
the equations of
54
may
and
+^ = 6.
a
we may
The quotient of two terms of like sign of two terms of unlike sign is negative.
69. Let
is
 = x,
(1)
quotient,
Then, since the dividend is the product of the divisor and we have a = hx
Multiply each of these equals by
ac
c
(Ax.
7, 9),
= hex.
he as the divisor,
and x as the
may
be written
Prom
That
(1)
and
(2),
=
^.
(Ax.
4, 9)
(3)
43
The Law
it
of
Let
be required to divide a^ by al
og^,
Cancelling the
a^axaxaxaxa
a^
ax
factor a
common
a^
a^
xa
( 69),
o
we have
= a xaxa = a^.
We
Let
will
it
now
be required to divide
by
a",
where
m is
greater than n.
_a
X a Xa X
to
to
m
?i
factors
a**
a X a X a X
factor
factors
factors,
Cancelling the
common
a""
axaxax"ton
torn
^ = axaxax
Hence,
exponent
% factors = a"*"".
m the dividend,
minus
its
This
is
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
71.
1.
Let
'
it
be required to divide
14a^6 by
7a^.
By857
14a25
7a2
^ (_2)x7xa2x&
7xa2
or
Cancelling the
common
factors 7
and
( 69),
we have
Then
To
minus
the
two monomials
coefficients
the quotient
of
the
numerical
annex
the letters,
giving to each
its
an exponent equal
to its
same exponent in
exponent in the divisor, ajid omitting any the dividend and divisor.
having
44
2.
ALGEBRA
Divide 54
a'h^c'
by
 9 a^6l
=  6 a54c2 =  6 ac2.
54 a663c2
3.
9 a*63
Divide
2x'^'^y''z''
by
'"i/V.
4.
Divide 35 (a
 hj by
7 (a
6)^
EXERCISE
Divide the following
1.
:
19
30by5.
4.
5.
64by8.
7. 8.
H^y^.
21
a^^
2.
 42
by
6.
 135 by  9.
176 by 11.

by 3 a^
3.
48 by 4.
6 a^Y" by
6.
10.
^11.
 a^y^\
3 (a 5)2.
18.
19.
9 (a
6^ by
by
12.
13. 14.
xifz^
2/^.
15. 16.
72a;yby6a;y.
 40 a^h'c' by  8 he.
90ai^ajby
63mVby7mV.  28 a^6V by 2 6V. a"+i6'*+3 by  a6^  55 afyh''' by  11 yh\  70 a^6V by 14 a5V.  32 by  8 V 96 a^"^Y by 12 aj^'+V52 a^^ftV^ by  4 a'h(^.
9.
x^Py''^'a;
17.
9aV.
25.
= 4,
= 5,
and
= 3of:
10 a6
c(^
2g
ftir
8ac
*
6d
2ft
CT44&
^^^y^
3c4d*
13 a
c + 4d*
c
(?
45
We have,
we may regard
(a
is
ac
the product of the divisor and quotient be as the dividend, c as the divisor,
and a
+&
as the quotient.
Whence,
^^^^ = a + 6.
c
Hence, to divide a polynomial by a monomial, we divide each term of the dividend by the divisor, and add the results.
Ex. Divide 9
a^b^ ^a''c\
12
a^bc^
by
 3 a\
9 a252  6 g^c + 3 ^2
12 a%c^
^ _ 3 5. ^ ^ aH A abcK
EXERCISE 20
Divide the following
V
:
1.
'.
2.
3.
24 mV + 33 mn^
36 xhjz^ 9
54 a^^V
by
3 mn^.
9
3^y.
xyz^ 27 ix^yh^hy
4.
.
 60 a^6V by 6 a6V.
5.
6.
*
7. 8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
'^IS.
32a;^5
84
14.
+ 24a;i3_4g^n_4o^9]^y _8aj8^  108 xyz^  48 a^y^^ by 12 xyz\ a^^6'c*'' a^b'^(^'  a^b^^'c^'' by a^c^\ 30 d^%i^7i^ 60 a^m^n^ 45 a%n^ by 15 dimn?.
aj2/'2;'
46
ALGEBRA
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY POLYNOMIALS
73.
Let
it
c.
a;2
43
be required to divide 12
+ 10 x^ 11 21
a;
ic^
]3y
Arranging each expression according to the descending powers of x ( 43), we are to find an expression which, when 3 a? 4, will produce the multiplied by the divisor, 2 a^ 10 a?  21 aj^  11 a; + 12. dividend, It is evident that the term containing the highest power of X in the product is the product of the terms containing the highest powers of x in the multiplicand and multiplier. Therefore, 10 ic^ is the product of 2 x'^ and the term containing the highest power of x in the quotient. Whence, the term containing the highest power of x in the quotient is 10 x^ divided^ by 2 .x^, or 5 x. Multiplying the divisor by 5 x, we have the product 10 a^ 15 a^ 20 aj which, when subtracted from the divi 6 a;^ + 9 x + 12. dend, leaves the remainder This remainder must be the product of the divisor by the rest of the quotient therefore, to obtain the next term of the 6 a^^ + 9 a? + 12 as a new dividend. quotient, we regard Q>x'^, Dividing tlie term containing the highest power of x, by the term containing the highest power of x in the divisor, 2 aj2, we obtain 3 as the second term of the quotient. 3, we have the product Multiplying the divisor by 6 + 9 aj + 12 which, when subtracted from the second dividend, leaves no remainder.
; ;
a.^
Hence, 5
a;
3 is
lOa^^
3 4,
a;
Divisor.
47
and
divisor in the
of some common letter. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and ivrite the result as the first term of the quotient. Multiply the ivhole divisor by the first term of the quotient, and
subtract the product from the dividend.
If there be a remainder, regard it as a new dividend, and, proceed as before; arranging the remaiyider in the same order
of powers as the divideyid and divisor.
1.
Divide
5 a2&
9 a52 _
a?
2 a6
+ 3 52
48
5.
'
ALGEBRA
a^Sb^ by a 2b.
28n2 + 34n12 by 7n\2.
64ar^
6.
7.
V 8.
+ 27/
by
4aj
+ 3?/.
by 3(a;2/)+4.
6(xyy7(xy)20
9.
vlO.
11.
12. 13.
14.
25mV36 by 6 + 5mn. 25a^?/ + 12a?* + 12a^?/2 by 3a;24a;2/. 1877i317ma^6aj3 by 3m + 2a;. 2n26 + 5n3197i by 871 + 5^23. 12413i219a;12ar^by 3aj24 + y^ 2yz z^hjx y
x'^
a;.^
z.
15. 16.
17.
8a + 9a*l16a2 by l3a24a.
m^ ^m I by
18.
m +
i
vl9.
20.
^^'21.
2x3_io_6^_.^4^^]!
^.
by
2{a;2ic.
a4256
m^
6^
by
a4 6.
n'^
22.
23. 24.
7 mV +
by m^ + 3
mw + n\
81a:^l by l+3a;.
6a346a^8a23a2 by 2a + 3.
{x^yy9(xhyy + 27(x\y)2T by (x + y)3. 36a;2_i.4a;412aj by 2:2^1 + 6a;.
^25.
26.
27.
10aa225 + 16a^
by 5
+ 4a2a.
by Sn^ + 4:n}l.
3 x^
{ y"".
28.
,29.
30.
.
by
 2 xy
{
31.
+ 37aj535 + 20a;^15a;2
]^y
_5 + 4a;29
a;.
49
243n^
a;^
33.
34.
by
(x\4:f.
60n^\127n'{2Un336 by
 12
rr'
+ 11 n + 66.
35.
V36. a2'"+^5"42a2+3^2n+l_^^2m+552n+2
37.
a^ft"!
+ a'+25n
38. 39.
'
40.
.41.
42.
k43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
,
49.
50. 51.
52.
+ T6^'6V&' ^>y ii&. 5a^ + 2433a;2 + l0aj + 3x4 by 4 + 3a;. a^ + S7a^70x + 50 by x22a; + 10. a^'+2 4 8 + 4 a^'^i. by af"'+^ _ 2 {Sa' + 5a2){2d'a6) by (3 al)(2a + 3). 63cc^ + 114ar^ + 49a^16a;20 by dx'^QxQ. a^+^52  a6^^+' by a^+^h^a+\ _ 55 _ 5 ^4^ 5 ^^4 _^ 10 a62 _ 10 a?h^ by a^633a26 + 3a6l 6?i^25n^ 47^3 + 81^12 + 3^28 by _2n35n2 + 8yi + 7. 23a^5i^12 + 12a^ + 8a;14a^ by a;2 + 3a^. 15a34a^15 + 8a5a2a4+3a2 by a + 4a33. 52x3 + 64 + 18a;^200.'K2 + by 6a^ 8 +a^12a;. 6^" 2 6"c^ c^^ by a'" a'" a6aV + 9a2n^47i^ by a^2 o?nan'' + 2n\ 3x^7a;^lla;^ + 5aj3 + 7a;2 4.5aj2 by 3a^a52. 5n3+6nri^8 + 6n+46n238n^
2V^'T2'^
a;^'"!
a^*"
a^
_l_
a;^
d**
c^.
by 257z24_3yi3_4^^^
53.
54.
^
V
55. 56.
fm^f m^. 9a^252/'402/21622 by 3a; + 52/ + 42!. 90 n*  143 n^  102 n^ + 131 n + 60 by (2 n  3)(5 n + 4). + a^'"^/^ + by a^"* aj*"/" +
by
a:*"
4m^2m3 + m2Jg
2/^
2/^^.
50
ALGEBRA
0?^
^57. 4
V
58.
 21 a^y + 21 xY  4
2/^
by (xy)(x2y){2x + y).
by (a2)2 + 8a.
a5
+ 32 + 10a(a3 + 8)+40a2(a + 2)
74. By 66, if the dividend and divisor are homogeneous, the quotient will be homogeneous, and its degree equal to the degree of the dividend minus the degree of the divisor. 75.
The operation
by the use
a;
of parentheses.
Ex.
x^
+ a.
+ (a +
&
c)x2
{ab
be cd)x
abc
x\'a
x2 4 (6
x^+
ih
(ft
r^
c)x2
c)x'^
 c)x 
be
+ {ah
abc
1.
x^ ](a
2.
3.
05^
c)ic^
c.
o^(a + b\c)x^\(ab}bc{ca)xabc by
j
x'^(b\c)x{bc.
4.
5.
.
6.
V
7.
m(m +
a?^
8.
9.
+ w^jaj + 7i(m n) by mic n. (m 2 n)x 2 m^ + 11 mn 15n^ by + m 3 n.  9 mTi  15 n^)x  (12 mn  9 n^) (2 m2 4 10 mn)x^ + (8 m^ 2 ma? 3 n. by
yi)^;^
(m^
a?
10.
a;3(3a + 264c)a;''^4(6a686c+12ca)a;24a5cbya;26.
51
VI.
76.
Any term
member
of an equation
is
called a
ic
7=
a
4 6.
An Integral Equation is one each of whose rational and integral expression ( 63) as,
;
members
is
78. An Identical Equation, or Identity, is one whose members are equal, whatever values are given to the letters involved as {a\h){ah) a?h\
;
The sign =, read "is identically equal of the sign of equality in an identity.
79.
to,''''
is
An
equation
is
said to be satisfied
it
by a
set of values of
when, on substituting the value of each letter in place of the letter wherever it occurs, the equation becomes identical. Thus, the equation x y = 5 is satisfied by the set of values 07 = 8, y = S; for, on substituting 8 for x, and 3 for y, the equar tion becomes 8 3 = 5, or 5 = 5; which is identical.
certain letters involved in
.
80.
or
An
Equation
of Condition is
more
letters, called
satisfied
only by particular values of these letters. 2 = 5 is not satisfied by every value Thus, the equation a; of X, but only by the particular value x = 3.
unknown num
52
81.
ALGEBRA
If an equation contains but one
value of the
satisfies
+ 2 = 5.
To
solve
an equation
is
82. If a rationaland integral monomial ( 63) involves a certain letter, its degree with respect to it is denoted by its
exponent. If it involves two letters, its degree with respect denoted by the sum of their exponents etc.
;
to
them
is
Thus, 2 aWx^y^ is of the second degree with respect to of the fifth with respect to x and y.
83.
If
x,
and
an integral equation
( 77)
known numbers,
the degree of
its
axby = c
aj2
ic
is
= 2, an equation of the second degree f 4 2x^3xy^ = 5, an equation of the third degree etc.
;
;
A Linear, or
Simple, Equation
is
an equation of the
first
degree.
Since the
we may
members of an equation are equal numbers, write the last four axioms of 9 as follows
:
1. TJie same number, or equal number's, may be added to both members of an equation imthout destroying the equality. 2. Tlie same number, or equal numbers, may be subtracted both members of an equation imthout destroying the equality. from 3.
the saine
53
( 84, 1),
\
we have
X= ca + a and b are
b.
said to be transposed
from the
first
member
to the second.
Hence, any term may be transposed from one equation to the other by chariging its sign.
86. It follows from
member of an
85 that
may
be cancelled.
ax=b
Multiplying
c.
(1)
we have
which
is
changed.
Hence, the signs of all the terms of an equation without destroying the equality.
88. Clearing of Fractions.
may
be changed,
X
3
5 = x
6
9 8
common
multiple of
16x30 = 20x27,
where the denominators have been removed.
Removing the
is
fractions
54
ALGEBRA
SOLUTION OF INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS
89. To we put it
unknown number,
finally leads to the
which
This process is called transforming the equation. Every transformation is effected by means of the principles of 84 to 88, inclusive.
90. Examples.
1.
7 = 3a; + l.
member, and
l.
first
we
5x3x = 7 +
2x
= 8. = 4.
2 ( 84, 4),
a;
To
cc
=4
20
Thus,
2.
12
which
is
identical.
5_3
6''"3~5''"4'
Clearing of fractions by multiplying each term by 60, the L. C. M. of
6, 3, 5,
and
4,
we have
70
a;
100
= 36 X 
15.
Transposing 36 x to the
70
first
a;
member, and
 36 X =
34 x
100  15.
Uniting terms,
= 85. = = .
34
Divided by 34,
3.
3
a:)
(3
+4
ic)
65
15 15
+
+
11 x
12
x'^
11 X
12 x2
31 x + 12 x^). = 62  7 + 31 X  12 x^
62
(7
Cancelling the
31 X
= 62 40.
 15.
Uniting terms,
Dividing
20 x =
x
by 20,
= 2.
is
To expand an
algebraic expression
From
we have
unknown number
Clear the equation of fractions, if any, by multiplying each term by the L. C. M. of the denominators of the fractional coefficients.
Remove
performing
all the
opera
tions indicated.
Transpose the unknown terms to the first member, and the to the second ; cancelling any term which has the same coefficient in both members.
known
of
the
divide both
members by
the coefficient
The
EXERCISE 23
Solve the following equations, in each case verifying the
answer
1.
8x + 7 = 95.
9x = 5xS2.
7a?
8. 9.
6x2S = 15xlS.
1913a; = 3129a;.
2. 3.
>4.
5.
6.
V7.
+ 15 = 2a; + 45. 10a;3 = 3a;38. 6a; + 13 = lla;7. 518a; = 8312a;. lla;3 = 4 + 3a;.
10.
11.
Ux51 = 27 x33.
13
+12 = 37 + 43.
a; a;
V12.
13. 14.
56
15.
16.
17.
ALGEBRA
17 a; 9
V18. 2x
^x + x = l(),
3
7
21.
V19.
^x ^x
24.
<^20.
57
1.
numbers
2.
x.
Every problem contains, explicitly or implicitly, just as many distiyict statements as there are unhiown numbers involved.
Use
3.
all
unknown num
bers in terms of
to
form an equation.
92. Problems.
1.
Divide 45 into two parts such that the less part shall be
the greater part and the less. suggestion of 91, we represent the greater
;
first
The first statement of the problem is, implicitly The sum of the greater part and the less is 45.
The second statement is The less part is onefourth the
:
greater.
In accordance with the second suggestion of 91, ment to express the less part in terms of x.
we
Thus, the
less part is
represented by 45
x.
state
accordance with the third suggestion, use the second ment to form an equation.
in
We now,
Thus,
58
ALGEBRA
Let X represent the number of dollars B had at first. Then, 2 x will represent the number A had at first.
Now
after giving
$28,
has 2
a;
 28
dollars,
and
+ 28
dollars
we then have
the equation
2a;28=:^(x + o
Clearing of fractions,
a;
28).
Expanding,
Transposing,
Dividing by 4,
and
3.
= 140. = 35, the number of dollars B had at first; x 2 X = 70, the number of dollars A had at first.
4
cc
is
as old as B.
3 times as old as B, and 8 years ago he was 7 times Eequired their ages at present.
X
Let
Then,
Also,
the
the
number
number number
number
7
and
Sx= x S= 3ft 8 =
the
the
Dividing by
number
number
Whence,
4.
the
A's age.
sum
coins, all
of money amounting to $4.32 consists of 108 dimes and cents how many are there of each kind ?
;
Let
X
108
= the number
of dimes.
Then,
x = the number
to 432 cents.
of cents.
But the
entire
sum amounts
Whence,
Transposing,
10 x + 108  x = 432.
Whence,
and
= 324. = 36, the number of dimes  X = 72, the number of cents. 108
9 x
59
The
difference of
2.
The sum
of
their difference
3.
by
4.
two numbers is 29, and the smaller exceeds Find the numbers.
is
J,
and difference
.
4.
The sum
of
two numbers
is
is
45.
as old.
6.
A
'
is
Find their
is
3 times as old as
ages.
as old.
Find their
J 7. A has 3 times as much money as B but after B gives him $9, he has 6 times as much as B. How much had each
at first?
8. man has 21 coins, all pieces, valued in all at $3.30.
9.
A is
will
25 years be t\^othirds
How many has he of each? of age, and B is 16. In how many years as old as A ?
^ 10. Divide 43 into two parts such that if the greater be added to 17, and the less to 30, the resulting numbers shall
be equal.
11.
Twice a certain number exceeds 35 by the same amount number exceeds 5. Find the number.
12. Divide $280 between A, B, and C so that A's share exceed  of B's by $96, and B's share exceed C's by $20. 13.
may
ago
is
is 18.
A man
has $4.10,
fivecent
?
all fivecent
fiftycent pieces;
How many
60
ALGEBRA
15. The sum of f and f a certain number exceeds f the number by . Find the number. 16.
If
give
room is f as long as it is wide; if the width were 17. increased by 1^ feet, and the length diminished by the same amount, the room would be square. Find its dimensions.
18.
The sum
is J.
ference
greater,
and their
dif
A boy buys a certain number of apples at 2 for 5 and double the number at 3 for 5 cents, and spent in
V 19.
cents.
20.
.
cents,
all
35
How many
buy
receive
Divide $320 between A, B, C, and D so that A may $ 35 more than B, C f 15 more than B, and D $ 25 less
than C.
21.
is
The sum
B's,
of the ages of A, B,
is
and C
is
f of
22.
and he
In a certain school the boys are 15 fewer than  of the whole, and the girls are 33 more than ^. How many boys, and
how many
I
girls, are
there ?
The sum of $900 is invested, part at 4%, and the rest 5%, per annum, and the total annual income is $42. How much is invested in each way ?
23.
at
1^24.
In 9 years
as old.
was I
25.
What
and
has f of a certain sum of money, B has ^5 C has f, has the remainder, $8. How much have A, B, and C ?
;
v/ 26.
bought 8 hens, 7 sheep, and 12 pigs for $ 269 each sheep cost U as much as each hen, and $3 less than each
pig.
A man
What
27.
61
by
40.
1^30. person attempting to arrange a certain number of counters in a square finds that he has too few by 12; but on reducing the number in the side of the square by 3, he has
21 left over.
31.
How many
has he
twice as
many
purse contains a certain number of 10shilling pieces, 5shilling pieces, and 5 times as many shillings,
How many
are
32. The square of the third of three consecutive numbers exceeds the product of the other two by 13. Find the numbers.
33.
shall be as
34.
Divide 39 into two parts such that 3 times the smaller much below 58 as twice the greater exceeds 38.
product
^
Find two numbers whose difference is 3, and whose is less by 33 than the square of the greater.
35.
the
The total "number of persons at a certain factory is 196; number of women is f the number of men, and  the num
ber of boys.
How many
room is twice as long as it is wide, and it is found 36. that 50 square feet of carpet, 1 foot in width, are required to make a border around it. Find its dimensions.
37.
cents,
A purse
$
5.74.
contains a certain
bills,
and ^ as many $ 1
being
38.
How many
starts to
starts to
time that
walk from P to Q, 12 miles, at the same walk from Q to P. They meet at the If A walks one mile an hour faster than B,
?
ceive
$ 10
Divide ^210 between A, B, C, and D so that B may reless than A, C y as much as B, and D  as much as A.
62
ALGEBRA
40. The sum of $ 32 is divided between 7 men, 8 women, and 16 children each child receiving J as much as each man, and each woman 75 cents more than each child. How much is received by each man, each woman, and each child ?
;
41. A boy had a certain number of marbles. He lost 6 of them, gave away ^ the remainder, and then found that he had 5 more than i of his original number. How many had he at first ?
.
42.
coins,
pieces and the other 10cent pieces. The second heap is worth 20 cents more than the first, and has 8 fewer coins. Find the
number
in each heap.
43. In an audience of 435 persons, there are 25 more women than men, and 3 times as many girls as men and the number of boys is less by 195 than twice the number of girls. Find
;
the
{.
number
of each.
uct of the
Find four consecutive odd numbers such that the prodfirst and third shall be less than the product of the second and fourth by 64.
44.
sum of money, amounting to $19.30, consists of $2 25cent pieces, and 5cent pieces. There are 13 more bills, 5cent pieces than $ 2 bills, and J as many 5cent pieces as
45.
25cent pieces.
46.
tively.
Two
A
as
certain
barrels contain 46 aijd 45 gallons of water, respecnumber of gallons are drawn from the first,
and I
many from
.
now
contains
as the first.
were drawn
tank containing 150 gallons can be filled by one pipe and emptied by another in 25 minutes. After the first pipe has been open a certain number of minutes, it is closed, and the second pipe opened; and the tank is emptied in 24 minutes from the time the first pipe was opened. How many minutes is each pipe open ?
in 15 minutes,
SPECIAL METHODS
63
VII.
93.
Power.
By
11,
(a'y
= a'xa'xa'=: a\
:
We will
integers.
now
where
"
We
have,
(a*")"
= ar xoT X
^m+m+'"
to
ton
n terms __ Qjnn
94.
Any Power
of
a Product.
By
11,
(ahf
= abxabxab = a^h\
:
We
will
now
where n
is
any positive
integer.
We haye,
factors
= a''6".
In like manner,
"y
= a'^b^'c^
abc*,
Any Power
of a
Monomial.
By
(5a4)3=[(5)xa4]3
= (2.
5)8
(4)8( 94)
=
125ai2(93).
We
m^Y =  2)*
(
x (m^)* x n*
16 m^^n^.
64
.
ALGEBRA
From 93 and 94 and
the examples of
95,
96.
we have
:
the following rule for raising a rational and integral monomial ( 63) to any power whose exponent is a positive integer
coefficient
letter
to
the
by the
teryn,
of a
7iegative
sign.
EXERCISE 25
(a^y*z'y.
5. 6.
7.
(Ta^b^^y.
9.
(a^b^cy.
2. 3.
4.
(m\^py\
(nV/)i.
{2m'x'y.
10. 11.
(a^^y^z^y\
(ab'cy.
(3mVa;)*.
(^llaffy.
8.
(~4:x'yzy.
12.
(2amV)^
97.
Square of a Binomial.
it
Let
a
a^
+b
+ ab
ab{b'
(1)
a\b
Whence,
That
of the
is,
(a \by = a^ + 2 ab + b\
the
square of
the
first, i^lus
the square
1.
of
the second.
Square 3 a
have,
(3 a
+ 2 &.
+
2 6)2
We
Let
(3
aY +
2(3 a) (2 h)
(2 6)2
= 9 a2 +
it
12 a6
62.
be required to square a
b.
SPECIAL METHODS
a
65
h
b
a
a^
ah
(2)
the
Whence,
That
is,
 a6 + h\ {ahf = a? 2 ah + h\
the square
first,
square of the
twice the product of the first by the second, plus the square of the second.
In the remainder of the work
ence of a and
minus
6"
to
we shall use the expression "the differdenote the remainder obtained by subtracting h from a.
also be derived
The
result (2)
may
a;^
by substituting
tion (1).
2.
Square 4
have,
5.
5)2
We
(4 x^
52
If the first term of the binomial is negative, it should be enclosed, negative sign and all, in parentheses, before applying
the rules.
3.
Square
 2 a^ + 9.
(2 a^
^ J^
"
We have,
9)2
'
Expand
1.
the following
13.
14.
(4.
:x? 11 yzy.
{5
ax
 12 byf.
15.
(_3 7i^Hl0ny.
(8a;^h9a;y.
(7
16.
17. 18.
a^m^ 13 6V)l
{e>oyy
11 xzf.
20.
{2a^~^a^)\
66
98.
ALGEBRA
Product of the
it
Sum
and Difference
of
Two Numbers.
Let
be required to multiply a
+b
by a b.
a+b ab
<j?
+ ab
abb^ b\
.
Whence, (a + &)((^&) = a^
That
is,
the
of their squares.
Multiply
the rule,
(6
6a + 563 by 6a56l
5 63)
By
5 63) (6 a
(6 a)2
(5 63)2
= 36 a2 _ 25 66,
2.
Multiply
a^ + 4 by
a;2
x^L
4)
(_
+ 4) (
x2
3.
Expand
(x
{x\y\z){x
z) (X
y\z).
z)
+y+
 y'\
4.
(7a + 2b)(7a2b).
N3.
4.
2.
(9m2H4)(9m24).
8 +8 (3 a^ (a3 + 6)(a36).
(3
a;^
^/^^^
2/;^^.
SPECIAL METHODS
5.
67
12 b'c)(5 a' 12 bh).
(llm'{5n')(llm'5n').
7.
(5 a'
\
10.
w 11.
12.
m%  13 a^). 13. (1 +a 6)(1 a + (ab + c)(abc). + x\l)(af^xl). ^'14. (a2 + 3a+l)(a23a4l). 15. + + 3)   3). (x + y^z){xyz). 16. + + 2/0 (a^  + 2/^. 17. .(a' + 5a4)(a25a + 4).
'
9.
(10 m*7i+ 13
a^)
( 10
2>).
(^x'
(a;
2/
(a;
2/
(aj^
aj2/
a;?/
18. 19.
(42_^3^_7)(^4^_3^_7>)^
(m^
+ 5mV + 2nO(m^5mV2%^).
Binomials having the Same First Term.
99.
Product of
it
Two
Let
be required to multiply x
+a
hj x +
b.
x\a
68
3.
ALGEBRA
Multiply ab
coefficient of
last
ab
4:
The The
is
the
by ab{7. sum of
4 and
7,
7,
or
3.
term
is
the product of
4 and
a^b"^
or
28. 28.
Whence,
4.
(ab
4) (a&
7)
+ 3 a6 
Multiply a;2 + 6 2/^ by x^\Sy\ The coefficient of x^ is the sum of 6 y^ and 8 y^, or 14 y^. The last term is the product of 6 y^ and 8 y^, or 48 y^.
Whence,
{x^
6 y^) {x^
+ 8y^) = x*^
14 x^y^
48 ^.
EXERCISE 28
inspection
(x
+ 3)(x +
4:).
12.
3.
(x2)(x{5).
(a
+ 8a;)(a49a;).
(xll)ixl).
13.
(a;92/)(aJ52/).
^4.
V 5.
6.
,J7.
(a7)(a + 2).
14.
%,
15.
16. 17.
18.
(ar^'
(a;2)(a;''6).
(a'" + 10)(a'" + 2).
(a^9b%a' }Sb').
(mn14.xy)(mn^xy).
8.
9.
(m7i7)(m7i3).
(ab + l){abS).
of
V19.
20.
(m7i3)(m 7l4ll)
(a^^
VlO.
+ 11 c3)(a26 12 c^).
100. Product
Two Binomials
:
of the
Form mx + n and px + g.
We
find
by multiplication
mx{n
px\q
X
4f
mpx^
npa;
mqx\nq
SPECIAL METHODS
69
The first term of this result, mpx^, is the product of the first terms of the binomial factors, and the last term, ng, the product of the second terms.
The middle term, (np \ mq)x, is the sum of the products of the terms, in the binomial factors, connected by cross lines.
Ex.
The The
or
Multiply 3aj
first
+ 4by2a; 5.
x"^.
term
is
coeflicieiit of
(
20.
5)
that
is,
815,
7.
The
last
term
is
5,
or
Whence,
(35c + 4)(2a;
5)
= 6x2 
7ic  20.
EXERCISE 29
inspection
9.
+ 6)(3a; + 2).
(2aa;3)(5aa;
+ 6).
2 y),
2.
{2x^l){lxl).
(2a;5)(4aj + 3).
10.
11.
12. 13.
(3x^2n)(10xn).
(4.
3.
4.
 ^ y){^ x
\
(4a3)(5a3).
(7a 2m)(7a4m).
(6a;"
5. 6.
7.
+ 2)(57i2).
14. 15.
(2a2l)(lla24)
(5a;^ + 6)(6a;4 + l).
8.
16.
{^ax^hy){^ax + nhy).
17.
18.
[6(m4w)5][(m + ri)2].
[3(a&)+4][4(a6)3].
division^
101.
We find by

= a5. ao
That
is,
~ = a + 6.
If the difference
of the squares of two numbers he divided by the the quotient is the difference of the numbers.
70
ALGEBRA
If the difference of the squares oftivo numbers be divided by the difference of the numbers, the quotient is the sum of the numbers.
1.
Divide 25 2/V
96,
9hj5yz^ 3.
;
By
26 y^z^
is
then,
by the second
rule,
2.
Divide
the
x^
(yzy by
^^
x + (y
z).
y
By
first rule,
+ z.
^1.
S6a'p121b*'
225ai2_i00 6i8
SPECIAL METHODS
If
the difference
71
differeiice
of the cubes of two numbers be divided by the of the numbers, the quotient is the square of the first
number, plus
the product of the first by the second, plus the square of the second number.
1.
Divide l
96, 8 a^
is
+ Sa^
by l
+ 2a.
;
By
the cube of 2 a
then,
by the
^
first'
rule,
l+2a
2.
64. y^
hj 3x^4. f.
By
3x24^/3
3x24?/3
^^
^^^
^^
= 9 X* + 12 xV + 16
2/.
EXERCISE
31
^1.
^!A'.
a^
+ 62' +5
11
27a^125i/
3x^5y
*
7mw42p
^g
64a^6^
64a;^"l
+ 216c^
jQ
cc22/4_23
343 m + n
'
Im^ + n
division,
^^g 729aV4512y
'
da^x + Sy""
103.
We
find
by actual
a*b'
72
ALGEBRA
a+b
^'~^'
a
a'
+ a'b\a'b' + ab^\b';
etc.
In these
I.
results,
The exponent of a in
its
1 than
the first term of the quotient is less by exponent in the dividend, and decreases by 1 in each
succeeding term.
II.
Tlie exponent
is 1,
and
increases by 1
III.
If the divisor
ab,
all the
positive;
alternately positive
and
negative.
Divide a^
b''
hj a b.
By
a
2.
b
16x*Sl hj 2x{S, 16 x^  81 ^ _(2 .)4 3^ 2a: + 3 2x + S = (2 x)3  (2 x)2
Divide
have,
We
=8
a;3
12
a:2
4.
+ 2 X 32  33 18 X  27.
.
EXERCISE 32
Find, without actual division, the values of the following
1
:
^*
~ ^* ab
'
^!^ll. x 1
oif
'
sc^
^ + y^'
m + n'
+ a'
^^
a'
be''
74
ALGEBRA
VIII.
105.
FACTORING
is
To
to find
two
or
more
expressions which,
when multiplied
we
given expression.
In the present chapter
consider only the separation of rational and
integral expressions ( 63), with integral numerical coefficients, into factors of the same form.
A Common
which
106. It
Factor of
is
an expression
is not always possible to factor an expression there however, certain forms which can always be factored; these will be considered in the present treatise.
;
are,
107. Case
mo7i factor.
1.
I.
When
the terms
we have 2b^
7 ab^ (2 62
5 a\
Then,
2.
14 a6*
35 a%^
0.2
_ 5 ^2).
Factor (2
m 4 3)
+ (2 m 43)^.
m + S)y^=(2m + 3)
+ y^).
The terms have the common binomial factor 2 m + 3. Dividing the expression by 2 m + 3, we have x^ + y^.
Then,
3. (2
m + 3) x2 +
(2
{x^
Factor {a
52,
b)m\(b a) n.
ba= (a 6). m ^ (b  a) n = (a  b) m b)
:
By
Then,
(a
(a
 b)n
= (ab) {mn).
We may
= {ba)n
(b
a)
m = {ba)(n' wi).
FACTORING
4.
75
Factor
= a(^x 5y Sx Sy)
I
=a(2x8y)=2aix4:y).
EXERCISE 33
63x^54:x\
5.
6.
l
(a2)b*{a~2yd'.
2.
3.
a'5a'2a'\3a\
m^n^ + m V mn\ _ 40 24 _^ 55 ^Y
a:^^^^
7.
+ 5)m+ (3 x + 5). + m) (m
(3
a;
^i)
(a;
?/)
(ri
2;.
4.
3,2^^2
8.
a(a^2) \3(2a^.
^'9.
(a?
2/)
(m 4 ^)
(ic
+
(a
2/)
w).
^10.
13.
14.
15.
+ m)23(a + m).
aj2(52/2;2) a^(22/
2;).
(mny{2m(mny.
3a2"+^7a''+2^
17.
V
+ a".
18. 19.
(ab)(m'\xz){ab)(m^yz).
The terms of a polynomial may sometimes be arranged as to show a common binomial factor; and the
108.
pression can then be factored as in
1
.
107.
Factor ab
107,
ay + bx a^.
ay
By
ab
2^).
ah
ay \hx
xy =
{a
x)(b
y).
Factor a3
+ 2a23a6.
is
If the third
term
negative,
it is
76
Thus,
a8
ALGEBRA
+
2 a2
3a 6 =
(a3
(72)
a2(a
2)
(3 a + 6)  3(a + 2) =
(a2
 3)(a + 2).
EXERCISE 34
Factor the following
:
1.
ac
\
ad
\
be
{
bd.
V"3.
mx + my nx ny,
2.
xy3x{2y6,
5.
4.
aba5b + 5,
6.
7.
610a + 27a245a^
20 ab
8.
9.
\
cd.'
?i^.
11.
12.
48
i2/
13. 14.
,
15.
V 16.
109. If an expression can be resolved into two equal factors, it is said to be a perfeet square, and one of the equal
factors is called its square root. Thus, since 9 a^b^ is equal to 3 a^6
a^b,
it
is
a perfect
square,
and 3a^6
is
its
square root.
9 a*62 is also equal to ( 3 a^h) x ( 3 a%)', so that square root in the examples of the present chapter, the positive square root only.
;
3 a%
we
is also its
shall consider
110.
The following
root of a
evident from
109
FACTORING
Extract the square root of the numerical of each letter by 2.
coefficienty
77
and
divide
the exponent
is
a^b^c.
97 that a trinomial
is
a perfect square
and last terms are perfect squares and positive, and the second term plus or minus twice the product of their
when
its first
square roots. Thus, in the expression 4:xr 12 xy {9 y^, the square root of the first term is 2 x, and of the last term 3 y and the second term is equal to 2 (2 x) (3 y).
;
Whence,
112.
4t
x^
12 xy
\
9 y^
is
a perfect square.
To
we
97
Extract the square roots ( 110) of the first and third terms, and connect the results by the sign of the second term.
1.
4:
x^
i
12 xy
{
y^.
By
is2x
Sy.
2/)2,
which shows that (2x) + (Sy), or 2x~Sy, is also its square root but the first form is simpler, and will be used in all the examples
;
2.
By
m w.
2
(The expression
mn + w^
in
which
case,
by
m.)
the expression is
When
a trinomial
perfect
Factor 25 a^
+ 40 aV ^\
^> c\
i
h^
6a
is
+ 6^,
2.
Factor
m''
4 m%^ + 4 n*.
78 By
2 n2
ALGEBRA
112, the square root of
the expression
is
either
m^
2 w^,
oi
m2.
Then, m*
3.
 4 m%2 + 4 w* =
(m2
2 n2)2, or (2 n^
 m2)2.
Factor
We have
or,
;s)
 a5]2 =
(?/
  jc)2,
4.
Factor
9a*6a2l.
5c2_^8ic_^i6;.
5. 6.
7.
2. 3.
96a4a2.
m2 + 10mn425w3^
4a4a'''6c2
V 9.
4.
+ 52c4.
10.
 25
aji*^
11.
12.
13.
49 m2
^14.
15.
+ 168 m"a;^ + 144 a^^. 100 a262 4 180 a6c2 + 81 c^ 144a;V312a^"2/^^ + 169".  121 aV__ 220 a^ft^mn 100 6V.
a62 _^
2/)2
169
(a^
364
(^4^c2^3 4.
195 (Aa\
^16.
17.
^18.
19.
'^20.
+ 22(x + ^) + 121.'': a28a(mw) + 16(mw)^ + + 2)'. 9x26a;(2/ + nf 2(m n)n + n^, (m 25(a46f + 40(a + 6)c + 16c2. +
;2)
(2/
FACTORING
21. 22.
79
36(aa;)284(a% + 49/.
49 m^ 4 42
v^3. (a
24.
114.
Case
When
By
98,
a"
b'
= (a + b) (a  b).
98
Extract the square root of the first square, and of the second square; add the results for one factor, and subtract the second
result
1.
from
the first
Factor 36 a'b^
c^
is
The square
Then,
2.
root of 36 a^b^
ab'^,
and
of 49 c^ is 7
c^.
36 a'^
49
c^
= (6 ab"^ +  (x 
7 c^) (6 ab^
7 c^).
Factor
the rule,
(2xSyy{x y)\
(2
By
3 y)2
y)^
A polynomial of more than two terms may sometimes be expressed as the difference of two perfect squares, and factored by the rule of Case III.
3.
Factor 2
first,
mn
\
m^
 1 + n\
may be grouped
112, is the
The
m^
+ 2mn +
Thus,
which expression, by
1
square of
w + w.
2 mn + w2 
4.
Factor 12y
+ ic29/4.
80
FACTORING
81
34. 35.
36.
9 9
Am^ p^ 9 n^ 6np.
37.
V 38.
39.
V40.
V/41.
42.
m^ 2 m?^
a'4ax{Ax'b'{6by9y\
43.
16a2_8a6 + ?>'c'10cd25d2.
28a;2/36z2
^"44.
When
x'^\axhf\y^.
expressing them
as the difference of
then employing
1.
114.
a262
Factor a4 +
?>^
a perfect square if its first and last terms are perfect squares and positive, and its second term plus or minus twice the
By
111, a trinomial is
second term
and
this
made a perfect square by adding a%'^ to can be done provided we subtract ^252 from the
result.
Thus, a^
= (a2 + 62 =
2.
{oP
1).
ah) (a^
^ ah),
62).
by
114,
a6
Factor 9
a;4
 37V + 4.
be a perfect square
if its
The expression
will
second term
is
12
x"^.
82
Thus, 9x*37ic2
ALGEBRA
+ 4=(9x4 12x2 + 4)25x2 = (3 x2  2)2  (5 xy = (3x2 45x2)(3x25iC2).
also be factored as follows :
 37 x2 + 4 =(9 a;4 +
12 x2
+ 4)  49
a;2
The factoring
of trinomials of the
may be factored in two different ways. form x* + ax^y"^ + y*, when the factors
EXERCISE 37
Factor the following
I
:
1.
.ic\+5249.
a'
''6.
9a;^
2.
3.
4.
6.
^^1.
16 a^ 64
433a^ + 4a;\
64^^ + 25 ml
a^
25m*14mV + 7il
115)
:
8.
49
Ex.
2,
9.
x'^llx'^n.
ll.
12.
16m*104mV425a;*.
36
10.
9148a2 + 64a*.
When
a^97aW + 36ml
form
116. Case V.
ax {
b.
99, that the product of two binomials of the and x \ n, was in the form x^ \ ax ^ b, where the coefficient of x was the algebraic sum of the second terms of the binomials, and the third term the product of the second terms of the binomials. In certain cases, it is possible to reverse the process, and resolve a trinomial of the form op^ \ ax { b into two binomial factors of the form x \m and x {n.
We
saw, in
{
form X
FACTORING
83
99,
of x,
of the binomials, we simply re^ndjind two yiumbers whose algebraic sum and whose ijroduct is the last term of the tri
nomial.
inspection.
Factor
find
a;2
14
a;
4 45.
two numbers whose sum is 14 and product 45. By inspection, we determine that these numbers are 9 and
We
5.
Whence,
2.
a;2
14 x
45
(ic
9)
(ic
5).
Factor x^
find
5x^4:.
two numbers whose sum is 5 and product 4. We Since the sum is negative, and the product positive, the numbers must
both be negative.
By
inspection,
we determine
cc2
that the
numbers are
4)(x 1).
4 and
1.
Whence,
3.
 5x +
(x
Factor
find
r^
+ 6 a^  16.
;
two numbers whose sum is 6 and product 16. Since the sum is positive, and the product negative, the numbers must be of opposite sign and the positive number must have the greater abso
We
lute value.
By
inspection,
we determine
x^ + 6x^ 
that the
numbers are
f
8 and
2.
Whence,
4.
16
(x^
8) (x^
2).
YsiGtoT
find
x'abx" ^2
a'b\
is
We
sign,
By
inspection,
x^
we determine
that the
numbers
Whence,
5.
abx^
42 ^252
(a;2
7 a6)(x2
7 and + 6ab).

6.
Factor
find
l+2a 99a2.
is
We
By
+ +
inspection,
we determine
1
that the
99.
11
and
9.
Whence,
If the x^
2 a
99 a^
(1
 9 a).
term
84
6.
ALGEBRA
Factor 24:\5xx^.
24
We have,
ic
a;2
==
(a;2
5x
24)
3)
(X
8)(x
(8
a;)(3
x)
first factor.
we may proceed
as follows
Required the numbers whose sum is 26 and product 192. One of the numbers must be + and the other Taking in order, beginning with the factors + 1 x 192, all possible 192, of which one is + and the other we have pairs of factors of
,
.
+
'
192.
96.
64.
+
+
XX X X
+4 +6
Since the
48.
32.
sum
of
6 and
32
is
numbers required.)
EXERCISE 38
Factor the following
1.
:
x'
+ ^x + S.
'
13.
14.
x'17x + 52.
2. x'TxilO. 3. a2 + 7a18.
4.
5.
6.
m 14 m 15.
2/2162/
x'
+ + lQx + Sd.
55.
x'lOxTB.
m2
+ 19m + 90.
72
9514
x^ 20
a2
n^.
8.
665nn^.
a^ 14 a + 48.
ic2
20.
21. 22.
9.
+ + 21a + 98.
a;
96.
10.
+ 20aj + 51.
a?2_7^_78.
11.
12.
x'12x4.5.
yi2
23. 24.
1058
m?7i2.
104.
+ 14w32.
c^21c2 +
FACTORING
25.
26.
85
x^23a^ + 76.
43.
27.
.28.
44. 45.
46. 47.
l\5aUa\ m^  17 mn + 66 n^.
+ 18 a" + 65.
+ ll^"12.
+ 12 a6 + 27  U mx AO m\ x^
a^
ftl
\
29.
30.
x2
ldxSGx".
m' + S
cc^
c^19c2^ + 88.
a^/13a;2/3_3o;
a'b^ 23 ah' ^112.
48.
49^
mn  54. n\
a^i/
2/2.
/31.
32.
50.
51.
+ 20 aV  17 a6c + 60
_^
12
c^.
nV + 25nxhl54.
126
113 7168^2.
a^
'
36.
'
37. 38.
(xyy15(xy)16.
(mn)2+21(mr6)130.
56.
ic?/
39.
57. 58.
59. 60.
a"
^0.
41.
42.
a;)
+ 192.
x'TxySy'.
Case VI.
x" (ab)xab.
is in the
117.
form
+bx
\ c.
We
form
the
saw, in
mx + n and px + q, was
100, that the product of two binomials of the in the form ax^ where 6a; c
term was the product of the first terms of the binomial factors, and the last term the product of the second terms. Also, the middle term was the sum of the products of the
first
terms, in the binomial factors, connected by cross lines. In certain cases it is possible to resolve a trinomial of the form ax^ \bx{c into two binomial factors of the form mx n
and px +
q.
86
1.
ALGEBRA
Factor 3
first
J
a^
+8
a;
4 4.
The
is
ic2
terms of the binomial factors must be such that their product they can be only 3 x and x.
The second terms must be such that their product is 4. The numbers whose product is 4 are 4 and 1,4 and 1,2 and 2, and
and
FACTORING
Thus, in Ex.
1,
87
numbers
tried the
and
4,
nor
and 2
this
(b) If the last term of the trinomial is negative, the of the factoids will be one {, the other
.
terms
If the X
term
is
parentheses preceded by a
sign.
is
pression
3.
may
a perfect square, and the coefficient the square root of the coefficient of x^, the exby be readily factored by the method of 116.
a;2
Factor 9
_ 13 ^
9 x^
_l_
5^
In this case, 18
is
divisible
of 9.
+ = (3xy  6(3 x) + 6. numbers whose sum is 6, and product 5. The numbers are 5 and 1. 9x2  18x + 5 = (3a;  5)(3  1). Then,
[Sx
^EXERCISE 39W
Factor the following
V 1.
2.x'
:
>
+ 9x + 9.
1_2.
10a^39x + 14.
>2. 3a:2_i^^_20.
3.
>13. 12
14.
4:x'2Sx + 4.5.
6x'\7xS.
5x'36x{S6.
16aj2
+ 2. 20 a V  23 ao; + 6.
a^^
_^
11 x
4.
5.
>
n5. 36 a^j 12
16.
a?
35.
6.
7.
8.
17.
18.
GxWx". 5 + 9a;18a:2^
72\7xA9x\
28a^a;2.
21
o^"*
4.x^Sx7.
9x2
>19. 24:X^17nx\S7A
20.
21.
9.
+ 12a;32.
10,
11.
6x'^7ax^2a\
+ 23 C'"/~ + 6 .y^
a'b'.
25x'25mx6m\
v23.
22.
tt^
IS
x^ 27 abx~ 35
24
+ 26 tt^ 5.
88
118. It
is
ALGEBRA
not possible to factor every expression of the form
x^^ax
+ hhj the
let it
method
of
116.
\
Thus,
35.
We
must
find
is 18,
The only
and 35 and
ax~ \hx\c
pairs of positive integral factors of 35 are 7 1 and in neither case is the sum 18.
;
by the method of
117.
Thus, it is impossible to find two binomial factors of the 4 a; 1 by the method of 117. expression 4 a;^ In 298 will be given a general method for the factoring of
tors, it is said to
is
119. If an expression can be "resolved into three equal facbe a perfect cube, and one of the equal factors
called its cube root.
o?b,
it
Thus, since 27 a%^ is equal to 3 a5 x 3 a'b x 3 perfect cube, and 3 a^b is its cube root.
is
120. The following rule for extracting the cube root of a positive monomial perfect cube is evident from 119:
Extract the cube root of the numerical of each letter by 3.
coefficient,
and
divide
the exponent
is
a^b^c.
When
sum
or difference
sum or difference of two perfect cubes is divisthe sum or difference, respectively, of their cube roots by in either case the quotient may be obtained by the rules of 102.
By
102, the
1.
Factor
a^ 27
is
2/V.
is x^,
By
120, the
cube root of x^
x^
and
of 27
yV is 3 y^z.
is
Then one
factor
3 y^z.
a;^
Dividing a^
27 y^z^
by
X*
Then,
x^
^^^^^^^z FACTORING
2.
89
Factor a^
factor
is
+
+
?>^
h^.
One
a^
h^
::3
Dividing a^
by
(a2
a^
&'^,
the quotient
^5252
is
a*
cC^h^
+ &*
Then,
3.
+ 56
_ 52) (^4
{x
+ ^4).
Factor {x +
of
of.
= [(ic + rt)  (xa)][(x + a)2+ (a;+a)(a;a) + (a;a)2] = (5C + a  + a) (x2 + 2 ax + a2 + x^  a2 + x2  2 aa; + a^)
a:
90
ALGEBRA
+
5^
Q
Dividing a^
by a
Then,
(a^
6^)
+ &, the quotient is a*  a^b + a2&2 _ ab^ + 6*. ^ (^t + 5) (a*  a^b + a^&s _
EXERCISE
41
( 103)
ab^
).
a^
+ /.
5.
1+xl
aj^
9.
32a^6'^.
a^1.
v6.
7. 8.
n^.
>10. 243a^
*^
1mV.
a75^
123.
a^1.
n^^432.
11.
mi^
4.
v 12.
cIOp.
sion
By application of the rules already given, an expresmay often be resolved into more than two factors. If the terms of the expression have a common factor, the
of
method
1.
first.
Factor 2
107,
8 axy\
8 axy^
By
2.
ax^y^
?/),
by
114.
Factor .a6.
114, 121,
By
a6
56
= (^3 +
ah
53) (^3
53).
Whence, by
a^h^ =
3.
(a
b){a^
&2)(a
b)(a^
\
ab
62).
Factor
114,
a^/.
afiy
By
y*)ix^
4.
Factor 3 (m
3(m +
w)2
 2(m2 
FACTORING
5.
91
Factor
a(a
a(al)&(6l).
1)
6(6
1)
= a2  a  &2 + 6 = a2 _ 52 _ + 5
(3j
ax
\
ay
az.
92
21.
22.
23.
ALGEBRA
m'^l.
a^'l.
24. 25.
121m+22m*l.
36x^\24.a^21x\
a'b^ ^
26.
aY  b^x^  x'f.
+ 2 6)2 + 8(a + 2 6) (2 a 6) +16(2 a 6)2. 4a;(a6c)+52/(6 + ca). 29. (m + 7iy 2 (m + n)^ + (m + n)l 30. x^16xY + 64.y^ 32. a;26^327. 31. 81m^256 7i^ 33. (x + 2yf\ (Sxyf. 34. (a + 2a;)2 + 10(a + 2x)144. 35. 27 x''75y^120yz4:Sz\ 39. 49 a'^^^ _^ 12 a^ft^ + 4 a^^io, 36. (a2 + 4a6 + 62)2_(^2_^^2)2^ 40. Ux'25x^6. 41. a''x'\ 37. (16m" + n2)2_64mV. 42. aj^*2a;^ + l. 38. 49a2 + 43662_28a.  16 a'd'  36 6V + 64 b'(P. 43. 9 aV 46. a^ + 128 6^ 44. mV243mV. 47. 48 ar^  52 a.y  140 45. _7aj226a; + 8. 81 into two factors, one of which is a 3. 48. Resolve 49. Eesolve x^ 64 into two factors, one of which is x\2. 50. Eesolve x^ y^ into two factors, one of which is x y.
(a
a;^/^
a'^
51.
Eesolve
a^ \l into
two
factors,
one of which
is
a+
1.
52. Eesolve l\x^ into three factors by the method of Case VII. 53.
Eesolve
a^
512 into
:
three factors.
}
m.
55.
(x2^4a^)237(a^ + 4x)
711"
+ 160.
57.
56.
1024.
m^
+ m + a^ +
a;.
FACTORING
58.
93
a2c34&V8a2(i332 6W
59.
60.
61.
(m
7i) (x^
(xiy{6(xiy + 9(xl).
62.
64.
65.
66. 67.
68.
+ w) (jn? a^) (m\x) {w? n^. 63. a2462_a26. + 4  ;2y  16 a;y _ 9 ^)2 ^ 4 (^2 _ 9 _ 140. a^63 + 27 ay _ 8 6V  216 y. (m^ + m)2 + 2 (m^ + m){m + 1) + (m + 1)^ 69. (4 a^  6^ _ 9)2 _ 36 (2a;23)2ar^.
(m
(a;^
2/'
(a;2
a;)
52^
73. 74.
78.
79.
+ ^yf x{o? 4.y''). 16a;242/2_25;s2_i^8x2/ + 10^. 72. (a2 + 6a + 8)214(a2 + 6a + 8)15. _ ^2/ (x + 75. (a^ + + (1 + (1 4a*9 + 2a(a2 + 3). 76. (a 8 m)a(a2m)2. 77. 9a2(3a + 2)2 + 6a(3a42) + l. w?m' + 32 w?  32. 80. m^ (m +p) + n^ (n  p). 81. + 8 + + 8. a(ac)b{bc). 82. (27ma^)4(3m + aj)(9m26mx + 83. (4a2 + 9)2_24a(4a2 + 9)4144a2. 84. 16a2 + 962_25c24d2_24a620cd 85. m + m^64m64. 86. (x" \yy  4:xy(x' ^y^.
70.
64aV + 8a38ar'l.
71.
(x
ar^)
a;)3.
^/^^^
2/).
ic^
aj
o.^
a;2).
87.
88.
a'\a'bia^b^{a^b^{ab^hb^.
(8n3_27)+(2n3)(47i2f4n6).
a^
89.
+ 2iB2 + 2a; + l.
+
2 X), or (x
(By
x8
(2
a;2
l){x^
1),
and X
1 is
94
90.
ALGEBRA
x^3x''\3xl.
92.
S a^
XXXIV.
124.
By
54,
Hence, in the indicated product of two factors, the signs of may be changed without altering the product; but if the sign of either one be changed, the sign of the product will be
both factors
changed.
If either factor is a polynomial, care must be taken, on changing its sign, to change the sign of each of its terms. Thus, the result of Ex. 3, 107, may be written in the forms
(b
or
(a b)(n m).
In like manner, in the indicated product of more than two any even number of them may be changed
number
( 65).
will be
changed
Thus,
iab)idc){fe),
(ba)(cd)(fe),
etc.
(xS)(2xi5) =
0.
It is evident that the equation will be satisfied when x has such a value that one of the factors of the first member is equal to zero for if any factor of a product is equal to zero,
;
the product
is
equal to zero.
FACTORING
96
aj3 =
0,
(1)
(2),
2a; + 5 = 0. we have x = 3
(2)
or
5 
member
126. Examples.
1
.
'^
5 24 = 0.
a;
+ 3) = 0.
( 125),
;
( 116)
we have
and
2.
= 0, whence x = 8 + = 0, whence x = 3.
8 3
2 = 0.
ic
Factoring the first member, 2x(2x 1)=0. Placing the factors separately equal to 0, we have
2X
= 0,
whence x
=

and
3.
2 x.
1=0, whence x =
ar'
a;
+ 4a:^ 4 = 0.
108,
Factoring the
member, we have by
(x + 4)
(x2
1)
0, or
0,
Then,
x X
+4
1 1
and
4.
+ X
= 0, = 0,
+ 4) (X + whence x = 4 whence x = 1
(X
1)
;
(a;
1)
= 0.
whence x
1.
 27  (a^ + 9  36) = 0.
a;
Factoring the
121,
(x
Or,
3)(x2 + 3x + 9)
 3)(x +
12)
= 0.
(x3)(x2 + 3x +
Or,
96
Or,
ALGEBRA
(a:3)(a;
+ 3)(xl) = 0. 0, x = 3,
3,
or
1.
pupil should endeavor to put down the values of x without actually placing the factors equal to 0, as shown in Ex. 4.
The
EXERCISE 43
Solve the following equations
1.
2. 3.
:
11.
'^
a;4
+ 18a^ + 32ar^ = 0.
VSx'^ZQ^i).
12.
13.
x'
4.
5.
(3a;2)(4a;^25)
= 0.
14.
6.
7.
8.
9.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
10.
{5x\l){x^6x91)
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
= 0. ' Q>x' + lx + 2 = 0. 3 or^ ma:  4 m^ = 0. lOo^^ + T a;12 = 0. 15x'\ x2 = 0. 12a;29a^ + 15a; = 0. a^ax + bxab = 0. x^ + mx ^ nx mn = 0.
8 a;2_i0a;43
\
= 0.
(a'2)(5a;2
27.
97
IX.
HIGHEST
consider in the present chapter the Highest Common Factor and Common Multiple of Monomials^ or of polynomials which can be readily factored by inspection.
(We
Lowest
The Highest Common Factor and Lowest Common Multiple of polynomials which cannot be readily factored by inspection, are considered
in
439
to 443.)
is
their
or
more
64).
that the
common factors are of equally high degree, it is understood highest common factor is the one having the numerical coeflBcient
term of highest degree. For example, if the common factors were 6 a; 3 and 2 a: former would be the H. C. F.
of greatest absolute value in its
1,
the
128.
Two
to
each other
when
unity
is
their highest
I.
common
factor.
129. Case
Highest
Common
Factor of Monomials.
d'bc,
Ex, By
and 98 a'Wd\
the rule of Arithmetic, the H. C. F. of 42, 70, and 98 is 14. It is evident by inspection that the expression of highest degree which will exactly divide a%'^, a%c, and a%hP is a^h.
is
14 0,%.
It will be observed, in the above result, that the exponent of each letter is the lowest exponent with which it occurs in any of the
given expressions.
EXERCISE 44
Find the H.
1.
C. F. of the following:
14a^2/^
21xy\
2.
98
3.
4.
ALGEBRA
m(xyy,
7. 8.
S4:{xy)\
5. 6.
72
a'b',
27a'b',
99 a'b\
a^fz'.
ISGa^mV,
51 &%)i, 119c2mV.
9.
10.
+ b)%aby.
130. Case II. Highest Common Factor of Polynomials which can be readily factored by Inspection.
1.
Eequired the H.
5 x'y  45 x^y
C. F. of
and 10 xY
5x^y
 40 xY =
5x^y(x^
210 xy^
9)
(1)
By
and
107, 114,
and
116,
45x2?/
10 x^y^
40
xV
210 xy^
3).
(2)
The H.
is 5.
It is evident by inspection that the H. C. F. of the literal portions of the expressions (1) and (2) is xy(x + 3). Then, the H. C. F. of the given expressions is 5x?/(x + 3).
sometimes necessary to change the form of the factors in finding the H. C. F. of expressions.
It is
2.
Find the H.
116,
C. F. of a^
a2
+2a3
and 1
 al
+
a^).
By
By 121,
3).
By
Hence, the H. C. F.
is 1
(la)(3 + <z.
EXERCISE 45
Find the H.
C. F. of the following
1.
:
30icyfl0ary,
15xYS0xf.
99
2
4. 5.
:^5a^\3x15,
a3
4:x'\12a:^,
6.
7.
9a^, a;2a;6.
ac
x^
cl
8. 9.
2a;2
+ 9a; + 10.
x"
a;2
3ac4:ad6bc\Sbd, aj7ablSb\
10. 11.
12.
13.
y""
 z" + 2 yz.
+ 10aj?/75 2/^
lG.
m^8m2, m^f^m^ +
2aj27a;
14. 15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20. 21.
22.
23.
+ 6, Qx'llx\3. 2ar'13a.'?/ + 62/2, jc?/24a^. llla + 18a2, Sa^l, 18a25a2.  10 a^b  28 aft^ 12 8 a^  26 a^^ + 20 + 18a; + 77, _^ 22 + 121, a^ + i110. 16m29w2, 16m224mw + 9n2, 9mn212m2n. ar527, a^6x49, 2 aa;6 a 6a; + 3 6. 27a3+86^ 9a246^ 9aH12a6 + 46l a23a18, 2a2a21, 3a2 + 4a15. 2a^12a^ + 16a;, 3  3  36 ;^, 5 a^ 4 5  100 a^. 125m*8m, 10 m^ m^  2 m, 25m320m2 + 4m.
afe^,
a=^
a;2
ic^
a;
a^^
a;^
a;^
\
24.
a^
+ 3a240,
a^25,
25.
2a;3_aj2_g^_j_3^
26.
27. 28.
a^{h
8a^2/
+ cf,
(6a)2c2, 62_(^_^)2^
+ a;V, 64a;y + 2a;/, 24 a^?/  30 a^/  21 2a=^ + 17a436, 4a24a99, 6a2 + 25a 9.
}\\
^^
'^'^
100
ALGEBRA
LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE
131.
Common
is
Multiple of two or
expression which
exactly divisible
is
an
is their
Common common
more
common multiples are of equally low degree, it is understood common multiple is the one having the numerical coeffi
its term of highest degree. For example, if the common multiples were 4 a: 2 and 6x former would be the L. C. M.
3,
the
133. Case
I.
of
Monomials.
a%
By
is
the rule of Arithmetic, the L. C. M. of 36, 60, and 84 is 1260. It is evident by inspection that the expression of lowest degree which
exactly divisible by a%, aP'y'^, and cx^ is aHx^y'^. Then, the L. C. M. of the given expressions is 1260 aHx^y^.
each
It will be observed, in the above result, that the exponent of letter is the highest exponent with which it occurs in any of
EXERCISE 46
Find the L.
1.
C.
M.
of the following
5. 6.
7.
5 a^y% 6 xy.
105
a%
70 b'% 63
c'a,
2. 3.
4.
IS
a%
4:5 b'c.
2Sa^,S6y\
42
35
b'c%
ba^,
91
a'(^.
m%^
98 ny.
9.
8.
a'bc',
56
84
48 xy.
60
75 a'b% 90 a'c'd\
66 m^ny, 165
10.
99
m'^naf,
nV/.
134. Case II. Lowest Common Multiple of Polynomials which can be readily factored by Inspection.
1.
Required the L. C. M. of
a^
5a; + 6,
c^
4a;f4,
and
a^
9 x.
101
x2
a;
(X
3)
(a;
2).
By
114,
3).
It is evident
M.
of these expressions
is
x(x2)2(x + 3)(x3).
It is
2.
 al
By
acbcad+hd =
(^a h) {cd).
By By
114,
b^a^=(h + a){ha).
first
\ba)(^dc).
Hence, the L. C. M.
is
(6
a) (6
a)
(dc),
or (62
a^)
(dc).
EXERCISE 47
Find the L. C. M. of the following
:
2.
o?b^2a^b\2a'b''
3.
4.
5. 6.
7.
8.
9.
x^y'^z'^^2yz,o?y'^ + z^{2xz.
11. 12.
13.
102
14.
15. 16.
ALGEBRA
17.
18.
19.
20.
21. 22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
+ 15 xy, 8 xy  10 y\ x'~15x + 50,x^ + 2xS5,x^^x10. a^  4 a6 + 4 a^  8 6^ a^ft + 2 a^ft^ + 4 a&^ m^ 10 m^i + 21 n^, m^ 5 m?i 24 m'' 8l9i^. + 5x + 6, a^2a;8, a^ + 2 + 5 + lO. 9a5^4a^6, 8 ac + 2 ad12 5c3 6d 4. 5 + 4 a. a^16et, a^3a3_4a, 27 + 64 n, 18 n^  32 n\ 9 n^ + 21 n' + 12 n^. 9a;2 + 30a? + 25, 6aj2^7a55, 10a:29ic + 2. n25n + 6, 9^2^^ 10n2nl ^f, o?2xy + y\ x' + xY + y'ac4.ad2hc + %hd, ?>(?llcd4.d\ 3ac+ad6 6c2
16
x^
 25 y^
12 x^
52,
?i^,
a;2
ic2
a^
a'^
a'^
?i*
6rZ,
2a;2flj15,
2aj2_7^^3^ ^x'^x^^.
27. 28.
a2+462_9c2_4a6,a2462_9c2+12&c,a2462+9c26ac.
3 m^ 9 m^n
29.
+ m^ti 2 mn^, 6 m^n + 11 mn^ + 5 + 5 m^n^ 4 mn^. 32a + 4a^ 12 a4 + 12 a^ + 3 a^, 32a^ + 8a3 + 2a.
ti^,
FRACTIONS
103
X.
135.
FRACTIONS
by
h is written
The quotient
h
is
of a divided
( 6).
is
The expression
called a Fraction
the dividend a
called
the numerator, and the divisor h the denominator. The numerator and denominator are called the terms of the
fraction.
69, (3),
that
the
If the terms of a fraction he both multijMed, or both divided, by same expression, the value of the fraction is not changed. 137.
By
( 68),
\a_
+ 6""^"
a _
4a
'^~
a
ib
That is, if the signs of both terms of a fraction be changed, the sign before the fraction is not changed ; but if the sign of either one be changed, the sigii before the fraction is changed.
ing
If either term is a polynomial, care must be taken, its sign, to change the sign of each of its terms.
on chang
^~ cd
ba
d
c
( 51).
138. It follows from 124 and 137 that if either term of a fractio7i is the indicated product of two or more expressions, the signs of any even number of them may be changed without
changing the sign before the fraction; but if the signs of any odd number of them be changed, the sign before the fraction is changed.
^^
(cd)(ef)
may
be written
ab
ba
ba
(do)(/e)'
^^^^
(dc)(fey (dc)(efy
104
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 48
its
value
a
2
!?L?.
7
(^
2x
4
in
2xl x+2
four
%x^
(a:3)(2/+4)
6.
Write
 ^) (  ^)
{x+b){y2)
changing
its value.
REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS
139. Reduction of a Fraction to
its
Lowest Terms.
A fraction
is
when
its
numerator
(We consider in the present chapter those cases only in which the numerator and denominator can be readily factored by inspection. The cases in which the numerator and denominator cannot be readily factored by inspection are considered in 444.)
140. By 136, dividing both terms of a fraction by the same expression, or cancelling common factors in the numerator and denominator, does not alter the value of the fraction.
We then
common
to both.
Eeduce
^ ^ !^. to 40 a^b^cH^
its
lowest terms.
We have
24
a'^b'^cx
2^ 23
40 a%^cM^
x 3 x a^h^cx X 5 X a^b^c^d^ x
a'^b^c.
^ 3 a^x
5 cd^'
2^
Reduce
/v3_ 27
a^2a;3
xB
27
9,
Reduce
ax bx
to b^
FRACTIONS
By
By
108
138,
105
b)(x
y)
and
axbx114,
fti
ay
a^
by
(a
(&
a) (6
a)
the signs of the terms of the factors of the numerator can be changed without altering the value of the fraction and in this way the first factor of the numerator becomes the same as the second factor of the
;
denominator.
men,
axbx~
ay
by
62_2
if all
_ 
(b
a)(y
x)
(^i)^a)(iba)~b
1
_ y x + a'
remains to form a it is a case
numerator
of exact division.
EXERCISE 49
5 xYz'
3

54 mn^
'
3xfz^'
2
12
'
99
mV*
126 a^6V
'
'
14
'
aV
90 aV7i\ 36 am V*
88
x'y'z^
a'b^
63 a^j/V
S4.x'y'z''
42
g
6V*
d'b^c''
'
66x^yz''
120
75a6V
a^
'
^Q
'
12
^3
14
15
+ lla& + 28 6^ + 14: a'b + 4.9 ab'' 64a^ + 72a;^?/ + 8a;/ 64 Q(?y 81 ^^^ + i^^n 56 m^n^ m^ 64 mn^ ' + &'
a'
?/^
'
20
2^
+ x12' 3a^4a^3a + 4
x''
a;^9a;
'
+ 18
>
'
'
,^
no
16
23
,
24
25
'
2aj3
+ a^15a;*
/
+ 9 a216 a16* 4m^ + 16mn + 15n^ ^w? mn 15 16 + 4 o^ + 1 8 o^ 1 fl^9.^^2^ + 6y2! o?9 + z^ 2xz (a2 6)^ (3 c df (a + d)^ (2 6 + 3 cf* + 28a^6^ + 27 6 a^49 a^ft^ + Sl 6^
9 a3
ii^
a?'*
y""
ct
jg
26
27
25 a^
'
a^lla; + 30'
*
19
(a?'49)(a^16a; + 63)
(a2_;I^4a,^49^^(^2_2aJ_63)*
9a;^49/
28 a;/
 12 a^2/
^.i^^wflc^^^^^r
106
FRACTIONS
12x38r.^
Thus,
4
x'^
107
.
+ 4a;5^3^ +3
EXERCISE 50
4 x2
6xl +3
Reduce each
1
of the following to a
.
mixed expression
ba^
i.
15m2 + 12m4
om
9a;^+2
g
o ^.
30a5a^415a2 + 7
14a^ + 39
a^
49a^
'
*3il*
a^y3
+ 4a 19
'
lx\^y
y
'
2a + 5
35
'
' +
?/
a^485^ a2b
+ 5^ b m^nV
a^
^^
a?^h
100.43
5x + 2
3a''^
^^
m\n
'
+ 8a^4 a^42a 3
4o^2oj45
,,.^
12
150^^60.^20 a;^7
^3
24o^ + 21a; + 19
*
3o;24
j^
6a^17a'^621a^6^ +
19a^>^
+ 22 6^
2a'5ab6b'
To reduce
fractions
to
their Lowest
Common Denominator
(L. C. D.) is to express them as equivalent fractions, each having for a denominator the L. C. M. of the given denominators.
Let
.
it
lowest
common
,
The L.
By
same
C. M. of 3 a'b', 2 ab% and 4 a% is 12 a'b' ( 133). 136, if the terms of a fraction be both multiplied by the expression, the value of the fraction is not changed.
Sa'b^
^^,
2ab^
4a^6
^ by 3
,
we have
^"^
15 b^n 12 a'b^'
108
It will be seen that the
ALGEBRA
terms of each fraction are multiplied
Whence
Find
the L. C.
M. of
its
Before applying the rule, each fraction should be reduced to lowest terms.
a^
lowest com
a"^
4 =
(a
+ 2){a2),
and
a2_5^_^6=(a2)(a3).
is
it
Then, the L. C. D. is (a + 2) (a 2) (a  3). 2), the quotient Dividing the L. C. D. by (a + 2) (a 2) (a 3), tlie quotient is a + 2. by (a
Then, by the
rule, the required fractions are
( 134)
;
dividing
4C3)
(a
^^^
(a
+ 2)(a2)(a3)
Sa(a + 2) + 2)(a2)(a3)'
51
EXERCISE
to their lowest
c "
common denominator
2
Aa^
10'
^
15'
^
7
4a29' 6a'9a
1
2
o
*
g
m
' '
2m^n 5 7)i^n^^
3x\4:Z
mn^
mn
3yi
6x 5y
33yz^
~22xf''
.
'
3a
2a
\
a^
+ 3 a'
6
{
6' a'
+ 27'
x + 2'
x2'
ar^3'
FRACTIONS
jQ
..
a;2
109
a
a436
2cH3
36
+ 46
+ 3a;10'
2a^
145.
By
72,
+ a _ ^ = *ii^. a a
:
We
To add or subtract fractions, reduce them, if necessary, to equivalent fractions having the lowest common denominator. Add or subtract the numerator of each resulting fraction,
according as the sign before the fraction is \ or the result over the lowest common denominator.
, and
write
The
final result
should be reduced to
its
lowest terms.
146. Examples.
1
1.
Q.
Simplify
L. C. D.
is
V*
4a + 3 __I_
4a^6
12 ^253
.
+ __. 6a6^
,
1662
The
3
&2,
first
fraction
by
of the second
by 2
_^
a,
we have
2 a
4a +
4a2&
6&2 ^
6a63
12 a62
12
9 52
12
ah'^
a^fts
12 a2^3
_^
^ 12 a62
If a fraction
__
9 52
2 q
12 a&2
^ 9 ^2 ^
2 g
12a263
V2.a%^
whose numerator
it
by a
sign,
is
parentheses preceded by a sign, as shown in the last term of the numerator in equation (A), of Ex. 2.
If this is not done, care must be taken to change the sign of each term of the numerator before combining it with the other
numerators.
2.
Simplify ^
'
5^4y _7x2y.
6 14
110
The
6
L. C. D. is 42
7
;
ALGEBRA
whence,
6x4y
x2y _ S5x2Sy
14
21x6y
42
42 35
a;
28 y
(21 X
6 y)
42
35
a;
.^. ^ ^
14
g;
 28 y 42
21
a;
f 6y
42
22 y
_7 ~
a;
11 y
21
^
3.
^
a;
Simplify
x^
a^
a:
x^
a; = a;(aj 1). 1), and a;^ Then, the L. C. D. is a:(a; + l)(a:  1), or x{y?  1). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by a: 1, and the terms of the second by a; + 1, we have
We have,
= x(a; 4
1
a;2
x^^x
_
X
x{x?
1  1)
l(a;
x(a:2
+l  1)
_ a;By
1) __
xla;l _
X(X21)
2
X(X21)'
X(X21)
changing the sign of the numerator, at the same time changing the
we may
x(x2
by changing the
and
2
of the factor x^
1) 1 of
we may
write
it
4.
Simplify
a^
4.
a2_3a + 2
We have,
and
a2
Q^
Then, the L.
Whence,
a23a + 2
a24a +
2,1
3
a25a + 6
a3
(al)(a2)(a3)
al
(
_ i)(a2)(a3)
(al)(a2)(a3)
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE 52
Simplify the following
1
:
111
4a;
+7
6x 5
15
5
a
*
*
2m\5n
10
2 3
'
8mV
5a7b
27a
^
3m + 4yi
6mn^
a+6b
36 6
'
2a'b^
Ta'b'
4(X
9
y
3a 8
12
x?/
2/
^^
\
3a;
_
'
2
'
2/2
2;a;
2(6n + 5)
11
3(n + 6) 22
4(5n4)
44
3a2
3a^
8a;
4a7
7 a'
a3
9a
'
+l
lOy9
9^ + 8
21
z
'
7x
2a^ + 3
6 a'
Uy
Sa^'
jQ
+l
a^
Sa^2
36
a'
12
6a;
11
4a;3
5
+5
,
5x + 2
15
a;
10
'
10
20
io 12.
13
^
'
+ ~8~~
?/
5a;
+ 4?/
16~"
8x 3?/lla; 2y
24~""^
18.
32
14.
5
15.
2m m 2 + + 3
?^^
2x + y
^
2x y
^
^x7
i
1.
4a;
,
+
.
19.
3a9
5^
a;
5a15
4a;^ a^
a;
16.
m "^ m+ +
a\3
2m
a3 a+3
^ 2
on 20.
y*
2i
a;
x 3y
+3
j?/
+ 3a; 1 + 12 A^ 3
a;
y
x\3y
U
112
22.
ALGEBRA
a
23.
24.
25.
33.
FRACTIONS
39
1
113
0?
x1
41
x^l^;!?!
Q
'
gl g + l a + l"^al
o?l
a^
+1
42
43^
4yi 1 3nhl 6w217n + 12 10n297i9 a4 3al 5a^9a + ll 2a3 a + 2 "^ 2a2 + a6 a;2 +4 a;43 i^x6 x'lx\12 x'2x^
a;
^
'
/~~~
m^
mn + n^
m^
+ mn + w^
m"*
+ m^n^ + n* ~^ t*^ /
/^
.^
>/
147. In certain cases, the principles of 137 and 138 enable us to change the form of a fraction to one which is more convenient for the purposes of addition or subtraction.
1.
Simplify
^ + a^
'
Changing the signs of the terms in the second denominator, at the same time changing the sign before the fraction ( 137), we have
3
2& + a
a'^b^
ah
The
L. C. D.
is
now
a^
62.
rpjjgjj '
__3
ab
a)
_ 3a + 3626q ^ 2a+
62
b
52'
^2
2.
Simplify
138,
{xy)(xz)
(yx)(yz)
(zx)(zy)
;
the sign of the factor y a; in the second denomiand we nator, at the same time changing the sign before the fraction change the signs of both factors of the third denominator.
By
we change
1.1
(xy)(ixz)
{_xy){yz)
{xz){yz)
114
The
L. C. D.
is
ALGEBRA
now
(x
?/)
(x
z) (y
z);
^ _ ~
(y
z)^ (X
 z)  (x 
y)
h
{xy)(xz)(iiz)
(xy){xz)(ti z)
(x
2y2z
(xy){x
_
z)
z){y
2(yg)
y)(x
2
z)
EXERCISE 53
Simplify the following
:
a S
2o}
3a3
2
a;^
22a
2 4
6
a;
+ a 3a
"^
o?^
2
3a;
3a;
16
ar^
a;l
+h
5
h
6'
_1
n+^
1__,
n6
e^ah
*
y,
Sb'^ab
o
1_^'^2^3^_4
2ba
r
3a,2a,8a6 TTi+TT.
+ 26
1
x'
a^Ab'
6a;^8a;32
9a;^16a;
43a;
4
10.
^ (x_y)(a72!)
(yx){yz)
3a
a2
i11.
12.
2^
4 a6
+ 62
.+
^
. a;^
q3_53
+ a6462
^
?,_
jQ
a;
a;^
(a5)(ac)
(6c)(6a)
(Ga)(c6)
Ex.
Reduce 2x S
a;
41
to a fractional form.
FRACTIONS
We may regard
2x
3
115
1,
2
;
a;
and
thus,
+1
x+1
EXERCISE 54
Reduce each of the following
1.
a=
x+1
to a fractional
10.
form
+3+
^.
4a;
2x^5x + 2(^112.
4a:
+9
2.
2a5^^^. 7a
^^^ + 1.
a
11.
3a'
^ + S^<^^^). 7a2
4.
+ 2m
13.
a\b
14.
^ + 1
a
1.
^^ + y
15.
m^m\ + 7)in^n^ ^ + ^^
a;3+
2n^
16.
(^2(^ +
<^
1.
8.
^ + 2.y + ,f + X 2y
^.
17.
(^^^+a^+2a+4. ^aj4:
^^ + ^5/
.
9.
a46^l+Mll
18..2a.+5y
MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS
149. Required the product of  and .
Let
x
= ..
(1)
116
ALGEBRA
7, 9), 9),
^XXbxd=xx bxd, d
Now
we have
X
6
or
(?X^)^('3X^)=^xZ>xrf;
for the factors of a product may be written in any order. since the product of the quotient and the divisor gives
the dividend
( 67),

= a,
x
and
{c)
xd =
x
c.
Whence,
(a)
= x xb
cZ
d.
(Ax.
8, 9),
xd
x
From
(1)
and
(2),
=
^
^.
(Ax.
4, 9)
Then, to multiply fractions, multiply the numerators together for the numerator of the product, and the denominators for its denominator.
150. Since
c
1,
denominator
a
b
^,
a
c
b^c
Then, to multiply a fraction by a rational and integral expresdivide the denominator of the faction by the expressi07i; otherwise, multiply the numerator by the expression.
sion, if 2^ossible,
151. Common factors in the numerators and denominators should be cancelled before performing the multiplication. Mixed expressions should be expressed in a fractional form ( 148) before applying the rules.
FRACTIONS
1.
117
Multiply
3^^
^^
Sb'a^
by
10 a^y 9 bx^
3 b^x^
4
aV
^2
32
x 5 x 3 x a^h^x^y x 22 x a^ftarV
&,
a;^,
_ 5 6%
q^
'
The
and
y,
2.
Multiply together
aj^
f + 6 2^^, a3 +
, flj
^^
and
a^4
a;2
+ x6
V
a;2
x3y
^^
a;2
4 4
^^
_ ^
a;2
+2X + x6
a;(a;
2a;6a; +
a;29
x3
a;
2)
2
^^
^^
(x
(x
(x
3)(a;2)
x
x3
The
2,
2,
+ 3,
and x
3.
3.
Multiply
^^^
m mn
by a 6.
^ a2
&,
a2
+ "^
62^^^^ x
62
(a ^
^^
6) '
= a2.52 a + 6
4.
Multiply
by m\n.
m + n,
x (m
+ n) = ^
"^
^^
'
EXERCISE 55
Simplify the following
.
:
8 am'
Sot'
15
2/^
28
2^^
o
*.
21 a^6^
4c^d^
"
8cd
5 a^
9
35a36^*
&3
c^
14 6^c 15a
28 m^
5c^
126^
,
6a^
7c**
5 21
a^
^ 7
c*
6^
10
6 a*
25
nV
15 w 14
mV
mV
118
ALGEBRA
7.
^^x(2a5). a26
'
9.
''
^^
a;^
"*
9^16''
10 ^^'
^i!fl5x 4.n'
j^
+ 9a^y + 18.v^
^.^
a;y^4y
a;^
a^9i2/H20/
+6
ic?/
+9
2/^
a^27
4a220a + 25
j^
25
16
17
4m^ + 8m + 3 6m^9m 2m25m + 3 4m2l m^ + mx {nx\ mn x^ mx nx^ mn ^ v? ~ 2 a6 + 5^ c^ a + ^ c a2 + 2a6 + &'c2 OLh\c 16a;4 20a;45 + 2a; + l ^a;^
tc^
on^
<^^
^^^
ci2
18.
_ 11 a + 30
a^
_3^
a2
^2
_9
a_6a2 + 9a
V
a225
+ 3a54
J
19.
2a+3
20
\ n.
^ + 8y^
a;3_32/3
a;
a:2y + 2y
A
V
a;2
;r
a;y
x^^xyV^y")
3/
X.
9^Mi2ax + 4a2 X
x^
a^
22
2n^n3
n*_8n2 + 16
DIVISION OF FRACTIONS
152. Required the quotient of ^ divided by <
FKACTIONS
Let
119
1^1
( 67),
= ..
(1)
Then
quotient
and
we have
a
h
c
d
7, 9),
d
c
x.
/ox
(2)
From
Then,
(1)
and
(2),
= X ^ ^ a ^ c
(Ax.
4, 9)
to divide
153. Since
c
1,
may
we
be
denominator
have, by
152,
a
b
1 a ^c = x =
a
b
be
( 136),
aic
expression
154.
in a fractional
form
1.
Divide
i^ by
6^25
'
li^.
9^253
Wehave
6^25
^
iPa^y
^ci^b^
4y
dx^y^
lOa^V
5a;V
^b^
120
Divide
ALGEBRA
2.
2^Hy3?5f^
^ 2x + 22a; + 3
X
5
.
3a;2
x2
 3a;2 + 1
13
^
1
2x5x(x+l)
3.
Divide '^l~'^\jmn.
m  w,
6.
^^
~
^^
h
^'^ (m  n) = "^.^^ t
^'^
'
4.
Divide ^iA' by a + a6
a2 47)2
6,
^
(a
&)
= a^ + _
a^
62
52
If the numerator and denominator of the divisor are exactly contained in the numerator and denominator, respectively, of the dividend, it follows from 149 that the numerator of the
quotient
may
the
dend by
numerator of
the divisor.
the divisor;
denominator of
5.
We have,
4y2 ^ 3x + 2y _3x
x22/2
xy
EXERCISE 56
+y
'
'
'
4.fn
55(^d'
22c'd'
FRACTIONS
'
121
a3
4.xiy
a2
+ 6a + 9
\5y
x^
a\3
^
,
*
^^
n^
\^y^3j
5n
^^
2J
n^3n40
4?^
+ 4n5
0^3 xy
'
x^
y^
. '
x'10xy^21y^
\
xy
.^
^
\ y"^
a2_^5_262
'
^
'
w'^ab'
7
9a;^4j/^
. '
^^
4a?^
'
+ 12a; + 5
4.X3
^+
.^
>
^g
8yi
'
+l
4n^2n + l
n2
'
iex^25y^
13.
SxylOy^'
2n^\4.n
+ 4n44
(2^ +
(a;22/2
^{'W).
14.
+ 22/^;22x^^Ill^.
*
15
m^ + 2m^ + m + 2 m^ m^ m + l
m"*
m^43m^ + 2 2m^ + l
jg
2a^a636^
9a22562
COMPLEX FRACTIONS'
155.
It is
Complex Fraction
is
simply a case in division of fractions its numerator its denominator the divisor.
;
Simplify
h
^^
^=
axjam)= bd"^ bd
c
^
It is often advantageous to simplify a complex fraction by multiplying its numerator and denominator by the L. C. M. of their denominators ( 136).
122
a
2.'
ALGEBRA
Simplify
ab
a__
'
a+b
+
b)(a
The
L. C.
M.
&).
b),
we have
ab
h
aib a
_^
ab
3.
_ a(a + ~ & (a +
?^) a (a
6)
a (a
&)
6)
_ a^ + ab ab + +
b'^
a^ \ ab
a^
2 ab
a^
ab
b^'
a+b
Simplify
i+i
X
a;
(B
+l
i+i X
In examples like the above, complex fraction.
Thus,
+i
it is
best to begin
1
we
first
by
4
x,
giving
_ ^
1, giving "=
and
"T i
X x
by x
1
X+1 x+ 1 +x
EXERCISE 57
Simplify the following
:
^
a;
^
2/
^
^^
x\y
FRACTIONS
3a ^ 46 + + 3^ 46
.
123
g^
r>
27
14.
h^
a
^'
6.
+! a
^,
^
^+3+a
b
6
y_
15.
%! + ^ + 4:X^ y^
a?4y
2a;2/
'
xY a^2/^
a;y
i
J
+ a^y^
^^^
16.
a;
+4
1
5a;
1a^y
j
+
1
a;?/
xy
1
0^44 1 5a;
4 +1 4 5a; + l
ic
5a;
ic
'
x^
\ x
9.
y^ z^
2yz
^
'
\\x
17.
o^
+f
2xy
<
1
a2
10.
a;
18.
+2+
3a
11.
119.
(xyy
X
a;
xy
2/
1+a
10
20.
+
2/
^y
y /2a;9;:
^_ty_f x+y x+ t
x\ry
13.
^>1
ha
a^f1 aj%>>4^
4al 1 2a + 5 3a2
>aSsL,
.1
^^
124
ALGEBRA
a
oi
a^
a^
ax a + a;
a^
a?\iii?
to a
mixed expression
3
'
a;^
2
a:^
 20
*
m'\n\
'
12 a^
mn
12 a^3 a^22 a + 8
3a^ 5
6
a;<2a^ + 8a;16
o \
13.
7.
4a;4om
8.
""^;
^(2m3a;).
.
/n
(a_6)2_(cd)
(6 4. d)2
_ (a 4. cV
ar^5g^84 27a;38
3a;
I
x\l
14.
3a;2
'^

^^ +
2
a;
3
/^
15
J_
'
abc"
 ab(P  d'cd
16
+2
Y
8
3_\
17.
a;3_2ar^42a;l x*\x'+l
jg
'
_J_ ,_4
a
a
. '
a\b
lla56 W a?
19
27a;^+l 25x'4:
15a;^a;2
25a;220a;
+ 4*
FRACTIONS
20
(l
^
125
1
+ 4a;21 \
2c
(x +
x^\
c
2j
d + 4:bd
2
+ 2d
ac^2ad\2bc
22.
acad+Abc 2bd
23
+1
4(a2+5a + 6)'
25.
y=^
^=^
x^{yzf
26
(xzfy^
27.
11^^ +
3
4:
4:
(First
combine the
first
two
these results.)
28
27i
29.
3
J
+ l'2?il
5n2 Sn^ + l
71^
8 71^1
\f^_iy(^^i\ypjt=^^.
^^
(ab)(ac)
30.
'^
f
^^
{cd){cb)
(bc){ba)
,
3.
32
'
a+3
1
I
a'\2a
'
a3
a'9
a'\9
and
(First add the first two fractions, to the result to this result add the last fraction.)
fraction,
33
3q
3a
Go"
a^
12
a*
a*
a+b
ab
b''
+6*
126
Xj
XI.
156. If a fraction whose numerator is a polynomial is preceded by a sign, it is convenient, on clearing of fractions, to enclose the numerator in parentheses, as shown in Ex. 1.
If this is not done, care each term of the numerator
1
must be taken
when
1.
C11
Sec
1
4
5
5
= .,7a7 +
4 H 5
^
10
The
L. C. M. of 4,
5,
and 10
is 20.
we have
Whence,
Transposing,
a;
Uniting terms,
Dividing by
15 x
15,
2
= 75. = 5.
5 2
2.
x2
2,
x
x2
+ 2 af4
4
is
= 0.
The
M.
of
2,
and
4,
x2
4.
we have
2)
5 (x
2)
2X
+  5X +
10
2 = 0.  2 = 0.
12,
3x =
and x
= 4.
If the denominators are partly monomial and partly polynomial, it is often advantageous to clear of fractions at first
by the L. C. M.
128
o
ALGEBRA
6x\l a 1 the ^ 4.Solve 4.1, equation ^ 15
3.
2x4. = 2xl 
7
a;
16
5
5,
'
^ ~ X IQ
a;
28
ic
 64 = 30 2 x = 4,
60.
Then,
and x
= 2.
EXERCISE 58
In Exs. 5, 11, 22, and 32, of the following set, other letters than X are used to represent unknown numbers. This is done repeatedly in the later portions of the work.
Solve the following equations
.
:
l__l==i
2
9a;
L
Qx
a;
2
7
'
bx
lOx
'
^ = 1..
15a;
12*
A_ J__ 8^ 12 3
a;
a;
24
7.
a;
^11 8
+2
4.
4^ + ^^I = ^.
^2
15
'38
8
5.
^ + 3_2l3 =
5
7a;
2v.
*
* 8.
5a;6 ^5
4
5
a;
8a;9
7
^^
4
Q
14*
8a;ll 9
7a;+4 12
3a;8
8
_Q
5(a;l)
6
2(a;
+ 2) ^^
3
5a;15
4
12
lli)
+ 12
4p6
ll'a;7
5
18
9^4
5j?9 ^
8a;l
3
13 a;43 10
^ 14 + 38
a;
15
+4
3
3(a;f7)
16 x{5 9
7a;
^ lOx9
5
4(3a;2)
15
'
7x
..
Sx
+ 10 ^ 4a;7
6
2(7xl)
21
(3a;4)(3a; 2
^
+ l)

(8 a; 11) (x
16
130
32
ALGEBRA
^3
3
a
+ 4._
St
+ lS
a;
03
a;
34.
(First
first
member
x7 x5
second member.)
35.
x
36.
2
5
a;4l x 1
x x
4:
4:
4x + 7
8a;
12ic
+l
5a;l
9(5a;42)
15
1
J
45
37
Q
^+3
2(0^8)
2a;l
3(a;2
,
6(a;2)
1
,
39
2a;
3a;
+ + 10
3
(a;
3a;5
5a;6 ^2
2a;
23fl^10
6x^
+7
+ llxS5
Equations.
of Fractional
^^ + ^^ =
its
2.
We divide
l
each numerator by
corresponding denominator
then
Clearing
orA__^
Then,
+ 82a;2_5a; + 12 = 0;
whence,
a;
= 4.
We reject a solution which does not satisfy the given equation. ~ 2. Solve the equation xS + x2 x^5x{6
Multiplying both members by (x
3) (x
2)
or x2
jc
+ 6,
x2 + a;3
= 3ic7.
x 1,
X
or x
2.
we
substitute 2 for
aj,
the fraction
becomes
2
Since division by
the given equation,
is
and we
impossible, the solution aj = 2 does not satisfy the equation has no solution. reject it
;
"3.
3 H + lO

4
x\^
=
ic
2^
+
a;
+8
+9
we have
58
7x +
(x
+ 10)(x + 6)
all
^
(x
7a; + 58 + 8)(x49)*
first
terms to the
member,
(1)
16 x
 60) = 0.
12)
+ 58)(xf
= 0.
This equation
Placing 7 X
may be
+ 58 = 0, we
have x have
Placing
+ 12 = 0, we
=^ x =  12.
we should solve equation (1), in Ex. 3 of both members by 7 a; + 58, we should have dividing
158. If
157,
by
Then,
In this
r
I
or
a;
= 12.
ic
^^
from this that it is never allowable to divide both members of an equation by any expressio7i which involves the unknown numbers, unless the expression be placed equal to and
It follows
this
way
solutions are
lost.
EXERCISE 59
132
3
ALGEBRA
_8
a;+3
3_^J^
a;7
a;
5_ x+9 x2
*
2x\S
'
2a;3
2x^'^
36
2x6
x^l
4a;29~
^^
aj
+2
3
+3
a;
+4
4
_
x^^^x^l
a^+3a;7 ^^ a^+3aj+l
4
A.x\\
a;49
a;+4
2^1 a;+3
5
ic
a^_2a;45
'
a;+18*
1
6a;
a.22a;3
10
3a;
+5
Literal Equation is
all
of the
known numbers
are represented
2a;
by
letters
as,
+ a=62 + io.
xa
a2^
 a) = a2 + 62, x{x + a) (x + 2 6) (x  (a;2 + 2 6a;  ax  2 6) = a2 4. 52^ a;2 + aa; or, + ax  x2  2 6a; + aa; + 2 a6 = a2 + 62, or, 2 ax  2 6x = a2  2 a6 + or, 2 x(a 6) = (a 6)2. Factoring both members,
a;2
62.
Dividing by 2(a
6),
^^^^
In solving fractional literal equations, we must reject any solution which does not satisfy the given equation. Compare Ex. 2, 167.
EXERCISE 60
Solve the following equations
1.
:
3a;
6ct
2x + n
2x
4a; 3a
+ 56 _q 6a 5b
+ +  = a + & +
ao
be
c.
ca
7.
mx
nx
^
I
mnx
^ a
2
c
^~^
b
^
c
9.
3m
6a^H7ma7 20m^
2x + 6m
<^
cf
I
3aj
4m
10
+^ 'a;
^^
11
'a
x
a;
'
o?
b^
12.
a
b
a
o;
b c
ic
14.
15.
jg
17.
+ 6)(a;g + 6)(g6)a; + a262 = 2g(a; + a6). (a;+i> + g)(a;p + g) + ^^=(a;i>)(a; + g). 4a? + 3n 4:X 5n 10 n^ 3n x x^ nx 6n^ x{2n Sx _ 5 ax 2 b ^ g + 3 5a; _ ax{2a^ ^h
(g
^
2
18.
4g
b
86
16a6
a
x\b
x{a
a;
ic
a b +g+6
2ga;
19
a;
+g
20.
a;
117
2g
x
ic^
g + 3g
19g^
+ gaj 6g^
8g
_^
3
2g
6a;
+g
3a;
2a;
3a
134
21.
ALGEBRA
1
22
x\4:n
,
x\3n
x^\ax
x^
\
2a^ _ q
\
ax
2 o?
23
24.
Transposing,
.2
a:
.03
a;
Uniting terms,
Dividing by .057,
.001.
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:
61
2.
3.
a?
unknown number.)
a;
.73
a;
+ 8.86 = .6(2.3
.4).
5.
6.
a;.
6.15 x
67
.6aj.81
Sx
.Sx6.52 .8a;(
.5
V8
9.
^^^'^^ 2.84
.3
^r^^
.03
somewhat more
difficult
in 10 days.
can do a piece of work in 8 days which B can perform In how many days can it be done by both working
together ?
Let
X
_
of
days required.
Then,
X
8
Also,
part
and
By
8
5
ic
=
10
0!
Clearing of fractions,
4
oj
= 40,
= 4,
or 9
ic
= 40.
Whence,
2.
if
x
digit of a
The second
first
by 2
and
the number, increased by 6, be divided by the Find the number. digits, the quotient is 5.
Let Then, X
sum
of its
= the
first digit.
x
2
itself is
a;
\
2 2
= the second
= the sum
digit,
and
of the digits.
first digit,
The number
Then,
10
a;
+ (a; +
2), or 11
+
2
= the
number.
By
the conditions,
lla;
+6^^
+
8
2
2x +
11 x
Whence,
Then,
10 a:
10,
and x
= 2.
11 x
= 24,
the
number
required.
136
ALGEBRA
3. Divide 44 into two parts such that one divided by the other shall give 2 as a quotient and 5 as a remainder.
Let
Then,
44
since the dividend
11
= =
?i
Now
is
we have
44
+
n
5,
whence
3 n
39.
Then,
and
4.
44
Two
persons,
and B, 63 miles
same
time and travel towards each other. A travels at the rate of 4 miles an hour, and B at the rate of 3 miles an hour. How far will each have travelled when they meet ?
Let
Then,
4X
= the number of miles that A travels. Sx = the number of miles that B travels.
4x
7
By
the conditions,
a;
63.
Then,
= 63,
the
and x
= 9.
of miles that
Whence,
and
It is
4x
= 36,
number
A travels,
B
travels.
3x =
27, the
number
of miles that
number
unknown
5. At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a watch opposite to each other ?
Let X
the
number
by the minutehand
from 3 o'clock
hand
Then, since the hourhand is 15 minutespaces in advance of the minuteat 3 o'clock, X 15 30, or x 45, will represent the number of
minutespaces passed over by the hourhand. But the minutehand moves 12 times as fast as the hourhand.
Whence,
Then,
12 (x
45), or x
12 x
540,
a;
= 
540,
and x
49^^
is 49^^^
The denominator
If the
tor
by
4.
fraction.
2.
Divide 197 into two parts such that the smaller shall be
in
4i hours
in 2f hours, and by B piece of work can be done by in how many hours can the work be done by both
;
working together
4.
The second digit of a number of two figures exceeds the by 5 and if the number, increased by 6, be divided by the sum of the digits, the quotient is 4. Find the number.
first
;
5.
of a
At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock is the minutehand watch 10 minutes in advance of the hourhand ?
7.
A piece of work can be done by A and B working together After working together 7 days, A leaves, and B work in 9 days. How long will A alone take to
?
do the work
8.
be 3 times as
143.
Divide 54 into two parts such that twice the smaller shall much above 29 as 4 times the greater is below
9. At what time between 8 and 9 o'clock are the hands of a watch together ?
of a fraction exceeds the denominator by numerator be decreased by 9, and the denominator increased by 6, the sum of the resulting fraction and the given fraction is 2. Find the fraction.
10.
5.
The numerator
If the
11.
hand
138
12.
first;
ALGEBRA
and
The second digit of a number of two figures is i the if the number be divided by the difference of its
and the remainder
3.
Find the
number.
13. A garrison of 700 men has provisions for 11 days. After 3 days, a certain number of men leave, and the proHow many men leave ? visions last 10 days after this time.
14.
A woman
buys a certain number of eggs for $ 1.05 she much more than 18 cents as 8 eggs
;
How many
is
The width
of a field
its
length.
width were
increased by 5 feet, and the length by 10 feet, the area would be increased by 400 square feet. Find the dimensions.
16. After A has travelled 7 hours at the rate of 10 miles in 3 hours, B sets out to overtake him, travelling at the rate of 9 miles in 2 hours. How far will each have travelled when B
overtakes
17.
A?
first digit
The
of a
number
If the second, and exceeds the third digit by 2. divided by the sum of its digits, the quotient is 38.
Find the
number.
18.
A, B, and
5,
as
A takes
together.
takes
divide coins in the following way as often takes 6, C takes 7. 4, and as often as
:
and
How many
19. A can do a piece of work in 3^ hours, B in 3 hours, and C in 3f hours. In how many hours can it be done by all working together ?
20.
rate of walking.
hands of
A man
rate of
23.
The
digits of
a certain
If the
is
number
is
its digits,
the greatest, and the number be divided by the sum of Find the number. ^p
24.
certain
first
number
boys.
The
of apples were divided between three received onehalf the entire number, with one
apple additional, the second received onethird the remainder, with one apple additional, and the third received the remainder, 7.
How many
25. freight train runs 6 miles an hour less than a passenger train. It runs 80 miles in the same time that the passenger train runs 112 miles. Find the rate of each train.
half as
and B each fire 40 times at a target A's hits are onenumerous as B's misses, and A's misses exceed by 15 How many times does each hit the the number of B's hits.
26.
;
target ?
27.
A freight
to
at the rate of 12
has been gone 3^ hours, an express for B, travelling at the rate of 45 miles an hour, train leaves and reaches B 1 hour and 5 minutes ahead of the freight. to B, and the time taken by the Find the distance from
miles an hour.
After
it
express train.
28. A tank has three taps. By the first it can be filled in 3 hours 10 minutes, by the second it can be filled in 4 hours 45 minutes, and by the third it can be emptied in 3 hours 48 minutes. How many hours will it take to fill it if all the
A man
;
at
4%
after
income
is
sum at 3f %, and \^ this sum an income tax of 5%, his net annual paying $ 195.70. How much did he invest in each way ?
invested a certain
140
ALGEBRA
30. train leaves for B, 210 miles distant, travelling at the rate of 28 miles an hour. After it has been gone 1 hour
and 15 minutes, another train starts from B for A, travelling an hour. How nmny miles from B will meet ? they
at the rate of 22 miles
do a piece of work in  as many days as B, and as many days as C. Together they can do the work in 3^^ days. In how many days can each alone do
31.
A can
it
can do
in
the work ?
32.
A vessel
It takes
just as long to run 23 miles up stream as 47 miles stream. Find the rate of the stream.
33.
down
man
starts
at the rate
If he had of one yard in a second, and arrives 2 minutes late. walked at the rate of 4 yards in 3 seconds, he would have been
3^ minutes too
early.
to the station.
34. crew has bread for a voyage of 50 days, at IJ lb. each After 20 days, 7 men are lost in a storm, and the a day. remainder of the crew have a daily allowance of li lb. for the
Find the
at 4^
A man invests
$ 230
%.
He
part of a like sum at S^%, and the balance at 5J%, and obtains the same income. How much does he invest at each
rate ?
36.
a watch
37.
o'clock do the
hands of
and 12.30
it is
p.m., the
f as great as
10 minutes
38.
She then
an egg more than half her eggs. an egg more than half her remaining eggs. third time she does the same, and now has 3 eggs left.
sells half sells half
A woman
How many
had she
at first ?
141
He
A merchant increases his capital annually by of itself. adds to his capital $ 300 at the end of the first year, and $350 at the end of the second; and finds at the end of the
is
f of his original
capital.
Find
A and B together can do a piece of work in 5 days, and C together in 6 days, and C and A together in 5f days. In how many days can it be done by each working alone ?
73
41.
her
own
pursued by a hound, and has a start of 77 of The fox makes 5 leaps while the hound makes leaps.
fox
is
many
42.
but the hound in 5 leaps goes as far as the fox in 9. How leaps does each make before the hound catches the fox ?
puts a certain sum into a savings bank paying At the end of a year he deposits the interest, At the end of a interest on the entire amount. receiving second year and a third year he does the same, and now has
A man
interest.
What was
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
1.
The
density of a substance
is
is
defined as the
total
Hence the
its
number number
of
of
volume, F;
equal to
by
M=DV,
V
in grams. being given in cubic centimeters, and Two blocks, one of iron and one of copper, weigh the same
number
of grams; the iron has a volume of 10 cubic centimeters and a density of 7.4 the copper has a density of 8.9. Find the volume of the copper block.
;
2. When 100 grams of alcohol, of density .8, is poured into a cylindrical vessel, it is found to fill it to a depth of 10 centimeters. Find the area of the base of the cylinder in square
centimeters.
3.
A cylindrical
TT
mass of 3 kilograms.
Let
iron bar, 2 centimeters in diameter, has a Find the length of the bar.
3}.
142
ALGEBRA
4. When a body is weighed under water, it is found to be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water which it
displaces. If a boy can exert a lifting force of 120 pounds, how heavy a stone can he lift to the surface of a pond, if the density of stone is 2.5 and that of water 1 ?
5.
When
a straight bar
is
sup1),
and masses mi, ma, etc., are hung from the bar as indicated in the
figure,
it is
mi
^
"
(_j
m*
^*
bar
mi X ao
+ m^
x
is
ho
m^x co
\
m^x
do
\
m^ x
eo.
10 feet long, where must the support be in order that a 70pound boy at one end may balance a placed 60pound boy on the other end plus a 40pound boy 3 feet from
If a teeter board
bar 40 inches long is in equilibrium when weights of 6. 6 pounds and 9 pounds hang from its two ends. Find the position of the support.
7.
and if mi = 40, mg = 60, mg = 60, m^ = 15, and m^ = 5, where must a mass of 100 be placed in order to produce equilibrium ?
8. A gas expands ^rs of its volume at 0 centigrade for each degree of rise in its temperature i.e., the volume, Vt, at any temperature, t, is connected with the volume, Vo, at the
;
If in Fig. 1, ao
= 100,
bo
= 40,
co
= 30,
do
= 60,
eo
= 110,
= F + ^^F,
air at 0
or
V,= V,(l+^\^t).
expand
To what volume will 100 cubic centimeters of when the temperature rises to 50 centigrade ?
9.
centigrade contract
To what volume will 100 cubic centimeters of air at 50 when the temperature falls to 0 centigrade ?
of air at 50
When
momentum
its
of the first
a body in motion collides with a body at rest, the body (i.e., the product of its mass, m^, by
original velocity, v^ is found to be in every case exactly equal to the total momentum of the two bodies after collision
{i.e., to the product of the mass, mg, of the second body times the velocity, ^2, which it acquires, plus the product of mj by the velocity, 'Ug, which it retains after the collision). The alge
is
mass of which
is
was moving
at a velocity of 1500 centimeters a second, collided with another ball at rest which weighed 30 grams. In the
collision the first ball
imparted to the second a velocity of 1600 Find the velocity of the first ball after
times the
Let
one part.
other part.
Then,
x = the
mx =
n(a
By
the conditions,
x)
b.
mx = an
nx
b.
b.
mx \xijn
nx
n)
=
=
an
an
6.
Whence,
= 9l!1A
m\n
r, a
the
first part.
(1)
A^ And,
^= x
an
7n
an b +n
(2)
part.
144
The
results
ALGEBRA
can be used as formuloe for solving any problem of the
be required to divide 25 into two parts such that 4 times the
above form.
Thus,
first
let it
shall
Here, a
25,
m=
4t,
yi
= 3,
and
37.
the
first
part
10.
m times
as B,
as
much above
11.
A can
can do
many days
and
do the work in p days, working together, in how many days can each alone do the work ?
in onenth as
many
as C.
If they can
12.
was
times as old as
in 6 years.
times as old as
13.
How many
A and B together can do a piece of work in a hours, and C together in h hours, and A, B, and C together in c In how many hours can each alone do the work ? hours.
14.
15.
of a
How many minutes after 2 o'clock will the minutehand watch be n minutes in advance of the hourhand ?
16. A and B together can do a piece of work in m days, B and C together in n days, and C and A together in p days. How many days will it take to do the work if all work
together ?
17.
sum
of
entirely of quarters
quarters.
money, amounting to m dollars, consists and dimes, there being n more dimes than
are there of each ?
How many
146
ALGEBRA
XIL
An equation
by an
is satisfied
indefinitely great
number
these numbers.
Putting = 1, Putting x = 2,
a;
we have we have
1 {y
= 5,
+ i/=5,
= 5. = 4. or y = 3; etc.
or
?/
is satisfied
by the
4:,
sets of values
and
= l,y = x = 2, y =
x
S',
etc.
An equation which is satisfied by an indefinitely great number of sets of values of the unknown numbers involved, is
called
an Indeterminate Equation.
+ y = 5, \2x + 2y=10.
r
(1)
(2) (2)
Equation
(1)
by
multi
plying both members by 2 then, every set of values of x and y which satisfies one of the equations also satisfies the other.
equivalent.
+ = 5, [x^y = S.
2/
(3)
(4)
In this case, it is not true that every set of values of x and y which satisfies one of the equations also satisfies the other; thus, equation (3) is satisfied by the set of values x =3, y = 2, which does not satisfy (4). If two equations, containing two or more unknown numbers,
are not equivalent, they are called Independent.
147
+ y = 5y x\y = 6.
(1) (2)
x and y
which shall satisfy both (1) and (2). Such equations are called Inconsistent.
166. system of equations is called Simultaneous when each contains two or more unknown numbers, and every equation of the system is satisfied by the same set, or sets, of values
of the
unknown numbers
is satisfied
by the
Solution of a system of simultaneous equations is a set of values of the unknown numbers which satisfies every equation of the system
;
to solve a
is
independent simultaneous equations of the form be solved by combining them in such a way as to form a single equation containing but one unknown number. This operation is called Elimination.
167.
ax{by = c may
Two
5x3y = 19.
Multiplying (1) by
Multiplying (2) by
Adding
(3)
and
(4),
Whence,
Substituting x
2 in (1),
Whence,
The above
is
15x + 82/=
1
149
)0
151
152
ALGEBRA
1.
\ 3
a;
y\4:
=0.
f
(1) ^^
[x{y2)y(x5) = 13.
(2)
+ 28
(3)
From
(2),
xy
by 2 x = lS.
2/
(4) (5)
(6)
Whence,
_ 5 _ 2 x =  13.  2 x = 8,
or x
= 4.
In solving fractional simultaneous equations, we reject any solution which does not satisfy the given equations.
(2x\Sy
2.
=13.
1
(1)
,p>,
1
]
[x2
Multiplying each term of (2) by (x
?/
y^~
2) (y
'
^"^
3),
we have
6.
3
4
0,
or y
=X+
x
5
(3)
Substituting in (1), 2 x
Substituting in (3),
3x+
15
13, or
= 2. =
3.
y
the
first
= 
This solution
it
satisfies
then
must be
rejected.
if
EXERCISE 67
:
2x_5j^_l
5
a?
2'
3.
4:X
Sy
14
x 6y _
5y_5
T"2*
*
2x + Sy = 10.
8
11
4.
\e2t3
[
l'
8a;52/ = l.
5e + 2 = 7.
153
Sx4:y
2
x{5
2/
11.
X
6.
^ 11
= 5.
3
2/.
5.
+1
= 0.
9 2
+5
3
^U2xl){y4.)(x5)(2y + 5)
I
8
ic
= 0.
12.
y5
5
32/44:
1
2*
= 0.
^2a;l
7
~10*
fa^4ll_^.V^^_4
5
9.
a^ cc
+ ^
1
.
10
13.
iC1
2
2/
+ 4 = 45.
10
1
5*
3^18
2/4
^ 6jrJ. 22/ + 3*
cZ2n
10.
Sd{7i\3
{
15.
5a;i(3a;22/ + 5)=ll.
5(^_42/)K^2/)
^^
= 16.
c^+4n_7
.08a;
11.
I 1
ii'
3
,
2/
5_ 3 ~6
2/
+ .9i/ = .048.
.3
a;
.35 2/ =.478.
16.
;(i>^)Kp3g) = g3.
f(i>^)+l(P+^)
16
5
= 18.
^
3^
'6^+5^_3^4^^
17.
5X
5a;
2fl;
4 _
2/
+ 42/
13
+ 52/ + l
a;
3x + 2/3 _
^,
o,,
18.
a;
4 +6 2 18
2/ 2/
154
ALGEBRA
3xyl19.
^
5x7y\2
20.
i
g;
4y+7
= + 4.
2/
a;
3 +4
?/
6x 5y\7 _ x2.
X
3
23
5
21.
ic
2
7
i/
Sy
2"
2.
12 4
2/
3"
U2 + 4(2a;^)=0.
ri4.74l
22.
'21.^
10^3
+1
5^
+ 2 ^ 63.(7130^
3
21
2
3a;
23.
+l
2x^y
2
4a;
x\2y
8
5^7
^^
'
^3
24.
+ 4, _ y
?/
a.'
~~5~'
17
+3 H2/ + 5.
2a;
t
= 0. + 5)(62/ + 7) (a;_l)(2/H_2)(a; + 3)(2/ + 4) = 12. .13 + .29 .32 + .17 + .21. r.08a;435
62/
3a!44
2(42/
,^
a;
15
.9
2/
.6
25.
.02a;
+ .17
.08^.47 ^q
.3
In solving
of
literal simultaneous linear equations, the method elimination by addition or subtraction is usually to be
preferred.
155
(1)
J
I
ax + by =
a'x + h^v =
c.
c'.
(2)
ah'x
a'bx
iab>
+ +
= = a'b)x =
bb'y bb'y
h'c.
be'.
b'c
be'.
Whence,
Multiplying (1) by
b'c,
be'
ab'
a'b
a',
aa'x
Multiplying (2) by
a,
aa'x
(ab'
ca'.
(3)
da.
c'a c'a ab'
(4)
ca'.
Whence,
ca'
a'b
In solving fractional literal simultaneous equations, any solution which does not satisfy the given equations must be
rejected.
(Compare Ex.
2,
171.)
EXERCISE 68
Solve the following
i
5x6y=Sa.
ax\by
1.
mxny=mn.
m'x\n']y=m'n.
\4:X+9y=7a.
^ + mi
X=
97i2
J:..
mg
ng
^2
1/3.
'
2ax
a
by
+ Wo
1.
\
i
5.
hxay=h^.
(ab)x{by=a^.
m
J
\n\y
8.
1
[w
^ +
o;
>/ll
= 2 a. n ^ 9. b^y = a^{a^x mx 2)y = S a. n (a + T)x \(a VIO. y m 4)?/ = 7 a. (a + 3)a; + (a 6)a; + ab(a + 5)?/ =^a? \2ab W. a6(a ax\by = 2.
ax + by
b'i
,
156
r
ALGEBRA
12.
\
n.
13.
16.
+ b)x \(ab)y = 2 a^  2 b\ 14. X _ 4:db y a b a + b o? b^ bx\ay = 2. 15. ab(a b)y = a^ b\ ab{a + b)x a{b _y a y 61 x\b x\a\b ay bx = d^ 17. x __. = 2a?2 b\ a b '[(a {a\b)x + {ab)y yb a
(a
\\*
173. Certain equations in Avhich the unknown numbers occur in the denominators of fractions may be readily solved
159 = 8.
X
,Ex.
(1)
y
(2)
X
Multiplying (1) by
5,
y
40.
50_45
X
y
Multiplying (2) by
3,
Adding,
Substituting in (1), 5
= 37,
74
37 X, and x
= 2.
= 8,   = 3,
and
y=S.
157
[6 X
1.
+  = 1.
12
y
3.
\
a X
a'
2
3a;
5.
,
A=i
4^
3y
3
12*
y
c'.
y
^
[X
9
b' +=
^
4.x
L^13
72*
14__11
89
30*
d"^
10
6
s~
2
6.
X
^5
by
a;
2.
+ 2y:
f
21
s
3'
7.
\p
9.
i
6^_59^
y
18*
ld~^
a
&ic
_ a\b
ah
b^
ay
_a
b_
ax
by
a'b'
q
X
p'^
a + y \b
b
,
= 1.
10.
2x
\y
x x
4:y = 2.

24
+ xa
a
y
= 1.
16
2x\y
4ty
= 3.
we have three independent simultaneous equations, thr^ee unknown numbers, we may combine any two
them by one of the methods of elimination explained in 169 to 171, so as to obtain a single equation containing only two unknown numbers.
may then combine the remaining equation with either of the other two, and obtain another equation containing the same
two unknown numbers. By solving the two equations containing two unknown numand substituting them in bers, we may obtain their values
;
We
either of
unknown
the given equations, the value of the remaining number may be found.
158
ALGEBRA
proceed in a similar manner when the number of equaand of unknown numbers is greater than three. The method of elimination by addition or subtraction is usually the most convenient.
tions
In solving fractional simultaneous equations, any solution which does not satisfy the given equations must be rejected. (Compare Ex. 2, 171.)
We
Qx
42/
159
(4.x3y=
1.
1.
Oi
^x lly ^z
10.
9.
3^ = ^15.
8a;+4?/
il6a;+
[4.z3x=
(
10.
7 2/462
= 11. = 64.
4.
6.
22. f8aj44^+ 32 =52. 4:X i)y 6z = \bx y^l2z = 52. 11. X y+ z = 6. 9 + 7  6 2 =  36. 22. z= [^x 4+ 3 2= 42. 3x y z = 14 <j^)l) 6a;^" 2 = 16. 12. 10a; 5 2/ 2= .2. x\3y 6 172/ + 4 2 = 46. 3 2 = 10. x\r2a; + 5 2/+32 = 7. ^+ hk = 2L 13. 22/ 4 2 = 23 + 3/,_A: = 6L j4^ 5a;+9 = 5 + 7 2. [6^5/iA; = ll. r5_8 = 3. + 52/= 1. [3a; 9a;+52 = 7. 8_3 = 1. 14. 2. l92/ + 32= ^ y 4:2 = 5. f5aj + 25 ^^ 2 3a; + 52/ + 62 = 20. 3x ccH32/82 = 27. ^^ + i = 10' 3 = 26. f2x52/ T_ 7a; + 6 2=33. 15.

a;
2/
'
f
2/
a;
2/
a;.
2/
a;
2/
2/
a;
2/
2/_4
2a;
a;
^4 +
2
2/
42/
2*
2;
30'
J^
+ 42/ 2 = 2.  8 + 4 2 =  25. 18 [10ic442/92 = 30. 3p_4g + 5r = 10. 4p_5g_3r = 25. 5p_3g_4r = 21.
152
a;
12*
ax\hy
=
ahc
16.
by
\
cz
b^
+ c^
+ g^
ahc
cz
\
ax =
c^
160
ALGEBRA
4.e12t20w = 9.
17.
18.
+ 10?^ = 5. [12elSt 5 IV = 13. u x\y= 15. x y}z = 12. 13. y z{u= [Z U\^X =
8e6^
(
ri^i = a. +a;
24.
1+1
2/
2;
= 6.
 +  = c.
L2;
iC
14:.
r5 a;
+=
2/
c.
ri^i
X
19.
1
z
y
z
25.
1^1
y
iz
a c ~+~= z X
.y
c
f
b.
b z
= a.
c a
1^11
X
y
20.
\
0 c
26.
c a +^=6+c+2a. a 6
^
ab h^=:c\a^2b. bG
21.
5y
[6zu=
x+y xz
27.
y \=3. 3
22.
z_
_6
4
5_ = i
5
2.
2;
31
a;
+
2;
3'^4
3
?/
12*
17
a;
a? y 3
23.
^
lla;152/+
72=
15.
yz
3
z
z+x _
5 5
13
15"
t*j3a;_22/
29.
2=
3.
2wa;yf32=
[3u2x{y\z=
23.
+ x _ X y _ 43
2
u\x\3y2z = 12.
22.
~io'
161
6x{5y
3
31.
y4:Z _
5
14 5
^ 4
+ 11= 6 3
4
28.
g 5 a;
32.
7a;+3y ~ _
'
4
9'
6^3
15
2*
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE UNKNOWN NUMBERS
175. In solving problems where two or more letters are used to represent unknown numbers, we must obtain from
the conditions of the problem as many independent equations 164) as there are unknotvn numbers to be deter rniyied.
1.
by
7.
Let
162
3.
ALGEBRA
of
sum
$1
number
received
of persons.
less
;
equally between a certain there been 3 more, each would have had there been 6 fewer, each would have re
Had
many
how
and
Then,
= the number of persons, y = the number of dollars received xy = the nuijiber of dollars divided.
by each.
Since the sum of money could be divided between x + 8 persons, each whom would receive y 1 dollars, and between x persons, each of whom would receive y + 5 dollars, (x + S)(y 1) and {x 6)(2/ + 5)
of
(3
number
of dollars divided.
{
Then,
(x
S)(y
 1)=
xy,
and
Solving these
4.
The sum
number
is
13.
If the
be divided by the sum of its second and third digits, the quotient is 25 and if 99 be added to the number, the digits will be inverted. Find the number.
number, decreased by
Let
X = the
y
z
first digit,
and
Then,
and
= the second, = the third. 100 x + 10 + = the number, 100 z + lOy x = the number with
?/
2;
\
its digits
inverted.
By
and
Solving
+ z = 13, 100 X + 10 y + g  8 _ t)r ~ +^ 100x^10y\z + 99 = 100z + 10y + x. these equations, x = 2, y = S, z = 3 and the number is
xiy
2/
;
283.
5. A crew can row 10 miles in 50 minutes down stream, and 12 miles in li hours against the stream. Find the rate in miles per hour of the current, and of the crew in still water.
163
= number
= number
of miles
in still water,
and
Then, x
of miles an
and
The number
Then,
+ = 10  = 12,
?/
and
164
Substituting in (1),
ALGEBRA
io~io'^
^'
^^
TR
71
'
^^^^^e, y
75.
EXERCISE
1.
Divide 79 into two parts such that threesevenths the by 56 than fourthirds the greater.
If the numerator of a fraction be increased by 4, the
is
while
if
the denominator
is .
is
de
3,
Find the
is
fraction.
The sum
two
digits of a
number
14
number.
4.
A's age
is
f of
ages.
B's,
B's.
5.
Find their
the
If the two digits of a number be inverted, the quotient of number thus formed, increased by 101, by the original number is 2 and the sum of the digits exceeds twice the excess of
;
If 3 be
and 7 sub
tracted from the denominator, its value is ^ and if 1 be subtracted from the numerator, and 7 added to the denominator, Find the fraction. its value is .
two 7. A's age is twice the sum of the ages of B and C years ago, A was 4 times as old as B, and four years ago, was 6 times as old as C. Find their ages.
;
8. If the greater of two numbers be divided by the less, the quotient is 1, and the remainder 6. And if the greater, increased by 14, be divided by the less, diminished by 4, the quotient is 5, and the remainder 4. Find the numbers. 9. If 8 yards of silk and 12 yards of woolen cost $ 27, and 12 yards of silk and 8 yards of woolen cost $ 28, find the price per yard of the silk and of the woolen.
10.
much
greater than a as the other is less than a; and the quotient of their sum by their difference equal to b.
165
certain
number
of
sum
of its digits by 4.
two digits exceeds three times the If the digits be inverted, the sum of
the resulting number and the given number exceeds three times the given number by 2. Find the number.
12.
The sum
number
is
16
the digit
;
in the tens' place exceeds that in the hundreds' place by 4 and if 297 be added to the number, the digits will be inverted.
A rectangular field has the same area as another which 6 rods longer and 2 rods narrower, and also the same area as IS a third which is 3 rods shorter and 2 rods wider. Find its
13.
dimensions.
14.
first
second and onethird the third shall equal 29 the second with onethird the first and onefourth the third shall equal 28;
first
15. The circumference of the large wheel of a carriage is 55 The former makes inches more than that of the small wheel.
many revolutions in going 250 feet as the latter does in going 140 feet. Find the number of inches in the circumference of each wheel.
as
16.
the
is
sum
;
If the digits of a number of three figures be inverted, of the number thus formed and the original number
1615 the sum of the digits is 20, and if 99 be added to the number, the digits will be inverted. Find the number.
for B, 112 miles distant, at 9 a.m., and 17. A train leaves one hour later a train leaves B for A; they met at 12 noon. If the second train had started at 9 a.m., and the first at 9.50
A.M.,
18.
Find
their rates.
has $ 1.50 with which he wishes to buy two kinds of notebooks. If he asks for 14 of the first kind, and 11 of the
second, he will require 6 cents more and if he asks for 11 of the first kind, and 14 of the second, he will have 6 cents over.
;
A boy
How much
166
ALGEBRA
19. A man invests $10,000, part at 4^%, and the rest at S^%. He finds that six years' interest on the first investment exceeds five years' interest on the second by $658.
How much
20. A man buys apples, some at 2 for 3 cents, and others at 3 for 2 cents, spending in all 80 cents. If he had bought j as many of the first kind, and f as many of the second, he
cents.
How many
buy?
21.
An
is obtained in part from and in part from money invested 3^%, If the amount invested at the first rate were invested and the amount invested at the second rate were inat 3i%, the annual income would be $825. How
invested at
much
22.
is
A tank containing 864 gallons can be filled by two A and B. After the pipes have been open together for pipes, 9 minutes, the pipe A is closed, and B finishes the work of
filling in
pipe
How
23.
had elapsed before the have finished in 2 J minutes. many gallons does each pipe fill in one minute ?
15 minutes."
closed,
If 15 minutes
was
B would
The contents
of one barrel
wine.
How many
gallons
may
be I wine ?
A boy spends his money for oranges. Had he bought more, each would have cost a cents less if n fewer, each would have cost b cents more. How many did he buy, and at
24.
what price
25.
A vessel
If 50
;
gallons of wine are added, there is J as much wine as water if 50 gallons of water are added, there is 4 times as much
water as wine.
at
first.
167
buys 15 bottles of sherry, and 20 bottles of If the sherry had cost j as much, and the for ^38. claret, Find the claret f as much, the wine would have cost $38.50.
cost per bottle of the sherry,
27.
A man
and of the
claret.
If a field
square feet
but
length
width d feet less, its area would n square feet. Find its dimensions. be decreased by
c
were made
feet less,
and
its
28.
If the
a,
and the
if
denominator by
is
and
d,
the
the value
m
71/
digits.
certain number equals 59 times the sum of its three The sum of the digits exceeds twice the tens' digit by and the sum of the hundreds' and tens' digits exceeds twice
6.
by
B
.
A piece of work can be done by A and B in 4 hours, and C in 2 hours, and by A and C in 3 hours. In how
each alone do the work ?
of a fraction has the
;
The numerator
same two
digits as
the denominator, but in reversed order the denominator exceeds the numerator by 9, and if 1 be added to the numerator
is .
Find the
fraction.
32. A man walks from one place to another in 5^ hours. If he had walked ^ of a mile an hour faster, the walk would have taken 36 fewer minutes. How many miles did he walk, and
at
what
33.
rate ?
A man
invests a certain
sum
of
money
at a certain rate
of interest. rate 1
If the principal had been $ 120l) greater, and the greater, his income would have been increased by
had been $3200 greater, aiid the rate income would have been increased by $ 312. % What sum did he invest, and at what rate ?
118.
If the principal
greater, his
168
34.
ALGEBRA
in 7 years,
$ 2174.40
in 12 years.
and the
35.
rate.
If
A
36.
A and B together can do a piece of work in 3 hours. works I as fast, and B  as fast, they can do it in the
In how
same time.
many
?
;
Two men
they can also do it if the first man works 25^ hours, and the second 32 hours. In how many hours can each alone do the
work
37.
crew row 16J miles up stream and 18 miles down They then row 21 miles up stream and 19 J miles down stream in 11 hours. Find the rate in miles an hour of the stream, and of the crew in still water.
stream in 9 hours.
38. A train travels from A to B, 228 miles, and another from B to A. If the trains start at the same time, they will meet 3f hours after. If the first train starts 3 hours after the second, they will meet 2 hours after the second train starts. Find the rates of the trains.
has quarterdollars, dimes, and halfdimes to the and has in all 12 coins. If he replaces the quarters by dimes, and the dimes by quarters, the value of the coins would be $ 1.55. How many has he of each?
39.
man
$
value of
1.40,
the
The middle digit of a number of three figures is onehalf sum of the other two digits. If the number be divided by the sum of its digits, the quotient is 20, and the remainder 9
40.
;
to the
number, the
41. A certain number of workmen receive the same wages, and receive together a certain sum. If there had been 9 more men, and each ha*d received 30 cents less, the total received would have been increased by $ 12.30. Had there been 8 fewer men, and each had received 40 cents more, the total received would have been decreased by $ 13.20. How many men were there, and how much did each receive ?
169
66 gallons.
merchant has three casks of wine, containing together He pours from the first into the second and third he then pours from the secas much as each of them contains ond into the first and third as much as each of them then conThere is now 8 times as much in the third cask as in tains. the second, and twice as much in the first as in the second. How many gallons did each have at first ?
;
43.
certain majority.
majority, and the number of persons voting for it is  as great How as the number voting against on the former occasion.
many
44.
voted
for,
former occasion?
I bought apples at 3 for 5 cents, and oranges at 2 for 5 spending in all $ 1.70. I sold threefourths of the apples and onehalf of the oranges for $ 1.10, and made a profit of 5 cents on the latter transaction. How many did I buy of each ?
cents,
45.
A gives
to
then has.
46.
much money as each of them then as much money as each of them Each has now $ 8. How much had each at first ?
has onehalf as many dimes as dollars, and B eightmany dimes as dollars. They have together 3 more dollars than dimes, and B's money is 60 cents less than A's. How much money has each ?
sevenths as
47.
A man buys
1200.
a certain
number
of
$ 100 railway
;
shares,
when
for
at a certain rate per cent discount, for f 1050 and at a rate per cent premium twice as great, sells onehalf of
when
them
How many
B
48.
A
A
and
in
i^'
hours,
A and D
How many
49.
hours will
and B run a race of 280 feet. The first heat, gives The second a start of 70 feet, and neither wins the race. heat, gives B a start of 35 feet, and beats him by 6 seconds.
How many
run in a second ?
170
ALGEBRA
50. A, B, C, and play at cards. After B has won onehalf of A's money, C onethird of B's, onefourth of C's, and onefifth of D's, they have each f 10, except B, who has $ 16.
How much
51.
had each
at first ?
The sum
number
is 14.
The
sum
the
of the last three digits exceeds twice the first by 2. Twice the sum of the second and third digits exceeds 3 times
sum
of the first
and fourth by
3.
to
and B run a race of 210 yards. The first heat, a start of 8 seconds, and beats him by 20 yards. The second heat, gives B a start of 70 yards, and is beaten by 2 seconds. How many yards can each run in a second ?
gives
53.
sum
of
money
is
halfdimes.
Its value is as
its
money; and
dimes
value
also as
many
less 1.
The number
ber of halfdollars.
54.
The forewheel
than the hindwheel in travelling b feet. If the circumference of the forewheel were m times as great, and the circumference
of the hindwheel n times as great, the fore wheel would make c revolutions more than the hindwheel in travelling d feet.
which delays
then proceeds at a rate onenth of Had the acciits former rate, and arrives Sit B b hours late. dent occurred c miles nearer B, the train would have been d hours late. Find the rate of the train before the accident,
It
from
to
B from
56. A man buys 60 shares of stock, each having the par value ^100, part paying dividends at the rate of 3%, and the remainder at the rate of 4^%. If the first part had paid dividends at the rate of 4^%, and the other at the rate of 3%,
^12
less.
How many
171
of Solutions.
The length of a field is 10 rods, and its breadth 8 rods; how many rods must be added to the breadth so that the area
may
By
be 60 square rods
Let
the conditions, 10 (8
of rods to be added.
+ x)
10a:
Then,
This
signifies that 2
80
x=
2.
may
be 60 square rods.
(Compare
16.)
:
we should modify
" The length of a field is 10 rods, and its breadth 8 rods rods must be subtracted from the breadth so that the area
square rods
?
"
and
let
we should find x = 2.
is
impossible.
2. If 11 times the number of persons in a certain house, increased by 18, be divided by 4, the result equals twice the number increased by 3 find the number.
;
Let
X
the conditions,
'^'^^+'^^
= the
number.
By
4
lla;
= 2x + S. = 8a; +
12,
Whence,
18
and
is
a;
= 2.
The negative
result
impossible.
A
3.
problem
may
when
the solution
is
fractional.
A man
total
number
The
How
many has he
Let
Then,
X = number
23
of dimes.
of cents.
= number
cents.
172
ALGEBRA
+ 23 x = 37
;
and
is
x=
14
The
fractional result
impossible.
EXERCISE 72
Interpret the solutions of the following
1.
:
and
its
width 9 rods,
how many rods must be subtracted from area may be 144 square rods ?
2.
A is 44 years of age, and B 12 years; how many years was A 3 times as old as B ? ago 3. The number of apple and pear trees in an orchard is 23 and 7 times the number of apple trees plus twice the number
;
How many
of silver coins in a purse exceeds the number of gold coins by 3, and 5 times the number of silver coins exceeds 3 times the number of gold coins by 3. many
The number
How
When A
has gained
250, and B $ 170, A's assets are 5 times those of B. the assets of each.
Find
6.
cistern has
;
in 7i hours
two pipes. When both are open, it is filled and the first pipe alone can fill it in 3 hours.
fill it
How many
7.
The numerator
if
and
by
15,
4 times the denominator; the numerator be diminished by 9, and the denominator the value of the fraction is f Find the fraction.
.
8. and B are travelling due east at the rates of 41 and 3 miles an houi^ respectively. At noon A is 5 miles due east of B. How many miles to the east of A's position at noon will
he overtake
A has ^ 720, and B f 300. After A has gained a certain "9. sum, and B has gained twothirds this sum, A has 3 times as much Jiioney as B. How much did each gain ?
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
173
XIII.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
of a Point.
A
Ms
3f
Mi
X
l/i
A.
Let
angles at
XX'. and J/iPi are called the rectangular coordinates, Then, OMi or simply the coordinates, of Pi OM^ is called the abscissa, and MiPi the ordinate.
and draw
line P^Mj^ perpendicular to
;
178. It is understood, in the definitions of 177, that are positive, and to the abscissas measured to the right of from XX' left, negative; also, that ordinates measured upivards
are positive,
and downwards,
negative.
Thus, let Ps be to the left of YY', and above XX', and Pg and P4 below XX', respectively to the left and right of YY, an^^
draw
Let
P^M^ perpendicular
to
XX'.
0Mi = 5, M,0 = 3, M,0 = 5, 0M^ = 2, M,P^ = S, M,P, = 5, P,Ms=S, P,M, = Then, the abscissa of Pi is + 5, and its ordinate + 3 the abscissa of P, is 3, and its ordinate + 5 the abscissa of P. is 5, and its ordinate 3 the abscissa of P. is 4 2, and its ordinate 4.
4..
174
179.
axis of
ALGEBRA
The
lines of reference,
XX' and
;
and
express the fact that the abscissa of a point is b, and its ordinate a, by saying that, for the point in question, x b and more concisely, we speak of the point as the point y a\ or,
We
where the first term in parentheses is understood to be (h, a) the abscissa, and the second term the ordinate.
;
If a point lies upon XX', its ordinate is zero upon YY', its abscissa is zero.
and
if it lies
The
To
plot a point
when
its
abscissa to the right or left of 0, according or and then draw a perpenas it is , in length to the ordinate, dicular, equal
^ Thus, to plot the point (2, 3), lay off 2 units to the left of O upon XX', and then erect a perpendicular 3 units in length above XX'.
ordinate
is
or
EXERCISE 73
Plot the following points
1.
:
(1, 4).
(2,
6. 7. 8.
11. 12.
13.
(5, 0).
2.
3. 4. 5.
2).
6).
2).
(0, 4).
(3,
6).
(2,
(0,
0).
(2, 4).
(3, 1).
9.
(r, 3).
14.
1).
3).
10.
(6,
= x + 2.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
If
175
we
relation y
U x = 0,
If X If
give any numerical value to x, we may, by aid of the .\ 2, calculate a corresponding value for y. p^ 
'
V=2.
2/
{A)
,
= 1,
= 3,
x=:2,
a;
2^
If
If
If If
2^
a;=l,
a;
a:
2/
=  2, =  3,
2/
2/
= 3. = 4. = 5. = l. = 0. = 1
(B)
.
(C)
(X)
() (F)
;
etc.
(6^)
;
Now
let
let these
and
the points be plotted, as explained in 180. Thus, to plot tlie point A^ lay off 2 units above
will be
The points
is
found to
lie
on a certain
line,
By assuming
we may
obtain intermediate
EXERCISE 74
Eind by the above method the graphs
equations
1.
2/
:
of the following
2.
2/
= 2a; + 3. = 3x4.
We
shall
3.
4?/
4.
+ = 6. ?>y2x = Vl.
cc
5.
?/
= 5a;.
6.
3a;f2?/
= 0.
182.
always find (and it can be proved) that a two unknown numbers, has a straight
is
its
when finding the graph of a linear equapoints, tion involving two unknown numbers, to find two of its points,
and draw a straight line through them. The points most easily determined are those in which the
graph intersects the axes. For all points on OX, y = 0; hence, to find where the graph cuts OX, put y = 0, and calculate the value of x. To find where the graph cuts OY, put x = 0, and calculate
the value of
y.
176
Ex.
Put y
ALGEBRA
Plot the graph of 2x\^y
= l,
7
=
.
^',
then 2
cc
= 7,
2
and x
Then ofO.
Put X
plot
A
;
on OX',  units
to the left
X
=
plot
then 3 y
and y
=  J.
0.
is
Then
Draw
AB
this
the re
quired graph.
The above method cannot, of course, be used for a straight line passing through the origin, nor for the equations of 183.
183. Consider the equation y
= 5.
Then
AB,
is
=3
the straight line CD, parallel to YY', and 3 units to the left of it.
The graph
axis of Y.
of y
is
the axis of
of x
is
the
EXERCISE 75
Plot the graphs of the following equations
1.
:
3x^2y =
x4.y =
6.
4:.
3. 4.
2.
= 2. y = 4:.
a;
5.
16x27y = 72.
Sx\15y
6.
= 6.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Let
177
Since
AB and CD intersect at E. E lies on each graph, its coordinates must satisfy both
;
given equations hence, to find the coordinates of E, we solve the given equations. In this case the solution is x 3, y 2; and it may be verified in the figure that these are the coordinates of E.
We then
num^
EXERCISE 76
Verify the principle of
'
4 07
2/
(5x4.y=
i
0.
7x + 6y = 29.
(9x\Uy = 25.
'
[Sx
4.y
22.
As additional examples, the pupil might verify graphically the solutions of Exs. 3, 8, 11, and 12, Exercise 65, and of
Exs.
7, 8, 9,
and
185. Graphs
of Inconsistent
Two
Un
known Numbers.
Consider the equations
(AB) {CD)
6x 4:y =
by
2.
10,
Then, the given equations are inconsistent ( 165), and it is impossible to find any values of x and y which satisfy both equations.
178
ALGEBRA
We shall always find that two inconsistent equations, with two unknown numbers, are represented by parallel graphs; for if the graphs could intersect at any point, the coordinates of this point would be a solution of the given equations ( 184).
186. Graphs of Indeterminate Linear Equations with
Two
Un
known Numbers.
Consider the equations
3a;22/=
The
5.
first
of the second,
by 2, and the graphs coincide. The given equations are not independent in any similar case, we shall find that the graphs are ( 164)
;
coincident.
EXERCISE 77
Verify the principles of 185 and 186 in the following
equations:
r3ajf42/=
3a;
12.
{2x 7y = U.
4aj14?/ =
5x\28.
2.
2/
= 15.
Expressions involving
Put
this equation be
Putting y
cuts
gs
I units to the left of 0. Putting x = 0, y = 5; then the graph cuts YY' 5 units above 0.
XX'
The graph
is
AB.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION"
188. Graphical Representation of Roots
Ill
179
( 81).
of
Equations
order to find the abscissa of the point A ( 187), where the graph of 3 a? 5 intersects XX', we solve the equation
3a;
+o=
is,
( 182).
That
the abscissa of
Hence,
member of any linear equation, with one unknown number, sects XX', is the root of the equation.
EXERCISE 78
inter
Plot the graphs of the first members of the following equations, and in each case verify the principle of 188
:
1.
2a;
+ 7 = 0.
2.
5a;4 = 0.
180
ALGEBRA
XIV.
INEQUALITIES
> <
,
and are read " is greater 189. The Signs of Inequality, than " and " is less than," respectively. " a 6 is read " a is greater than 6 6 is read " a Thus, a
>
<
is less
than
6."
is
when
the remainder obtained by subtracting the second from the first is a positive number.
One number
is
when
the remainfirst
is
Thus,
is
a positive number,
a>b; and
if
&
is
negative number,
a<b.
two expres
191.
sions
is
An
The
is
the
Any term
of either
member
of an inequality
calle^ a term
of the inequality.
Two
or
more
first
when the
Thus, a
member
and
inequalities are said to subsist in the same sense is the greater or the less in both.
>6
G>d
subsist in the
same
sense.
PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES
192.
An
inequality will continue in the same sense after the or subtracted from, both to^
INEQUALITIES
Hence, each of the numbers
181
+ c) (6 + c),
and (a
c.
190)
may
he transposed
its
members
of
an inequality, affected
may
be cancelled.
the sign
194. If the signs of all the terms of an inequality be changed of inequality must be reversed. ^
That
is,
193)
195. An inequality will continue in the same sense after both members have been multiplied or divided by the same positive
number.
is
m(a
b)
and
or
ma mb and
mm
is positive.
Therefore,
m m
an inequality
ber, the sign
196. It follows from 194 and 195 that if both members of be multiplied or divided by the same negative num
182
ALGEBRA
Each
For consider the inequalities a>h, a^ > b', a" > b", . of the numbers, a b, a' b', a" b", , is positive.
Then, their sum a
b^a' b'\a"b"\
(&
or,
is
+ a' + a"\
a positive number.
Whence,
If two inequalities, subsisting in the same sense, be subtracted member from member, the resulting inequality does not necessarily subsist in the same sense. Thus, if a > & and a' > b', the numbers a b and a' b' are positive. But (a b)(a'  b'), or its equal, (a  a')  (6  b'), may be posiand hence a a' may be greater than, less than, tive, negative, or zero
;
or equal to 6
b'.
198. If a
6', is
>6
b',
and
a'
a, a', b,
positive, then
a'
^ ^^,^
(1)
Since
>
and a
is positive,
aa'>ab' (195).
Again, since
a>b, and
b' is
positive,
(2)
ab'>bb'.
From
(1)
and
(2),
aa'
>
56'.
199. If we have any number of inequalities subsisting in the same sense, as a>6, a' >b', a"> b", , and each of the numbers a, a', a", , b, b\ 6", , is positive, then
aa'a"...>66'&"...
For by 198,
Also,
aa'>bb'.
a">&".
aa'a">bb'b".
Then by 198,
obtain finally
we
INEQUALITIES
200. Examples.
1.
183
in the inequality
we have
15.
23
<2 +
a;
< 38.
cc<2.
[tMs
2.
means
that, for
any value
ofa;<2,7x^<^ + 5.
in the following
:
Multiply (1) by
3, 2,
a;
(1)
(2)
Multiply (2) by
4a;
Subtracting (192),
5x>
6x
6x
45,
74.
and a;>9.
Multiply (1) by
Multiply (2) by
Subtracting,
2, 3,
?/
>
(1),
(This means that any values of x and y which satisfy (2), also satisfy 9, and y provided x is 5.)
>
<
3.
ic
is a^
4 < 21 ?
a;
Transposing 21,
x2
4X
is
< 21,
if
x2
 4 X  21
is
< 0.
7
;
 7) is negative. is, if (x + 3)(x Now (x + 3) (x  7) is negative if x is between  3 and <  3, both X + 3 and x  7 are negative, and their product if X is > 7, both x + 3 and x 7 are positive.
That
Hence, x^
for
if
;
positive
x is and
4x
is
< 21,
if
is
> 3,
and
< 7.
184
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 79
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
+ 5)(2aj + 3). + 2) + 3)  4 > (3 X  2)  3) + 36. + 4) (5  2) + (2  3)^ > (3 + 4)^  78.  3)(a; + 4)(aj _ 5) < + l)(a5  2)(x  3). {x a2(a;l)<2 6=^(2a;l)a&, if a2h is positive.
(4a;+5)24<(8a^
(3
a;
(ic
a;
oj
(a;
a;
(a;
ic
(a;
if
and w are
positive,
and m<,n.
'
9.
3a;ll<24lla;, and
10.
+ 23<20 x + 3.
than 13 times the integer, minus 63, and 17 times the integer, minus 23, is greater than 8 times the integer, plus 31, what is
the integer ?
11.
If 7 times the
number
plus 33, is less than 12 times the number, minus 82, and 9 times the number, minus 43, is less than 5 times the number,
plus 61,
12.
are there ?
number, plus
of cows such that 10 times their than 4 times the number, plus 79 and 14 times their number, minus 97, is greater than 6 times the Dumber, minus 5. How many cows has he?
;
A farmer has
number
13.
14. 15.
is
is
ar'H3a;<4?
x^<Sx 15.
3 a;^ + 19 x< 20
?
of
a;
is
+ b^>2ab.
INEQUALITIES
For
185
(a6)2>0;
2ab,
or,
cv"
2 ab + b^>0.
3,
Transposing
1.
a^\b^>2ab.
Prove
that, if
+ 2)(a2)>6a13.
if
By
3,
> 6 a.
+ 2)(a  2) >6 a 13.
a2_4>6a13,
2.
or (a
Prove that,
if
a and
b are
a^{b^>a'b
+ b'a.
ab
We have,
a^
b'^>2 ah, or ^2
+ b^> ah.
+ 6,
a^\h^> a^b
h'^a.
EXERCISE 80
1.
x,
except
f,
3aj(3a;10)>25.
2.
x,
except
,
^x(x5)>SxA9.
3.
6, if
^'
 3 6) > 6 6 (4 a  3 6). (4 a + 3 6) (4 a
Prove that for any values of x and y,if
4.
5x
^^^
5x(5x6y)>2y(5xSy).
that, if
Prove
5.
a and
6 are
a'b
+ ab'>2a'b'.
^h>2. b a
7.
a^\a'b
+ ab^^b^>2ab{a^b).
186
ALGEBRA
'^
202. Involution
XV. INVOLUTION
is
We
203.
gave in
whose exponent
is
Any Power
Wehave,
and a similar
axaxa
b b b gy=^x?x^ bxbxb
b^'
Then, a fraction may be raised to any power whose exponent a positive integer by raising both numerator and denominator
the required power.
J.
is
to
2 x'Y
(2
xW.
...
(2 x'Y
32
..
q^.
EXERCISE
Find the values of the following
6
1.
:
81
a^by
3aV ^^
^'2/
f_2mJcfy
V 6
'
cwy
V
.
'
ny
J
*
/9
mny
(_A^X
V
/^Jf^\
\3l b'cny
[Sp^j'
204. Square
52/V;*
of a Polynomial.
:
We find
by actual multiplication
a
\b
+c
ab
ab
\
\b \c
\
a^\
ac
+b^{ac
\
be bc
INVOLUTION
The
result, for
187
convenience of enunciation,
may be
written
(a
+ b{c + dy = a'\b'\c'\d'
{2ab{2ac
+ 2ad{2bc\2bd + 2cd',
:
and so
on.
We
its
equal to the
sum of
the squares
terms, together with twice the product of each term by each of of the following terms.
Ex.
of the terms are 4 x*, 9 x^, and 25. Twice the product of the first term by each of the following terms gives the results  12 x^ and  20 x^. Twice the product of the second term by the following term gives the
The squares
result 30 x.
Then,
(2 x^
3 sc
5)2
j.
30 x
EXERCISE 82
Square each of the following
1.
:
ab{c.
x + yz.
10. 11.
ic^
4a^ 5 2/^
2.
3.
Q>a^
+ abZb\
?i2_3^_i.
12.
13.
2a^8a49.
6aj^4a.V + 52/*.
4. 5.
6.
7.
^x + y + 2z.
l
+ Zx4.0?.
14.
2a'" 5a" 1.
15.
16.
17. 18.
443m3 42m.
77i3_n2 +
2aj
'
8.
6.
9.
+ 32/ + 5.
32a + 4a25a^
188
10 19.
ALGEBRA
^ m+4 m
,
aft 20.
4 a^
ox
, 1
2 .
oar
205. Cube
of a Binomial.
We find by
actual multiplication
(a + by = a' + 2ab + b^ a +6
a^^2d'b+ aW
o?b + 2ab^\b^ = a^ {^ o?b \^ ab^ \b^ {a\bf
That is, the cube of the sum of two numbers is equal to the cube of the first, plus three times the square of the first times the second, plus three times the first times the square of the second,
plus the cube of the second.
Again,
(a
by a^ 2ab + 6^ a b
a^2a'b\
aW
That
the
1.
+ 2 6.
ft*.
We have,
2b)^ = =
a^
2.
y^y
= (2 x^)^  3(2 x3)2(5 y^) + 3(2 x^) (5 y2)2_ (5 ^2)8 = 8 ic9  60 x6?/2 + 150x32/4 125^6.
The cube
if
of a trinomial
two of
its
may be found by the above method, terms be enclosed in parentheses; and regarded
as a single term.
INVOLUTION
3. (X2
189
oix^2xl.
 2 X  1)8 = [(X2  2 X)  1]3 = (x2  2 x)3  3(x2  2 x)2 + 3(x2 _ 2 x)  1 = x6  6 x5 + 12 x*  8 x3  3(x*  4 x3 + 4 x2) + 3(x2  2 x) 1 = x6  6 x5 + 12 X*  8 x3  3 X* + 12 x3  12 x2 4 3 x2  6 X  1 = x6  6 x5 + 9 x* + 4 x3  9 x2  6 X  1.
EXERCISE 83
Cube each
1.
of the following
7.
a'bab\
a + 3.
2x{y,
2. 3. 4.
5.
6.
a5b.
6a^+l.
m4
71^.
190
ALGEBRA
XVI.
EVOLUTION
206. If an expression when raised to the nth. power, n being a positive integer, is equal to another expression, the first expression is said to be the nth Root of the second.
Thus,
if a"
= b,
is
the
nth. root of b.
Evolution
expression.
is
207.
The
sion, indicates
Thus,
Va indicates the second, or square root of a; Va indicates the thircl, or cube root of a Va indicates the fourth root of a and so on.
;
;
The index
of a root
is
the
radical
sign to indicate what root of the expression is taken. If no index is expressed, the index 2 is understood.
An
root
even root
is
is one whose index is an even number one whose index is an odd number.
an odd
EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS
208.
We will
is
to find
which
We have,
Then, by
2.
a%'^c^.
v/o^&V
fifth root of
(
ab^c\
Required the
32a^
=  32 a^.
=2
qj.
We have,
Whence,
2 a)^
y/
32 a^
EVOLUTION
3.
191
a*.
We
(+
)* or
( ay
equal to
a.
a*.
Whence,
,
Vc^ =
The sign called the double sign, is sion when we wish to indicate that it is
209.
From
208,
we have
Extract the required root of the absolute value of the numerical coefficient, and divide the exponent of each letter by the index of
the required root.
Give to every even root of a positive term the sign every odd root of any term the sign of the term itself.
1.
and
,
to
a'^ftV".
By
2.
VOa*^^ =
a:^b^<^.
64 x^y^.
The
resolving
3.
root of a large number may sometimes be found it into its prime factors.
by
We have,
4.
= VWxWxV' =23x32x7=
504.
V36^.
V64a^263c.
4.
v'Sl
n%^y
7. 8.
^U a'7i'\
2.
3.
5. 6.
V121
a^^^^c^
V243
a)^2/''
sZxy^z"".
\/216afyz''.
9.
Vl69 x^y'
192
10.
ALGEBRA
^/'128 m^'n'K
13.
V2916.
V30625.
16.
17.
18.
11.
12.
V343 ic^+^^z"^.
^/625 a^'^b*^
19.
14.
15.
V86436.
S3
Vl5 xy X
yzx 55 zx.
23.
24.
20. 21.
22.
^21952.
^104976.
a/59049.
V627264.
v/112
X 168 X
252.
25.
26.
210.
Any Root
from
a Fraction.
It follows
is
203 that, to find any root of a fraction, a perfect power of the same degree as
the index of the required root, extract the required root of both numerator and denominator.
Ex.
3/
27a^b'
</ 27 a^b^
64
c^
</64?
Sab\ 4 c^
'
/64^
49
2*
5/
32 g^
6'c^
V
\256iis
^
.
*
"
27 a
3/
125
6*
7/_128^
2/''
e/
'
g^^"*
"^729 6^*
211.
^a;.
We
have
V(o^ =
Va"'"
= g*" =
=
16
V (32 a^y.
(2 a2)4
a^.
We
32
= ( ^32 aio)* =
This method of finding the root is shorter than raising g^" to the fourth power, and then taking the fifth root of
the result.
EVOLUTION
EXERCISE 86
Find the values of the following
:
193
+ 62 + c2+2a6 + 2ac426c
Ex.
z^\
6 xy
12 xz
:
4:
yz.
We
I
(3a:)2
+ 2/2+(_2^)2 +
2(3ic)y
+ 2(3x)(2^) +22/(20).
204, this is the square of Sx { y Then, the square root of the expression
By
+(2 z).
is
3x +
z.
(The
y Sx.)
^<y.
EXERCISE 87
a'{b'^c'2ab2aG + 2bc.
o(^
2.
3.
4. 5.
6.
7.
8.
25
a;
+ 49
194
213. Square Root
of
ALGEBRA
any Polynomial Perfect Square.
By
204, (a
(1)
The square
a.
the root,
II.
If
from
(1)
we
(2a
subtract
a^,
we have
..
(2)
ah, if this
The
first
term of
when expanded,
term of the
is
2 2
be
the
root,
a,
we have
If
from
(2)
we
subtract (2a
+ b) b,
we have
(3)
(2a
+ 2 6 + c)c.
The
first
term of
this,
first
when expanded, is 2ac; if this be term of the root, 2 a, we have the last
from
(3)
we
subtract (2a\2b
+ c)c,
there
is
no
remainder.
Similar considerations hold with respect to the square of a polynomial of any number of terms.
214. The, principles of 213 may be used to find the square root of a polynomial perfect square of any number of terms.
Let
it
4:x'j12x^7x'24.x\16.
4:x'\12x^ 7a^24a;
a'
+ 16
2ar'+3a;4
= 4.x'
EVOLUTION
The
195
first term of the root is the square root of 4 a^, or 2 x'^. Subtracting the square of 2 x^, 4 x*, from the given expression, the first remainder is 12x^1 x:^  24 x + 16. Dividing the first term of this by twice the first term of the root, 4 aj^^
we have
the next term of the root, 3 x ( 213, II). this to 4 x^ gives 4 x^ + 3 x multiplying the result by 3 x, and subtracting the product, 12 x^ + 9 x, from the first remainder, gives the
Adding
second remainder,
Dividing the
16 x^ 24 x + 16. term of this by twice the first term of the root, 4 x^, we have the last term of the root,  4 ( 213, III). 4)( 4), or If from the second remainder we subtract (4x2 + 6x 16 x2  24 X + 16, there is no remainder then, 2 x^ + 3 x  4 is the
first
trialdivisors^
and
We
the expression according to the powers of some letter. Extract the square root of the first term, write the result as the the given first term of the root, and subtract its square from
Arrange
remainder in
the
Divide the first term of the remainder by twice the first term of
the root,
and add
and
and
Multiply the complete divisor by the term of the root last obtained, subtract the product from the remainder.
found for
215. Examples.
1.
of 9
aj^
+ 30 aV + 25 a\

30 a3x2
30 a^^a 30 aH"^
4.
25 a^
3 x^
5 a
I
;
+ 25 a^
It is usual, in practice, to omit those terms, after the first, in each remainder, which are merely repetitions of the terms in the given expression thus, in the first remainder of Ex. 1, we leave out the term 26 a^.
196
ALGEBRA
work the
multiplier of the
complete divisor.
f^'
2.
x,

we have
12 x5
28 X*
22
a:3
+ 20 x2 
8 X
3x^2x2 + 4xl
9x6
6x32x2
EVOLUTION
12.
13. 14.
197
4a;2
15. 16.
a^2a^a^ + 6a^3a2_4a44.
5a^23a;4
17 17.
a.2
2a&
+^
,
9^
5n
~6"
+ 9^25
16'
18
19.
n^
_ w^ _ 41^
3"
"36"
"
16 21
42/
202/'
5/25/
3a^
2
63
25
15a
6
a^^^
'4
44
41a^ 4 &2
6
a^
16
64*
22.
The square
root of 100
is
10
of 10000
is
100
etc.
Hence, the square root of a number between 1 and 100 is between 1 and 10; the square root of a number between 100
and 10000 is between 10 and 100; etc. That is, the integral part of the square root of an integer of one or two digits, contains one digit of an integer of three or four digits, contains two digits and so on.
;
;
Hence, if a point
an
the
integer,
numher
square root.
of
The square root of an integral perfect square may be found in the same way as the square root of a polynomial.
Required the square root of 106929.
198
ALGEBRA
106929 300 + 20 + 7 = 90000 = a\b\c

a^ a
2a{b=
600
h
20 20
16929 12400
2a+26 + c = 600 + 40 + 7
4529 4529
Pointing the number in accordance with the rule of 216, we find that there are three digits in its square root. Let a represent the hundreds' digit of the root, with two
ciphers annexed; b the tens' digit, with one cipher annexed; and c the units' digit.
less
Then, a must be the greatest multiple of 100 whose square than 106929 this we find to be 300.
;
is
is
Subtracting 16929.
a^,
or 90000,
a, or 600, we have the quotient which suggests that b equals 20. Adding this to 2 a, or 600, and multiplying the result by b, or 20, we have 12400 which, subtracted from 16929, leaves 4529.
28+
we have
7+; which
Adding this to 600 40, multiplying the result by 7, and subtracting the product, 4529, there is no remainder. 20 Then, 300 7, or 327, is the required square root.
218. Omitting the ciphers for the sake of brevity, and condensing the operation, we may arrange the work of the example of 217 as follows
:
106929 _327
9
62
EVOLUTION
The numbers 600 and 640
are called trialdivisors,
199
and the numbers
We
then have the following rule for finding the square root
:
Separate the number into periods by pointiyig every second beginning with the units'' place.
digits
Find the greatest square in the lefthand period, and write its square root as the first digit of the root; subtract the square of the
first rootdigit
from
and
to the result
annex
Divide
of
this
last digit,
and
found for
Note
by the
1.
It
sometimes happens
remainder.
less
In such a case, the digit of the root last obtained must be substituted for it.
too great,
and one
Note 2. If any rootdigit is 0, annex to the trialdivisor, and annex to the remainder the next period. (See the illustrative example of 220.)
219. Ex.
1024 1024
The greatest square in the lefthand period Then the first digit of the root is 6.
Subtracting
this
6^,
is 36.
is
10
to
we annex
part of the root already found, or 12, the quotient the root, and also to the trialdivisor.
Dividing this remainder, omitting the last digit, or 102, by twice the is 8 ; this we annex to
200
ALGEBRA
8,
Multiplying the complete divisor, 128, by from the remainder, there is no remainder. Then, 68 is the required square root.
220.
We
will
is
number which
Ex.
EVOLUTION
4.
5.
201
12.
8427.24.
.165649.
.133225.
8.
7974.49.
.30316036.
9.
.00459684.
13.
39.375625.
6.
7.
10. 11.
22014864.
1488.4164.
14.
15.
.000064272289.
889060.41.
54.4644.
number has no exact square the operation by annexing periods root but we may continue of ciphers, and obtain an approximate root, correct to any desired
If there is a final remainder, the
;
number
Ex.
of decimal places.
places.
9 64
202
Find the
13. 14.
. first
ALGEBRA
four figures of the square root of
If.
i.
:
15. 16.
17.
f.
19.
if.
21.
If
.
18.
.
20.
a.
22. i.
+ Sa'b + Sab^ + b^
of 8 a^
Ex.
 36 w'b^ + 54 a&*  27 b\
:
expression as follows
(2 a)2(3 62)
3 (2 ay
205, this is the cube of 2 a Then, the cube root of the expression
+ 3 (2 a) (3  3 &2.
is
&2)2
_ (3 5238.
2 a
3 52.
91
of the following
a^{6a^
+ 12a\S.
2.
3.
l9m^27m'27m^
647i348n2 + 12nl.
125ix^j75x'y
a
4.
5. 6.
7.
+ 15xy^ + f.
59.
27 a^ft^ 108
4.
8.
m21mV + 147mV343a;i2
of
By205, (a + 6 + c) = [(a + 6) + c] = (a + 6)3 + 3(a + 6)2c + 3(a + 6)c2 + c3 = a^ + 3 a'b + 3 ab'' + b^ + 3(a + byc\3(a \b)c^ [(^ = a3 4 (3 a2 + 3 a& + b^)b + [3(a + bf + 3(a + &)c +
c'^Jc.
(1)
EVOLUTION
Then,
if
203
powers of
I.
some
The cube
root, a.
cube
II.
If
from
(1)
we
subtract
a^,
we have
f c''\c.
(3 a^
(2)
The
first
when expanded,
is
3 a^b
if
this be
divided by three times the square of the first term of the root, 3 a^, we have the next term of the root, b.
III.
If
from
(2)
we
subtract (3 a^
+ 3 ab + b^b^ we have
(3)
is
[3(a
The
first
term of
this,
be
divided by three times the square of the 3 a^, we have the last term of the root, c.
first
term of the
root,
IV. If
there
is
b)c
c'']c,
Similar considerations hold with respect to the cube of polynomial of any number of terms.
225. The principles of 224 may be used to find the cube root of a polynomial perfect cube of any number of terms.
Let
it
y
.^.
'
^C
x8+6a;H 3x*28x39x2+54ic27
= x^
204
Dividing the
first
ALGEBRA
root, 3
term of this by three times the square of the first we have the next term of the root, 2 x ( 224, II). Now, Sab + h^ equals 3 x ^2 x 2 x + (2 x)2, or 6 x^ + 4 x^. Adding this to 3 x*, multiplying the result by 2 x, and subtracting the product, 6 x^ + 12 X* + 8 x^, from the first remainder, gives the second
term of the
a;*,
remainder,
 9 x*  36 x^  9 x2 + 54 x  27
first
( 224, III).
first
Dividing the
term of the
root,
term of this by three times the square of the 3x2, we have the last term of the root, 3.
Now, 3(a+&)2 equals 3(x2 + 2x)2, or 3 x* + 12x3+ 12x2; 3(a equals 3(x2 + 2 x) (  3), or  9 x2  18 x and d^ = 9. Adding these results, we have 3 x* + 12 x^ + 3 x2 18 x + 9.
;
+ 6)c
9 X* 36 x^ 9
is
Subtracting from the second remainder the product of this by 3, or 27, there is no remainder then, x2 + 2 x 3 x'^ + 54 X the required root ( 224, IV).
;
The expressions 3 x* and 3 x* + 12 x^ + 12 x2 are called trialdivisors, and the expressions 3 x* + 6 x^ + 4 x2 and 3 x* + 12 x^ + 3 x^  18 x + 9
complete divisors.
powers of some letter. Extract the cube root of the first term, write the result as the first term of the root, and subtract its cube from the given expression; arranging the remainder in the same order of powers
Arrange, the expression according to the
as the given expression.
Divide the first term of the remainder by three times the square root, and write the result as the next term
Add
the root last obtained by the part of the root previously found,
the square of the term of the root last obtained.
and
obtained,
Multiply the complete divisor by the term of the root last and subtract the product from the remainder.
the square
divisor.
If other terms remain, proceed as before, taking three times of the part of the root already found for the next trial
226. Examples.
1.
EVOLUTION
Sx^S6x^y +
8 x^ 12 X*
54 x^y^
205
 27 y^ 2x^Sy
\
18
x'^y
?/2
ii6
x^y
3e> a:4y
54
a;V
 27 y^
It is usual, in practice, to omit those terms, after the first, in each remainder, which are merely repetitions of the terms in the given expression and also to leave out of the written work the multiplier of the com;
plete divisor.
2.
+  96
x,
a;.
we have
206
ALGEBRA
CUBE ROOT OF AN ARITHMETICAL NUMBER
227. The cube root of 1000 is 10; of 1000000 is 100; etc. Hence, the cube root of a number between 1 and 1000
is
between 1 and 10; the cube root of a number between 1000 and 1000000 is between 10 and 100 etc. That is, the integral part of the cube root of an integer of one, two, or three digits, contains one digit of an integer of and so on. four, five, or six digits, contains two digits
; ; ;
Hence, if a point he placed over every third digit of an integer, heginiiing at the units' place, the number ofpoints shows the number of digits in the integral part of its cube root.
228. Cube Root
of
The cube
the same
root of an integral perfect cube may be found in way as the cube root of a polynomial.
as
EVOLUTION
207
kp
is
Subtracting 4487168.
a^,
or 8000000,
Dividing this by 3 a^, or 120000, we have the quotient 37+ which suggests that b equals 30. Adding to the divisor 120000, 3 ab, or 18000, and b% or 900, we have 138900. Multiplying this by b, or 30, and subtracting the product 4167000 from 4487168, we have 320168. Since this remainder equals [3(a + 6)^ + 3(a46)c4c^]c
;
( 224, III), we can get c approximately by dividing it by 3(a + by, or 158700. Dividing 320168 by 158700, the quotient is 2+ which sug;
3(a
+ b)c,
2,
we have 160084
Then, 200
multiplying this
is
by no remainder.
+ 30 + 2,
229. Omitting the ciphers for the sake of brevity, and condensing the process, the work of the example of 228 will stand as follows
:
12487168 8 1200
1^
208
ALGEBRA
Find the greatest cube in the lefthand 2)eriod, and write its cube root as the first digit of the root; subtract the cube of the first rootdigit
from
and
to the result
annex
the next
period.
Divide
this
the square
of the part of
Add
digit by the
product of the last rootpart of the root previously found, ivith one cipher
last rootdigit.
Multiply the complete divisor by the digit of the root last obtained, and subtract the product from the remainder.
the square
If other periods remain, proceed as before, taking three times of the part of the root already found, with two ciphers
Note Note
divisor,
1.
Note
If
1,
any rootfigure is 0, annex two ciphers and annex to the remainder the next period.
2.
3a23a6H6l
The next
This
+ 6 a6 + 3 61
it
may
is,
be obtained from
its
(1)
by adding to
its
second
third term.
That
required
if the first
number and
the double
to
complete any
trialdivisor be
added
complete
divisor, the result, with two ciphers annexed, will give the next
trialdivisor.
much
7500
EVOLUTION
232.
209
cube root of a
We
will
is
to find the
number which
Ex.
We have,
8 144865728 ^^ 1000000
^

V8144865728
^1000000
2012
8144865728
8
120000
144865
600
1
120601
120601
600
2
24264728
12120300
12060
4
12132364
Since 1200
24264728
in the
as the second rootdigit, is not contained in 144, we write above example we then annex two ciphers to the trialdivisor (Note 1, 229.) 1200, and annex to the remainder the next period, 865. The second trialdivisor is formed by the rule of 230.
;
Adding
the second number, 2, required to complete the trialdivisor 120000, have 121203 annexing two ciphers to this, the result is 12120300.
;
we
Then, v'8144.865728
^
600
1
= 20. 12.
as follows
:
8144.865728
20.12
120000
120601
210
It follows
ALGEBRA
from the above
that, if
third digit of miy number, beginning with the units'* place, ayid extending in either direction, the rule of 229 may be applied to
the result, the root.
and
proper position in
EXERCISE 93
Find the cube roots of the following
1.
:
54872.
6.
2.
3.
262144.
103.823.
.884736.
4.
5.
.000493039.
16. 17.
4. 9.
or
233. If the index of the required root is the product of two more numbers, we may obtain the result by successive ea>
For by
206,
v^)" = a.
members,
(1)
(1),
of both
(VS)"=e^.
Taking the mth root of both members of
Hence, the mnth root of an expression is equal to the mth root of the nth root of the expression. Thus, to find the fourth root of an expression, we find the
square root of its square root to find the sixth root, the cube root of the square root, etc.
;
we
find
EVOLUTION
EXERCISE 94
Eind the fourth roots of the following
1.
2.
:
211
a'
81 a'
 108
a;
a'
\
162
a'
+ 1.
3.
16
81a^.
4.
.011156640625.
+ 240aj + 160a^ + 60a;^ + 12a;2 + la  18 a^ + 135 a'  540 a' + 1215 a'  1458 a + 729.
64a;i2_^192a;io
34296.447249.
234.
Also,
By 206,
{\/aby
= ab.
Then,
Whence,
212
ALGEBRA
XVII.
THEORY OF EXPONENTS
235. In the preceding portions of the work, an exponent has been considered only as a positive integer.
Thus,
if
m is
a positive integer,
a*^
=aX
a X aX
to
m factors.
( 11)
The following
m
a"
and n
(1)
(2)
236. It
is
and we now proceed to define them, positive integers the rules for their use. prove
will be convenient to
and
In determining what meanings to assign to the new forms, it have them such that the above law for multiplication shall hold with respect to them. We shall therefore assume equation (1), 235, to hold for all values of m and n, and find what meanings must be attached
in consequence to fractional^ negative,
and
zero exponents.
Let
it
m and n,
_
a^
Then, the third power of a^ equals Hence, a^ must be the cube root of
a^,
or a^
= \/a^.
p
a^,
We
Let
will
it
now
where p and q
THEORY OF EXPONENTS
If (1), 235,
>'
213
n,
is
and
i
a'
'
X
p
a'
to q factors
= a*
^X? = a* = a^
a^.
p
a^,
or a*
= Va^.
Hence,
a fractional exponent,
root.
the
numerator denotes a
For example, a^
= \/a^
b^
= V&^
x^
= y/x
etc.
EXERCISE 95
Express the following with radical signs
1.
:
aK
ic^.
3.
7mK
5x\
5.
ahK
icV'"
7.
8aW.
lOn'a;'^^.
9.
x^yk^.
2a^b^c'^.
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
^'.
^a.
19.
13.
14.
Vt^'.
15.
3</F.
17.
18.
9Vm^^.
^n\
16.
4^/.
^^^/.
i^ay/'.
20.
J/^V?^a/^'.
^^^
iyv>^f
(^)^
2^^>
is
m
=
and
w,
''
we have
a^
= a'"+" = a. = = 1.
a"*
Yf
Whence,
We
must then
239. Meaning
'jet it
Negative Exponent,
a~^.
be required to find the meaning of If (1), 235, is to hold for all values of
a'
and
n,
a^
a^+^
= = 1
( 238).
214
ALGEBRA
,3
Whence,
now consider the general case. be required to find the meaning of a~% where s represents a positive integer or a positive fraction. and n, If (1), 235, is to hold for all values of
will
it
We
Let
a'
a'
= a*+' = a = 1
a~'
( 238).
Whence,
=
by
a*.
We
a~^
^x^y~^
,
etc.
239 that
Any
to
the
factor of the numerator of a fraction may be transferred denominator, or any factor of the denominator to the
its
exponent he changed.
Thus,
^^_V_^^^^^^ ^^_
EXERCISE 96
:
THEORY OF EXPONENTS
17
^"^
215
on
iQ
2m^
j^Q
7 ah^
9wV]^^
Transfer all literal factors from the numerators to the denominators in the following:
21
^^
^.
23
^~^^^~^
25
^ a~^6^
07
9 m^n~^
22.
24.
^.
26.
^.
28.
A^^.
obtained the definitions of fractional, zero, and negative exponents by supposing equation (1), 235, to hold for such exponents.
241.
We
and
n,
a'^xa''
= ar+\
(1)
of this result for positive or negative, integral or and n will be found in 445. fractional, values of
1.
a^
a~^.
We have,
2.
x a~^
= a^s qs^
By
3.
a X a^
= a^+^ = a^.
Multiply a
+ 2 a* 3 a^
by 2
 4 a"^  6 a"^.
+ 4 a^ _ ^_ 4 l
6 a3
8 a^ + 12  6a^ 12 +
IS
a^
2 a
It
20 a^
+
>
18 a ^
must be
power
of
zero
( 238).
216
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 97
a^
by
a^.
4.
by n\
7.
a;"*
by 7 x\
l^^.
a^.
2.
3.
x^
a^
by xl
a~^.
5. 6.
3 a' by a'l
8. 9.
x'
by
by
m
.
by 4
^'.
\^
by
/^
\j
10.
m^ by
A.
^
13.
y 14.
3xV'
by
4xiy^
11.
12. 16. 17. 18. 19.
SVF^by </^^
6 a26 by a^^"^.
a;^
'i
a"^*^ by aVa;*.
15.
, ^
Hi
"by
3 m~'n^
2 a;3^^ + 4 2/^
by x^\2y^.
2n^56ri^ by 3n?4.
20.
^^
21.
22.
23.
24.
+ 10a2 + 25 by 2a25. a^  ah^ + &^ by + ah^ + 6^ a;"^ a;~%^ + 2 ic"^2/^ by x~^y^ x~^y^ \2y.  4 a"^^^  3 &. orh'' + 4 ai + 3 a~?63 by a~^ a;^4a;^5 + 6xHy 2x^ + a;t3ajl a"^  2 ai^i + 3 a^n'' by 2 a^n^ + 4 a'^Ti^  6 n^. 2 a^a;^ a^x 5 a^a;^ by 4 a~%"^ + 2 a'^x~^ + 10 a"i
4a''
a^'
242.
To prove
240,
=
a
oJ^""
for
all
values of
m and n.
By
and
^ = a X a" = a^% by
where
given in 70.
(1),
241.
The proof
m > n,
is
1.
a2
We have,
= oi+2^ai
THEORY OF EXPONENTS
2.
217
Vd'
^
3.
.2
JLZ
.1
Divide 18 xy"" 23
+ x~Hj + 6 a;y
by 3
x^y~'^
1
+ cc^ 2
_1
a;~^2/.
18 18
xy"^ a;y2
2Z +
^2/
+
12
xi?/2
6 x^yi
6 x??/i
2a; ^3a; ^y
It is important to arrange the dividend, divisor, and each remainder in the same order of powers of some common letter.
EXERCISE 98
Divide the following
1.
:
x^
hj
x^.
4.
by Vwi.
^
7.
8.
V^^ by yF"^
Sy/mT'
2.
a^ by a\
5.
a3
by .
by 2 m'^.
'^a^ 6.
a;^
3.
n by n~K
aj"2 2 a;"' 8
x^ by x~^.
9.
9a%Hy3a'bl
by x~^
4:X^.
12.
7?.
ai&i by a^5l
7
af1 by
a;^
+ l.
+ 71^
by
71^
+3+
^14. a~^
ul5.
16.
17.
+ 4a^2a^12a^49 by a* + 2a~^3 8 m^ + 12 m^w^ + 6 7n^n^ ^n^ by 2 m^ + ni x^y^^llx'y^ + 1 by a^V' + 3 orV'  a^2/"'. aJ + 2 a^62 + 9 1)' by a^ + 2 a'fe^ + 3 a^&2.
218
18. 19.
ALGEBKA
4a
V^  17 a^x" + 16 a'^oif
10 m^7i^ + m~*n
now show how
will
by 2 a^
by 3 m?i^
a^
 4 a~^^
f
9 m^n~^
4 mri^
m%.
243.
for
We
any values of
and
n.
We
any
I.
will consider three cases, in each of which may value, positive or negative, integral or fractional.
have
Let
71
is
=
If)
integers.
237,
III.
239,
= 1 = i
( 243, I or II)
= a""".
all
values of
m and n.
(a^)^
(a2)5
We have,
2.
a2x5
= ^lo,
(a^)"^.
(a3)*
3.
a"^^^
= a.
EXERCISE 99
Find the values of the following
1.
:
(a^)".
2.
(xy.
3.
(x^)i
4.
(a'yK
THEORY OF EXPONENTS
5.
219
(m^y.
8.
(a^)^^.
11.
(^O"'
14.
,^\'
6.(nl).
7.
M^')*.
"
V^;'
12.
(^.
i5.[(ti)irl.
16.
(ari
244.
13. (^'')'".
(a'^'r';
The value
fractional exponent may be found by first, if possible, extracting the root indicated by the denominator, and then raising the
result to the
Ex.
By
243,
[( 8)^]2
(^/38)2
100
:
= (_ 2)2 = 4.
EXERCISE
Find the values of the following
1.
27l
lel
5. 6.
7. 8.
SrK
(32)1
361
9.
2564.
13.
14.
243^
2.
3.
10.
(512)^.
(128)1
729^
.
64l
64l
11.
12.
9k
^^
15. 16.
4.
(216)1
(S)"^.
512i
245.
We
will
for
n.
The proof
integer,
I.
where n
is
any positive
was given
Let n
^,
integers.
By
243,
( 94).
(1)
By
94,
(2)
From
(1)
[(abyj = (a'b^y.
220
Taking the gth root of
ALGEBRA
botli
members, we have
II.
Let
7i
s,
where
s is
fraction.
Then, (a6)
= 1 = J(
(aby
a^b^
= a6
EXERCISE
Find the values of the following
1.
:
101
(ahy.
(m^n^)^
3.
(x^y^)i
(a^a?^)"*
5. 6.
(nV^)"".
2.
4.
(^\/6^.
^"miscellaneous examples
exercise
102
97
1.
3a^ + 4 6"l
Square a^b~^
2.
5mV8m2n*.
rule of 204.
3.
2a^  ar'^b^
by the
4.
Expand
(4:
 7 z^)
by the rule of
98.
5.
25a49m^ ^ ~y by 5 a~^ 7 m?
8
a.2
.t.
the rule of
101.
...
+ 27 ?r^
2
7 '
a;*
+3 2/"^
a?"
_
_^,
,
a;
;;
z^'
8.
a^_5
J,
by the rule of
103.
9.
(Sx^Ayfy.
10.
(a2^)3_j_ 2^362)3.
THEORY OF EXPONENTS
Find the square roots
11.
221
of the following
12.
16a^mK
A9 x^yz'i
13.
^?
14.
9x^6xi{25Sx^ + 16x\
8a^r'
18.
64.a'bhi.
19.
?1^^!l^, ^
x^y
20.
27x^\54.xiy~^\36x^y~^\Sy^.
x^
21.
6
x^^
tive exponents
25.
(^^xo^^O^.
31.
^
y^m+\
2wi
/y^2m\
mn
32.
l^j
w 1 n 1
a^
+ 6^
I
^
+ 6^
n+l
27.
(a"^a^)"2^.
33.
Sm
^:^i+^!::i
30
^^
+ y^
^\y
35
g^
+ 2 6^
7 a^6^
+ 6 &^
222
ALGEBRA
(k,
^^^A^
'
XVIII.
SURDS
/)
246.
A
is
which
Surd is the indicated root of a number, or expression, not a perfect power of the degree denoted by the index
;
as
is
V2, V5,
or \/x
+ y,
when
it is
247.
monomial
said to be rational
rational
ijult ^"d
c tA..''
integral.
w^wT
polynomial
is
said to be rational
when each
of its terms is
rational.
An expression
as 2
is
said to be irrational
when
it
involves surds
a positive or negative integer, or a positive or negative fraction. An irrational number is a numerical expression involving surds as 3, or 2 + V5.
;
249. If a surd
of the surd,
is
in the
form bVa,
and
7i
the index.
is
250.
is
The
degree of a surd
denoted by
its
index
thus,
V5
a surd of the third degree. quadratic surd is a surd of the second degree.
REDUCTION OF A SURD TO
'{
ITS
SIMPLEST FORM
form when the
251.
surd
is
expression imder the radical sign is rational and integral ( 63), is not a perfect power of the degree denoted by any
factor of the index of the surd, and has no factor perfect power of the same degree as the surd.
which
is
252. Case
I.
When
the expression
under
a perfect power of
Ex.
a factor of
the index.
Reduce
have,
V8
\/8
We
\/2^
=2
'^
( 237)
= 2^ = \/2.
SURDS
^^XERCISE
Keduce the following
1.
223
103
to their simplest
9.
forms
</25.
a/16. \/i2i.
5.
a/49.
a/243.
13.
14.
a/216 aV.
2.
6.
7.
^8l.
a/64.
10.
11. 12.
^^343.
a/64^^.
Vs^^^'.
a/625 a^^y.
3.
4.
a/144 a^y.
\/27
15.
16.
a/125.
8.
^81.
nV.
under
253. Case
rational
II.
When
the expression
of the
1.
and integral, and has a factor which same degree as the surd.
to its simplest form.
a perfect power
Eeduce a/54
\/64
We have,
2.
= ^27 x2 =
v^ X \/2
( 234)
= 3^2,
simplest form.
We then have
the second
Resolve the expression under the radical sign into two factors, of which contains no factor which is a perfect power of
the
same degree as
the surd.
Extract the required root of the first factor, and multiply the
result by the indicated root
of the second.
If the expression
factor
under the radical sign has a numerical which cannot be readily factored by inspection, it is
it
convenient to resolve
3.
Keduce a/1944
v'lQii
= V2^
4.
\/l25
= V63,x
72
= V52 x
x y/bx^ =
5x1
X ViS
=;
35 VI6.
224
t/
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
104
to their simplest
forms
V90. V72.
V96.
5.
\/56.
a^l9^.
a/432.
a/256.
13.
V242 afy^.
2. 3.
^6.
7.
tVW. ^Vo.
'
14. 15.
VMO^W.
^162mh^'.
9^81.
a/48.
11.
4.
V75.
8.
12.
V500
19.
a'bl
16.
A/i60^^.
2/').
17. 18.
V(3a;
+ 2?/)(9ar24
20.
a^b ^
V3a24a2+48a.
50 ab\
VIS
60
a^b^ i
N
23.
24.
'896.
22.
V98X196.
V432x504.
v^l372.
29.
30.
\/7875.
V2268. V5145.
32.
a/375 X 405.
25.
a/63 xy'
When the expression under the radical sign a fraction. In this case, we multiply both terms of the fraction by such an expression as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same degree as the surd, and then proceed as in 253.
254. Case III.
is
Ex.
Reduce \/
^8a^
a,
we have
8^3=/ir=Vi^^=Vi^, X
EXERCISE
Reduce the following
1.
^
:
=i^.v^
105
to their simplest
3.
forms
V.
2.
Vf.
a/^
4.
^^.
5.
Vf.
SURDS
23
*
225
^7. ^.^^^^
3/T
12
A'32a^*
</\''
25 6
20.
13.
VJ.
</^.
,.
^/llaV
*:
14.
^20W'
x^5^.
^^^2/V
a;3
22.
/3
or^
x^ 5 x\6
_ 18 + 27
a;
a^
of a
The
Ex.
^^^^'
coefficient
of
a surd
it
may
radical sign
by raising
to the
2^3 =
X v/3
^5^81^3 ( 234)
= \/24.
of
247) may be expressed in the form of a surd any degree by raising it to the power denoted by the index, and writing the result under the corresponding radical sign.
A rational expression (
A
signs
1.
:
EXERCISE
106
radical
3V7.
6^6.
10
3.
4^/5.
5V/7.
4^5. 2v8.
7.
2^/3.
2.
4.
6.
8.
9xV2^.
9.
a'bWe^,
!*
10.
11.
6xy'''s/4^^.
(2 + l)V4i=i
5an^^/2a^n. 5an^^/2^r
12.
13.
Sa'b'Vs^'.
(a
+ + "" + l>'a24a + 3
/
a1
g^
3 a
6)^^.
16.
^,_2^;2^^^.
226
ALGEBRA
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF SURDS
differ
256. Similar Surds are surds which do not differ at only in their coefficients as 2 Vaa.*^ and 3 Vic^;
all,
or
similar.
surd part.
1.
to its simplest
Simplify
VJ + VV.
= lV2+lV6_V^ = lV6lV2.
2
We then have
Add
form.
S2irds,
'
and
EXERCISE
Simplify the following
:
107
^1.
2.
7.
3. V300VI47. 5. 2/135^40. V8+V32. V28V63. 4. a/2 + ^128. 6. ^S0h</iO5, 8. V250  V90  Vm. V3+V192V243.
9.
12.
V^ + Vf.
14. 15.
Vl3.
16.
4^i89f^162.
V+VV^.
V72^a;V98^4a;V200^.
SURDS
17.
118.
227
a V80
21.
v/128
22.
^23.
24.
^25.
26. 28.
y 29.
^30.
(^
+ ,)J^+(a.2/)V^^(^^^ x^ ^x
y
^x\y
y^
By
237,
^ = 33=3t\=^^3J = ^ = = = ^^P =
5?
^^8T.
^^/l25.
5T2
following rule
lowest
resulting
The relative magnitudes of surds may be determined by reducing them, ^necessary, to equivalent surds of the same degree. in the above example, \/125 is greater than \/8T, and v^Sl than f/ Thus,
I
*^64.
\
Then,
v^ is
and
\%
than V2.
228
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
108
same degree:
V2 V3
v/2
and
^7.
a/^,
i/hc,
and ^ca.
and Vl.
and and
v/3.
\ 4.
5.
^4 V3
a/5.
9.
^M^
yx y
and x/^^^T.
and
\/a;
and V6.
is is is
10.
2/.
11.
Which
the greater,
12.
13.
Which
Which
the greater,
V6 V2
or
Vl4?
v^S ?
or
14.
MULTIPLICATION OF SURDS
259.
1.
Multiply
V6
by VlS.
By
2.
234, \/6
X VTB = VC'xTS
3^0
(2 a)^
V2a
y/TcC^
(2 a)^
(4 a^)^
(4 a2)^
= v^(2^ x
v^(4 a2)2
= v^28 a8 X 24 a* = \/26 a6
2 a
= 2a\/2^.
We
sary,
I
To multiply
more
the expressions under the radical signs, JoT^^^igZy jtogether write the result under the common radical sign.
and
The
result should
be reduced to
its
simplest form.
SURDS
3.
229
Multiply
237,
V5
by
\/5.
By
VS = 5^ = 5^ = \/P.
Then,
4.
Multiply2V3
+ 3V2by3V3V2.
+ 3V2
\/2
2\/3
3\/318
+ 9V6
2V66
18
+ 7\/66 = 12 + 7\/6.
itself
To
radical sign
thus, \/3
V3 = 3.
a;
5.
Multiply 3
VlT^  Wx by VI + + 2V^.
+ a;)4\/ x+^ + 6Vx + x28a; 8(1 + ) + 2 Va; + aj2 8ic = 35ic + 2Va; +
3(l
a;2.
EXERCISE
Multiply the following
1.
:
109
,/./:/
10.
V5 by
V20.
V?byV.
^/98 by a/343. a/63 by v/lM.
V?.
3.
A/i92 by
VTx.
11.
12.
Vl5 by V27.
4. _.
Vi8 by V42. ,
.
13.
V6^byy2^. V6 by v^.
\/3 xy by VTyz.
^\
16.
v/44byA/i2.
a/135 by ^^45.
a/35 by a/75.
a/84 by a/180.
17. 18.
V20by^.
230
V
19.
ALGEBRA
</5d' by ^/I25^.
.
23.
24.
</^,
yjjz,
and
^^.
20.
21.
\/9by^27.
VS by ^?.
25.
^6.
22.
vx27. 6
31.
32.
33.
^34.
/ 35.
36.
37.
'.38.
4V^V^ + 3\/^and4V^HVy3V^. 3 Va + 2 + 4 Va  1 and ^\/a + 2 + 5 Va^^. V2+V5+V7and V2V5V7. 4Vf  3 VS and 2 Vf  9V^. 3V3 + 2V64V8and3V32V6 + 4V8. ^^"^  5 V7  VlO and 6 V5 + SVf + VlO.
8VT2 + 7V204V24and5V33\/5 + 2V6.
,39.
MONOMIAL SURDS
260.
By 234,
\/^ = VaxV6.
Xiild
Whence,
= ^.
:
We
To divide
surds of the
the expression
Divide the expression under the radical sign in the dividend by under the radical sign in the divisor, and write the
result
under
the
common
radical sign.
its
The
result should be
reduced to
simplest form.
SURDS
1.
231
Divide
have,
7405 by
\/405
</5,
We
2.
^5
Divide
:^i^=.^8i
= </2r^ = sn.
v^ by V6.
same degree
</'2^
Reducing
to surds of the
( 258),
_(2^
V6
3.
6^
(2
X 3)^
v^2^^r3
^23x33
^SS
>/
36
Divide
have.
VlO by
VlO =
v'iO.
10^
We
10^
103
= ^(2
5)8.
Then,
:^=;/2i>iA = ^ 23 X 5
vp = 5t = 5^ = V5.
110
^40
EXERCISE
Divide the following
1.
:
2.
7.
3. 4.
70 by V63.
5. 6.
</3 by ^/192.
^144 by ^9.
16.
8.
\7. V3
18. 19.
1^20.
by V2a.
by
V9.
10.
V7
by v^49.
V27^
V
^36^.
v/42^ by v/56^.
^^686
by 7.
11. 12.
by by
^63.
^"25^.
^H
by V.
V25^
21.
22. 23.
24.
\ 13.
14.
\/12^^ by A/r^.
by by
VH 7M
1.
by V?.
Vi:^ by V5.
by
^. ^.
V405 n^x.
15.
^S
Vl5na;^ by
INVOLUTION OF SURDS
261.
povs^er.
(v^)8 =(12^)8 =
= 12^=VT2 = 2VS.
232
2.
ALGEBRA
Eaise
V2 to
(
(2^)4
= 2^ = W^= Vi^.
If possible, divide the index of the surd by the exponent of the ; otherwise, raise the expression under the radical
The rules of 97 and 98 should be used to find the value of any product which comes under them.
3.
Expand
V6  VS)^.
By 97,
4.
Expand
98,
+ v^S) (4  J/5).
</5)
By
(4+ v^)(4i^
^\^
EXERCISE
:
III
"
(^2/.
(y/4.x + 3yf.
6.
7.
(5a/5)2.
vll.
12.
(Sa'V2E0Vy.^.
(4^/729).
(7
/2. (Vey.
3.
(v/^^=^)^
^8. (^72^^)^
9.
13.
+ 2V2)2.
4.
(</32y.
//,'
(y/M^f.
(v/5)^
"V18.
V14.
Vl5.
(4V55)l
v5.
16.
17.
(V2^i^y.
10.
(9V74Vll)2.
^/20.
'/
21.
22.
^'23.
25.
26.
+ 4V5a;2)(5V3a; + 44V52). ^4 + 2V3x^42V3. '24. (^4 + ^9)(v'4v/9). V3V5 + 2V7 X V3V52V7. Expand (2 V2 + V6  V3)2, by the rule of 204.,
(5V3iB + 4
SURDS
EVOLUTION OF SURDS
262.
1.
233
2.
Extract the
fifth root of
V6.
If possible, extract the 'equired root of the expression under the radical sign ; otherwise, multiply the index of the surd by the index of the required
root.
If the surd has a coefficient which is not a perfect power of the degree denoted by the index of the required root, it should be introduced under the radical sign ( 255) before applying the rule.
Thus,
v^(4V2) = ^(V32) =
\/2.
234
Ex.
ALGEBRA
Eeduce
 3A
5
to
rational denominator.
Multiplying both terms by y/9 a,
we have
5v^9^
\/3a^\/9a
\/27a8
</3a^
^a
EXERCISE
113
Reduce
A.
V5
3.
^.
</6a'
5.
V25
_
V27
.
4.
1
V49a;
6.
^^^ 6aty_
VSa^?/^^
ft 8.
T
Vl2^
264. Case
II.
V4a26c*
a binomial contain
When
the
denominator
is
Reduce
_ to an equivalent fraction
having
rational denominator.
Multiplying both terms by 5
V2, we
have
*
5+V2
2.
(6+V2)(5V2)
252
^^
'
23
Reduce
^^ V 2Va 3Va 6
^^j^
a rational denominator.
Multiplying both terms by 2\/a
3 Vg  2Va 6
+ 3Va 
6,
2Va3\/a6
5)
_ 6 & + SVa^ 96
ab
5a
SURDS
235
:
Multiply both terms of the fraction by the denominator with the sign between its terms reversed.
EXERCISE
114
^
2
V6 +
2
7
V^+Vy V^V^
* 7^
V106V2
V10H2V2
3V2
V^
m\Vn
10.
^g^
2V7H3V3
2V73V3
13,
V9a2_23a V9a=^2 + 3a
VVll + 3VVll14.
236
Then
4
ALGEBRA
 \/3  V7
^ 16 (10 + 2\/2l) ^ 6 2\/21 ^ 3 V2l 6 + 4V3 12 + 8V3 4 + V3V7 19 + 8\/37 4 V3, Multiplying both terms of the latter by 6
4 4
_ V3 _ V7
^ (3
 V2T) (6  4 V3)
3\/21
18
+ 6 V3 6
6\/7
'
by 4
 \/3 + V7,
or by 4
 >/3  Vf,.
115
':^^
EXERCISE
1.
12
3.
2+V2 + V3
2
6
4
.
3+V5V2*
The reduction
equivalent fraction having a rational denominator, when the denominator is the sum of a rational expression and a surd of the nth degree, or of two surds of the wth degree, will be found in 446.
is
266. The approximate value of a fraction whose denominator irrational may be conveniently found by reducing it to an
Ex.
of decimals.
^ ~ ^^
to three places
_2+V2_2 +
4
1.414...
1.707
....
2V2
(2V2)(2H\/2)
EXERCISE
116
4.
SURDS
237
4.
_A_.
23
^%,
V7V2
V7 + V2 2V6 + V3 2V6V3'
'
^^^49
//5
f;
'
,7 *
'
V53V2'
/^
267.
sum of a
For,
if possible, let is
Va b\ Vc,
where 6
surds.
Va
and
Vc
quadratic
Whence,
= b^{2 6 Vc + 2 6 Vc = a b^ a Wc Vc =
c.
c,
26
That is, a quadratic surd "equal to a rational expression. But this is impossible whence, Va cannot equal h \ Vc.
;
268.
If
aHV6 = c4Vc?,
and
where a and
pressions,
V6
surds, then
^b = ^/d.
ic
;
If
c,
let a
=c+
then, x
is
rational.
+ + V6 = cHVc^,
ic
or
x\Vb=^/d.
But
this is impossible
Then, a
c,
267.
= V^.
269. If V a
expressions, then
V5 = + 2y/xy + y.
a;
238
ALGEBRA
Whence, by
and
Subtracting,
268,
V a V6
= Vie V^.
The preceding
Ex.
VlBO.
Assume,
SURDS
We
The
then separate 8 into two parts whose product
parts are 6
is 12.
239
and 2
f
whence,
2
V8
2.
Vi8 = V6 + 2 Vl2 +
= V6 + V2.
 3 V32.
=
2 \/72.
is 72.
We have,
The
= \/9
x 8 x 4
We then separate 22
V2273V32 = V 18 
= Vl8  V4 = 3 V2  2.
117
Vh
V,.0
1.
^^
EXERCISE
+ 2V54.
7.
30V500.
13fVl68.
24
13.
14.
455V80.
34fl2V8.
61
2. 3.
212V80.
8. 9.
532V52.
23
+ 2V140.
+ 28V3.
;4.
>5.
6.
+ 6VI0.
10.
11. 12.
444V72.
53V600.
3810V13.
29 42V54.
19.
55 20 V6.
55
605VI08.
54
+ 3V24.
20.
18.
+ 3Vi28.
^
4a2V4a29.
4:(2xy)
+ 2Vl5x'12xy.
+3;K
Solution of Equations
having the
Radical Signs.
272.
1.
Va^ 5 a; = 1.
Transposing
cc,
vx^
x^
=x = x^
1.
2 x
\
1.
2x =
6; whence, x
= 3.
(Substituting 3 for x in the given first member, and taking the positive value of the square root, the first member becomes
=3
is
correct.)
240
ALGEBRA
then have the following rule
:
We
Transpose the terms of the equation so that a surd term may stand alone in one member ; then raise both members to a power
of the same degree as the surd. If surd terms still remain, repeat the operation.
much
Transposing
Squaring,
V2x
1,
Transposing,
Squaring,
14
\/2x
2x
+ 6 = 4914A/2a;l+2x 1 = 42, or v2 x 1 = 3.
1
=9
whence, x
5.
3.
2 yjx =
Vaj2
2 x
Clearing of fractions,
2 v x^
1.
Transposing,
Squaring,
Vx"^ 2 x = 3 x. x^ 2 x = 9 6 x +
x^.
Transposing,
(If
4x
= 9,
and x
q = . 4
we put X =
,
If
we take
is
not a true
equation.
and
if
we
v/
the
first
member
becomes
3 ^
,
or
member becomes
is
correct.)
~2
4.
V2 3a; + Vl + 4a; = V3 +
a;.
SURDS
Squaring both members,
2
241
3X
i
V 2  3 X Vl + 4x + l + 4a; = 3 + x.
2
Whence,
*
V2 3a;Vl + 4x =
^/2^^^Tx^/TTTx = 0.
(2
or,
Squarmg,
Solving as in 126,
 3x)(l +
4x) =
0.
23x = 0, orx = 2 ;
H4x = 0,
EXERCISE
118
and
or x
.
^1. V4a; +
:
2.
3.
V5.
6.
7.
V + V + 9 = 2.
V32V3T=l.
Va;
+ 13 Va75 = 3.
v4.
8.
V5a;19 V5a;+14=3.
yo
Va;
v^
+4
J^ = V32a?. V32a;
10.
= =
:'
11.
Va; 5 4Va;=
Vl2. V6a;V6a;ll
=
V6a;ll
10
13.
V2sV2s + 5 =
Vic 3
V27+5
^cu^r^
4.
14.
V^+~21 = 2 V^.
2Vl + 2a;5
V
^
V 15.
3VTT2^ + 4_ VTT2^ + 6
6Vl42a;l

17.
.c lb.
3Vaj44_3Va;45 1=
5V2 5Va;3
;=::
242
18.
ii'19.
ic
ALGEBRA
20.
1U^'^^.'4
Vic
2ct
i
v21.
22.
23.
24.
V4a;3V3a;l=V7a;4.
V4i)
25.
26.
27. 28.
29.
'30.
31.
32. 33.
V2a;
+ 5 + V3a52=V(5aj + 3+V24aj2_^15).
IMAGINARY NUMBERS
(X^U
vmK
''^^^'^
273. It
is
number;
for
impossible to find an even root of a negative no number when raised to an even power can
( 96).
is
An
Imaginary Number
;
number
as
2,
or
248)
V a
of
is
called a
the
form
SURDS
275. Meaning of a Pure Imaginary Number.
243
as an expression such real ( 273), we define raised to the second power, the result is a ( 206). that, To find what meaning to attach to a pure imaginary number,
If
is
Va
Va
when
we assume
when
Va
is
imaginary.
raised to that, Thus, the second power, the result is 2 that is, (V 2)^ = 2. In like manner, (V 1)^ = 1 etc.
;
V 2
when
By
275,
(V^'= (
5.
(1)
(2)
From
Whence,
V 5=V5V V
the imaginary unit;
1.
Then, every imaginary square root can he expressed as the 1., product of a real number by
1 is called
it is
usually represented
by
i,
of
manner
as surds.
Add
276,
By
2.
Subtract 3
 V9
from 1
+ V 16.
In adding or subtracting complex numbers, we assume that the rules for adding or subtracting real numbers may be applied without change.
Then,
V^ +
V^^^25.
>
2.
v:r54V45.
244
3.
ALGEBRA
f^
""
4.
\r''
^^^
.9. V^r24V^=^4V^^^.
10.
Va'2alVa2 + 2al.
Add Add
5
11. 12.
13.
14.
+ V^^^
to 3
+ \/"^^16.
1V349.
J
,
/H
6V^^
to
Subtract 2
Subtract
V 1.
By 275,
Then,
(V=^)^ = l.
(V^ri)3 =
(V3T)2x VZTi
=(_i)xV3i = _v3ij
etc.
v^
Thu s,
the
first
and 1; and for higher powers these terms recur in the same order.
1,
1,
V 1,
V 1
are
279. Multiplication
of
Imaginary Numbers.
two or more imaginary square roots can be obtained by aid of the principles of 276 and 278.
of
1.
The product
Multiply
V^^
by
V"^.
By 276, V^::2x\/::3
= x/2VZlx\/3\/3T
^
''
245
SURDS
2.
'%and
Multiply together
V9, V16,
V25.
3.
Multiply 2
+ 5V^5
by
43V^^.
In multiplying complex numbers, we assume that the rules for multiplying real numbers may be applied without change.
2+5' 438
+ 20V 5 _ 6V^l
15(5)
8
4.
14
V 5
75
83
+ UV^.
Expand
(V^^ + 2V^^)' by
the rule of
97.
V^
EXERCISE
Multiply the following
^1.
120
2.
3.
5. 6.
7.
V14
5
by
V56.
V^^^HT by V^^45.
4.
by
V6.
8.
3V^^2V^
8V"77V"=^
by
by
V^,
V^^27, and
by
V274V18
Si4.
15.
,
2V^^V^6
V^=l6,
by V^:ri4 + 4V^^.
and V^^IOO.
16.
^ V^ V3, V6,
V^=^, V=^64,
and
V10.
~~
246
ALGEBRA
the following by the rules of 97, 98:
20.
Expand
17.
(5
4V^l
(3V52V2)2.
21.
(7+2V^(72V^.
(^/^^ + b){V^^b).
19.
(4V^^ + 3V^)l
24.
25.
22.
(8V^=2
Expand the
^26.
28.
205
(1V^^.
Expand
Divide
276,
V40
5
By
V^^^^lO
\/8
= 2\/2.
2.
Divide
Vl5 by
V^.
( 278)
\/l5
^ VT5(l) ^ \/l5(V^
=  vs \/^n; =  \/^.
3.
Reduce
V3V^:^
to
V3+V2
real denominator.
We
sign between
multiply both terms of the fraction by the denominator with the its terms reversed 2, multiplying both terms by VS
;
V3+V'32
(V3)2(V^r2)2
_ (V3)22V3
V^+(^
6
2)2
(97)
+2
SURDS
EXERCISE
Divide the following :
^1.
121
247
V^=35 by V^^.
by V^=r3. by
7.
4.
"5.
V^Qxy
by ^2yz.
^. V48
^3.
Vi80 by V^^IO.
V=^
Eeduce
9.
11.
1V10.
3V32V6 3V3+2V6
2V:^ + 7V^3 4V^=^3V^^
and a
6
3V3+
12.
+ 6 V 1
V 1 are
We have
Also,
= a^ Hence,
are real.
the
62<(
V'^)2 = a2 + 52 (
275).
248
ALGEBRA
XIX.
282.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
A Quadratic Equation is an equation of the second degree with one or more unknown numbers. A Pure Quadratic Equation is a quadratic equation involving only the square of the unknown number as, 2 a^ = 5.
( 83),
;
An
2is,2x'3x5 = 0.
In
126,
we showed how
ax^
bx
= 0,
ax^
+ c = 0,
x^\ax
+ b = 0,
and ax^{bx +
= 0,
when
the
first
members could be
=4
x=2',
But the equations x = 2 and x= 2 are the same as x = 2 and x = 2, respectively, with all signs changed. We then get all the values of x by equating the positive square
root of the first
for the square root of a
number may be
either
or
( 208).
member
to
pure quadratic equation may be solved by reducing necessary, to the form x^ a, and then equating ic to the square root of a ( 283).
284.
if
it,
1.
+7=
12
a;2
+
28
x^
35.
Clearing of fractions,
+
.7
= =
5 x^
140.
112, or x^
16.
Equating x to
= 4.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
2.
249
oc^
5=5
2
oc^
IS.
=
8,
a;^
or
a;2
= _ 4,
Equating x to
db
4,
a;
= V 4 = 2\/^
;
(276).
In this case, both values of x are imaginary ( 274) it is impossible to find a real value of x which will satisfy the given equation.
In solving fractional quadratic equations, any solution which does not must be rejected. Thus, let it be required to solve the equation
x27
x^\x2
x
+2 +
x1
2)
(aj
1), or x^
a;
2,
x^7 = xlx2,
The
or
a:2
= 4.
the only
Extracting square roots, x=2. solution oj = 2 does not satisfy by the given equation
is
solution
2.
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:
122
2a;2
+ 27 = 7a^53.
3.
2.
A_15 = _?.
4a;2
3^
5(2x3)+2aj(4a; + l)=12a;7.
2(3a;5)2
9
4.
+ 3(x+10)2 = 434.
^g
'
3
6.
9.
4:x
Ax
6V5ar^9 = 12.
(2
a; j
V?^^
aj a;
7) (5
a;
10
4^^
+
7
8f^l ^
2
^j
3a a;56
a; + 56 ^^ 3a + 106
250
Vil2.
ALGEBRA
*
7
13.
14
35
(x{a){x\b){{xa)(xb)=x' + a^{bK
14.
3V^+1+V3a^ + 7 = 1.
lOa^3
18
gc
15.
5x^i6 9
(A:
6a^l 9x'2
(A;
16.
+ 1) (k  2)
4a;^
 3) 2x^
 1)
l.
(A;
+ 2)
(A;
+ 3) =  52.
^17. 2a;V^^+32Wa;2 + 2 =
18
3a;^4
+3
+ 12 ^^
' '
19
'
+ 3a^l ^ + 3 ^q ^x2_^xS^^ x2 x+3 + l 2ar^5* _ y^ = a(l + V3). 21. Va' + ax +.aj2 + Va^  aa; + (^
a;^
a;^
2a;^5a;2
a;^
22
_1
x
+3
x5
^^17
0^2x^15
/\
>
{^
//''
i^^
^.
^^
/
^^
^^
/
V* By transposing the terms involving x to the first member, and all other terms to the second, and then dividing both members
by the coefficient of reduced to the form
x^,
x^{
px = q.
We
make
Ex.
member a
is
an
operation which
termed completing
a?
+ 3 = 4.
trinomial is a perfect square when its first and third terms are perfect squares and positive, and its second term plus or minus twice the product of their square roots ( 111).
Then, the square root of the third term is equal to the second term divided by twice the square root of the first.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
261
to a^ {3x to
Hence, the square root of the expression which must be added make it a perfect square is 3 a) ^ 2 o^, or . to both members the square of f we have Adding
,
a^
283),
member to we have
the square
Transposing
f,
a;
= f + or f J = lor 4.
:
We
Reduce
form
op^
{px
q.
members
the square of
adding
to both
Equate the square root of the first member to the square root of the second, and solve the linear equations thus formed.
286.
1.
aj^
8 x = 4.
Dividing by
a;2_^^_,
x"^
which
is
in the
form
+px=:q.
4
of ,
Adding
to both
we have
\3y/
first
9
to
member
Transposing
,

2or.
term must
be changed.
2.
9 a^ 21 = 10.
a;
Dividing by
9,
x2
^ = ^9
o
252
ALGEBRA
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
If the coefficient of o^
is
253
it
may be made
so
by multiplication.
2.
15 = 2.
a;
16 x^
30 = 4.
a;
Adding
to both
members
the square of
2x4
16
16x^30x +
(^y
15 4
225^ = 4 + ?^ = ^.
16
17  4
 =
4
Then,
4a;
==
4
8 or
1, and x =
2
2 or
i.
4
If the coefficient of x^ is
changed.
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:
124
4a;2_7a; = 3.
9a^
8.
'
36 a;^
 36 = 7.
or
2.
3. 4. 5. 6.
7.
9.
\2x^^x=^\.
49;i2
10.
11.
/12.
13. 14.
+ 49 7i410 = 0. 64 x^ + 15 = 64 12 = 23e5e2.
a;.
28a;32x2_3^0.
25a;
+ 15aj = 4.
= 50aj22.
form
Every
a'y?
+ 6aj + c = 0,
a,
we have
4 0^7? + 4 ahx =
4 ac.
~
( 287), or 6.
254
Then,
4a
ALGEBRA
V + 4 ahx +
Whence,
x
following rule
=
:
=^^
2a
6ic
form
ax^
f
c.
of ic^, and Multiply both members by four add to each the square of the coefficient of x in the given equation.
times the coefficient
The advantage
of this
is
in
= 3.
8,
16a;256a:=24.
Adding
to both
members
16x2
the square of
72 7
7,
 56x +

= 24 + 49 = 25.
= =
7
5.
Then,
4x
12 or
2,
and x
= 3 or
i.
may
If the coefficient of x in the given equation is even, fractions be avoided, and the rule modified, as follows
:
x^,
and add
to
each
of half the
coefficient
Solve the equation 15 a^^ _^ 28 a; = 32. Multiplying both members by 15, and adding to each the square
152x2
of 14,
15 (28 X)
+ +
142
480
196
676
14
= =
26.
Then,
15 x
=
14
26
12 or
 40,
and x
=6
or
 
3
The method
is
called the
Hindoo Method.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
^ 1.
2.
:
255
125
x\7x=18.
3aj22x = 40.
9.
12x'llx = 2.
10.
3.
4.
4:x'3x = 10.
11. 12.
13.
14.
4.x^8x = 4.5.
5.
^.
7.
V8.
4.2a;
15.
16.
from
288 that,
if
ax^ {bx{G
= 0,
t^,^^^^
Sv^^w^^^
(1)
then
^^ 6V64 ac.
may be used
as a
This result
in (1),
_5i:V25 +
4
2,
144
^ 5 13 ^^
4
a;
P^
9 2
5
=
3
;
a?^
+ 1 4 + 3 = 0.
14
Here, a
=
^
6,
=
14
14, c
J:
substituting in (1),
V196
60
10
16 ^ 10
a^
1
^j.
3.
a;^
_ 21 = 1.
then,
Here, a
= 110,
^
=  21,
j
21
V441
220
 440
^ 21zbl ^ i.
220
10
or J.
11*
making the
substitution.
256
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
126
2.
3. 4.
5.
6.
7.
8. 40 17a;5a^ = 0. a;2_i2a;f32 = 0. 9 36y + 36p = 5. a^ + 7a;30 = 0. ^r'"" 2a;23a;20 = 0. H^.^' 10. SOa;^ + l = 17a;. 3x'x4. = 0. t / ^11 19a; = 8iK2_^6. 4a;25a;21 = 0^ 3^7 1^ 15 + 22  48 = 0. ^ 13. 15a^H26a; =  8. 20a;2 + a;l = 0. .^. 9a,218a; + 8 = 0. ^ ,, 14. 37a; = 6a^ + 6.
a;
ar^
EXERCISE
127
The following miscellaneous equations may be solved by either of the preceding methods, preference being given to the one best adapted to the
example under consideration. In solving any fractional equation, we reject any solution which does not satisfy the given equation. (Compare last example, 284.)
1.
^
6a;
13
9a;2
1
18*
4
5.
A4_l^ = _l.
^r
6.
7.
x
9
12.
13.
14.
(?
2x
'
5 a;8
a;
+ 3 d + 4 ^3 6a;H5 ^ 4a; + 4 j^ d2 d 2 4a;3~ a;3 + l)(a; + 3) = 12 4(a5 47)V2. V5a;23a;41 = 3a;7. 3a; 45a; _ ~ 45a; 3a; = 217. 4)3 (a; + 3)3
*
(a;
5
6*
(a;
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
16.
257
17.
18.
x2
aj
+S
0^
x + 4. x3
V8a^35a;2+55a;57
4
2xZ.
^x\
21
2a;
_^
4
'
22
'
28(3
+ 10)
1
a^
25
Saf27
1
=0.
14
a;(2x3)
+l
24.
3ir2 ^17
2a;
3a;2
+l
1
23.
x'Sx
15
+4
a?
15
a;^
a;2
5
7x
24(a; + 2)
a^4
25.
2^43
26.
+ 3?;4
.
8v2_i3^
6
v^
64
+ V  12
r
l
1/ 1 3V4a:l
2V3.T + 4
2J
\3a; +
3 8
27.
+ 3V3a; + 7 =
V3a; + 4
28.
2a^4a;3 ^ a^4a; + 2
2x^2x\3
x^3x\2
.
29.
2
_4
3(x + 2)
+ 2a;
.
30.
J^^+J^^ = ^, \x\5^ylx^4t 2
V2 + 2V2a; + 5 = 2V6a; + 4. V8x47 = V4a; + 3 + V2a;H2. V2a;2 + 7a;47 = 6V2a^9xl. V65a; + V27x = Vl2 + 6a;.
x1 XZ x6
3.
31.
32.
33.
34.
(Compare Ex.
Q/j
1,
167.)
X2 x
x\2 x\S
4:
X = 1. x6
XV
258
g
ALGEBRA
X X
38.
X\_y?\X
\.
x^
X x+2
a;
39
+4
X
first
x_ _ x^\2x~2 + 3~~x^\5x{6' X x5 x _q x5 X +4 X
fractions,
(First
combine the
two
last
two.)
For the solution of literal affected quadratic equations, the methods of 288 are usually most convenient.
1.
\
ax bx ab
b)x =
= 0.
x^^
We may write the equation x^ ah. Multiplying both members by 4 times the coefficient of
4ic2
{(a
h)x
+ 4(a+ (a 
Adding
to both
members
4(a
the square of a
&)2
= ^ab. b,
=
=
4 a6
ic2
b)x
a2
2 a6
62.
b'^
2 x + (a
a2 + 2 a& + = (a + b). b)
2ic
*
= (a6)(a +
6).
Then,
or
Whence,
If several
6 or
a.
terms contain the same power of x, the coefficient of that power should be enclosed in parentheses, as shown in Ex. 1.
thus,
The above equation can be solved more easily by the method by 108, the equation may be written
ix
of 126
Then,
+ a)(xb)=0. x + a = 0,
6 = 0,
w
or x or
a;
= =
6.
a;
and
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Several equations in Exercise 128
259
may
method
2.
of 126.
1) y? 2 m^x = 4cm^.
w
l)a:
1,
and adding
of m2,
(m  1)%2 _
2 TYi^^m
+ w* = 4 7rfi{m  1) + m* = m* 4 m^ + 4 m\
Then,
(w
l)x
= m^ { m^ 2 m = 2m(TO 1) or =2m
or
m^
m^ { 2 m
2 m.
Whence,
^. m
1
we
reject
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
:
128
X 1.
2.
/^,
2 mic
y 4.
^5.
,6.
oc^ {
}
^
S.
6x'\^ax15bx = 10ab.
amx^
anx bmx
{
bn
= 0.
>9. V^+^V2^=^^yil.
(a
/lO.
^'^
+ x)3 + (6 a;)3 =( + &)'. = xU. yi2. ^(a + 2b)x2ab mIS. (a^a2)x^(5al)x = 6.. (w p) = 0. y^4. 0^ (m p) + (m = 2a. ^15. (a + &)aj'+(3aU6)aj /16. (ft4c)ir^(a + c)aj = 6a.
ic
'
'^"^
'
7i)
260
Vic
Vic
ALGEBRA
^^j^7. 5^
/
18. 19.
+ a + 2Vx + 6a
16 a
X
a
+6
a;
a^
20.
ahx
^
x\a
21.
\ c + x\o c = 2.
22
23.
^^ ^^
Sx\n
ci'cXl
+ a;)2
3a; + n ^ 10^ 2x Sn 3 _ ^y ^ 0.
62(2^L
,24.
a;'!
4a6
Vma; + VCm
^^^
2a;
+ l ^ 2n + l
n) + m?i = 2 m. ^~^ ^ + ^ 3= a^ 5 g^ ^^^ *i<^ ^ i>o.^ CV^ V 27. 'rc + aa; (Xic^ a^ 4 g^ 3a; 2a _ 21 ^ + _ 1^ /< V 28 3g 3a; + g 6a;2 7ga; 3g2 2 T <u\ 6 + c)aj = a264c. + 2c)a;2_(2a + ^3j9. (g&
26.
a; eta;
'
a;
30.
^ l^g
^ + lt^ + i = a M\h
a;
0.
gf
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
Iowing equations
Solve in the
first
to the
second power.
^
1.
St^\gt\
3.
F='^
^^^^
iJ
2.
E^^mvK
s=cm.
6.
= M.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
7.
261
g,
= ttVV^t^^
gt^.
8. 9.
t\
S=
V=^2gs.
;
In problem 1 solve for g in problem 7 solve for I in in problem problem 2 solve for m in problem 4 solve for
10.
;
6 solve for
l.
the problem.
1.
A man
as the
watch cost
sold a watch for $21, and lost as many per cent dollars. Find the cost of the watch.
X x
Let
Then,
watch
cost.
and
X X ^, or
100
the conditions,
= number
100
of dollars lost.
By
^^ 100
2\.
Solving,
= 30
or 70.
^ ;
Then, the cost of the watch was either $ 30 or $ 70 answers satisfies the conditions of the problem.
2.
farmer bought some sheep for $ 72. If h^ had bought for the same money, they would have ddfet him f 1 How many did he buy ? apiece less.
6
more
Let
n n
= number bought.
Then,
and
72
^
"^
=
^
number
if
there
262
ALGEBRA
the conditions,
72 =
By
72
+6
h 1.
Solving,
18 or
24.
Only the positive value is admissible, for the negative value does not satisfy the conditions of the problem.
Therefore, the
number
of sheep
was
18.
words "6 more" had been " 1 $ apiece less" to "1 apiece more," we changed to "6 fewer," and should have found the answer 24.
If, in the enunciation of the problem, the
3. If 3 times the square of the number of trees in an orchard be increased by 14, the result equals 23 times the number find the number.
;
Let
X
the conditions,
By
Sx^\14
a;
= number = 23x. =
7 or .
of trees.
Solving,
Only the
first
value of x
is
4. If the square of the number of dollars in a man's assets equals 5 times the number increased by 150, find the number.
Let
X
the conditions,
cc^
= number = =
5
aj
By
150.
Solving,
15 or
10.
15, or liabilities of
$ 10.
EXERCISE
1.
2.
129
2^?
Divide the number 24 into two parts such that twice the square of the greater shall exceed 5 times the square of the
less
3.
by
45.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
4.
is 7,
Find
the
first
five consecutive numbers such that the quotient of by the second, added to the quotient of the fifth by
if
the
sum
of
the squares of the second and fourth be divided b}^ the sum of the squares of the first and third, the quotient shall be i.
7. The area of a certain square field exceeds that of another square field by 1008 square yards, and the perimeter of the greater exceeds onehalf that of the smaller by 120 yards.
field.
train,
A fast train runs 8 miles an hour faster than a slow and takes 3 fewer hours to travel 288 miles. Find the
its
10.
merchant sold goods for $22.75, and lost as many What was the cost ?
merchant sold two pieces of cloth of different quality He received for the 105, the poorer containing 28 yards. finer as many dollars a yard as there were yards in the piece
11.
for
and 7 yards of the poorer sold for as much as 2 yards of the Find the value of each piece. finer.
12.
A
A
65.25,
What was
much money as B. After giving equal to A's multiplied by a fraction whose numerator is 15, and whose denominator is the number of dolHow much had each at first ? lars A had at first.
$
6,
B's
money
A and B set out at the same time from places 247 miles and travel towards each other. A's rate is 9 miles an apart, hour; and B's rate in miles an hour is less by 3 than the number of hours at the end of which they meet. Find B's rate.
14.
264
ALGEBRA
15. man buys a certain number of shares of stock, paying for each as many dollars as he buys shares. After the price has advanced onefifth as many dollars per share as he has shares, he sells, and gains $ 980. How many shares did
he buy
16.
The two
the
square of
digits of a number differ by 1; and if the number be added to the square of the given
number with
number.
17.
its digits
reversed, the
sum
is
585.
Find the
gives
persons.
112, in equal amounts, to a certain number of gives the same sum, in equal amounts, to 14 more
$4
less
than A.
How much
does
The telegraph
intervals.
If the intervals
poles along a certain road are at equal between the poles were increased by
mile.
22
feet, there
would be 8 fewer in a
How many
are
there in a mile ?
19. A merchant bought a cask of wine for $ 48. Having lost 4 gallons by leakage, he sells the remainder at $ 2 a gallon above cost, and makes a profit of 25% on his entire outlay.
How many
20. The men in a regiment can be arranged in a column twice as long as it is wide. If their number were less by 224, they could be arranged in a hollow square 4 deep, having in each outer side of the square as many men as there were in
21. The denominator of a fraction exceeds twice the numerator by 2, and the d,ifference between the fraction and its Find the fraction. reciprocal is .
walk 3 miles, intending to arrive at a After walking a mile, he was detained 10 minutes, and was in consequence obliged to walk the rest of the way a mile an hour faster. Find his original speed.
22.
A man
started to
certain time.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
265
23. A regiment, in solid square, has 24 fewer men in front than v/hen in a hollow square 6 deep. How many men are there in the regiment ?
24.
long.
The
rectangular field is surrounded by a fence 160 feet cost of this fence, at 96 cents a foot, was onetenth
dollars as there are square feet in the area of the
field.
as
many
field.
25. A tank can be filled by one pipe in 4 hours less time than by another and if the pipes are open together li hours, the tank is filled. In how many hours can each pipe alone fill
;
it ?
crew can row down stream 18 miles, and back again, Their rate up stream is IJ miles an hour less in 7^ hours. than the rate of the stream. Find the rate of the stream, and
26.
of the crew in
27.
still
water.
A man
rate of interest.
put $ 5000 into a savingsbank paying a certain At the end of a year, he withdrew $ 375, leav
At the end of another year, the ing the remainder at interest. amount due him was $ 4968. Find the rate of interest.
A square garden has a square plot of grass at the censurrounded by a path 4 feet in width. The area of the garden outside the path exceeds by 768 square feet the area of the path and the side of the garden is less by 16 feet than Find the dimensions of the three times the side of the plot.
28.
tre,
;
garden.
merchant has a cask full of wine. He draws out 6 and fills the cask with water. Again he draws out 6 There are now 25 galgallons, and fills the cask with water. How many gallons does the lons of pure wine in the cask.
29.
gallons,
cask hold ?
30.
and
sell
f 22,
selling 10
had sold
;
as
many
bushels as
he would have received $ 8 while if B had sold as bushels as A did, he would have received f 15. How bushels did each sell, and at what price ?
many many
266
31.
ALGEBRA
employed to do a certain piece of work. and the second, who works 6 fewer If the second had worked all the time, and days, receives $ 27. the first 6 fewer days, they would have received equal amounts. How many days did each work, and at what wages ?
are
Two men
The
first
receives
$ 48
carriagewheel, 15 feet in circumference, revolves in If it revolved in a time longer of seconds. one second, the carriage would travel 14400 fewer feet in by an hour. In how many seconds does it revolve ?
32.
a certain
number
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
1.
When
earth's surface, the distance, S, which it traverses in any ber of seconds, t, is found to be given by the equation
num
which g represents the velocity which the body acquires The value of g is 32.15 feet, or 980 centiin one second.
in
meters.
stone fell from a balloon a mile high elapsed before it reached the earth ?
2.
If a body is
seconds
is
found to be given
S = Vot^igf.
If the stone mentioned in Problem 1 had been thrown down from the balloon with a velocity of 40 feet per second, how many seconds would have elapsed before it reached the earth ?
3.
In the equation
= 7r\/,
by a pendulum to make one vibration, I represents the length of the pendulum, and g is the same as in Problem 1. Find the length of a pendulum which beats seconds.
4.
If a
is
found to be 99.3
g.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
5.
267
In the equation
F = ~,
of any two attracting bodies, as, for instance, the earth and the the moon, d represents the distance between these bodies, and
force with which they attract each other. If the moon had twice its present mass
at present, how much greater or less would the force of the earth's attraction be upon it than at present ?
represents the energy of a \ mv^, and the velocity is v. the mass of which is moving body, the energies of two bodies, one of which has twice the Compare
6.
In the equation
E=
other.
v,
^
When a bullet is
which
it
to
rises is given
the height,
Find with what velocity a body must be thrown upward to Washington Monument {^Bb feet). Problem 1.) (See
268
ALGEBRA
XX.
An equation is said to be in the quadratic form when it is expressed in three terms, two of which contain the unknown number, and the exponent of the unknown number in one of
these terms is twice
its'
as,
a;66a:^=16;
etc.
may be
readily solved
a?^
6ic^ = 16.
+
9
3
a;3
16
+
5.
25.
a;^
Then,
Extracting cube
roots,
x^ = 3 5 = 8 or  2. x = 2 or v^2.
There are
also
may
be found by the
method
2.
of 301.
= 27.
Since
Vx
is
the
same
8,
as x^, this
is
Multiplying by
and adding
16
cc
3^ to
24\/^
4 Vx
+ +
9
3
= 216 + = 15.
3
= 225.
=

Then,
4Vx = 
15
12 or
18.
Whence,
3.
Vx =
3 or
 ,
2
and x
9 or
22 x'^ = 3.
269
to both
112
members,
121
16 X 22 x~* 16 a; ^
11 _3
= 48 +
169.
11 ==
Then,
16 x~^
13
= 24 ~
(
or
i 13.  2, and ~
i*
x~^
=
or
x'^
^ ^
9
)
"
(9 j^
^^
ia*
(?)Url,and. ()nrl6.
=
P solve an equation of the form x* a, first extract the root corresponding to the numerator of the fractional exponent, and afterwards
To
raise to the
power corresponding to the denominator must be given to algebraic signs see 96 and 209.
;
careful attention
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
:
130
3. 4.
0^^100^*49
a;^+33oj^
^
= 0.
7.
5a;^
= 32.
8.
'
>~^^>^i:"
11. 12.
+ 2)(2x'3)lSa^=(x' + S){2x'A). '^t"^u 10. 9(x' + If = (x^  4)2 + 11 X'  5. \ )i"\ )(" 6h2 = lWTi. ,17. 32V^33 = ^. + 244o;^ = 243. vl8. 161 a^ + 5 =  32
9.
{Sx'
^r>:
'
ir
a;3
a;^^
3x'4.x'=W.
2s35. + 48 = 0.
27;'

19
^308
x'>
= 640.1
+ 46 = g.
16.
16a:33a^243 = 0.
' _^,^^
::^
270
21.
ALGEBRA
V6 + Vi + V4Va; =
V3Va; +
12
y^22.
294.
to
An equation may sometimes be solved with, reference an expression, by regarding it as a single letter.
.
Solve the equation {x 3(a; 5)^ 5)^ Multiplying by 4, and adding 3^ to both members,
4(a;
= 40.
=
169.
5)3
\2{x
Then,
2(x
5)5
or
13
Whence,
Extracting cube roots,
Squaring,
(x
(cc
5)^
5)^
=8 =2
=4 =
or
= 16  5. VE.
or
10.
or v'25.
Whence,
9 or 5
+ v'25.
be solved by, the.
may
12 x3
(x2
 2 x2 
12 X
= 35.
Or,
6 x)2
Then, x
=3
4 or
= 1,
= 7 or  5. 9 = 16 or i. x^ + Qx x + 3 = 4 or i 2.  7,  1, or  5.
x2
6x
\
In solving equations like the above, the first step is to complete the square with reference to the x* and x^ terms by 287, the third term of the square is the square of the quotient obtained by dividing the x^ term by twice the square root of the x* term.
;
271
oc^
Adding 20
members,
6 X
20)
+ 5Vx2  6 X + 20 = 66. + ?^ =
4

6 X
+ 20)H5Vx26x +
20
66
+ ^ = ^.
4 4
17
Vx^ 6x +
20
+ =
2i
Then,
Squaring,
^
Then,
In solving equations of the
8,
2,
or 3
vTIO.
above form, add such an expression to both members that the expression without the radical sign in the first member may be the same as that within, or some multiple of it.
4.
ar
 =  h xx'^ 3 2
Representing
x2
X
y
by
y,
272
ALGEBRA
3.
x^12a'3 + 14a.'24132aj135
= 0.
a^'3
*
2a.
aj23
+.1
2x ^ 17 '~
aj
4*
+ 3^5 + 1 = 10. 7. 3x^ + x + 5VSaf{x{6 = S0.  1 + 6 a;V8  1 =  8 a^. 8. 8 9. a5*2aa.'317aV+18a3a; + 72a* = 0, AO. (7x6)^5(7x6)i = 6,' d^ + 2 2d5 ^35 jj 2 d5 d^ + 2 6 + 7Va;24a) + ll = 4aj23. ^2. ^. Vaj23a;3 = a;23a;23. 14. (2a;2_3^_l^^3_7(2a^_3aJl)t = 8. 3^a^12aj7^a^12a. = 2. yl5. ''^16. A;^18A:3 + 109A;2252A;f180 = 0. 17. 2a^ + 4a; + Va;2 + 2a;3 = 9.  1, 18. 7 (a^  28)^ 4 8 (a^ 2S)^ = 19. (3 ^ + 15)^  5 (3 ^ + 15)^ = 24. 20. 9aj^ 12aj335a;2 + 26a; + 40 = 0. ^5^ + 1 a^2a; + 2 ^ 8 21 aj22a; + 2 a^^Sa^ + l" 3* 22. 9(a; + a)^2262(a; + a)* + 86* = 0.
6.
V5
a.^
ic
a;^
'
a;2
23. a^ 24.
25
^'a^^3
3 2
273
XXI.
295. Number
orvXyTIr* quadratic equation cmtnot have more than two different roots. Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the form
^TZwrr
GI
A^rri^
'^
roots,
rj, rg,
and
'
rg.
+ hr^ + c = 0, ari{hr,^c = 0, and ari\hr^\c = 0. ri) + 5 (r, r^ = 0. Subtracting (2) from (1), a (rf a (r^ + r^) (r^  rg) + b (rj  rg) = 0, Then, rg) (ar^ + a^s + 6) = 0. (ri or, Then, by 126, either rj r2=0, or ari+ar2+6=0. But ri r2 cannot equal 0, for, by hypothesis, rj and
Then, by
81,
(1)
(2)
(3)
rg
are
different.
Whence,
a7\
+ arg + 6 = 0.
(3)
(4)
(1),
from
we have
(5)
+ ars + 6 = 0.
arga? 3=0, or rg r3=0.
(4),
But this
is
296.
Sum
?i
of
rg
Let
and
+ 6aj + c = 0.
By 289, ^^^
fe^Vi''4ac ^^ ^^^
J
^
_&_ Vft24ac
^
(X
CI
274
ALGEBRA
values,
7\
Adding these
+ rg =  = 2a
^
4a^
4a^
the
Hence, if a quadratic equation is i7i the form ax^ + 5ic f c = 0, sum of the roots equals minus the coefficient of x divided
"
coefficient of a^, and the product of the roots equals the independent term divided by the coeffi.cient of ccl t
by the
1.
The sum
of the roots
is ,
and
their product
^^^^7,
or
6.
is
^^
;
t*
2.
One
= 35
find
the other.
31 x
+ 35 = 0.
sum
of the roots is
31
6
31
is
/
(
by
7\
),
or
31
7
},
2/'
2'
I
"We
"^
may
^,byI. 6 2
may find the values of certain other expressions which are symmetrical in the roots of the quadratic.
3.
We
If
ri
and
rg
+ 6ic + c = 0,
of r^
+ r^r2\ro\
n^
We have,
But,
n + ra =
rv'j^r,r,ir,^
b
,
and
rirj
c =
Whence,
= ^^^ = ^^^.
275
1.
a;2
>2.
3.
4.
/ 9.
,
10.
111.
If
of:
12.
5. 2xUx' = 7, = 0.'l.~  6. 10 412 05150^ = 0. J x'hx20 052605 + 1 = 0.0 ! >7. 8o522 = o5.  ^ = 0. 4052055 = 0.4^ ^/ 8. 9mV421w;4)45n2 " ^ = 98 is 7 find the other. ^ = > One root of 4 7 One root of 28 15 = is f find the other, s j^ One root of 5  17 4 6 = is  find the other. ^^ \~V^ "V
480547=0. ^/
"^
05^
o;
05^
05
05^
05
't\
and
ck"^
7*2
aoi?
+ hx{c = 0,
14.
a^
13.'i4i
Tlll,
1 + 1.
15.
r,
+ r/.
297. Formation
of Quadratic Equations.
By
may
be formed which shall have any required roots. For, let ri and r^ denote the roots of the equation
aa52
46o;4c
= 0,
oro52
4 +  = 0.
a a
rg,
(1)
Then, by
296,
=  rj
and 
= r^r^.
we have
r205
ri05
Or,
by
108,
(05
4 r^r^ = 0.  ri)(o5  n) = 0.
any required
roots.
from
x,
and place
the
product of the
to zero.
Ex,
Form
J.
276
By
the rule,
{x
ALGEBRA
4){x
\]
= 0. =
;
Multiplying by
4,
(x
4)(4a;
7)
or,
4x2
9a;
 28 = 0.
EXERCISE
133
:
Form the
1.
5,8.
2.
4,
9.
3.
4.
5.
,
i,
.
0.
^7.
8.
hh
i,j\.
6.
^,
a + 26,
3
a25.
.11.
V 10.
m^...
^
71,
m+4
/^
,
71.
s.l2.
/^
,^
FACTORING
quadratic expression
is
aoc^
^bx
c.
In 117, we showed how to factor certain expressions of this form by inspection; we will now derive a rule for factoring any
quadratic expression
;
we
a
have,
ax'\bxhc
= afa^h \^
\
aj
4:a^
_
\2aJ
aJ
LV
2aJ
4:a'
2a^
2a
aa;^
J\
^ 2a
are
2a
by
J'
114.
But by
+ 6a; + c =
b
vV4ac
2a
2a
^^^
yJW4.ac
2a
2a
277
Hence, to factor a quadratic expression, place it equal to zero, and solve the equation thus formed. Then the required factors are the coefficient of x^ in the given expression, x minus the first root, and x minus the second,
1.
Factor 6 0^2^ 7
^_ 3^
a;2
= 0,
by
289,
^^
Then,
7:fcV49T72 ^
12
6a;2
7ll ^l
12
^^
3_
 3 = efx
+
^Vx + ^
+ 3).
=
2.
3(x)x2^x
4
U(3a:l)C2x
Factor 4
13
a?
 12 a^.
+
13 x
12 x2
= 0,
13
by
289,
13
\/l69 + 24
192
19 ^ _ 1 24 4
4
^j.
3*
Whence,
13x  12x2
3.
Factor 2ar'3aJ2/2/7a;
2 x2
+ 42/ + 6.
+4^
4
_1_
We solve
By
289,
 x(3y + 7)
2 ^2
_ 0.
^ 3y +
j:V(3yh7)2
+ 16y232y48
l)
^ 3y + 7zfcV25y2H0y + i ^ 3y + 7(5y +
4
4^2
4?/
^^^y + 3.
Then,
2x23x?/2i/27x +
+6
= 2[x(2 +
2,
2)][x^li^]
2/3).
= (x2?/2)(2x +
278
279
9 x4: = 9
x'^
9 x + lf\^4:= /'Sx'V(U4)
3M)(8M)
= (3cc4l)(3x4).
If the ct^ term is negative, the entire expression should be enclosed in parentheses preceded by a sign.
2.
Factor
312x4:x'. _ 12 X  4 = (4 + 12  3) 3 =  (4 _^ 12 X + 9  9  3)
a;2 a:2
a;
a^2
135
4a^12a;7.
9a^21a; + 10.
7.
l{2xx'.
16 x"  16 x
\
2.
8.
9.
1.
3.
4.
5. 6.
65x25a^,
AxFj9x9.
36 25
a^
10.
11.
12.
a^
+ 72 + 29.  10  11.
0^
a;
300.
surds.
1.
We
will
now take up
\
the forms
x'^
+
a^
ax^y^
2/^
or x^
(Compare
115.)
Factor
a*
+ 2 a'b^ + 25 b\
_.
2 a262
280
2.
ALGEBRA
Factor
iC*
+ 1.
= (X2+1)2(XV2)2
this can be
1.
In each of the following obtain two sets of factors, when done without bringing in imaginary numbers
:
a;^7a^ + 4.
a'{b\
4.
4.a*
2.
5. 6.
3.
9m^llm2 + l.
of
301. Solution
Equations by Factoring.
to solve equations
In
126,
we showed how
mem
zero.
first
We
will
members can be
resolved into factors partly of the first and partly of the second, or entirely of the second degree.
1.
ic^
+ 1 = 0.
(x
\
Factoring the
member,
1) (x^
^ I)
= 0.
Then,
ic+l=0,
jc
;
and
2:
x2
 +1=
whence, by
289,
= l; 4 1 1 ^1 ^ x=
ora;
V 3
= 0.
+
1) (x^
.By Ex.
+ l={x^ +
1
a;\/2
 xV2 + 1).
Solving x^
xV2
^
{
= 0,
2
we have
^
Solving
a;2
iCv/2
= 0, we have
j:\/2"34
2
\/2
\/2
V^^
2
281
The above examples illustrate the important principle that the degree an equation indicates the number of its roots thus, an equation of the
; ;
;
of the fourth degree, four roots third degree has three roots etc. The roots are not necessarily unequal ; thus, the equation x^ 2 x+l
may be
written
(a;
1)
(aj
1)
0,
and
its
and
1.
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
"^l.
y/2.
)/Z.
:
137
5a:33ar'9a; =
0.
11.
12.
a?^
 6a.2 + 1 = 0.
(a;4)(2a;2_^5ajh25)=0.
x^ox' + l^zO.
(9x24)(llar^+84)=0.
13.
14.
64^^125 = 0.
o^*
4.
5.
a;*llaV12a* = 0.
6.
1/7.
(^.
9.
10.
15.
16.
17.
18.
'
a^2ic4
x"
^x^x^\^
Va;^4l
Qi.
+ V9a;4x = 2a5l.
+ 6a? + c =
are
302. Discussion
of General Equation.
By
2a
2a
We
of a,
I.
will
now
c.
b,
and
6^
4 ac
positive.
In this
IT.
case, Vi
and
rg
b^4.ac=:0.
case, r^
In this
and
72
are
7'eal
and
equal.
III.
6^
4 ac
rj
negative.
In this case,
IV.
6
and
^2
^^v
^'*^V>'^<mL.
= 0.
case, the equation takes the
In this
form
;
ax^ ^c
If
= 0;
whence,
a;
= v
a and
lute value,
and unlike in
c
If a
and
V.
= 0.
case, the equation takes the
In this
form
^
a
"
^^ H^V
^
*^
aa^46x
= 0;
whence,
real,
a;
or
zero.
one being
^^
= 0,
and
= 0. = 0.
'^
In this case, the equation takes the form ax^ Hence, both roots equal zero.
^^
'^
The
6^
4 ac is,
Ex.
roots are both rational, or both irrational, according as or is not, a perfect square.
Here a =2,
Since h^
2a^_5c18 = 0. c =  18 and 62 _ 4 ac = 25 +
real
144
169.
and unequal.
Since
EXERCISE
138
2.
3.
4.
5.
 19 + 125 = 0. ^ (v^ 7. 5a^4a; = 0. ^^'tS ^ 9a^ + 6a;l = 0. "7^ 4a^28a;^4^tfe^^^'^^A8. 24 + 9 = 0. 12a^19aj44 = 0. >^^. 16 _ 39 ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 25a;24 = 0. 30 ^xL..^O.
6a^
/61
6.
a^
a;
a;^ _f_
^^
<
a;^
>,
283
a^
 2  3.
a;
Put y
= ic2 
a;
3.
If
a;
0,
284
ALGEBRA
8
(
t?
')]
304.
The
of
member
any quadratic equation, with one unknown number. 3 ( 303) intersects the axis the graph of a^ 2 x Thus, XX' at points whose abscissas are 3 and 1, and the equation
ic^
2cc 3 =
1.
XX'
at the point
whose abscissa is 1, and between the points whose abscissas are 1 and 2 and the equation 2 ic^ + a? 3 = has one root 1 and 2. equal to 1, and one between
;
EXERCISE
139
Find the graph of the first member of each of the following equations, and verify the principle of 188 in the results
:
1.
x25a; + 4
= 0.
5.
4.x'{Tx
= 0.
2.
3.
x^\x6 = 0.
6.
7.
2a^lla;6 = 0.
6x^ + 50^6
4.
+ 70^ + 10 = 0. 3o^4a; = 0.
0^2
= 0.
8.
8o^14o;15 = 0.
Equations hav
305. Graphs
of the First
Members
of Quadratic
o^
4 + 4 = 0.
oj
We may
Then, by
To
y
If
If
member, put
y
y
= (xx x
= 0, = l,
y
is
= =
4.
l.
If
If
x x
= 2, = S,
= 0. = 1]
etc.
The graph
the curve
ABC, which
extends
from XX'.
Since (x 2)2 cannot be negative for any value of x, y cannot be negaand the graph is tangent to XX'.
;
285
from
this that, if a quadratic equation, with one roots, the graph of its first member
tangent to XX'.
2.
ic^
+ + 2=0.
a;
Solving,
 1 V 7
graph of the
first
To
y
find the
member, put
+ X + 2. Ifx = 0,y = 2. If X = 1, y = 4.
x2
ltx=l,y = 2.
If
=
2,
=4
etc.
to
The graph is the curve ABC, which extends an indefinitely great distance from XX'.
We
have,
x2
+
]
=
(x^
+ ^^  ^ + 2 = (x + ^V + ^.
x,
Since
(x
V
2/
+4
cannot be zero or negative, and the graph does not intersect XX'.
It is evident
from this
with one
its first
unknown number, has imaginary roots, the graph of member does not intersect XX'.
EXERCISE
Find the graphs of the
first
140
members
:
of the following,
and
x'6x\9 = 0.
aj2
3.
4:x'\4:X^l=zO.
2.
3a;
+ = 0.
4
4.
2x^4lx + 5 = 0.
286
ALGEBRA
XXII.
306.
If
On
the use
and
signs, it will be
;
understood that the equations can be read in two ways first) reading all the 2qyper signs together; second, reading all the
lower signs together. Thus, the equations x
aj
= 2,
= + 2,
2/=f3,
read either
Also,
the equations
x=2, y=:f
3,
x
307.
Two
unknown numbers
by elimination, an
unknown number.
'X^^y
=a.
(1)
(2)
\x\f = b.
From
(1),
x^; y=a
substituting in (2),
x\a^
2 ax^
\x'^
h,
an equation of the fourth degree in x. The methods already given are, therefore, not sufficient for the solution of every system of simultaneous quadratic equations, with two unknown numbers. In certain cases, however, the solution may be effected.
308. Case
I.
When
each equation
ax^
is
in the form
+ hy^ =
c.
x"'
or y^ can be eliminated
by addition
or
287
1.
i
1
f3a^'+
3
^ 2/2
4/ = 76. ^^ = 4. 11
^ ic^
288
ALGEBRA
3x'2xy = 24..
4.x'5xy =
4/^2+
9A;2
'
(llx'6y^ = S4:.
1
4.6,
ar^
+ lo = 204.
2/'
= 13.
'
(2x'xySy'=:0.
1
4.
iSh^27k^ = 6.
(5xy\y'=75. [xy3y' = 95.
'
'
When
one equation
is
and
unknown numbers
solved by finding one of the from the first degree equation, and substituting this value in the other equation.
may be
x^
= 6 y. x+2y = 7'.
xy
x, ox y
(1) (2)

From
(2),
2y =
'^^^^
(3)
Substituting in (1),
2x^x{ '^^^^ \ =
4:x'^
6
(
1=^
)
Clearing of fractions,
Solving,
7x\x'^
= 42 6x, or x = S or
.
x^ a; =42.
Substituting
in
(3),
= ^^
2
or
^ = 2 or ^.
2
. '
10
The
solution isa;
3, v , y
2:or, a;=
5
y ^
10

Certain examples where one equation is of the third degree and the other of/the first may be solved by the method of Case II.
yy
^
EXERCISE
:
142
/^
{^^3f = Z7.
lie 2?/ =9.
'
p+
1
2/
ic?/
= _4. = 45.
289
0^2/
4
2/'
?/
[2^
3
10.
3^
2
2.
12a;
,.
f
32/
a;
?/
Vx
x^
\
=7.
\y'^
xy
x
= 124.
=8.
12
^
y
X
x
a;
+y
_ 40
21
2y\Sx=:l.
^
13.
L = ??
2t
3p 24* 4j9^=2.
a;
2/ =8.
a;
= a + 2 5.
?/
2x3y = l.
14.
!
a;2,
32
310. Case III.
15
When
when x
arid
y can be interchanged
Equations of this kind may be solved by combining them in such a way as to obtain the values oi x\y and x y.
1.
x^y = 2. 15. xy =
4.
(1) (2)
x^
+ 2xy + y^=
(3)
Adding
(1)
and
(3),
Whence,
Subtracting (3) from (1),
= 2 8 = 10 or  6. = 5 or 3. x 2 y = 2 =F 8 =  6 or 10.
a;
?/
Whence,
=r
3 or
3,
5.
The
solution
is
cc
5,
=S;
or,
5.
290
In subtracting
ALGEBRA
8 from
2,
we have
8, in
ever
is
changed
T and T
,
to
when, ;
the symmetrical
(The above equations may also be solved by the method method is shorter and neater.)
^2
of
Case II
but
2.
Multiply (2) by
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Add
(1)
and
(3),
x^
x^
+ 2xy + 2xy
\
Add
(4)
and
(5),
= S6, y^ = 6i, =6 2
y^
a;
Whence,
Subtract (5) from (4),
a;
2y
2^
=Q. or x  y =8.  6 8. 8, or 1, 1, or 7. = 7, = 6 T 8, or  6 T 8.
or x'+ y
(5)
Whence,
= 1,
=
1,
7,
7,
or
1.
The
solution
is
ic^
7,
2/
= q= 1
or,
=T
7.
Certain examples in which one equation is of the third degree, and the other of the first or second, may be solved by the method of Case III.
3.
(a^f
i
,
=56.
(1)
xy = 2.
= ^. Sxy = 24, or xy = 8. (2), x^ + 2 xy + y^ = 36, or x + y = 6. 23c = 26 = 8 or 4. = 4 or 2. 2y = 62 = 4orS. (6), y = 2 or 4. x = 4, y = 2 or, x = 2, y = i.
x"^
(3)
(4) (5) (6)
Squaring (3)
2 xy
^
y"^
Add
(2) (3)
and
and
(5),
(6),
Add
Whence,
Subtract (3) from
cc
Whence,
The
(If
'
solution
is
we
it
becomes
y^
x^
56, or
x^
56,
which
is
291
Thus, the equation (1) is not symmetrical with respect to x and y but method of Case III may often be used when either or both of the given equations are symmetrical, except with respect to the signs of the terms.)
the
We may
certain equations which are not symmetrical with respect to x and y\ as, for example, the equations
cc
2
2/
=  4.
EXERCISE
143
:
+ / = 29.
=3.
10.
x'xy^y^ = a^ +
3b'\
X +2/
2.
3.
11.
4.
xy
5.
= 12. = 7.
m:
I
2/2
71^
\n=ll.
a^2/3^35^
ix^\xy\y^
ar^2/3
6.
a^
Xx
\
\
16.
+ 92/' = 50. a;3?/ = 0. xy = 16. 2 + = 14. 36a^464/ = 85. 6 + 8 = 11. = 189. 0)38 2y =9.
a;
2/ a; 2/
2/^
a;
When each equation is of the second degree, 311. Case IV. and homogeneous; that is, ichen each term involving the uyiknown numbers is of the second degree with respect to them ( 65).
292
Certain equations of (See Exs.
of Case
I
tliis
ALGEBRA
form
308,
may
and
or Case III.
1,
2,
The method
be solved by Cases
or III.
Ex.
{x'2xp =5.
I
(1)
x2
+ / = 29.
293
12 X
= 0,
ic2
y=12x;
4
substituting in (1),
24 x2
5,
or x^
= 
5
Then,
x=
i,
V5
and
?/
=  12 = =F 
a:
V6
EXERCISE
144
2.
5.
+ 3x?/ = 5. l2a;?// = 24. 5a^y^ = 9. [xy3y^ = 90. (x' + xy + y' = 19. 2x' + xy =2. Aa^_xyy^ = 16. Sxy + y^ = 2S.
^
a;2
'
= 41. = 5S. [x''5xy + Sy^ 2x'\7 xy {4.y' = 2. [Sx' + Sxy 4.y' = 72.
raj2_2a^2/_42/2
(
,.
10.
[5x'3xy72y' = SS.
of
Simultaneous Equa
No
general rules can be given for examples which do not just considered; various artifices are
i
[
xy xy^ = 6.
^
^f = 19. ^
3
cc2y
(1)
/n
{^)
18.
l.
Multiply (2) by
= xy'^
(3)
Z xy^
y^ =
xy
= 1. = 6.
we
find x
(4)^
(5)
and
= 2;
or,
=
(5)
by
S,
2,
=B.
294
^
2.
r.
1 ,
.
ALGEBRA
(
i
[
af{y^
= 9xy. = 6. x\y
9(^2
 ^2)
(i)
Putting w
3 in (1),
54
18
Whence,
Therefore,
and
The
solution
is
= 4,
x= u = =2 y
2/
;
i(
^2
w
or,
2,
i.
artifice of substituting + v and w v for cc and ?/ is advantageous any case where the given equations are symmetrical ( 310) with See also Ex. 4. respect to x and y.
The
in
'
3.
\
[
xy = 6.
(2)
(3)
Multiplying (2) by
Add
Or,
(1)
and
(3),
^
2 x
Then,
,
(x
+ ?/)
?/
(4)
x2
4,
a;^/
?/2
= 25
=24.
or 49.
4xy
x^2xy + y^=l
and
or 25.
Whence,
Adding
(4)
(5),
Whence,
Subtracting (5) from (4),
Whence,
2/
The solution is.x=3, yz=2; x=2, ?/=3; x=l, y=6', or x=6, = ~l.
4.
[x fy
= 1.
295
or 2 m*
2z<
12
wV + 2 = 97,
tj*
(1)
and
") = !, (?t + v) + (w
= 1,
or u
+ 2v^ = 97.
^^^
^,
Solving
this,
^,2
= 25
4
^j.
_31
4
= i^
2
2,
or
V31
Then,
a;
+ v = l,
or
^^ ^ =
3,
3, or
and,
yu. = \T\or\^
solution
is
a;
^ = _
3, 2,
or
The
y
= 2,
?/
31
1
81
y = 2; x^  1 + V^sT
296
ALGEBRA
14.
ar
12.
xy
2/
X
a;42/
15.
= 35.
. ^
16.
I
13.
3x22/=13.
"(
18.
x + y = S{ab),
+ 2y 3a;2^
3a;
3a;2y ^41
'y~^'x~~^'
*
=6a
19.
xy
.x\y
= 5 axy.
'3af\3y^
27.
= 10xy.
^ + 4 = l^'' ar
20.
y^
+ xy = 3
1+1=1. 6
ic
2/
^y + y^x = 42.
28.
^
62
+ =  a.

21.
22.
23.
r
25.
+ 9^2 _^4e = 9. = 2. ei + 2 a^ + 2/3^2a^. + 24a. + xy^ = 2a^ 8a. V2x V2a^9 = Sy\6. I 17/ = aj25. Sa^xy xz = 5x2y = l. 4:X\Sz = 5. x^y 4 xy^ = 56. + = l.
^
a;^^/ 4:,
30.
LX
2y^
fgs3s2 = 27.
y^\4:Xy~3y = 4:2.
xy + 5y = 10,
i2/
3,.{
a;4fa;y
j32.*
= 2.
33.
'9a^13ajy3a;=123.
a^2/+4 2/2+2 2/=125.
a;
2/
* Divide the
first
297
39.
xy(xy) = 9.
xy (x y)
(x^\y^
= 20.
35.
 + xy + 4 y^
or
= 44.
40.
l^i = 12.
xy
y^
41.
36.
37
42.
OCpy
+ = 211. x + y = l. X = 6, ^ = 12.
2/^
11
01?
1
y^
^ a'\a^h^+h\
a^W
a^h^
38
I (x
43.
.
xy
cc^
xy
y^
PROBLEMS
1.
IN
PHYSICS
From
g.
the equations
v = gt
and
of
S and
2.
From
the equations
t.
(7
V =
and
find
in
terms of C, B, and
3.
find
and v
= af,
EXERCISE
^r^^
146
1. The difference of the squares of two numbers is 56, and the difference of the numbers is  their sum. Find the numbers.
2.
The sum
and the
298
3. is 21,
ALGEBRA
The product
of the
sum
of
of their difference
4.
The sum
of the cubes of
two numbers
224
and
if
the
product of the numbers be subtracted from the Find the numbers. squares, the remainder is 28.
5.
sum
of their
Two numbers
reverse order.
the
sum
are expressed by the same two digits in of the numbers equals the square of of the digits, and the difference of the numbers equals
The sum
6. The square of the sum of two numbers exceeds their product by 84 and the sum of the numbers, plus the square root of their product, equals 14. Find the numbers.
;
7.
The
two numbers
is
342
and
the product of the numbers be multiplied by their difference, the result is 42. Find the numbers.
if 8. Had there been party at a hotel spent a certain sum. 5 more, and each had spent 50 cents less, the bill would have been $24.75. Had there been 3 fewer, and each had spent 50 cents more, the bill would have been $9.75. How many
interest of $700, for a certain number of If the time were 4 years less, years, at a certain rate, is $ 182. and the rate li% more, the interest would be $ 133. Find the
The simple
rate.
If the digits of a number of two figures be inverted, the quotient of this number by the given number is If, and their product 1008. Find the number.
11.
The square
of the smaller of
to twice
their product, gives 7 times the smaller number and the square of the greater exceeds the product of the numbers by 6 times
A rectangular
when
and onetwelfth in its width. If the area is diminished by 12 square feet, and the length of the four sides by 6J^ feet, find the original dimensions.
in its length,
299
rates,
and
travel
from
to Q, 14 miles, at
uniform
taking onethird of an hour longer than A. to perform the On the return, each travels one mile an hour faster, journey.
and
B now
Find
A and B
minutes.
and
B winning by two speed by two miles an hour, diminishes his by the same amount, and A wins by two
run a race of two miles,
inct'eases his
now
minutes.
15.
rates.
A man ascends
half mile an hour less than his rate during the first half, and On the descent, his rate is one reaches the top in 3J hours.
first
and he accomplishes it in 2i hours. Find the distance to the top, and his rate during the first half of the ascent.
16.
The square
number
of three
The digits exceeds twice the sum of the first and third by 3. sum of the first and second digits exceeds 4 times the third by 1 and if 495 be subtracted from the number, the digits will be
;
inverted.
17.
ship has provisions for 36 days. If the crew were 16 and the daily ration onehalf pound less, the provisions greater, would last 30 days if the crew were 2 fewer, and the daily Find the ration one pound greater, they would last 24 days. number of men, and the daily ration.
;
lends f 2100 in two amounts, at different rates of and the two sums produce equal returns. If the first interest, portion had been loaned at the second rate, it would have produced $48; and if the second portion had been loaned at the first rate, it would have produced $ 27. Find the rates.
18. 19. A can do a piece of work in 2 hours less time than B and together they can do the work in l^ hours less time than A alone. How long does each alone take to do the work ?
;
A man
300
ALGEBRA
x^{y'^
= 25.
This means that, for any point on the graph, the square of the abscissa,
plus the square of the ordinate, equals 25. But the square of the abscissa of any point,
plus the square of the ordinate, equals the square of the distance of the point from the
for the distance is the hypotenuse of a right triangle, whose other two sides are the
origin
;
abscissa
and ordinate.
of Then, the square of the distance from any point on the graph is 25 or, the distance of any point on the graph is 5. from Thus, the graph is a circle of radius 5, having
;
its
centre at 0.
^j
a;^
y2
is
circle.)
2/^
= 4 + 4.
a?
IfrK=^0,
If If
= 1, x = \,
X
?/2
= 4, = 8,
=Q.
or
?/=2.
{A, B)
(O,
ov y
2 V2.
D)
(E)
etc.
YT.
If X is negative, and 1, i/2 is negative, and therefore y imaginary ; then, no part of the graph lies to the left of E.
<
2^.
of the
is
y^
is
The graphs
3.
of 303
+ 4 = 4.
?/^
In this case, it is convenient to first locate the points where the graph intersects the axes.
If
2/
= 0,
x2
= 4,
or
a;
= 2.
301
;
< <
then,
>
then,
of the 4.
is
an
c.)
oc^
2y = l.
Here, x2
If
 1 = 2 ^^
or y^
= ^^^
2/2=0, or y=0. {A, A') X has any value between 1 and 1, y^ is negative, and y imaginary. Then, no part of the graph lies between A and A'.
x=l,
If
li
x=2, y^=l,
or y
= 'yM^
(B,C,B',C')
each of which extends
an
of the
EXERCISE
Plot the graphs of the following
1.
147
:
xy
= Q.
3. 4.
:^{y^
2/2
=L
of
5.
4aj24.9/=36.
2.
x'^^^y.
= 5a;l.
6.
4a;2_^2^_4
of
Solutions
Simultaneous
= 4:X. {3x y = o.
y^
of 3 x
and
J5,
A and
;
B,
we proceed x
as in 184
that
is
is,
we
The
solution
= 1,
=2
or,
= , y=
^
( 309).
302
It
ALGEBRA
may be
verified in the figure that these are the coordinates of
A and
B, respectively.
Hence, if any two graphs intersect, the coordinates of any point of intersection form a solution of the set of equations represented
by the graphs.
2.
The graph of is the circle y'^ AD, whose centre is at 0, and radius VlT. The graph of xy = 4 is a hyperbola,
having
its
+ f = 17. xy = =n x^ +
4:.
XOY
Y'.
and intersecting the circle at the points A and B in angle XO F, and at the points C and D in angle X'
and X'OT,
The
ic
is (
310),
= 4,
may
= !; x=l,
i/
= 4;
cc
1,
?/=
4;
and
ic
= 4, y = l.
It
C,
and D,
EXERCISE
148
Find the graphs of the following sets of equations, and in each case verify the principle of 315
:
ra;2 442/2 = 4. x y 1.
9a^f/=148.
2a;2f.5/^53.
xy=S.
ic2
3aj2_42/2=24.
r
X^Ay=7.
[ 2
4.
ic 13
=4. 2/
+ = 29. xy = 10.
2/2
x'
+ f==is. 92/ = 6.
316.
1.
r
= 4. = 5. [2x + 3y
0^2142/^
(1) (2)
ellipse
is
the
CD.
303
we
3y5
Substituting in (1),
9 y^
30 y
25
+4
?/
?/2
= 4.
?/
Then,
25
^/^
+ 30 y +
= 0,
or (5
3)(5
+
?/
3)
is
= 0. q 5
and x =
is
O '
The
to
it.
line
common
with the
ellipse,
and
tangent
Then, if
 =  9. x2y = ~2.
a;2
2/2
(1)
The graph
having
its
of 9
a;^
1/2
=9
is
a hyperbola,
re
spectively.
The graph
2y =
'l
is
AB. To
a;
= 2?/ 2
Then,
we
substitute
9(4
y2_
?/
or
35 ^2
72 ^
+ 4)?/2 = 9, + 45 = 0.
This equation has imaginary roots, which shows that the line does not
intersect the hyperbola.
In general, if
of the
graphs do not
intersect.
Exercise
i49
Find the graphs of the following sets of equations, and in each case verify the principles of 316
:
p^f
2/2
= 4.
3
I
^^.^ =
9.
y
2.
l5a;4.'?/ = 9.
x+
2y = 2.
'
l2i/23a: = 5.
304
ALGEBRA
XXIII.
317. A variable mimher, or simply a variable, is a number which may assume, under the conditions imposed upon it, an
indefinitely great number of different values. constant is a number which remains unchanged throughout the same discussion.
318.
limit of
a variable
is
towards Suppose, for example, that a point moves from under the condition that it shall move, during successive
first
f
from A to C, halfway between ^ L__L__f A and 5 then to D, halfway between C and B then to E, halfway between D and B and so on indefinitely. In this case, the distance between the moving point and B can be made less than any assigned number, however small. Hence, the distance from A to the moving point is a variable which approaches the constant value AB as a limit. Again, the distance from the moving point to 5 is a variable which approaches the limit 0.
;
319. Interpretation
of 
preceding denominator. It is evident that, by sufficiently continuing the series, the denominator may be made less than any assigned number,
however small, and the value of the fraction greater than any assigned number, however great.
305
If the numerator of a fraction remains constant, while the denominator approaches the limit 0, the value of the fraction
increases without
It is
liinit.
:
a
The symbol
simply stands for that which
oo
is
called Infinity
it
is
greater than any number, however great, and has no fixed value,
320. Interpretation of
GO
ceding denominator. It is evident that, by sufficiently continuing the series, the denominator may be made greater than any assigned number,
however
great,
less
than any
In other words.
If the numerator of a fraction remains constant, while the denominator increases without limit, the value of the fraction
approaches the limit
It is
0.
:
= 0.
321.
No
literal
= 00,
or
a  = 0;
p,
00
is
number.
306
ALGEBRA
THE PROBLEM OF THE COURIERS
322.
The following
form
The Problem
couriers, A and B, are travelling along the same road in. and n miles an hour, the same direction, RR', at the rates of If at any time, say 12 o'clock, is at P, and B respectively.
Two
a miles beyond him at Q, after how many hours, and many miles beyond P, are they together ?
is
how
B
I
P
J
Q 1
RI
Let
and
meet x hours
after 12 o'clock,
and y miles
beyond P.
They
Since
will then
^^^
we
,
obtain
mn
and y =
7i
This agrees with the hypothesis made for if m is greater than w, A is travelling faster than B and he must overtake
; ;
him
at
m <n.
12, at
In this case, the values of x and y are negative. This means that the couriers met at some time before some point to the left of P. (Compare 16.)
307
is less than This agrees with the hypothesis made for if A is travelling more slowly than B and they mnst have been together before 12 o'clock, and before they could have advanced as far as P.
71,
;
3.
a=
0,
and
m>n
or
m<n.
and y = 0. In this case, x = This means that the travellers are together at 12 o'clock, at
the point P.
This agrees with the hypothesis made for if a = 0, and m and n are unequal, the couriers are together at 12 o'clock, and are travelling at unequal rates and they could not have been together before 12, and will not be together afterwards.
; ;
4.
m=
71,
0.
respectively. It n approaches the limit 0, the values of x and y increase without limit ( 319) hence, if 7i, no fixed values can be
m=
assigned to x
and
y,
is
impossible.
indicates that the giveri
In this
form 
problem is impossible. This agrees with the hypothesis made for if m n, and a is not zero, the couriers are a miles apart at 12 o'clock, and are
;
m = n,
0.
In
If a = 0, and m = n, the couriers are together at 12 o'clock, and travelling at the same rate. Hence, they always have been, and always will be, together.
In this
for
case, the
number
of solutions
is
indefinitely great
value of
In this
form 
number
of solutions
indejinitely great.
808
ALGEBRA
We shall consider in the present chapter the solution of indeterminate linear equations, in which the unknown numbers
are restricted to positive integral values.
Solve 7 cc 4 5
5,
2/
= 118
23
in positive integers.
Dividing by
+ ^+y =
+ ;
or,
^J^=2^xy.
x and y must be positive
inte
Since, 2 x
gers,
by the conditions
3
of the problem,
must be an
5
this integer
integer.
Let
be represented by p.
Then,
Dividing (l) by
Since x and
JO ^^
^^~^ =
5
2,
p,
or2x3 = 5p.
2
i?
(1)
1 i=
+
or,
12p= ^^.
integer
;
are integers, x
integer.
1 2j3isan
and therefore
4 1
must be an
this integer
Let
be represented by
q.
Then,
Substituting in (1),
^^ = q,
2x
or
p = 2q 1.
5.
3=
10 ^
Whence,
xhq\.
(2)
INDETERMINATE EQUATIoSiS
Substituting this value in the given equation,
309
35 g
5y
118
or,
25
7 g.
(3)
Equations (2) and (3) form the general solution in integers of the
given equation.
By
giving to q the value zero, or any positive or negative integer, we x and y which satisfy the given
zero, or
equation.
any negative integer, x will be negative. any positive integer >3, y will be negative. Hence, the only positive integral values of x and y which given equation are those obtained from the values 1, 2, 3 of g.
If
is
If
is
satisfy the
That
2.
is,
a;
4,
18
9,
11
and x
14, y
= 4.
Solve 5 x
5,
7 = 11
?/
Dividing by
Then,
^
I
must be an
integer.
Let ?J^^
5
=p
2,
or,
?/
5;).
Dividing by
i/+ = 2p+^;
integer.
or,
y2j) = ^=
Then, Let
"~
must be an
1
^~ =
or,
p=
g
1.
Then,
y^ 5;>1 ^ 10g +
5l
^^^_^^_
^
"}"
=7^ +
;
5.
The
3.
when ^=0
that
is,
a;=5, y =2.
In
dollars, halfdollars,
equal to
Let
the sum of $15 be paid with and dimes, the number of dimes being the number of dollars and halfdollars together ?
X
= number = number
of dollars,
halfdollars,
y = number of
and
of dimes.
310
By
,
^.
.
ALGEBRA
the conditions,
riOx+5?/+0=15O,
1
I
x^y =
?/
z.
(1)
Adding,
or,
11 x + 6 +^= l\x + Qy =
6,
150
150.
25.
2r,
(2)
Dividing by
5 X
++
6
;
2/
Then,
must be an
6
integer
or,
x must be a multiple of
6 j9,
6.
Let
Substitute in (2), Substitute in (1),
66;)
X =
where p
ij
is
an
integer.
The only
Then,
20 dimes
;
bp.
is
two
and
EXERCISE
150
:
2.
V
3. 4.
5.
6.
+ 52/ = 29. 7a; + 22/ = 39. 6a; + 292/ = 274. 4ic43l2/ = 473. 42 + 11 = 664. 10a. + 72/ = 297.
3a;
a; 2/
7.
8.
'
^^
+ 92/ = 15L 8 + 71 = 1933. 8ajll2/ + 2^ = 10. 2a;92/ + = 8. r3a^32/H7;3 = 101. U + 22/32 = 5.
23a;
cc
2/
f
2;
.'c
13.
"^
14.
15.
Sx^ly = 10.
16.
2/
In how many different ways can f 1.65 be paid with quarterdollars and dimes ?
17.
18. In how many different ways can 41 shillings be paid with halfcrowns, worth 2\ shillings each, and twoshilling
pieces ?
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS
J
19.
311
7,
respectively, whose numerators are the smallest possible positive integers, and whose difference is ^l.
20.
fiftycent,
twice the
number
twentyfive cent, and twentycent pieces, so that of fiftycent pieces, plus twice the number of
farmer purchased a certain number of pigs, sheep, and f 138. The pigs cost f 4 each, the sheep $ 7 each, and the calves $9 each; and the whole number of animals purchased was 23. How many of each did he buy ?
21.
calves for
22.
In
twentyfive
cent, twentycent, and fivecent pieces, so that 3 times the number of twentyfive cent pieces, plus 15 times the number of
312
ALGEBRA
is
the
is
it is
also expressed
h.
and
a and
b are positive
if
numbers, and
a>b, is
is
called a ratio
of greater inequality;
inequality.
is
<b,
it
326.
each of
iriequality is increased,
terms.
a>b,
to both
ax> bx.
members
( 192),
195)
Adding ab
ab
ax >ab\
bx, or a(b
\
x),
^>^^. b b +x
In like manner,
if
is
< 6,
'
< ^^^^.
bix
PROPORTION
327.
ratios.
Proportion
is
313
a:b and
d are equal
ratios,
a:o
is
= c:d,
or b
= .
d
a proportion.
328. In the proportion a:b
Jirst term,
and third terms of a proportion are called the anteand the second and fourth terms the co7iseqiients. cedents, The first and fourth terms are called the extremes, and the second and third terms the means.
first
The
called the
329. If the means of a proportion are equal, either mean is Mean Proportional between the first and last terms,
is
Thus, in the proportion a 6 = 6 c, 6 is the mean proportional between a and c, and c is the third proportional to a and b. The Fourth Proportional to three numbers is the fourth term of a proportion whose first three terms are the three numbers taken in their order.
:
= c:d,
is
and
c.
330.
Continued Proportion is a series of equal ratios, in is the same as the next antecedent j as,
a:b
PROPERTIES OF PROPORTIONS
331. In any proportion, the product of the extremes product of the means.
is
equal to
the
a:b
= c:d.
Then by
327,
a_c
Clearing of fractions,
b~d ad = be.
314
332.
ALGEBRA
From
a
the equation ad
be = ,
.
= be = ad,
deb
b
( 331),
we
obtain
.
= ad
and a
,
be =
That
is,
any proportion,
either extx^rne_eguals^thej^T^
tM^^duc^ofthejtxtrejimsdm^
331.) If the product of ttvo numbers be product of two others, one pair may be made the extremes, and the other pair the means, of a proportion.
333.
(Converse of
equal
to the
Let
T^
!
1
ad =
7
bc:
ad
1:7 bd
Dividing by
bd,
he = i^'
^^"
hd
a c = ;^7 b d
Whence, by [327j
In like manner, we
a:b = c:d.
may
prove that
a:
c:
= b: d, d = a:b,
c
etc.
nation
334. In any proportion, the terms are in proportion by Alterthat is, the means can be interchanged.
;
Then by 331,
Whence, by
changed.
333,
it
In like manner,
may
^;'\^^^'
sion
335. In any proportion, the terms are in projoortion by Inverthat is, th,e second term is to the first as the fourth term is
;
to the thirds
a:b
= c: d.
ad=bc.
Whence, by
333,
b:a = d:c.
315
as the extremes,
follows from 335 that, in any proportion, the and the extremes as the means.
336.
is
equal
to
a:b
b:c.
b
Then by
331,
b" = ac,
and
= Vac.
337. In ajiy proportion, the terms are in proportion by Composition; that is, the sum of the first two terms is to the first
term as the
sum of the
last
two terms
is to the
third term.
a:b
Then,
= c: d. ad = be.
or a(c
ad
= ac
a
be,
f
d)
c.
= c(a

b).
Then by
333,
a+
b
b
a
:
= c{d:
=c+
d
:
We may
that
also prove
d.
338. In any proportion, the terms are in proportion by Division; is, the difference of the first two terms is to the first term as
of the
last tivo
the difference
terms
:
is to the third
:
term.
Then,
Subtracting each
= c d. ad = be.
b
member
of the equation
from
ac,
Then,
We may
339.
also prove
=c
d.
I7i
any iwoportion,
;
Com
that
the
sum of
as the
sum of
a 6
:
difference.
=c d
:
316
ALGEBRA
Then by
337,
^^^
a
= ^.
c
(1) ^ ^
And by
338,
^^^ = ^^^^^
a
a
\b
(2),
c
c\
(2) ^
Dividing
(1)
by
Whence,
ab cd a\b: a b = c{d:c d.
340. In any propoHion, if the first two terms be multiplied by any number, as also the last two, the resulting numbers will be in
proportion.
b
;
=d
then,
^ = ^. mb
nd
or w may be unity that is, the terms of either ratio (Either multiplied without multiplying the terms of the other. )
may be
any proportion, if the first and third terms be multiplied by any number, as also the second and fourth terms, the proportion. resulting numbers will be
341.
I7i
=d
then,
T^^^T^,
nb
nd
342. In any number of proportions, the products of the corresponding terms are in proportion.
= ,
d'
and  = ^.
Multiplying,
343. In any proportion, like powers or like roots of the terms are in proportion.
317
=
then,
=_
T T1 In like manner,
Va = VC Vh ^d
ratios,
all the
any antecedent
is to the
is to its con
sum of
antecedents
sum of
all the
Let
Then by 331,
and
Also,
af=he.
ah
a{h{d\f)
= ha.
= h{a + c\e).
= a + c + e:& + d+/.
may
(333)
be proved for any number
Adding,
Whence,*
a:&
first is
is to the
a: b
=b
b
c; or
 = b
c
Then,
b^
first is
is to the
a: b
=b
= c: d;
= = bed
b^
.
Then,
^x^x^ = ^X^X^, b c d b b b
or^ d
= ^.
818
347. Examples.
1.
ALGEBRA
x:y =
mean
It
(x}zy: (y
y.
{
proportional
between x and
From
by
331,
Or
Transposing,
x'^y
^)2
a;^/^
ic?/;s
x^i^.
Dividing hy x
Therefore, z
is
y,
xy
= 0^.
the
mean
The theorem
of 339 saves
work
Regarding
this as a proportion,
division,
= 2a
6
3.
or
=
S
whence, x
=
a
Prove that
if
 = t, then b d
Let 6
==
d
x,
whence,
yir^2
6x
then,
3.2
^2
^2
_ 52 _ 3 ^(5
a^
52^2
_ 52 _ 3 52a; _
3 ^5
x'^
_1 3X d^
:
c2_^
d^
c;^
C2
_ 3c
d
c2
 ^2  3 c(^
d^^
Then,
62
a2
c^
c2  3 C(Z.
EXERCISE
1.
151
32.
first,
2. Find the third term of a proportion whose and fourth terms are 24, 32, and 20, respectively.
second,
3. 4.
319
1f.
4,
5f and
,
6.
7.
to a^
+8
and a +
2.
x\3
:
^q
'
^ 3x + 2
3a;2
^
i^I = I^l
4a;7
11.
'
5a3*
a;
12.
13.
in the ratio
4 to
3,
dif
15.
in the ratio
h,
such that,
:
if
each be
increased by
16.
is \7.^
n.
in continued proportion whose sum such that the quotient of the first by the second shall
be.
17.
6,
and
be added to each of the numbers a, so that the resulting numbers shall be in continued
proportion ?
18. Find a number such that, if it be subtracted from each term of the ratio 8 5, the result is ^Q of what it Avould have been if the same number had been added to each term.
:
320
19.
ALGEBRA
The second
of two numbers is the mean proportional beThe third number exceeds the sum of the other two. tween the other two by 20 and the sum of the first and third exceeds
;
If
8a 56:7
46 = 86 5c: 7 6 4
6.
prove
the
If
li
ma
qb = mc \nd:pc qd, prove a:b = c:d. y^ V/ prove y the mean x{y:y ]z = Vxr
{
nb pa
:
z^,
z.
24.
If 4 silver coins
as 2 gold coins, and 5 silver coins and 19 copper coins as much as 3 gold coins, find the ratio of the value of a gold coin, and the value of a silver coin, to the value of a copper coin.
TO If
a c  = , prove
6
25. 26.
3a446:3a46 = 3c + 4d:3c4d
a''5ab:2ab\^b^ = c'5cd:2cd + 7d^
a'
27.
28.
+ 6ab':a'bSb'=c' + 6cd':c'd8d^
A
of two vessels contains a mixture of wine and mixture consisting of equal measures from the two vessels is composed of wine and water in the ratio 3:4; another mixture consisting of 2 measures from the first and 3 measures
Each
water.
from the second, is composed of wine and water in the Find the ratio of wine to water in each vessel. 3.
:
ratio
VARIATION
321
J^XXVI. VARIATION
348. One variable number ( 317) is said to vary directly as another when the ratio of any two values of the first equals
the ratio of the corresponding values of the second.
It is
number
Thus,
workman
number
of dollars per
will be to the
m days
Then, the ratio of any two numbers of dollars received equals the ratio of the corresponding numbers of days worked. Hence, the number of dollars which the workman receives
varies as the
number
of days during
which he works.
a ccb
is
is
read
^^
read
is said to vary inversely as another varies directly as the reciprocal of the second. Thus, the number of hours in which a railway train will traverse a fixed route varies inversely as the speed; if the
when
its
route in onehalf
number
of hours.
is
said to vary as
when
varies directly as their product. Thus, the number of dollars received by a workman in a certain number of days varies jointly as the number which he
it
works.
352. One variable number is said to vary directly as a second and inversely as a third, when it varies jointly as the second and the reciprocal of the third.
322
ALGEBRA
of matter,
Thus, the attraction of a body varies directly as the amount and inversely as the square of the distance.
353. If XQC
y,
then
Let
X and
x'
y,
and y' denote a fixed pair of corresponding values of and x and y any other pair.
'
By J
= 7;
y"
01. '
= ,y.
y'^
y
x'
,
by m, we have
x = my.
354. It follows from 350, 351, 352, and 353 that
1. 2.
3.
:
If X varies inversely as
y,
x=
z,
x = myz.
Zj
x=
my
yt^nz,
then xc^z.
x = my.
(1)
Substituting in
(1),
Whence, by
353,
is constant,
is
constant,
and
z vary.
Let
y'
and
z'
respectively,
when x
x'.
Let y be changed from y' to y", z remaining constantly equal z', and let x be changed in consequence from a;' to X.
Then by 348,
^=^.
(1)
Now
let z
equal to y'\
and
be changed from z' to z", y remaining constantly let x be changed in consequence from to oj".
VARIATION
Then,
323
=i
(2),
(2)
Multiplying (1) by
^=y 15.
X
z
(3)
Now
z
if
both changes are made, that is, y from y' to 2/" and is changed from a;' to x'\ and yz is changed
Then by
(3),
by
348, xccyz.
The following is an illustration of the above theorem It is known, by Geometry, that the area of a triangle varies as the base when the altitude is constant, and as the altitude when the base is constant hence, when both base and altitude vary, the area varies as
:
their product.
357. Problems.
variation into an equation
1.
Problems in variation are readily solved by converting the by aid of 353 or 354.
If
cc
varies inversely as y,
= S,
find
the value of x
If
when y =
y,
lS.
X varies inversely as
x
9
= =8
18,
,
( 354).
Putting X
=9
;
and
?/
= 8,
if
or
m = 72.
Then,
2.
a;
=
y
and,
a;
= = 4.
18
Given that the area of a triangle varies jointly as its base what will be the base of a triangle whose altitude is 12, equivalent to the sum of two triangles whose bases are 10 and 6, and altitudes 3 and 9, respectively ?
and
altitude,
any
Let B, H, and A denote the base, altitude, and area, respectively, of triangle, and B' the base of the required triangle.
Since
A varies jointly m
as
and H,
A = niBH ( 354). is m x 10 x 3, or
is
30 m, and the
30
w+
54 m, or 84 m.
324
ALGEBRA
is
also
y.
B' x
12.
mB' =
84:m, or B'
=7.
EXERCISE
1. li yccx, and x equals 6 value of y when x equals 8 ?
152
when y
is
the
2. is
If
X varies inversely as
y,
the value of y
3.
when
ic
=f?
= %, what
If
?/
cc z^,
= 10, what is =
the value of
y in terms of
4.
z^ ?
and
2/
= ,
If
If z varies jointly as x and y, and equals  what is the value of z when a;  and y
a?
when
a;
= ^?
5.
varies directly as y
2;
= 64, what
a;
and inversely as
is
z,
the value of x
when
If
a;
a;'^
X 2/^
and
=4
when
2/
= 4,
what
is
when
7.
the value of y

?
is
If 5
value of X
the
8. The surface of a cube varies as the square of its edge. If the surface of a cube whose edge is J feet is ^^ square feet, what will be the edge of a cube whose surface is square feet ?
^^
9.
If 5
men
in 6 days earn
;
$ 57,
will
it
take
4 men to earn $ 76
being given that the amount earned varies jointly as the number of men, and the number of days
it
The
square of the time during which it falls. If it falls 579 feet in 6 seconds, how long will it take to fall 402^2 ^^* ^
'
VARIATIOlSr
12.
325
circular plate of lead, 17 inches in diameter, is melted circular plates of the same thickness.
of the plates are 8
tively, find the diameter of the other; it being given that the area of a circle varies as the square of its diameter.
If y equals the sum of two numbers which vary directly and inversely as x, respectively, and ?/ equals 53 when X equals 3, and ^^ when x equals 2, what is the value of y when x equals J ?
13.
as 0?
If X equals the sum of two numbers, one of which varies 45 when directly as y'^ and the other inversely as z^, and a? 2 and 2! and z and a; 40 when y find the value l, y==l 3,
14.
of y
when
a;
= = 37
= and 2 = 1.
15.
is
If y equals the
constant,
tively,
sum of three numbers, the first of which and the second and third vary as x^ and a?, respecand ?/ = 50 when = 2, 30 when x = 2, and 110
when
16.
a;
= 3,
The volume
ness and the square of the radius of its face. Two coins whose thicknesses are 5 and 7 units, and radii of faces 60 and 30
units, respectively, are melted and formed into 100 coins, each 3 units thick. Find the radius of the face of the new coin.
17.
its
The weight
if solid.
Find its diameter, it being given that the weight volume of a sphere varies as the cube of its diameter.
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
1. When the force which stretches a spring, a straight wire, any elastic body is varied, it is found that the displacement produced in the body is always directly proportional to the force which acts upon it; i.e., if d^ and dg represent any two displacements, and /^ and /g respectively the forces which produce them, then the algebraic statement of the above law is
or
^^k
(1)
326
ALGEBRA
pounds stretches a given wire .01 inch, how 20 pounds stretch the same w^ire ?
If a force of 2
much
will a force of
2. If the same force is applied to two wires of the same length and material, but of different diameters, D^ and Dg, then the displacements d^ and d^ are found to be inversely propor
i.e.,
.5
millimeter
in diameter through 1 millimeter, how much elongation will the same weight produce in a wire 1.5 millimeters in diameter ?
3. If the same force is applied to two wires of the same diameter and material, but of different lengths, li and l^, then it is
found that
=
7'
(3)
Prom (1), (2), and (3) and 356, it follows that diameters, and forces are all different,
when lengths,
^ = = X  X ^^'
^2
(4)
J2
^2
J^\
If a force of 1
pound
will stretch
.5
is
is
what force
?
millimeter
4.
When
is
is
constant, its
is
found
volume which
the gas
subjected,
i.e.,
algebraically stated,
Yi = ?^.
At the bottom
(5)
of a lake 30 meters deep, where the pressure 4000 grams per square centimeter, a bubble of air has a volume of 1 cubic centimeter as it escapes from a diver's suit. To what volume will it have expanded when it reaches the surface where the atmospheric pressure is about 1000 grams per square
is
centimeter ?
VARIATION
5.
327
The
length and inversely as its area. If a copper wire 1 centimeter in diameter has a resistance of 1 unit per mile, how many units
of resistance will a copper wire have which is and 3 millimeters in diameter?
6.
The
illumination from a source of light varies inversely from the source. book which
now 10
is
moved 15 inches
farther
away.
7.
How much
The period
of vibration of a
pendulum
is
found to vary
directly as the square root of its length. If a pendulum 1 meter long ticks seconds, what will be the period of vibration of a
The
force with
which the earth pulls on any body outfound to vary inversely as the square of
center.
its
4000 miles from the center, what would a pound weight weigh 15,000 miles from the earth ?
9.
The number
of vibrations
a guitar
inversely proportional
and directly proportional to the square root of If a string 3 feet long, the force with which it is stretched.
stretched with a force of 20 pounds, vibrates 400 times per second, find the number of vibrations made by a string 1 foot
long, stretched
by a force
of
40 pounds.
GRAPHS IN PHYSICS
1.
When
his
man
The
d
is
to
is
^ = S
a^
2
= ms.
(See
353.)
328
ALGEBRA
if
plot successive values of the distance, d, which correspond to various speeds, s, in precisely the same manner in which we plotted successive
Now,
we
values of x and
(See Fig.
is
1.)
This
the graj^h
of any direct
Fig.
1.
proportion.
2.
of gas occupies when the varies has been found to be subjected inversely proportional to the pressure under which the gas stands; we have seen that the algebraic statement of this
pressure to which
relation
is
If
we
^
= ~'
Fand
cated in
181,
we obtain a graph
of the form
This
is
called
3.
an
equilateral hyperbola.
When a body is thrown horizontally from the top of a tower, if it were not for gravity, it would move on in a
horizontal direction indefinitely, traversing exactly the same distance in
"
r=i,
V=2,
v=F=4,
number
of seconds,
t,
by the equation
H=
would be given
Vt.
VARIATION
329
On account of gravity, however, the body is pulled downward, and traverses in this direction in any number of seconds a distance which is given by the equation S ^gt^. To find the actual path taken by the body, we have only to
and S, in the manner in plot successive values of the successive values of x and y, in 181. plotted
which we
is
= g xl^ = g,
at the
at the
= lgx2' = ^g',
2^
2
'
g;
at the
end of 4 seconds,
/S^
?x4^
at
f,
etc.
On
of 1 second
we have Hi=V',
the end of 2 seconds, ITg 2 F; at the end of 3 seconds, ^3 3 F; 4 at the end of 4 seconds, ^4
= = F
If,
values of
graph shown
This
is
is
in Fig. 3.
it
a parabola.
4.
Graph of
Fig.
3.
temperature and pressure existing within an airtight boiler containing only water and water vapor.
of graphs in physics is to express a relation which found by experiment to exist between two quantities, which cannot be represented by any simple algebraic equation.
is
One use
For example, when the temperature of an which contains only water and water vapor is
sure within the boiler increases also
;
airtight boiler
raised, the pres
experiment that when the temperature of the boiler is 0 centigrade, the pressure which the vapor exerts will support a
column of mercury
330
ALGEBRA
the temperature
9.1
is
When
rises to
millimeters;
etc.
at 30 the
meters long,
we
X in
in 181
we
obtain the
graph shown
in Fig. 4.
From
this
at once the pressure which will exist within the boiler at any
temperature.
For example,
tigrade,
pressure at 75 cen
through 75
cuts
line which passes the curve and then run a horizontal line
from
This point
this point to the point of intersection with the line OP. is found to be at 288 hence the pressure within
;
is
288 millimeters.
PROGRESSIONS
331
XXVII.
PROGRESSIONS
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION
358. An Arithmetic Progression is a series of terms in which each term, after the first, is obtained by adding to the preceding term a constant
number
called the
is
Common
Difference.
Thus,
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11,
an arithmetic progression in
2^
is
An
Arithmetic Progression
is
also called
an Arithmetic Senes.
359.
Given
member of
the first term, a, the common difference, d, terms, n, to find the last term, I.
is a,
and
the
The progression
a{d, a\2 d,
a+3
c?,
observe that the coefficient of d in any term than the number of the term.
We
is less
by 1
coefficient of
d will be n
1.
(I)
That
360.
terms,
is,
= a\{nl)d.
I,
Given
and
the
number of
7i,
to find the
sum of
the teims, S.
S = a + {a^d)^{a+2d)\'" + ild){L
Writing the terms in reverse order,
S = l+{ld) + {l2d) +
'"
+ {a + d)^a.
from
(I),
we have
[2a
+ (nl)d].
332
362. Ex.
Ill
ALGEBRA
the progression ^,5, 2, term and the sum.
a
? (^
1, 4,
.,
to
27
Substitute in (II),
70.
The common
from
tlie
difference may be found by subtracting the second, or any term from the next following term.
first
term
EXERCISE
153
last
4, 9, 14,
3.
...
to 14 terms.
2.
...
9, 2,
5,
...
to 16 terms.
to 15 terms.
4.
5. I, i,
y,
3,
...
to 13 terms.
6.
i,
7.
to 18 terms.
, f, fj,
to 17 terms.
8
9.
...
to 27 terms.
to 52 terms.
10.
^,
6'
' ^^2/,
...to 9 terms.
363. The
term,
first term,
common
difference,
and sum of
the terms,
are
progression. If any three of the five elements of an arithmetic progression are given, the other two may be found by substituting the
known
values in the fundamental formulae (I) and (II), and solving the resulting equations.
1.
Given a
= ,
n = 20,
/iS
=f
find d
and
I.
^^lof5+zV orl::.^+Z; 3 6 3 3 V y
'
then, '
= ^l =
3
^.
PROGRESSIONS
values of a, w, and 3 in (I), 2
333
5 = +
Substituting
tlie
19d.
Whence,
2.
'
19 d
=  + ^ = ^5^,
2 3
and
c?
=i.
6
Given d = 3,
= 39,
39
/S'
= 264;
 1)( 3),
in (II)
,
find a
or a
and
3w
n.
42.
Substituting in (I),
Substituting
tlie
=
I,
a
S,
(w
=
_
(1)
values of
39), or
and a
 264 =
,,
(3
 42 n
 528 = 3 n^ _ 81
704
n, or n^
27 w
176
= 0.
Whence,
'
= 27 \/729
2
=!^ = 27 i 5 = . 16
or 11. or
11.
Substituting in (1), a
=
w
48
16
42 or 33
;
42
9,
=6
w
 9.
The The
If
solution
is
6,
or,
=
:
significance of the
two answers
is
as follows
3, 0,
=6
=
and n
= 16,
ri
the progression
is 6,
3,
6,
9,
12,
9 and
9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39.
In each of these the sum
3:
is
264.
Given a=^, d
Z
= ^^y ^ = 
= +
I
(71
find
and
n.
Substituting in (I),
1)
(
I
^)
^.
''
(1)
in (II),
=i(h^)'
Whence,
^
''
^936=o.
_3^
of terms in a
'="('12^)'
^^ 2 2
^ 9 ^ VsTTlii ^ 9^15 ^ ,,
The value w
number
w=12
in (1),
512
I
12
12
all
negative or fractional value of n must be rejected, together with other values dependent on it.
334
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
154
1.
Given d
Given
2. 3. 4. 5.
Given
Given
Given
Given
Given Given Given Given
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Given
Given
12. 13.
14.
15.
Given
Given Given
= S, = 115, = 15; find a and S. = 14, S = 616; find a and d = ~6, a =  69, n = 16, = 36 find d and S. = 2500; find d and a =8, m = 25, y, /S = 78 find d and = a=f = ^^, n = 13, /S = ^J^; find a and d = ^^^; find n and a = f, d = y%, a = f, = ^, ^ = f; fi^<i ^ ^.nd = ^, n = 55, = 165; find a and = ^, n = 24, /S = 241; find a and d. = \^ d = , /S = ^f^; find a and n. = ^; find d and a = f, = fi y> ^ = ^1, =  find d and a= = yf, = 3%, = find a and n. and a = V> d = l, S = ^; find
^
71
71
I.
>S'
?.
71.
>S'
Z.
>S.
cZ
>S'
I.
>S'
n.
/S"
?.
c?
/S'
^^^^;
71
Z.
364.
From
Given
is
(I)
and
(II), general
examples
Ex.
like the
above
may
^iS
;
a, d,
and
By
361, 2
S=n[2a + in
or dn^
(2 a
d)n
2S.
;
a quadratic in n, and may be solved by the method of 288 multiplying by 4 d, and adding (2 a d)^ to both members,
This
4 dH"^
4 d(2 a
d)n
(2 a
dy^
= 8 dS +
(2 a
dy.
2dn + 2a
d= V8 dS +
d)\.
(2 a
d)^.
Whence,
EXERCISE
1.
155
d.
Given
a,
I,
and n
PROGRESSIONS
2.
3.
335
for
Given
Given
a, n, d, n,
d and
I.
S
I
;
I.
4.
5.
a, d,
d,
I,
derive the formulae for n and S. derive the formulae for a and S.
I,
ti
6.
7.
n,
/S ^S
/S'
d.
a, d,
a,
I,
I.
8. 9.
Given
Given
derive the formulae for d and n. derive the formulae for a and n.
d,
I,
and
aS;
365.
Arithmetic Means.
define inserting arithmetic means between two given 2 b, as finding an arithmetic progression of
We
numbers, a and
terms, whose
m+
first
and
last
b.
Ex.
Insert 5 arithmetic
find
;
5.
=
3,
We = 5
substituting
terms, in which a
5 in (I),
and
6 = S\6d,
The progression
is 3,
or d
= ^o
So
,
^,
1,
I
^, So
5.
b.
Then,
x a = b~x,ov2x = a\b.
'
Whence,
That
is,
= ^^.
2
one
^^e arithmetic
1.
10.
2. 3.
means between
336
4.
5. 6.
ALGEBRA
Insert 8 arithmetic
Insert 5 arithmetic
means between
and
^.
i. 
find
How many
^^,
and
7.
when
two.
the
sum
of the second
last is
f?
b,
If
first
m arithmetic
the
and
 i^.
9.
(3
m + nf and
(m  3 nf.
367. Problems.
1.
The
359,
fifteenth
term
is f,
and the
By
(?,
and the
fifteenth
term a
+ Hd.
a+
Then by
the conditions,
]
5. =
,
3y, x
y,
\y,
and x\Sy.
PROGRESSIONS
EXERCISE
1.
337
157
is
The
fifth
^, and
of 7 ?
4.
their
sum
first
sum
of the sixth
term of an arithmetic progression is 1, and the and tenth terms is 37. Find the second and
third terms.
5.
is ,
The first term of an arithmetic progression of 11 terms and the seventh term 3. Find the sum of the terms.
In an arithmetic progression, the sum of the first and Find the is twoninths the sum of all the terms.
of terms.
6.
last
terms
number
7.
The seventh term of an arithmetic progression is 37, and the sum of the first 17 terms 799. Find the sum of the
first
13 terms.
8.
Find
five
numbers
the
sum
9.
of the
first,
in arithmetic progression such that fourth, and fifth is 14, and the quotient of
^.
?
How many
when
their
arithmetic
means
and
I,
sum
is
^j
10. If the constant difference of an arithmetic progression equals twice the first term, the quotient of the sum of the terms by the first term equals the square of the number of terms.
11.
is
to the
first
The sum of the first 10 terms of an arithmetic progression sum of the first 5 terms as 13 to 4. Find the ratio of
term to the common difference.
the
Find four numbers in arithmetic progression such that of the first and second shall be 1, and the product of the second and fourth 24.
12.
the
sum
338
13.
is
ALGEBRA
The last terra of an arithmetic progression The sum of the oddnumbered terms
is
of 10 terms
is
29.
to
the
first
sum
to 17.
Find the
day.
16.
of 9 terms, in
17.
Find the sum of the terms of an arithmetic progression which 17 is the middle term.
the square of the first added to the product of the other two gives 16, and the square of the second added to the product of the other two gives 14.
18. If a person saves $ 120 each year, and puts this sum at simple interest at 3% at the end of each year, to how much will his property amount at the end of 18 years ?
19.
traveller
first
7 miles the
out from a certain place, and goes hour, 7^ the second hour, 8 the third hour, After he has been gone 5 hours, another sets out,
sets
How many
A There are 12 equidistant balls in a straight line. starts from a position in line with the balls, and beyond person them, his distance from the first ball being the same as the distance between the balls, and picks them up in succession, He finds that he returning with each to his original position. has walked 780 feet. Find the distance between the balls.
20.
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
368. A Geometric Progression is a series of terms in which each term, after the first, is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant number called the Ratio.
PROGRESSIONS
Thus,
the ratio
2, 6, 18, 54,
is 3.
J,
339
162,
is
9, 3, 1, 1,
is
,^
3, 6,
the ratio
is
is
Geometric Progression
is also
369. Given the first term, a, the ratio, terms, n, to find the last term, L
r,
and
the
number of
The progression
observe that the exponent of r in any term than the number of the term.
We
is less
by 1
1.
(I)
That
370.
find the
is,
= a?"\
I,
Given
and
the ratio,
r, to
sum of the
terms, S.
\
S = a + ar + ar"^
rS = ar{
f
ar""'^
(1)
r,

ai^
\
\
ar""^
(2)
.
(2),
r8S = ar^a,
rl^ar\
/S
= ^^J~^
But by
(I),
369,
Therefore,
^ = r?J=i^.
T 1
(II)
The first term, ratio, number of terms, last term, are called the elements of the progression.
371. Examples.
1. In the progression term and the sum.
3, J,
J,
Here, a
^,
= ,
1.
340
ALGEBRA
I
Substituting in (I),
=
^()'=
^J__3
2186
3 8=
lxi_3 243
^
3~
= 729
729
~3
~3
^=^
1093
may be found by dividing the second term by the any term by the next preceding term.
The
ratio
first,
or
2.
last
2,
3,
6,
18,
Here, a
= 2,
Z
= S;
therefore,
31
~~ri
158
EXERCISE
Find the
1. 2.
3.
last
..
1,
2,
4,
f, f,
i,
^,
to 7 terms.
6,
3,
9,225', to 7 terms.
75,
to 5 terms.
15,
to 5 terms.
VS
...
to 8 terms.
4.
5.
9. 2, , 2%,
to 6 terms.
to 8 terms.
10. f,
,
...
372. If any three of the five elements of a geometric progression are given, the other two may be found by substituting the given values in the fundamental formulae (I) and (II), and
solving the resulting equations. But in certain cases the operation involves the solution of an
equation of a degree higher than the second and in others the unknown number appears as an exponent, the solution of which
;
effected
by the aid
of
logarithms ( 437). In all such cases in the present chapter, the equations be solved by inspection.
may
PROGRESSIONS
1.
341
and S.
Given a
= 2,
32
= 5, = 32^
l
;
find r
we have
2 r*
v^hence, r*
16, or r
2.
Substituting in (II),
If
r=
r
2,
^y
^ ^(
'^^)
(1
^) ==
64
+ 2=
62.
If
21
;
3
The
solution
is
2,
/S'
=
62
or, r
= 2, S = 22.
as follows
:
The
If
interpretation of the
2,
two answers
is is
is
r=
is is
62. 22.
If
r= 2,
2,
4,
8,
16,
2.
Given a
= S,
= ^, 8 = ^^^^,
find
and
?.
Substituting in (II),
^ _^ ~3~
=
7 ^
lz3
=
^.
_6560 "
729
Whence Whence,
9^560. +^"
729
r,
'
'
__ J_,
729
and
'
'
in (I) ,
_X = 3flVSor,
729
V
3/
flV^=^. 2187 V 3;
for the solution of
Whence, by inspection, w 1 = 7, or n = S. From (I) and (II) general formulae may be derived
cases like the above.
If the given elements are n, I, and S, equations for a and r found, but there are no definite formulce for their values. The same is the case when the given elements are a, w, and S.
may
be
EXERCISE
1.
159
Given
Given
2.
I.
342
3.
ALGEBRA
4.
5. 6.
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
= f4; find rand Given a = 3, r=^, = y^ find n and 8. Given r = 2, = 10, iS = iy^; find a and L = 7, = f find r and S. Given a = f = i = 2g*^, = fff; find r and w. Given a Givena = f, r = , >S = mf; find/andw. =  ^Q^^ find a and Given =  768, r = 4, Given a = , = 1458, >^= ^^^ find r and w.
Z
Givena = 6,n = 6,
/S.
71
/i
/S'
>S'
ti.
Given Given
Given
a, r,
a,
r,
I,
/S;
I.
12. 13.
14.
S
/S
r.
I,
a.
Given
r, n,
15.
16.
Given
Given
r,
n,
and
and
>S';
I.
a, n,
/iS.
373.
Sum
The
limit ( 318) to
decreas
ing geometric progression approaches, when the number of terms is indefinitely increased, is called the sum of the series
to infinity.
Formula
(II), 370,
may
^
be written
a rl
1r
It is evident that, by sufficiently continuing a decreasing geometric progression, the absolute value of the last term may be made less than any assigned number, however small. Hence, when the number of terms is indefinitely increased,
I,
and therefore
rl,
0.
^~^ 1 r
PROGRESSIONS
Therefore, the
infinity is
343
= ^. 1 r
series 4,
(Ill)
Ex.
,
^^ to infinity.
Here,
4,
3
r
Substituting in (III) ,
S=
^ = 5
1+1
EXERCISE
Find the sum
1
160
:
6,2,1,....
hU,U,^,^\,^^,
2.
12,3,1,....
'^lll... 4 _25 55 _
374.
7_3_15_
60
...
10
To find
is
the value
of a repeating decimal.
a case of finding the sum of a decreasing geometric series to infinity, and may be solved by formula (III).
This
Ex.
....
We have,
The terms
in
=
r
.8
.051
.00051
....
which a
and
=
S
.01.
Substituting in (III),
.051
.01
.051
.99
51
17
990
8
17
1
330
,
is
or
281
10
330
330
EXERCISE
Find the values
1.
161
of the following
3. 4.
.7272
....
.91777
....
5.
.23135135
.587474
....
2.
.629629
....
.75959
....
6.
344
375. Geometric Means.
ALGEBRA
We
a and whose
define inserting geometric means between two numbers, 2 terms, b, as finding a geometric progression of first and last terms are a and b.
m+
^f f
progression of 7
7,
2,
and
=
I
= 2,
'
'
and
729
2v
in (I),
l
Theresultis2,
= 2^;whence^ =
8
9'
^,and.
64
243'
4, '3
16
32
81'
128.
27
729
b.
Then,
= ,
X
or
cc^
= ab.
Whence,
That
is,
x = Va&.
the geometric
mean
is
equal
to
of their product.
EXERCISE
1.
162
Insert 4 geometric
2. 3. 4.
5.
means between ^ and 320. Insert 6 geometric means between f and y^e^.
Insert 7 geometric Insert 3 geometric
If
means between
48
and
^^.
b,
6.
7.
means between X^ and ^^. geometric means are inserted between a and two means ?
:
what
U and
^8
V.
9.
l.
^^^ xyf
and
^^^.
xy
10.
PROGRESSIONS
377. Problem.
345
sum
Find 3 numbers in geometric progression such that their shall be 14, and the sum of their squares 84.
a, ar,
and
ar^.
14,
a
a2
ar
ar"
(1)
'
<
I
V2 4
a2ri =:
84.
(2) (3)
aar +
ar^
= 6.
(4)
or
2.
346
7.
ALGEBRA
The sum
is
progression
ratio.
to the
of the first four terms of a decreasing geometric sum to infinity as 16 to 25. Find the
man who saved every year fourthirds as much as in 8. the preceding year, had in four years saved $ 3500. Howmuch did he save the first year ?
9.
The
difference between
two numbers
is 16, 2.
arithmetic
mean exceeds
six
their geometric
mean by
numbers.
10.
Find
sum
11.
of the first
numbers in geometric progression such that the and fourth shall be 9, and of the third and
sixth 36.
digits of a progression, and their
The
number of three figures are in geometric sum is 7. If 297 be added to the numFind the number.
There are three numbers in geometric progression whose ^. If the first be multiplied by f, the second by , and the third by ^^, the resulting numbers will be in arithmetic What are the numbers ? progression.
sum
is
HARMONIC PROGRESSION
Harmonic Progression is a series of terms whose form an arithmetic progression. is a harmonic Thus, 1, progression, because the ^, J, i, reciprocals of the terms, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, , form an arithmetic
378.
reciprocals
"I",
progression.
Harmonic Progression
is
also called a
Harmonic
Series.
379.
tible of solution,
Any problem in harmonic progression, which is suscepmay be solved by taking the reciprocals of the
terms, and applying the formulae of the arithmetic progression. There is, however, no general method for finding the sum of
the terms of
a harmonic
series.
2, , ,
Ex.
term.
In the progression
to
last
PROGRESSIONS
Taking the reciprocals
of the terms,
1
347
the arithmetic progression
we have
"
n
3
2'
5
2'
2'
Here,
= ,
Z
l,
S6.
= 1 + (36 
1)
Then,
is
We
and
first
b,
define inserting harmonic means between two numbers, a as finding a harmonic progression of 2 terms, whose
m+
and
last
b.
3.
3
We
Substituting a
= ^, = ,
Z
7i
= 7,
in (I), 359,
l = l + 6d,  = 6cZ,
3
'
or
cZ
= A.
36
series is
, 2'
36
,
12
is

3
18'
36'
^, 13'
?, 2'
12, '
18,
'
^, 7'
3.
b.
Then, X
is
the arithmetic
b
'
Then, by
366,
1= X
^
2
^, and 2ab
164
:
a\b
^.
EXERCISE
Find the
last
I, V, 5
to 19 terms.
348
2.
3
ALGEBRA
45.
rr^^V^TT. tollterms.
f, y8^, I, .to
28 terms.
6.
7.
Insert 7 harmonic
means between
Insert 8 harmonic
Insert 6 harmonic
means between
means between
:
8.
^ andi. ^
10.
11.
last
sion a,
12.
is
to n terms.
If
b,
what
the third
13.
The
eleventh term
14.
is J,
and the
is 4,
and the
382. If any three consecutive terms of a harmonic series be minus the second is to the
a, b,
and
c; then, since , ,
and  are
in
arithmetic progression,
1111 = ,
b b
or
bc
be
ab
ab
we have
a_a^
PROGRESSIONS
349
denote the arithmetic, geometric, and 383. Let A, G, and harmonic means, respectively, between a and b. Then, by 366, 376, and 381,
A=
But, '
^,
2
^ = V^, and^=^^
a+d
^X^
AxH=G\
the geometric
is,
ajb
= a6=(V^)l
^
Whence,
That
or
G = ^Ax
H.
is also the
geometric
mean
harmonic means.
350
ALGEBRA
XXVIII.
An Infinite Series is
or cube of
any binomial.
is
may
be expanded into a
The following
(a
+ x)3 = a^ (a xy = a^
j
f
\ 4:
etc.
In these
1.
results,
we observe
The number
of terms is greater
of the binomial.
2. The exponent of a in the first term is t^e same as the exponent of the binomial, and decreases by 1 in each succeed
ing term.
3.
The exponent
The
is 1,
and increases
coefficient of
by 1
4.
term
is 1,
and the
the exponent of the binomial. y 5. If the coefficient of any term be multiplied by the exponent of a in that term, and the result divided by the exponent of X in the term increased by 1, the qdotient will be the
coefficient of the
351
386 be assumed to hold for the expann is any positive integer, the exponent 1, in the i^ n, in the second term n term n 2, in the fourth term n S, etc. third The exponent of x in the second term is 1, in the third term 2, in the fourth term 3, etc. The coefficient of the first term is 1 of the second term n.
sion of (a xy, where of a in the first term
1, Multiplying the coefficient of the second term, n, by .n the exponent of a in that term, and dividing the result by
the exponent of x in the term increased by
'^v*'~
)
1, or 2,
we have
1.2
(A
point
as the coefficient
is
and so
on.
thus, 1
2 signifies
1x2.)
Then, (a
+ xf =
a'^
^ aa^^.^a? +
^
^^
~^\ a^'^x"
+ x,
we have
a.')"+^
1
'^
'
ax+
7ia"V+
^(^') a2a^+...;
,
we
(a
have,
4.
^~
a"
V
..^
^ n(nl) 1.2
~\
= a"+i + (^ 4 1) oC'x h n
[
["^^^
1
+ 1] "~'aj2
^ 1.2 ^(^_l)n^^ 3
352
ALGEBRA
Then, (a
+ l)n(nl) ^.,^^,.._
X
(2)
which proves that, if the laws hold for any 386 power oi a\x whose exponent is a positive integer, they also hold for a power whose exponent is greater by 1. But the laws have been shown to hold for (a + xY, and hence they also hold for (a + xy and since they hold for (a h xy, they also hold for (a + xy and so on.
the laws of
;
;
value of
n.
Equation
[2, [3,
Binomial Theorem.
etc., it is
usual to write
signifies the
The method
Induction.
is
known
as Mathematical
A more
386 is
complete form of the proof of 387, in which the fifth law of proved for any two consecutive terms, will be found in 447.
388. Putting a
=1
we have
_2
[8
it is
389. In expanding expressions by the Binomial Theorem, convenient to obtain the exponents and coefficients of the
386.
353
Expand
(a
+ xy.
a in the
first
The exponent
succeeding term.
of
term
is 5,
and decreases by
1 in
each
each
The exponent
succeeding term.
of x in the second
term
is 1,
and increases by
1 in
term is 1 of the second, 5. the coefficient of the second term, by 4, the exponent of a in that term, and dividing the result by the exponent of x increased by and so on. 1, or 2, we have 10 as the coefficient of the third term
coefficient of the first
5,
;
The
Multiplying
Then,
It will
{a + xY = a^{^ a*x +
10
a^x^
10
a'^x^
+ 5 ax* + x^.
be observed that the coefficients of terms equally distant from the ends of the expansion are equal this law will be proved in 391.
;
Thus the
If the second
is
negative, it should
be enclosed, negative sign and all, in parentheses before applying the laws in reducing, care must be taken to apply the principles of 96.
;
2.
Expand
(1
 xf.
(_a;)4^,l^.l*. (x)2
(lX)6=[l+(x)P
= 16^6.15.
+ 20
1^
(x)^
If the first
is
an arithmetical number,
;
it is
con
venient to write the exponents at first without reduction should afterwards be reduced to its simplest form.
the result
If either
coefficient or
exponent
other than unity, it should be enclosed in parentheses before applying the laws.
3.
n^) ]*
(3
= 81
u^) + 6(3 wi2)2(_ n^y + 4(3 m2) (  n}y + (  ii^y m8  108 mHi^ + 54 m%^  12 m^n'\ nJ.
354
ALGEBRA
trinomial
if
may
Theorem,
of 204
4.
(a;2
two of
be raised to any power by the Binomial its terms be enclosed in parentheses, and
;
shorter.
Expand {x^2x2y.  2 X  2)4 = [(x2  2 X ) + (  2) ]4 = (a:2  2 xY + 4(^2  2 xy{2) + Q{x^  2 x)\2Y + 4(a:2  2 x) (  2)3 + ( 2)* = x8  8 x7 + 24 xs  32 x5 4 16 x*
8(x66x5 + 12x*8x3) + 24(x4  4 x3 + 4 x2)  32(x2  2 x) +
16
Expand
1.
the following
13^
14.
2.
3.
+ xy. (n + iy
{a
(a;t
+ 3)^
21.
{i^l
^30^^
^
^ (lx'f.
(12//.
_'
15.
4.
(axy.
(0^2/ + ^T. (x + 2yy.
(Va
'
^Y.
^22.
^^
24.
^Y
2 a;V
5.
6.
(3a^
+ Vay^
16
(^^
+ 4"^y.
^^V
fsVa^^X
[</x^J. /2m_2 j^Y n 3
wi/
'
8. 9.
(3a^63y.
(a^^
V
18.
25.
ar^'^)'.
fm^
^
+ !!\.
^^
^^
10.
(2a;2^2/3).
11. 12.
(a
+ ^).
28.
19.
(5a.^ny.
^^
'
^ /^ _
[
(a2 4</^)6.
20.
^V
Ss/bV
'
(2x^\y^y.
29.
(a
(a
by.
32.
+ 1)1.
(.^^^xSy.
30.
31.
(x^
+ x\iy.
(a^_3a;l)^
(3a^2__^_2)4^
34 (la; + 0^2)1
35,
(2x^x'y.
33.
w
THE BINOMIAJ. THEOREM
390.
355
To find
The following laws hold for any term (a+xy, in equation (1), 387
:
1.
The exponent
of x is less
term,
2.
3.
The exponent of a is n minus the exponent of x. The last factor of the numerator is greater by 1 than the
a.
exponent of
4.
The
denominator
is
exponent of a?. Therefore in the rth term, the exponent of x will be r The exponent of a will be n (r 1), or n r \l. The last factor of the numerator will be n r { 2. The last factor of the denominator will be r 1.
Hence, the rth term
1.
^ n(n  1)
(71
 2)
...
(n
 r + 2)
nr+i^ri '
1.2.3... (r1)
/^n ^^
In finding any term of an expansion, it is convenient to obtain the coefficient and exponents of the terms by the above laws.
by\  6i)ii = [(3 a^) + ( 6i)]ii. We have, (3 J In this case, w = 11, r = 8. The exponent of ( b~^) is 8 1, or 7. The exponent of (3 a^) is 11 7, or 4.
The The
first
is 11,
is 7.
and the
last factor 4
1,
or
5.
denominator
= 11
10
5
^ ^3
^ ^ ^i^4^_
1.2.3.4.5.6.7
a2)
(
^.1^7 ^
= 330(81
If the
&7)
is
=_
26730
it
a^ftT.
negative,
should be enclosed,
sign
and
it
If either
unity,
term of the binomial has a coefficient or exponent other than should be enclosed in parentheses before applying the laws.
356
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
166
Find the
1.
4th term of (a
6th term of (n
f
xy.
9.
2.
3. 4. 5.
10th term of
^m^
10.
6th term of
(x'
 4 y^)"".
6.
7.
11.
Tthtermof
/'m'^
Y".
12.
 5 mny\
\^^
8.
10th term of
14.
^+ b
13.
4yW
8th term of
15.
Middle term of
(3a+2
391. Multiplying both terms of the coefficient, in (1), 390, r + 1, by the product of the natural numbers from 1 to n inclusive, the coefficient of the rth term becomes
[n
r+1
Since the
number
is
the (n
r{ 2)th
4
n + 1, the rth from the beginning. of the ?*th term from the end, we
2 for
r.
is
yt
I
r+21
\n
(n r\2)\l
of (a of
'
QJ
n

r+1
r

Hence, in
+ xy,
the coefficients
of terms
equidistant from
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
367
384)
may
be developed by Division,
Let
it
a;.
1x
X x
x^
(1)
Then,
Again,
1x
= l4 + + a^4.
ar^
let it
a;.
a;
^2
8^
+
X
a^
+ .f
Then,
It
V^^:^ = l +
first
 +
series, in (1) and (2), for every value of x \ thus,
so.
y?
(2)
values of the
large
members
EXERCISE
167
:
Expand each
3
+ 4a;
l5ar^
3.
4a;
5.
H2a;
4
2j^^x^ 2 + 4a;5a;^
Vl+6a;.
6.
l_5a;_2a;2
VI
2a;.
358
7.
8.
ALGEBKA
9.
Vl + a.
Vl  5 a.
10.
+ + / V9aM^.
Va^
i2/
H12.
Va^^
+ l.
63.
^a3
be Convergent when the sum terms approaches a fixed finite number as a limit n is indefinitely increased. ( 318), when An infinite series is said to be Divergent when the sum of the 393.
intinite series is said to
7i
An
first n terms can be made numerically greater than any assigned number, however great, by taking n sufficiently great.
+ + a^fa^H
aj
.Suppose
X Xi,
The sum
of the first
< 1.
a^i
( 103).
If n be indefinitely increased, x^" decreases indefinitely in absolute value, and approaches the limit 0.
Then the
That
is,
fraction
1
x^
number
of the first n terms approaches a fixed finite as a limit, when n is indefinitely increased.
the
sum
is
convergent
when x
is
numerically
< 1.
II. Suppose a; = 1. In this case, each term of the series is equal to 1, and the sum of the first n terms is equal to n; and this sum can be made to exceed any assigned number, however great, by taking
sufficiently great.
Hence, the
III.
series is dive7'gent
when x = l.
Suppose x = l. In this case, the series takes the form 1 1fl l4.'., and the sum of the first n terms is either 1 or according as n is
odd or even.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Hence, the series
is
359
when
An
IV.
infinite series
which
is called
an
Oscillating Series.
Xi,
Suppose X =
of the
1
The sum
first
> 1.
103).
+ ^1 +
a^i'
+  + X,' = ^1^ ( 1
iCi
By taking n
cally exceed
sufficiently great,
X^
L
any assigned number, however great. the series is divergent when x is numerically Hence,
> 1.
( 392).
( 394).
\
,
Let
x= .1,
series
in
The
now
which case the series is convergent takes the form 1  .1 + .01 + .001
is
while
.y
or
In this case, however great the number of terms taken, their sum will never exactly equal ^. But the sum approaches this value as a limit for the series is a decreasing geometric progression, whose first term is 1, and
;
ratio .1
and, by
373, its
sum
to infinity is
JL
, or
.J.
Thus, if an infinite series is convergent, the greater the number of terms taken, the more nearly does their sum approach to the value of the expression from which the series was
developed.
let
Again,
x=
10, in
series is divergent.
The
series
now
110
+ 10 + 100 + 1000 + ,  or 
,
360
ALGEBRA
more does
In this case the greater the number of terms taken, the their sum diverge from the value ^.
Thus, if an infinite series is divergent, the greater the number of terms taken, the more does their sum diverge from the value of the expression from which the series was developed.
It follows
infinite series
cannot be
is divergent.
An
important method for expanding expressions into based on the following theorem
:
is
always equal
to the
makes both
A=A',
B = B', CO,
etc.
(1)
members
convergent.
for the
sum
ca;^
f da^ H
= 0. is satisfied when = 0, we have A = A'. Putting Subtracting A from the first member of the equation, and its
a;
we
obtain
(2)
BxjCx'{Daf\'"=B'x^C'x'\D'a^+":
Dividing each term by
x,
B{Cx + Dx'+''=:B'
This equation also
is satisfied
+ C'xhD'x'+'".
;
(3)
B = B'.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
361
In like manner, we may prove C= C\ D = D', etc. The proof of 396 is open to objection iu one respect. We know that (2) has the same roots as (1), including the root 0; but when we divide by x, all that we know about the resulting equation is
that
it
Thus,
is
we assume
it
in
proving that
B = B'.
of the
A
will
Theorem
of
Undetermined
Coefficients
397.
The theorem
of
finite.
EXPANSION OF FRACTIONS
398.
1.
Expand
in ascending
powers of
x.
Assume
where A,
J5,
Azi3j^.JZ^= 3 x2 1  2 X
..,
(1)
C,
i),
E,
are
numbers independent
member
we have
2'6x'^x^
= A+ B\x+
C x2+ D x^+ E
X*
....
1a\ 2B + SA
is
18
20
+ 3^
2D
+ 30
2 A)x.
(2)
A vertical line,
Thus,
called a 6ar,
+ B\x 2a\
equivalent to (J5
The second member of (1) must express the value of the fraction for every value of x which makes the series convergent (395); and therefore equation (2) is satisfied when x has any value which makes the
second
equal
member
that
is,
convergent.
Then, by
;
powers of x in
(2)
must be
A= B2A=
2.
0;
025 + 3^ = 3;
2)_20+35=l; E2D + SC= 0;
etc.
862
ALGEBRA
we have
~ x^
3a:2
x8
l2x + 3x2
The
result
+ 4x
Ibx^
21 X*^
may
be verified by division.
of the fraction only for such values of x
as
and denominator contain only even powers the operation may be abridged by assuming a series containing only the even powers of a;. 2 4 4 a^  X* we should assume Thus, if the fraction were 1 3 ar f 5 c'*
If the numerator
X,
of
}_
it
equal to
^a^
....
of
In like manner, if the numerator contains only odd powers X, and the denominator only even powers, we should assulne
x.
x,
we may assume
of x in the numerator.
If every term of the denominator contains x, we determine by actual division what power of x will occur in the first term
of the expansion,
commencing with
and then assume the fraction equal to a series this power of x, the exponents of x in the succeeding terms increasing by unity as before.
2.
Expand
1
O
Xi
Xj
'
in ascending
is
powers of
x.
Dividing
2
we then assume,
3a;2_a;8
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Substituting in (3)
,
363
3x2
;
T
that
"9~
27
81
243
1, is, the coefficient of x^ equals twice the coefficient of the preceding term, minus three times the coefficient of the
In Ex.
E= 2D S C
coefficient of x^ is 2
evident that this law holds for the succeeding terms x ( 27) 3 x ( 15), or  9.
thus, the
After the law of coefficients has been found in any expansion, the terms and for this reason the easily than by long division
;
is
to
is
The law
for Ex. 2
is
EXERCISE
168
Expand each
powers
3
1.
of x:
+ 2aj
2x + Sa^
2.
3.
5.
364
Equating
coefficients of like
ALGEBRA
powers of
;
oj,
A'^=
or,
^=
1.
2^5 = B^\2AC=
1; or,
^=_J_=_1.
2A
2i
0;
or,
G=
= A
2

8
2AD + 2BC=
C'^\2AEY2BD=
0:
or,
i)=_:^=i. A 16
0:
or,
^ = .^i^^^ = A.
A
128'
x3
6a:*
etc.
we have
x2
VI  X =
The
result
X
2
16
128
may
be verified by Evolution.
of
Vl
a;
EXERCISE
169
five
terms in ascending
Vl + 2a;.
3.
^/l^x + x".
y/l
5.
^1 + Qx.
s/lx2^,
2.
VI 3a;.
4.
+ xx".
6.
PARTIAL FRACTIONS
400. If the denominator of a fraction can be resolved into
factors, each of the first degree in x,
is
of a
lower degree than the denominator, the Theorem of Undetermined Coefficients enables us to express the given fraction as
sum of two or more partial fractions^ whose denominators are factors of the given denominator, and whose numerators are independent of x.
the
401. Case
1.
I.
No factors
^J^^
Separate ^
(3a;l)(5a; + 2)
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
^^"""^
where
4
365
^^^
(3xl)(6x +
2)
=3^3T + 6^Ti'
= ^(5 + 2) + jB(3 xV). = (5 ^ + 3 ^)a; + 2 ^  ^.
a;
and
Clearing of fractions,
Or,
+ +
1
1
19
of (1)
a:
(2)
Hence, equation (2) is satisfied by every value of x ; and by 397, the coefBcients of like powers of x in the two members are equal.
That
is,
and
Solving these equations,
Substituting in ^ ^ , (1),
(3xl)(5x + 2)
verified
^\^,'t
^,
= ^^ + p^'
3a;l
bx\2
of the partial
The
result
may be
fractions.
2.
Separate
factors
2ic
^iar
a^
The
oi2xx'^x^
^
are
x,lx, and
x ( 116).
Assume then
+/ 2a;x2x3
we have
Clearing of fractions,
when x = 0.
when x =
or
1.
we have
= 35,
_1
5
1
Then,
2xx2x8
(2+x)
366
To
ALGEBRA
find the value of A, in Ex. 2,
we
the coefficients of
manner
to
B, and
is
EXERCISE
170
:
27a;6
a^48
a^16a;
5 ax'^2
o^
{
a^x^
a^
9a^_4
23a:
6aj2
3 ax"
4.
a'x
109a; 5a^14a; + 8
+ 14a;2a^
(a^5 a;)(x24)
402. Case
II.
Let
it
be required to separate
fractions.
\^~ ^
)
into partial
Substituting
y^3
becomes
5
^
(y43)^ll(y + 3)426
f
Replacing
?/
^ y^5y + 2 ^1 f y
2
y^
f'
by
a;
3,
1
xZ
ix3f'^ (x^Y
This shows that the given fraction can be expressed as the sum of three partial fractions, whose numerators are independent of x, and whose denominators are the powers of a? 3
beginning with the
first
third.
Similar considerations hold with respect to any example under Case II; the number of partial fractions in any case
being the same as the number of equal factors in the denominator of the given fraction.
Ex.
Separate ^
^^
^^,o
(3a;
+ 5)2
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
367
In accordance with the above principle, we assume the given fraction equal to the sum of two partial fractions, whose denominators are the powers of 3 x + 5 beginning with the first and ending with the second.
That
Qx +
is,
b
5)'^
(3 X
a;
(3 x
5)2
Clearing of fractions,
6x +
Equating
coefficients of like
powers
3^ = 6,
and
5^+^ =
A=2
5
5)2
5.
and
2 3X
B = b.
5 5
(3 X
Whence,
6x +
(3 X
5)2
EXERCISE
171
24
a;
+2
'
nx'^l
'
^x'\12x+^
2
{1
x1 + ^xf
.
'
16a;^19
'
{4:x3f'
'
2a;^lla;H3
6x'\12x10
'
a^2x'7x
'
(x4:y
y
(3\2xy
'
(x^iy
2a^13x'{24:X15 (x2y
'
lS_x5^^27^
(2
the
+ 3 )*
denominator equal.
Ex.
Separate
a;2
x{x{
ly
methods of Cases
I
II
and
a;
4.
_^
X x
B
+
1
x(x
Clearing of fractions,
x2
l)2
(x
G + l)2*
4X+
A.
368
Equating
coeflBcients of like
ALGEBRA
powers of
x,
A+B=h
and
Solving these equations,
A = S,
^ = 3. B = 2,
2
and
8
(X
C = S.
1)2
:
Whence,
X\l
^
X
{
+^+...+ x + m + x + b
;
+ a) (x + &).. (x + m)''..
should be assumed
^^ + + w)2
{x
...+
^
(x
+ my
Single factors like x + a and x + & having single partial fractions corresponding, arranged as in Case I and repeated factors like (x + having r partial fractions corresponding, arranged as in Case II.
my
EXERCISE
172
x(xh3y
9
a^(x
+ iy
3a^
7a^
24a;16
^ ^
a^(aj4)
3.
Ux'5Sx4:
(3a;
+ 2)(2a;3)2
than, that
404. If the degree of the numerator is equal to, or greater of the denominator, the preceding methods are
inapplicable.
In such a case,
until a remainder
we
is
obtained which
is
the denominator.
Ex.
Separate
partial fractions.
and
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Dividing x^
369
and the
re
mainder
3 x^ 1 by x^ x, 2 X 1 we then have
;
the quotient
is
x 2,
X2
We
X ~
X''^
X''^
~
X
into partial fractions
by the method
of Case I
the result
1
is
Substituting in (1),
f^
=x
x1
Another vv^ay to solve the above example is to combine the methods of 398 and 401, and assume the given fraction equal to
^+
j5
^+ X ^ 1 X
173
EXERCISE
partial fractions
+ l) 2a^414a;' + 3Qa;H25
(a;2)(3a;
(x{sy
5
a^(xl)
.
' '
c^2 x'5x^5xS
x'(x{iy
2x^Sa^{2x*5x^\12x'x^4:
aj^(c 4)
than the denominator, the Theorem of Undetermined Coefficients enables us to express the given fraction as the sum of
two or more
partial fractions, whose denominators are factors of the given denominator, and whose numerators are independent of X in the case of fractions corresponding to factors in the case of of the first degree, and of the form Ax
+B
370
ALGEBRA
The only exceptions occur when the factors of the denominator are of the second degree and all equal.
Ex. Separate
The
and
a;^
x+
1.
Assume then
J^ =
1
^ + _?_CL.
1)
(1)
Clearing of fractions,
Or,
= J.(x2 _ ^ +
B)x'^
+ {Bx +
C) (x
1).
i=(^A +
+ {A +
x,
B\C)x\A\C.
A + B = 0, A + B + G = 0,
and
Solving these equations,
Substituting in (1),
a;3
A\C=\.
1 ^ = , B =
andC'
^
=2
3
1)
^
3(a;
+1
1)
~^ x+ 3(a;2
174
:
EXERCISE
x^l
2
27aj3
a^
+8
10
 11
a.^
a^
*
+ 3a;5
'
38a;4a^
aj^
(4x + 5)(a;23)*
+ Sa^^ + e'
REVERSION OF SERIES
406. To revert a given series y = a\ bx^ + ca?" + ' is to express a; as a series proceeding in ascending powers of y.
Ex.
?/
2a>'
Assume
(1)
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Substituting in this the given value of
y,
371
+ 5(4
That
ic2
4
a;4
12 x3
16
a:*
..
.)
x=2AxSA
+ 45
x2+
4^
372
ALGEBKA
387 that,
if
ti
is
a positive integer,
n(yil)(n2) ^_3^
1.23
If n is a negative integer, or a positive or negative fraction, the series in tlie second member is infinite for no one of the
;
expressions
ti
1,
n 2,
etc.,
\
tive
a rigorous proof of the is too difficult for pupils in preparatory schools, the author has thought best to omit it any one desiring a rigorous algebraic proof of
As
Exponents
it
in the author's
Advanced Course
in Algebra, 576.
408. Examples.
the exponent
In expanding expressions by the Binomial Theorem when is fractional or negative, the exponents and coefficients of the terms may be found by the laws of 386, which hold for all values of the exponent.
1.
Expand
(a
f
xy
to five terms.
first
The exponent
succeeding term.
of a in the
term
2
is ,
and decreases by
1 in
each
The exponent
succeeding term.
of x in the second
term
is 1,
and increases by
1 in
each
The
term
is 1
the exponent Multiplying , the coefficient of the second term, by o o of a in that term, and dividing the product by the exponent of x increased
i^
;
by
1,
or 2,
we have
(a ^
and
so on.
Then,
81
'
243
373
Expand
(1
Enclosing 2 x~^
we have
(1+2 x~^)2 = =
[1
12
= 1  4 a;"^ +
By
make use
3.
12 xi
32 x~^
80 x^
....
(2x~2)]2^
we can
Expand
</a^
to four terms.
3x^
in parentheses,
Enclosing a"!
^
3,
and
3x^
we have
^ai3x*
(ai3x*)*
(a^)"*(aT*(3xb
If
(a^r^(
3 a:b^+...
= a^ +
a^x^
+ 2 ah^ + ^ a'^x +
EXERCISE
176
....
Expand each
1.
(aixy.
(1
11. ^[(a266^cy].
2.
+ x)^
rj
VI X (aU2 6)l
1
^2.
(0.^22/^)^
13,
(^E!
3.
(1
 xf^.
8.
 4 a^^)l (a
x^^3y
+ 1\^,
4.
V^^:^.
^
14.
(m^3n^)^.
5._J_,. +
(a
a;)^
lO.fm3
V
+ Vr.
4/
^ 15.(i=^P) V5Va*
374
ALGEBRA
409. The formula for the rth term of (a for fractional or negative values of n, since
+ xy
it
390) holds
all
 3 x''^)'^.
we
liave
3 x~^ in parentheses,
(a
3 x~^y^
[a
+ (_
or 19 o
3 x"^) ]~3,
of
(
3 x ^)
1
is 7
of a is
6,
or
'
is
1,
6.
and the
last factor
+
^
1,
or or.
The
denominator
is 6.
_ 1 _ _ Z _ 1^ _ 13 _
' .
' . ' . * . '
16
1.2.3.4.5.6
^
_i_9 (3^
'
^)'
38
EXERCISE
Find the
1.
:
177
6th term of (a
^
2.
5th term of
+ x)l  o)~^. (a
, 1
^' 6.
7.
^^h term of (a
x)^
11th term of
3.
7th term of (1
4.
8th term of
9.
(1
+ x)l  xy.
8.
8th term of
(a^
+ y^y
10th term of
6th term of
10.
.
11.
5th term of (m
9th term of
+ 3 rr^)^.
^
12.
375
llthtermof
"^
fav^6^
^ ^
14.
 4 /)l
410. Extraction
The Binomial Theorem may sometimes be used to find the approximate root of a number which is not a perfect power of
the same degree as the index of the root.
We
have \/25
= v'27^^ =
i
[(S^)
+ (
2)]^
2)2
= (33)i + (33)t ( +
 1 (3^)t ( 2)
^(3^)"^(2)...
4
32
^g
3
2
.
40
35
81
38
fifth
place,
decimal
.07407
.00183
.00008
= 2.92402.
following rule
Separate the given number into two parts, the first of which is power of the same degree as the required root,
the result
and expand
If the ratio of
a small
proper fraction, the terms of the expansion diminish rapidly but if this ratio is but little less than 1, it requires a great many terms to insure any
degree of accuracy.
EXERCISE
178
to five places
Vrr.
2.
V51.
3.
s/m.
4.
^n.
5.
</U.
6.
a/35.
376
ALGEBRA
XXXI. LOGARITHMS
411. The
Common System.
may
be expressed, exactly
= 102
13
= 10i"3 
etc.
is
When
its
called
Thus, 2
which
is the logarithm of 100 to the base 10; a relation written logio 1^^ 2. 2, or simply log 100 Logarithms of numbers to the base 10 are called Common
Logarithms, and, collectively, form the Common System. They are the only ones used for numerical computations.
412. Any positive number, except unity, may be taken as the base of a system of logarithms thus, if a' m, where a are positive numbers, then x m. and log
;
negative
number
is
413.
By 238 and
239,
LOGARITHMS
414. It is evident from a number greater than 1
is
377
number between
and 1 negative.
415. If a number is not an exact power of 10, its common logarithm can only be expressed approximately the integral part of the logarithm is called the characteristic, and the decimal
;
For example,
log 13
= 1.1139.
and the mantissa
.1139.
is 1,
negative logarithm is always expressed with a positive mantissa, which is done by adding and subtracting 10. Thus, the negative logarithm 2.5863 is written 7.4137 10.
written 3.4137
is
the
alone
negative, the
For reasons which will appear, only the mantissa of the is given in a table of logarithms of numbers; the characteristic must be found by aid of the rules of 416 and 417.
logarithm
416. It
is
evident from
number between
1
and
10 and
10 100
is
is
is
+ a decimal + a decimal
f
a decimal
etc.
Therefore, the characteristic of the logarithm of a number left of the decimal point is with two
;
places to the left of the decimal point is 1 to the left of the decimal point is 2 etc.
;
with
three places
Hence,
than 1
point.
is
the characteristic
1 less
of the logarithm of a number greater than the number of places to the left of the decimal
is 5.
378
ALGEBRA
.01
and and
.01 is
.001
is
10 10 10
etc.
Therefore, the characteristic of the logarithm of a decimal with no ciphers between its decimal point and first significant 10 after the mantissa of a decimal with figure is 9, with one cipher between its point and first significant figure is 8,
;
with 10 after the mantissa; of a decimal with tv:o ciphers between its point and first significant figure is 7, with 10
after the mantissa
;
etc.
Hence,
less
to
than
1, suhti^act the
find the characteristic of the logarithm of a number number of ciphers between the decimal
from
9,
writing
10
after the
For example, the characteristic of log .007023 written after the mantissa.
is 7,
with
10
PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS
418. In any system, the logarithm of 1
is 0.
For by
238, a
=1
whence, by
412, log 1
= 0.
is 1.
= a',
whence, log^ a =
1.
is
of
is
cc.
a
For
if
is
greater than
1,
a"* =
<x>.
=1=
a
CO
( 320).
logaO =
:
co
must be interpreted
If,
as follows
in
the limit
value.
logarithm
is
is greater than unity, a number approaches negative, and increases indefinitely in absolute
(Compare
321.)
LOGARITHMS
421. In any system, the logarithm of a product
the
is
379
equal
to
its
factors.
=m
^"
a^=:n
whence, by
412, [
2/
^'
= J^^ log,n.
a^
= mn,
or
a''+^
= mn.
Whence,
log^
mn = x\y=
log
m + loga n.
be proved for the product
may
more
factors.
By
aid of
be found
may
= .3010,
= log (2 = log2 +
and log 3
= .4771
X 2 X 2 X 3 X 3)
log2
+
X
log2
=3
X Iog2
1.8572.
EXERCISE
Given
log 2
1.
= .3010,
log 3
4.
5.
= .4771,
log 5
7.
= .6990,
log 567.
log 1225.
log 1372.
log
7= .8451,
10. 11.
find:
log 15.
log 98.
2. 3.
8.
log 84.
6.
9.
12.
422.
the
I7i
any system,
the
logarithm of denominator.
=m ay = n
1
}
;
(x = logjn,
\
whence,
l2/
= logn.
380
ALGEBRA
=
a^
or
a*^= 
n
Whence,
log z=x
y = log^m logn.
;
= .3010
2
find log 5.
= log = log
10
EXERCISE
Given log 2
1.
= .3010,
4.
5.
log 3
= .4771,
7. 8.
log 7
= .8451,
find
logY.
log V^.
log 111.
log 245.
10.
log
log
\o^.
2.
.3.
log85f.
log 175.
11.
12.
46f
6.
9.
logff
log 2^^.
is
423. In any system, the logarithm of any power of a number equal to the logarithm of the number multiplied by the exponent
the
of
power.
;
the equation =* = m whence, x = log^ m. Raising both members of the assumed equation to the j9th
Assume
'
a^ == m^
is
424. In any system, the logarithm of any root of a number equal to the logarithm of the number divided by the index of
the root.
For, log
Vm = log,(mO = 1 loga^^
;
423).
425.
1.
Examples.
find log
2l
=I
X log 2
=3
X .3010
.5017.
To
first
by the numerator,
LOGARITHMS
2.
381
Given log 3
= .4771
log^^log_3^ ,4771 8 8
3.
^.0596.
= .4771,
 log 3
3^).
By
(2I X 3?)
.1003
.5964
.0967.
EXERCISE
Given log 2
181
382
ALGEBRA
aid of this relation,
is
By
if
to
a certain base a
known, its logarithm to any other base b be found by dividing by the logarithm of h to the base a. may
427.
To prove
the relation
logjaxlog6
Putting
= l.
m = a in the
log,
result of 426,
a=
1^ = ^
log, 5
log, 6
(419).
Whence,
log,
log,6
= 1.
of the logarithms of
equal.
the mantissce
numbers having
the
= .4847.
f
log
= log(100 x 3.053) = log 100 log 3.053 = 2 + .4847 = 2.4847; .03053 = log (.01 X 3.053) = log .01 + log 3.053 = 8 10 + 4847 = 8.4847 10; etc.
.
It is evident
that, if a
number be multiplied
by any integral power of 10, producing another number with the same sequence of figures, the mantissas of
or divided
their logarithms will be equal. For this reason, only mantissse are given, in a table of Common Logarithms for to find the logarithm of any number, we
;
have only to find the mantissa corresponding to its sequence of figures, and then prefix the characteristic in accordance with the rules of 416 and 417. This property of logarithms only holds for the common system, and constitutes its superiority over other systems for
numerical computation.
429. Ex.
We
have
= log
(2*
LOGARITHMS
Then, by
428,
383
is
.6353.
Whence, by
= 7.6353  10.
182
EXERCISE
Given log 2
1.
= .3010,
log 3
6.
7. 8. 9.
= .4771,
log 7
= .8451,
11.
find
log 2.7.
log .00000686.
log 337.5.
2.
3.
Iog.0bl25.
log 5^70.
log .0000588.
,
12.
13. 14. 15.
4.
5.
log s/SA.
log 22.5.
10.
log .000864.
log (24.3)1
To find
in the
the logarithm
column headed " Ko." for the first two significant figures of the given number. Then the required mantissa will be found in the corresponding horizontal line, in the vertical column headed by the third figure of the number.
Look
For example,
etc.
or
two
be required to find log 83 and log 9. By 428, log 83 has the same mantissa as log 830, and log 9 the same mantissa as log 900.
let it
Hence,
log 83
= 1.9191,
and log 9
= 0.9542.
384
ALGEBRA
No.
LOGARITHMS
No.
385
386
ALGEBRA
We
from the
table,
log 327
That
is,
= 2.5145, = 2.5159.
.0014 in the logarithm. Then an increase of .6 of a unit in the nuHteer will increase the
logarithm by
.6
Whence,
less
log 327.6
= 2.5145 +
.0008
= 2.5153.
In finding the logarithm of a number, the difference between the next and next greater mantissas is called the tabular diff'^Hnce ; thus, in Ex. 1, the tabular difference is .0014.
The following
rule
is
Find from the table the mantissa of figures, and the tabular difference.
Midtiply the latter by the remaining figures of a decimal point before them.
the
number, with
Add
mantissa of the
and
prefix the
proper
characteristic.
In finding the correction to the nearest units' figure, the decimal portion should be omitted, provided that if it is .5, or greater than .5, the units' figure is increased by 1 ; thus, 13.26 would be taken as 13, 30.5 as
31,
and 22.803
as 23.
2.
Mantissa 215
.3324
Tab.
diff.
= =
21
.08
2
.3326
Correction
10.
1.68
= 2,
nearly.
The
result
is
8.3326
EXERCISE
183
64.
2.
3.7
3.
982.
4.
.798.
LOGARITHMS
5. 6.
7.
387
13.
14.
1079.
.6757.
9.
.00005023.
.0002625.
31.393.
7.3165.
.019608.
10.
.09496.
4.288.
11.
15.
16.
810.39.
8.
12.
the
48387.
.0025446.
433.
1.
Find
first
In the corresponding
two
the column headed " No.," we find 45, the number, and at the head of the column we
there must be two places to the left of the
g^
is
is 1,
^
45.4.
Required the number who^ k)garithm We find in the table the mantis^ 3927 and 39^5.
is
2.3934.
The numbers corresponding to the logarithms 2.3927 and 2.3945 are 247 and 248, respectively. That is, an increase of .0018 in the mantissa produces an increase of
one unit in the number corresponding. Then, an increase of .0007 in the mantissa will increase the number by
7 of a unit,
or
.4,
18
nearly.
is
Hence, the
number corresponding
rule
is
247
.4,
or 247.4.
The following
Find from
correspondiiig, and the tabular difference. Subtract the next less from the given mantissa,
and divide
the
remainder by
Aymex
The
I.
10 7/"
1 to
the characteristic,
giving the
of the decimal point. II. if 10 is written after the mantissa, subtract the positive part of the characteristic from 9, giving the number of ciphers to he placed between
the decimal point
number of places
and first
significant figure.
388
3.
ALGEBRA
Find the number whose logarithm
Next
less
.
is
8.5265
10.
5265 mant. = 5263 figures corresponding, 336. Tab. diff. 13)2.00(15 = .2, nearly.
;
13
70
By the above rule, there will be one cipher to be placed between the decimal point and first significant figure the result is .03362.
;
The
place
;
correction can usually be depended upon to only one 4ecimal the division should be carried to two places to determine the last
figure accurately.
EXERCISE
Find the numbers corresponding
1.
184
to the following
11.
12.
:
0.8189.
.6.
7.
8.795410.
1.3019.
2.
3. 4. 5.
7.606410.
1.8767.
6.599310.
4.252710.
2.0159.
8.
9.
9.943710.
0.7781.
13.
14.
2.6760.
3.726410.
4.4929.
3.9826.
10.
5.457110.
15.
APPLICATIONS
434. The approximate value of a number in which the operations indicated involve only multiplication, division, involution, or evolution
may be
utility of the process consists in the fact that addition takes the place of multiplication, subtraction of division, multiplication of involution, and division of evolution.
1.
The
.51272.
By
log (.0631
x 7.208 x .51272)
=
^
log .0631
log 7.208
+ log .51272.
log
log
.06.31=
8.800010
log .51272=
Adding,
log of result
Number corresponding
to 9.3677
(See Note
1.)
LOGARITHMS
389
Note 1. If the sum is a negative logarithm, it should be written in such a form that the negative portion of the characteristic may be 10.
Thus, 19.3677
 20
is
written 9.3677
10.
536.8
7984
By .
422,
log
log 336.8
log 7984
Subtracting,
log of results
Number corresponding =
Note 2. To subtract a greater logarithm from a less, or a negative logarithm from a positive, increase the characteristic of the minuend by 10 after the mantissa to compensate. 10, writing to subtract 3.9022 from 2.5273, write the minuend in the form Thus,
12.5273
3.
10
is
8.6251
 10.
(.07396)^.
By
log (.07396)5
= =
log .07396.
log .07396
8.8690
10
44.3450
50
10
=
4.
4.3450
= log .000002213.
By
log
v^. 035063
=~
o
log .035063.
log .035063
= 8.5449 10
(See Note 3.)
log .3274.
3 )28.544930
9.5150
10 =
Note 3. To divide a negative logarithm, write it in such a form that the negative portion of the characteristic may be exactly divisible by the 10 as the quotient. divisor, with
Thus, to divide 8.5449 10 by 3, we write the logarithm in the form 28.5449  30 dividing this by 3, the quotient is 9.5150  10.
;
390
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
185
negative number has no common logarithm ( 412); if such numbers occur in computation, they may be treated as if they were positive, and the sign of the result determined irrespective of the logarithmic work.
set, to find
the value of
we
3.3918,
and put a
4.253x7.104.
6823.2
4.
5. 6.
54.029
x (
.0081487).
2. 3.
.1634.
.040764
.12896.
( 95.86) X
5978
9.762'
3.3918.
12.
(285.46) x ( .00070682).
20. 21.
.000007913
.00082375
7.
(.000216)^.
V7.
^3.
21.658
8.
13.
(88.08)1
22.
45057*
.06405
9.
14.
15.
(.09437)^
(3.625)^
23.
24.
.002037'
16.
10.
^lo.
v':2005.
v'^osse^.
38.19
*
(.4623)^
25. 26.
27.
.10792
11.
17.
18.
loot
(.09)1
670.43
^5382.3*
^.00015027.
19.
(85.7)1
28.
^V .0040628.
The
Thus,
colog 409
= log = log 1  log 409.  10 (See Ex. 2, log 1 = 10. = 2.6117 log 409
409= 7.388310.
^
1
434.)
..
colog
Again,
colog .067
= log
.067
log 1
 log .067.
LOGARITHMS
391
. .
= = colog .067
It follows
may
he
found by subtracting
of the logarithm
The cologarithm may be found by subtracting the last significant figure from 10 and each of the others from 9,10 being
Ex.
of
.51384
8.708
.0946
^
log
8.708 X .0946
^1^^
.0946^
= log .51384 +
=
log .51384 colog 8.708 colog .0946
log .51384
log
^ +
log
.0946
colog 8.708
colog .0946.
10
= log .6239.
It is evident from the above example that, to find the logarithm of a fraction whose terms are the products of factors, we add together the logarithms of the factors of the numerator and
,
the cologarithms
The value
of the
may
log (8.709 ^^
x .0946) ^
log .0946).
=
The advantage
computation
is
log .51384
 (log 8.709 +
in the use of cologarithms is that the written exhibited in a more compact form.
work
of
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
436.
1.
?^.
3^
392
ALGEBRA
log
2^5 = ^X^
3^
log 2
log \/5
=:log2
log
+ Mog5 + o
15
+
10
colog 3^
( 435)
^colog3. o
2=
=
.3010 .2330
log
5=
=
.6990;
^3=
10
;
colog 3
9.5229
x 
9.6024
1364
log 1.369.
2.
^103296 ^ 7.962
i,g ^
:03296 7.962
^ ^^^^^
10
b ^
= 8.5180 = 0.9010
9.2057
)27.617030
The
result
is
10 =
log. 1606.
.1606.
EXERCISE
Find by logarithms the values
J
186
:
of the following
2078.5
X .05834 .3583x346
(.076917) x 26.3
.5478
x (3120.7)*
(6.08) X. 1304
4.046
.
'
.8102
x( 6.225)
x (17.976)'
.0031095*
(
.0721)
5.
LOGARITHMS
19.
893
(
143.59)" x(.00532)^
.
^^
(.0462)^
'
20.
^ 40.954 X. 0002098
1
758.27
^
x V:2296'
21.
(3075.6)*
OA 24.
(.016432)^.
22
^2818 X
^5Ul
</
25^
'
a/61021
26.
X (.03023)^
^.00263.
(.7301)^
.067268 x a/.4175
x
x
2^
.0005616 x
(6.73)^
V42 iS
gg
485.7
x ^1000
(.03194)^
(9.127)
(.7095)^
EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS
437.
An
Exponential Equation
is
unknown number occurs as an exponent. To solve an equation of this form, take the logarithms of both members the result will be an equation which can be solved by
;
Given 31^ = 23
members,
a:
= log 23
log 31
or
log 31
log 23 ( 423).
Then,
^^I2g23^ 0617^9,3
1.4914
.2^
2.
= 3.
.2
log
3.
if
equation of the form w" = b may be solved by inspection b can be expressed as an exact power of ^.
An
3.
= 128.
and
We may
Then, by
= 2^ or 7 = 
a;
2**
= 2^.
394
were 16* (If the equation
\^
ALGEBRA
= ^, we
128
could write
it
(2*)
= =2^;
2'
then
4x would
equal
7,
and
9
187
:
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
395
XXXII.
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
The
H.
C. F. of
two numbers
is
less.
a remainder, divide the divisor by tinue thus to make the remainder the divisor, and divisor the dividend, until there is no remainder. The last divisor is the H. C. F. required. If
there be
it;
and
con
the preceding
Thus,
let it
169)546(3 507
39)169(4 156
13)39(3
39
Then, 13
is
the H. C. F. required.
440. AVe will now prove that a rule similar to that of holds for the H. C. F. of two algebraic expressions.
439
Let
descending powers of some common letter. Let the exponent of this letter in the
equal
to,
term of
be
or greater than, its exponent in the first term of B. is contained in times, with a remainder Suppose that
Ap
C; that
that
C is
contained in
B q times,
shown
with a remainder
Z);
and
as follows.
396
ALGEBRA
B)A{p
pB
~~C)B(q
D)C{r
rD
We
common
factor of
A and
B,
equal to the
remainder
( 34),
A=pB + G,
B=qChD, C = rl). value of C in (2), we
and
Substituting the
obtain
(3)
(4)
From
(3)
We
B is
Let
F be
A = mF,
From
and
let
(5) (6)
(5),
we have
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
Whence, i^is a
factor of
Z>.
397
Then, since every common factor of A and i5 is a factor of />, and since D is itself a common factor of A and B, it follows that D is the highest common factor of A and B.
then have the following rule for the H. C. F. of two polynomials, A and B, arranged according to the descending
We
powers of some common letter, the exponent of that letter in first term of A being equal to, or greater than, its exponent in the first term of B
the
:
by B. If there he a remainder, divide the divisor by it; and continue thus to make the remainder the divisor, and the preceding divisor
Divide
The
It is
no remainder. H. C. F. required.
some common
important to keep the work throughout in descending powers of letter and each division should be continued until the
;
exponent of this letter in the first term of the remainder exponent in the first term of the divisor.
is less
than
its
Note
which
is
;
1.
If the
not a
for
it
common
terms of one of the expressions have a common factor factor of the terms of the other, it may be re
moved
In like manner,
can evidently form no part of the highest common factor. we may divide any remainder by a factor which is not
Find the H.
C. F. of
6ic22oa;
6
ic2
+ 14
and 6
o^
7 x^
 25 + 18.
a;
 25 X +
14)6 a;3 6 x3
_ 7 x^  25 x + 18(x + 3  25 x^ + 14 X 18 x2  39 X 18 x2  75 X + 42 36 X  24
divide this remainder
1,
we
by
12, giving
*~
'
3x2)6x225x + 14(2x7
6x2 4x 21x
 21 X +
Then,
3 x  2
is
14
the H. C. F. required.
398 Note
2.
If
ALGEBRA
the
first
term of the dividend, or of any remainder, is not term of the divisor, it may be made so by multiplying the dividend or remainder by any term which is not a factor of the
divisible
by the
first
divisor.
2.
Find the H.
^a?
C. F. of
+ o?h2 ab'
and 4
a^ft
a'b'
 aW +
h\
h
We
remove the factor a from the first expression and the factor and find the H. C. F. of
3 a2
from
a&
_2
&2
and 4
a^,
a^
+2
a^h
ab^
b^
Since 4 a^
3 (Note 2).
is
not divisible by 3
4 a3
we multiply
ab'^
by
+ 2 a% 
Sa^
+ ab2 62)12
12
d'
ff3
63(4 a
5 ah^
3 63
this
Since 2
a%
is
not divisible by 3
d^^
we multiply
3 63
remainder by
3 (Note 2).
2a26+ 562+
3 a2
+ a6 _ 2 62)6 a25 +
15
;,2
+
+
9 63(2 6 4 63 13 63
We
6.
6)3 ^2 3 a2
a6  2 62(3 a  2 + 3 a6 2a6  2 a6  2 62
Then, a
6 is the H. C. F. required.
If the first
Note
Note
3.
is
may
be changed.
given expressions have a common factor which can it, and find the H. C. F. of the resulting
common
H.
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
3.
399
Find the H.
2x'
C. F. of
+ 3x'6x'^2x
2 x3
and
6x^^6af2x^x.
we
find the
H. C. F. of
3 x2
6 +2
2x~l.
2x^
 4 x2 +
The
each of
first
its
16 X
7
terms (Note
2x3+3x24x2
6x+2
2
12
7
x+
X
4(x
4
2
19
x+
2x
1)4x24 x2
2X  14x  14x +
X 69 2x 1 16 x+ 7(2x7
7
The
last divisor is 2
is
make
its first
22 x2
19 X
we multiply 2 x^ + 3 x2 6 x + 2 by 2 in order term divisible by 4 x2 and we multiply the remainder 4 by 2 to make its first term divisible by 4 x2.)
;
x(2 x
1 multiplying 1).
;
this
by
x,
the H. C. F. of the
EXERCISE
Find the H.
189
:
C. F. of the following
1.
2a^{a6,
4a28a + 3.
2. 3.
400
4.
5.
ALGEBRA
Qx^x2, Sx^Ux'x^e. 2'ia'22ab7b% 32a^12ah5b\
6.
7.
8.
4a;2^15a:/f92/', S x'
6 a^
IS x'^y
\
25 xhf
12 xf.
9.
10. 11.
12. 13.
+ 5 a^  6 a^  3 a^ + 2 a2, 9 a^ 4 18 a^+ 5 a' 8 a 4. 3 a^  13 a'b + 3 a'b' + 4 a&^ 9 a^b + 12 a^^^ _ g a^^ _ 5 b\
4a^+ 9 9, 4cc4 + 10r''7aj2 + 9. 6a^7a35a2 + 5a_3, s a' 6 a^ 5a' 9.
05
14. 15.
4.
n^o;
71^
ar"^,
(1^
16.
9a'h30a'b21a'b'\12ab%
16
a^ft
+ 60
a'b''
17.
4a^lla;?/202/2, 2
aj^
a:?/^
+ 12
2/'.
18.
19.
4:a'\Sa'15a^}2a'4.a,
4a^12a3+9a23a + 2.
20.
+ 3xy% ^  2 a?/. + 7 a;y + 5 2a;* + 5a^ + 4a.^ + 7a; + 6, 2 aj^5 + ll a;29aj + 9. 6aj^ + a^ + 3a^6a;4, 12 + 8 ar53 aj^lO a;4.  5x' + 5a^\a^^7 x3. 3a^Sx'5x + 6, a^
3xPy^2xy7oi^y'{7xy
3
x^y'
ar^^/'
0^2/"
aj^
a;4
Let A, B, and C be the expressions. Let G be the H. C. F. of A and B then, every common factor of G and C is a common factor of A, B, and C.
;
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
401
But since every common factor of two expressions exactly divides their H. C. F., every common factor of A, B, and C is also a common factor of G and C.
and
is
the H. C. F. of A, B,
Hence, to find the H. C.F. of three expressions, find the H. C.F. of two of them, and then of this result and the third expression.
We
number
+ 6,
of
x'
a:3
x2
+ Zx'lQx^l^,
and x5
a;2
+ 7 a;3.
The H. C. F. The H. C. F.
of
Find the H.
1.
C. F. of the following
9a;2
62,
6a;25a;25,
+ 27x + 20,
12
a^^
^ 11  15.
a;
2. 3.
20a2+23a67
28^243 a6 + 9
6^ 24
aH 14 a65 61
5a^3Sa~U,
5a^13a + 14a+8,
10
x"
5aM27a2+20a+4.
4.
SafGxySBy^,
6^13x'y5.
13
20 y^
x^^4:x'llx\30, x'{2x'5x6,
x'x^ll x15.
6.
a38a2 + 20a16,
a3
a^'hS
a^4.a 12,
_ 6 a2 + 11 a  6.
6a'^
7.
3a
+ 17a26 + 18a62_85^
+ a^^ 19 aft + 6 6^
Sa^\6a:'b2Sab6b^
8.
3a^ar^38a;24, 3
3ar^
442.
We
will
to find the
L.C.M. of two
402
Let Let
ALGEBRA
A and B be any two expressions. F be their H. C. F., and M their L. C. M: Suppose that A = aF, and B = bF.
Then,
Since
factors
;
A%B = abF\
F is the
is,
(1)
b
is
have no common
abF.
That
M=abF.
From
That
(1)
and
(2),
(2)
(Ax.
equal
to the
4, 9)
is, the
product
of their H. C. F. and L. C. M. Therefore, to find the L. C. M. of two expressions. Divide their product by their highest common factor ;
Divide one of the expressio7is by their highest
or.
common
factor^
and multiply
60^217
6a;2_i7x+
a^
+ 12
and 12x24a;21.
a:
a;
12)12 a;2 4 12 x^  84
21(2
+ 24  45 15)30 X
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
2.
3.
403
6x'~31xy + lSy',
4a;2
9 x' \15xy
Uf.
+ l3a; + 3,
6x9,
4a^23a;6.
6x^ +
4.
5.
6.
7.
Sx' +
7xP7x6.
rt^ ii^a?
8. 9.
3 a^  8 a'b + 4 ab% a%  11 a^W f 22 aft^  8 h\ 6 + *i^^ 11 ncc^ 6 a^, 6 5 8 na;^ + 3  10  8 2ic* + 7ic^ + 7a;2H2a?, 2 x^ + Q^a^^x'll x + lO, 3a;^ + 5ar^5a;25a; + 2.
w'^
a:' a;^
a?.
ic^.
4a^2lla;3, 8
a;4_^6
a^
11
a^23a^5.
a;^^^ __ (^2
a;?/''
10.
2x4arV4a?y^3a;2/^
8 a^^  10
 10 ?/^
n^.
11.
71^,
12m^ IS
mhi\ 21 myi^ 6
12.
13.
+ 3a^,
a;6
a'2a^2a^{Ta6,
from
It follows
442 that,
if
each other
( 128), their
product
may
be found as
Let A, B, and C be the expressions. Let be the L. C. M. of A and B then every common multiple of Jf and (7 is a common multiple of A, B, and G.
But
since every
common
is ex
actly divisible by their L. G. M., every common multiple of A, is also a common multiple of and C. B, and of A, B, and C. Hence, expressions, find the L. C. M. two of them, and then of this residt and the third expression. of proceed in a similar manner to find the L. C. M. of any
Then, the L. C.
to
M.
of
M and C
is
the L. C.
M.
find the L. C.
M. of three
We
number
of expressions.
EXERCISE
Find the L.
1.
192
:
C.
M.
of the following
3a^4a;4, 3x27a; + 2,
a^^
_ ^q
a;
f 8.
404
2.
3.
ALGEBRA
2a'j3a'9a%
4.a' \13
cv"
{3 a",
Q a^
\
13
a'
 15 a.
4.
5.
2a^5x\3, 4a^4
aj2
+ 3aj9,
4a^13aj + 6.
444.
We
will
est terms,
when
readily factored by inspection. By 127, the H. C. F. of two expressions is their common factor of highest degree, having the numerical coefficient of
greatest absolute value in its term of highest degree.
We
their
H.
C. F.
By
2
a2
the rule of
a3
to be 2 a
Dividing
Dividing
we find the H. C. F. of 6 a^  11 a^ + 7 a  6 and  3. 6 a^ 11 a"^ + 7 a Q by 2 a  3, the quotient is Za^a +2. 2 a^ a 3 by 2 a 3, the quotient is a + 1.
440,
Then,
6a3lla2 +
7a_6 2a^a3
EXERCISE
Sa^a + 2 a+ 1
193
Reduce each
1.
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
405
PROOF OF
445.
I.
(1), 235,
Let
m=^
p
and n =
ps
where p,
q, r,
and
are posi
re integers.
^r
We
have,
a'
a^
a*
237)
^
now proved that (1), 235, holds are any positive integers or positive fractions.
II.
= Va^" X We have
Let
is
234)
= Va^^+'''
56)
=a
'"
237)
= a' when m
/i
and n
m be
where g
= q,
By
^Q>,
a*"'
a'
= a"'*+ =
a"*.
Whence,
That
is,
a^^=
or
=
a'
a"*"*^.
a*"
a"' ( 240).
a~'
and let n = III. Let m be a positive integer or fraction where g is a positive integer or fraction greater than m.
;
q,
By
IV.
240,
a'"
x a^=
^ = ^
445, II)
= a*""'.
Let
gers or fractions.
( 56,
or 445, I)
= a"^'.
a"
fractional, values of
446. We will now show how to reduce a fraction whose denominator is irrational to an equivalent fraction having a rational denominator, when the denominator is the sum of a rational expression and a surd of the nth degree, or of two
surds of the
?ith
degree.
406
Reduce
2
ALGEBRA
^r
1.
to
+ ^3
2
an equivalent
fraction
,
having ^
rational denominator.
We
have,
+ v^
+
b^)
8^
+
+
3^
b^ ( 102).
.
Now,
Then,
will
if
(a
b) (a2
ab
a^
8^
3^
3^, the
denominator
become
1
thus,
_
ai
(8^
8^
8^
33
+ 3^
3^)
(8^)2
 8^
8
33
+ 3^
gi
3^) (8^
8^. 33 +
11
+3
^ 42v/3 + v^9
2.
Reduce
to
rational denominator.
We
have.
Now,
Then,
if
(a
b) (a3
+ a% +
a&2
h^)
= a^h^
( 103).
7I
5?
4
7^
;
5I
5I,
thus,
4.
.
71
7I
5?
7?
5?
5I
+
.
5I 6^
7i
_ 5^
.
(7^
5
6^) (7^
7^
7^"
+
2
6^)
_ \^ + v^72
76
The .method of 446 can be applied to cases where the denominator is in the form Va + V&, or Va ^h.
3.
Reduce
to an
rational denominator.
The
lowest
common
and 2
is 6.
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
We have,
Now,
Then,
if
407
= = z 7* + VB ^22 + ^53 (22)i + (53)i  a*& + a^'^  a^b^ + a  &&) = a^ b^. (a + 6) (a^
z
y/2
^
we
become
rational
thus,
.
2t
 2t
5t
 2t
5t
t
+ 2^
52
 5^  52
(22)
i +(53)5
(22)1
+ (53)
_2
2t  2
>
2t
5t
+ 10  2^ 5 22 + 53
.
5t
+ 2^
52
5^
125
_ 10 + 2v^i2v^5005\/2000 + 25v^225\/5
129
EXERCISE
194
^
1.
.
3.
1.
mAjn
'
5.
i^a^i/b
Va^b
6.
J.
2^4
4.
V3W2.
V3 + V2
four
To make the proof complete, we must show that the fifth law of 386 holds for any two consecutive terms, in equation (2).
Let P, Q, and
ing
a'*~'"a;'',
denote the coefficients of the terms involva'*~''~^ic'"+\ and a""''~V+^, respectively, in the second
member
of (1), 386.
408
Thus, (a
a*"
ALGEBRA
\
+ xj' = + na^''^x + Par'xr + Qa'*' V+i + i2a"'V+2 + Multiplying both members hj a + x, we have = a'^+i + 7ia''x h Qa'''x'+'^ + i2a"'V+2 + (a + xy^^ h + Qa""* V+2 + + a''x\ = a**+i + (^ + !)";+.. + (P+ Q)a"'a5'+^+(Q+i2)a"'V+2+
\
....
(3)
...
Pa''''a;''+^
. . .
....
(4)
386
member
r
of (3),
assumed we have
is
to hold
with respect
+1
r42
r
+2
^r r + 2
Therefore,
Q + i?
P+Q
Whence,
But n r
cient
is is
Q(r + 1) nr
QQ/i
+^ + l) nr
nr Q^Ji:=(p^Qyr + 2
the exponent of a in that term of (4) whose coeffiand r 2 is the exponent of x increased by 1.
P+Q,
Therefore, the fifth law holds with respect to any twp consecutive terms in equation (2), 387. /X^
448. Before giving the more rigorous proof of the Theorem Undetermined Coefficients, we will prove two theorems in
a
is
+ 6ic + c^ + dic^ +
finite
value of
cc,
it infinite
of X ( 393),
and therefore
finite
when
a;
Hence, the
series is convergent
when
a;
= 0. = 0.
miscp:llaneous topics
449. Second,
if
409
ax
is
{
ba^
finite
value of
x, it
equals
when
a;
= 0.
and
cx^
\
hence a
finite for
Then, a
x(a{bx
bx ^
cx"^ \ 
is finite
\
when
a;
and therefore
cx^
),
or
ax
ba^
cx^^'i
equals
when
a;=0.
450. Proof
of the
Theorem of Undetermined
Coefficients ( 396).
The equation
A + Bx\Cx'\Da^\is satisfied
= A' + B'x +
C'x'
+ D'a^ + .
(1)
convergent
( 448),
when x has any value which makes both members and since both members are convergent when x = the equation is satisfied when x = 0.
;
Putting
a;
= 0,
we have by
449,
Bx +
Cx"
{
Dx^
...
= 0,
and B'x
+ C'a^ + D'x^ +
and
its
...
= 0.
Whence,
A = A'.
(1),
Subtracting A from the first member of from the second member, we have
equal A^
Bx\Cx'
+ Dx^+
x,
...
....
B+
Cx
\
Da^
"
{
+ D'af +
.
(2)
The members
same values
same
of X as the given series ( 449). Then, they are convergent, and therefore equal, for the values of x as the given series.
satisfied
when x
= 0.
etc.
B = B'.
may prove C = C,
410
ALGEBRA
XXXIII.
man
f 2,
gains f 8, then loses $ 3, then gains $ 6, and finally the effect on his property will be the same in what
3, f
$ 6, and
16,
2, will
+ 8, 3,
This
is
Then, omitting reference to the unit, the result of adding +6, and 2 will be the same in whatever order the
the Commutative
set
Law
for Addition,
which
is
may
Law
for Addition.
The result
But
6f c
of adding 6
which
and
( 451).
;
+ c + a,
by the
definition of 3
+ a equals
to
Law for
Addition.
Whence,
Then,
This
a{(b
+ c) =a\b]c.
set
add
the
sum of a
bers separately.
is
the Associative
Law
Law
for Addition.
for Multiplication.
will be the
product of a
set
of numbers
same
in whatever
order they
may
be multiplied.
the sign of the product of any number of terms is indejjendent of their order hence, it is sufficient to prove the commutative law for arithmetical numbers.
By
55,
411
may
number
of stars
a,
by by the
=*
* *
number
'
'
We
of rows, h. Thus, the entire number of stars is a x 6. may also find the entire number of stars
'
ing the
number
a.
h,
columns,
number
a
of stars
is
&
a.
xb = b x
a.
This proves the law for the product of two positive integers.
Again,
let
c,
d, e,
and/
;
Then,  x
to
multiply the numerators together for the numerator of the product, and the denominators together for its denominator.
Then,  x d
'
=
f
S 6 =
fxd'
two positive
integers.
C ;
two positive
Law
for Multiplication.
set
of iiumbers, we mxdtiply by
a by be is expressed a x (be), which by the Commutative Law for Multiplication. But by the definition of 5, (be) x a equals bca, which, equals abc by the Commutative Law for Multiplication.
result of multiplying
The
equals (be)
a,
Whence,
(be)
= abc.
412
ALGEBRA
for Multiplication
may be
proved for the product of any number of arithmetical numbers. (See the author's Advanced Course in Algebra, 18 and 19.)
Law
for Multiplication.
The law
is
expressed
We
I.
will
now prove
(a + b)c = ac\bG
b,
and
c.
let c
be a positive
integer.
Then, (a
+ &)c = (a + 5) + (a + 6) + = (a + a f to c terms) + (6
to c terms
6
f
to c terms)
Laws
for Addition),
= ac{ be.
II.
let c
=
^
where
and
Then,
(a
+ b) x ^x f= (a^b)
J
= ae\be,
J
by
I.
Whence,
(a
+ b)XjXf=axxf\bxxf.
J
8, 9),
we have
=
(a{b)Xj
Thus, the result
positive fraction.
III.
is
ax^hbXj'
c is
proved when
a positive integer or a
Let a and
let c
= g, where g is
and
.
By
54,
(a
II,
Thus, the distributive law is proved for all positive or negavalues of a, b, and c.
413
FACTORING
456. The Remainder Theorem.
Let
it
\
qx
\
hj x
apx
qx\r
px
i
{ap
+ q)
(ap H q)x
(ap
+ q)x pa? qa
pa^
\
qa{r, Remainder.
We
is
pa^
\
qa\
r,
law
If any polynomial, involving x, be divided by x remainder of the division equals the result obtained by tuting a for X in the given polynomial.
a,
the
substi
This
is
called The
Remainder Theorem.
To prove
qoif'^
\rx{s
be any polynomial involving x. Let the division of the polynomial by a; a be carried on until a remainder is obtained which does not contain x.
Let
B the
remainder.
Since the dividend equals the product of the quotient and divisor, plus the remainder, we have
Q(x
\
\rx
s.
Putting X equal to
we
have,
R = pa"* + ga"^ H
414
ALGEBRA
put
the
a,
remainder
is zero.
458. Examples.
1.
Find whether
a;
is
a factor oi a^
5 x^
\
S.
or
6x^
j
S becomes
235.22 +
8,
4.
by x
Then, by and x
;
456, if x^
5x^
S be divided
2,
the remainder
is
is
not a factor.
2.
Find whether
m
Putting
li^.
(1)
m=
w, the expression
becomes
w*
+
w
w^
2 w*
5 n*
2 w*, or
0.
Then, by mainder is
3.
456,
;
if
\
n, the re
and
m+
a factor.
Prove that a
is
a factor of
(a\b\c) (ab
Putting a
+ 6c + ca)  (a + 6) (6 + c) (c + a).
+
c)hc
is
0,
b{b
c)c, or 0.
Then, by
4.
456, a
0, or a,
Factor
positive
a^3x^UxS.
and negative
integral factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, 8,
The
1,
2,
4,
and
8.
the numbers in their order of absolute magnitude. X = 1, the expression becomes 13 14 8. If X = 1, the expression becomes 1 3 + 14 8. If X = 2, the expression becomes 8 12 28 8. If X = 2, the expression becomes 8 12 + 28 8, or 0. This shows that x + 2 is a factor. 5 x 4. Dividing the expression by x + 2, the quotient is x^
It is best to try
If
Then,
x^
3 x^
14 x
= (x +
2) (x^
 5x 
4).
416
195
a^
+ 1.
2.
x'Sl.
8. 9,
3.
a;64.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a^{4.x'\7x12.
ir18a5 + 8.
x^
a.^_a^3^g^2_^14^_pe,
a.'3a;2_iia;_io.
Bx^'Sx + AS.
10.
11.
x" {Sx"
ar^
+ 13a^ 13x4:.
ar^9a^ + 15a;
+ 9.
+ 6x^0530.
12.
Whether
a;
3
4
is
a factor of
:/>^
o 13. Whether
14.
a;
is is
a factor of
a factor of
Whether x + 1
x^ + 7 x^ 6. x^ 4:X^\2a^ 2x 9.
zlS.
Whether
a;
is is
+ zf +y(z +
yf +
\
a^)'
+ z{x +
2/)'
16.
17.
Whether a
Whether
ic
a\bcf+h\caf+c\abf.
18.
Whether
m+
is
a factor of {x
7i
is
a factor of
m{m
459.
We will
I.
now
104.
Proof of
Then, by
If h be substituted for
457,
?;",
the result
is 6"
6",
or 0.
as a factor.
Proof of
II.
is
for a in a^'b"; the result If h be substituted since 7t is even, b'^b'', or 0. or, 6 as a factor. 6" has a Then, by 457, a"
(6)" 6'*;
Proof of III. If 6 be substituted for a in a''+6^the result &" + 6", or 0. or, since n is odd, a"* + 6" has a + 6 as a factor. Then,
is
(6)"4&";
416
Proof of lY.
ALGEBRA
a in a"
+ If,
Since n
+ 6".
SYMMETRY
460. An expression containing two or more letters is said to be symmetrical with respect to them, when any two of thepi can be interchanged without altering the value of the expression.
+ ca is symmetrical with respect to the letters and c for if a and b be interchanged, the expression bea, 5, comes ba + ac i cb, which is equal to ab \bc\ ca.
Thus, ah{hc
;
And,
in like
is
if
we
interchange b and
or c
and
a,
461. Cyclosymmetry.
An expression containing n letters a, b, c, ", m, n, is said to be cyclosymmetrical with respect to them when, if a be replaced by ^, 6 by c, , m by n, and n by a, the value of the expression
is
not changed.
is called a cyclical interchange of letters. the expression a^b \ b^c f ca is cyclosymmetrical with Thus, respect to the letters a, b, and c for if a be replaced by b, b by c, and c by a, the expression becomes b^c + c'^a f a^b, which is equal
;
The above
to a^b
\
bh { c^a.
;
for
is not symmetrical with respect to a, 6, and c a and h be interchanged, the expression becomes b'^a + aH f c^ft, which is not equal to a% + ft'^c + <^a.
462. It follows from 460 and 461 that, if two expressions are symmetrical or cyclosymmetrical, the results obtained by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing them are, respectively,
symmetrical or cyclosymmetrical.
417
symmetry
is
Expand
(a
(a
+ b^cy.
+ cy =
{a
We have,
c)(a
+ c)(a +
b ^ c).
,
c ( 460) and a, 6, of the third degree. There are three possible types of terms of the third degree in a, &, c ; terms like a^, terms like a%, and terms like abc.
is
This expression
and
It is evident that a^
c^
and
so,
by symmetry,
b^
and
have the
coefficient 1.
The
tors
a^b terms
may
by the
b in the
Then, it is have b'^ttj b^c, c^b, c^a, and ac. Let m denote the coefficient of abc. Then, (a
and
so,
by symmetry,
+
{
6
b^
= a^
of a, 6,
+ c)^ + c^
{
To determine m, we
and
c.
S(ab + b'^a + b'^c + c^b + d^a + a'^c) + mabc. observe that the above equation holds for all values
Whence, (a
=
2.
a^
+ b + c)^ + 63 f c3 + 3(a25 + 6% +
(x
b^c
c'^b
c^a
aH) + 6
abc.
Expand
y zy + (y z xy
is
\
(z
x yy.
and
z,
This expression
x, y,
and
of the
second degree.
The
terms
like
and terms
like xy.
It is evident, by the rule of 204, that x^ has the by symmetry, have y"^ and s^. Let m denote the coefficient of xy.
coefficient 3
Then,
(x
zy^h (y
= 3(^2
Then, 3
To determine m, put x =
(5;
a;
418
3.
ALGEBRA
Expand
(a\bhcy+(a
The expression
third degree.
is
and
c,
and
of the
The
possible types of terms are terms like a^, terms like a^b,
and terms
like abc.
It is evident, by proceeding as in Ex. 1, that a^ has the coefficient l_jl_l_l_l, or2; and so, by symmetry, have 6^ and c^. Again, proceeding as in Ex. 1, it is evident that a^b has the coefficient 3
and
3 in the fourth.
3+3 + 33,
+ (& + c 
or 6; and so by
symmetry
have b^a, b% c'^b, c'^a, and a^c. Let m denote the coefficient of abc.
Then,
+ (c + a  6)3 = 2(a3 + 63 + c3) + e{a% + 6% + b'^c + c'^b + c^a + a^c) + mabc. To determine m, let a = b = c = 1. Then, 27 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 6 + 36 + w, or w =  12. Then, (a + 6 + c)^ + (a + 6  c)^ + (6 + c  ay + (c + a  by = 2(a3 + 63 _^ c3) + 6(a^b + b^a + b^c + c^b + c^a + a^c)  12 a&c.
(a + & + c)3 + (a + &
c)3
a)^
EXERCISE
196
1. In the expansion of an expression which is symmetrical with respect to a, b, and c, what are the possible types of terms of the fourth degree ? of the fifth degree ?
which
is
c)(2 b c a),
symmetrical with
what are
the others?
3. Is the expression a(b cy \b(c metrical with respect to a, b, and c ? 4. Is the expression metrical with respect to
(ay^
ay \c{a by
sym
sym
x,
and
z ?
Expand
5.
the following
(a
+ b + cy,
(a
+ b + c + ay.
419
8. 9.
10.
+ yzf+{y^zxy+{z{x yf.  3 6  4 c)2 + (2 &  3 c  4 a)2 + (2 c  3 a  4 hf. (2 a  6  c)3 + (5  c  a)3 + (c  a  6)^. (a H 6 + c)3 f (a {a + h{cdf\{h + c\day + {G + d + ahY c)l \{d[a\h
(x
11.
12.
(aH6
{x
+ c + d)l
13. 14.
+ y z){y^zx){z + xy). b). (a + 6 + c)(a + b c)(b \g a)(c \a (x' + y^ + z^{2xy + 2yz + 2zxy.
of
464. Factoring
Symmetrical Expressions.
is
The method
of 457
Factor
a(b
is symmetrical with respect to a, &, and c. Being of the third degree, the only literal factors which it can have are three of the type a three of the type a+6; ora + & + c, and a factor of the second degree. Putting a = 0j the expression becomes
The expression
6c2
c62
&2c
c26,
or
0.
Then, by
The
tor;
and, by symmetry, b and c are factors. 457, a is a factor expression, being of the third degree, can have no other literal fac;
but it may have a numerical factor. Let the given expression = mahc. To determine m, let a = b = c = l. 4
Then,
+4+
4222 = m,
= 6 abc.
or
w = 6.
/
z.
Factor
x^
{
y^
\
z^
S xyz.
\
The expression is symmetrical with respect to x, y, and The only literal factors which it can have are three
three of the type x{ y\ oi x
y
^ z,
420
It is
ALGEBRA
evident that neither x^ y, nor ^ is a factor. y, the expression becomes
Putting X equal to
y^ +
which
is
y^
z^
+ x%
'S
not
0.
;
Then, x { y is not a factor ( 457) and, by symmetry, neither y nor z + X is a factor. y z, the expression becomes Putting X equal to
\
(
y^
\
z^
y'^z
yz'^
= 0.
Therefore, x + y + z is a factor. The other factor may be obtained by division, or by the following
process
It is of the
y,
second degree
of the
and
z, it
must be
and as form
;
it is
x,
m(x2
It is evident that
+ + w = 1, as
?/2
^2)
_f.
,^(^2/
yz\ zx).
this is the
terms
aj^,
y^,
and
z^ in the
given expression.
Then,
x3
^3
yi
z'^ j^.
n {xy
yz
zx)"].
?i,
=
1.
Whence,
a;3
y3
^3
rj^y^
(^x
z) (x^
z^
xy
yz
zx).
3.
Factor ah{a
is
h)
\
he {h
c)
\
ca(G
a).
a, 6,
The expression
and
c.
when a
;
6 is a factor
and
a are
factor, but
= m(a =
2, &
h)(b
c)(c
c
a).
421
197
2.
(ab^bc{ca)(a{b+c)a\b+c)b%c\a)c\a{b).
x'(y
3
4. 5.
6.
7.
8. 9.
+ + ^^) (^ + y)(y + ^){^ + ^)+ + ab{a + 6) + 6c(6 + c) f ca{c + a) + 2 a6c. (a;2/ + 2)3_a^_2/3_^ {x + y{z){xy\yz\zx)xyz.
2)(a;2/
2/2=
11.
a\b
422
ALGEBRA
tion, in proving the Binomial Theorem for a Positive Integral Exponent in the present chapter, we will give other illustra;
466.
sally.
We
will
now prove
We
hold for
ab
where n
any positive
^
integer.
is
^
,
where n
any positive
integer
Then,
(1)
a b
h 6""^),
by
(1),
_j_
This result
is
in accordance
103.
the laws hold for the quotient of the difference of two like powers of a and b divided hj a b, they also hold for
Hence,
if
the quotient of the difference of the next higher powers of a and b divided hy a b.
^
r,5
7^5
for
b
for
7i6
;
hold for
:
ab'
.
,y6
ab'
a'b' and ab
so on.
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Hence, the laws hold for
integer.
423
where n
is
any positive
Putting
for b in (1),
we have
a(b)
If
71
is
even,
(by =
6^ and
(
6)"^
=  6""^
&\
(2)
^"~^"
Whence,
a\b
If n is odd,
{~by = a^^
(
&)"i
= + b^'K + b\
(3)
Whence, ^il+^ =
a\b
 a^'b + a^''b'
Equations 103.
467.
(2)
and
(3) are in
We
will
now prove
square of a polynomial of
any number
of terms.
Assume
terms, where
the law to hold for the square of a polynomial of that is, is any positive integer
(aib
+ ci
\l\my
= a^^b"^
Then,
(a
{
"{m^ + 2a(b
=.=
+ c]
hm)
(1)
_l_26(c++m)
b
\
{

\
+ 42Zm. m + yif
= (a + 6hc+'+m)2
{2(a\b\c\
hm> + n2,
+ n^ hm + w)
y^y.
97^
= a^ + b + c^\
\m^
+ 2a(6 + cH
\2b(c\
\m{n)\
\2mn, by
(1).
This result
is
law of
204.
424
Hence,
if
ALGEBRA
the law holds for the square of a polynomial of m it also holds for the
m+
But we know that the law holds for the square of a polynomial of three terms, and therefore it holds for the square of a polynomial of four terms and since it holds for the square of
;
a polynomial of four terms, it also holds for the square of a polynomial of five terms and so on.
;
illustration of the
first
n terms
a,
+ d,
a+
is
+ ^^^^~ ~
'
d.
is
(Compare
361.)
The sum
of the first
two terms
d.
2a +
Assume
terms.
Then, the formula holds for the sum of the first two terms. that the formula holds for the sum of the first ?i
'~
is,
That
the
sum
of the first
n terms =na\
'
d.
Now
the {n f l)th term of the progression is a h nd. Whence, the sum of the first {n 1) terms equals
y^a
= (4l) +
This result
is
^^^<J.
of the first
Hence,
it
if
sum
n terms,
sum
of the first
+1
terms.
But we know that the formula holds for the sum of the first two terms, and hence it holds for the sum of the first three terms; and since it holds for the sum of the first three terms, it also holds for the sum of the first four terms; and so on.
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Hence, the formula holds for the sum of the where n is any positive integer.
first
425
n terms,
EXERCISE
1.
198
first
n terms of the
series 1, 3,
5,
2.
9,
...
first
n terms of the
series 3, 6,
+ ^). is^^^(^
first
111
4.
n terms of the
series
first
Prove, by mathematical induction, that the sum of the n terms of the geometric progression,
a, ar, ar^y
..,
is
~ S = ^^^" ^^ r1
first
.
( 370).
n terms
of the series
2^^
42^
6^
6.
is
2<^ + l)(2n + l)
first
n terms of the
series
1^,
426
ALGEBRA
470. To solve an equation involving one unknown number, Xy we transform it into a series of equations, which lead finally to
the value of
x.
assumed, in passing from any equation to any other, in this series, that every solution of the first was a solution of the second, and every solution of the second a solution of the
first;
We have
so that
first to find
it was legitimate to use the second in place of the the value of the unknown number.
That
is,
we have assumed
We
equations.
471. If the same expression he added to both members of equation, the resulting equation will be equivalent to the first.
an
Let
A=B
unknown numbers.
(1)
A + C=B^C,
(2)
any expression, equivalent to (1). solution of (1), when substituted for the bers, makes identically equal to ( 79). It then makes f C identically equal to J5
G is
Any
unknown num(7 (
84, 1).
Then
it is
a solution of
(2).
(2),
when
unknown
identically equal to
B+
C.
EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
It
427
then makes
it is
identically equal to
(1).
( 84, 2).
Then
The
a solution of
If
the
same expression
be subtracted
from
this.
both
members of an
The
principle of 84, 2,
is
a special case of
not zero,
involve the
unknown
numbers, the
resultirig
Let
A=B
unknown numbers.
(1)
AxC=BxC,
(2)
is
unknown num
bers, equivalent to (1). Any solution of (1), when substituted for the
to
BxO
Then
it is
a solution of
(2).
Again, any solution of (2), when substituted for the numbers, makes ^4x0 identically equal to By. C. It then makes identically equal to B ( 84, 4).
unknown
Then
it is
a solution of
(1).
the above does not hold for the multiplier zero 4, does not hold when the divisor is zero.
is
is,
that
principle of 84, 3,
474. If the members of an equation be multiplied by an expression which involves the unknown numbers, the resulting equation is, in general, not equivalent to the first.
Consider, for example, the equation
a;
+ 2 = 3 4.
a;
(1)
428
ALGEBRA
equation
Now the
which
a;
(x\2)(xl)
is
= (3x^)(xl),
(2)
1, is
satisfied
obtained from (1) by multiplying both members by by the value x = l, which does not satisfy (1).
Then (1) and (2) are not equivalent. Thus it is never allowable to multiply both members of an integral equation by an expression which involves the unknown numbers for in this way additional solutions are introduced.
;
ex
involve the
unknown
to the first.
Let
A=B
unknown numbers.
(1)
To prove
where
the equation
A=B
77
77;
(2)
is
unknown num
bers, equivalent to (1). Any solution of (1), when substituted for the bers,
unknown num
( 84, 4).
Then
it is
a solution of
(2).
numbers, makes
It
A
G
(2),
when
unknown
identically equal to
B
G
then makes
it is
A identically equal
(1).
to B.
Then
The
a solution of
476. If the members of an equation be divided by an expression which involves the unknown numbers, the resulting equation is, in general, not equivalent to the first.
EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
Consider, for example, the equation
429
Also the
(1)
(2)
which
is
Now
Then
equation (1)
(2).
obtained from (1) by dividing both members by is satisfied by the value x l, which does
x 1.
not satisfy
(1)
and (2) are not equivalent. from this that it is never allowable to divide both members of an integral equation by an expression which involves the unknown numbers for in this way solutions are lost.
It follows
;
(Compare
158.)
L.C.M. of the given denoyninators, the resulting equation in general, equivalent to the first.
the
is,
Let
all
the terms be transposed to the first member, and let for a common denominator the L. C. M.
form
(1)
1
We
which
will
= 0.
now prove
the equation
^ = 0,
A
mon
(2)
is obtained by multiplying (1) by the L. C. M. of the and B have no comgiven denominators, equivalent to (1), if
factor.
Any
bers,
solution of (1),
when
unknown num
makes
identically equal to 0.
Then, it must make A identically equal to 0. Then, it is a solution of (2). Again, any solution of (2), when substituted for the unknown numbers, makes A identically equal to 0.
430
Since
ALGEBRA
A and B
is
have no common
factor,
B cannot
be
when
this solution
unknown numbers.
substituted for the
when
unknown
(1).
identically equal to 0,
and
if
is
a solution of
and
have no
common
If
factor.
and
have a
common
factor, (1)
and
"
^^^ = x2l
is
;
0,
and X
0.
The second
satisfied
by the value x
1,
478. A fractional equation may be cleared of fractions by multiplying both members by any common multiple of the denominators; but in this way additional solutions are introduced, and the resulting equation is not equivalent to the Consider, for example, the equation
first.
x^
= 2.
1
If L. C.
If,
we
M.
of
by af1, the
(ic^
however,
l)(x 1),
we have
o^a^\x'x
The The
= 2x^2x^2x + 2,
may
x
be solved as in
\
or
x^{x2
= 0.
latter equation
126.
factors oi x"
Solving the equation .t a? Solving the equation .t This gives the additional value x=l', and this does not satisfy the given equation.
evident that
to the
same
positive integral power, the resulting equation ivill have all the solutions of the given equation, and, in general, additional ones.
EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
Consider, for example, the equation x
431
= 3.
= 9,
or x'9
= 0,
or (x
+ 3){x3) = 0.
3,
The
root
3. We will now
Let
latter equation
A=B
we have
(1)
be an equation involving one or more unknown numbers. Raising both members to the nth power, n being a positive
integer,
A^ = B,
first
or
AB'' = d.
(2)
Factoring the
number
( 121),
...
(A  J5)(^"i
+ A^'B +
Now, equation
(3) is satisfied
when
+ B"^') = 0. A=B.
(1).
(3)
Whence, equation (2) has all the solutions of But (3) is also satisfied when
so that (2) has also the solutions of this last equation, which,
Two
unknown numbers,
systems of equations, involving two or more are said to be equivalent when every solu
tion of the first system is a solution of the second, and every solution of the second a solution of the first.
^^^
system of equations
lizt
unknown numbers,
the
mA \nB = 0,
where
A=0,
to zero,
is
equivalent
432
ALGEBRA
the
For any solution of the first system, when substituted for unknown numbers, makes ^ = and B=0. It then makes ^ = and niA + nB = 0.
Then, it is a solution of the second system. Again, any solution of the second system, = and for the unknown numbers, makes
when
substituted
mA + nB = 0.
It therefore
Since
system.
it
of
any number
of equations.
482. If either equation, in a system of two, be solved for one of the unknown numbers, and the value found be substituted for
this
unknown number
Let
1^ = ^' I (7 = A
y.
(1)
(2)
be equations involving two unknown numbers, x and Let be the value of x obtained by solving (1).
Let X in (2).
F=0
for
To prove
'x=^E,
'
(3)
(4)
\f=G,
equivalent to the first system. Any solution of the first system satisfies (3), for (3) is only a form of (1).
Also, the values of x and y which form the solution make x equal and hence satisfy the equation obtained by putfor X in (2). ting
and
E E
Then, any solution of the first system satisfies (4). Again, any solution of the second system satisfies (1) is only a form of (3).
(1), for
EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
433
Also, the values of x and y which form the solution make x and equal and hence satisfy the equation obtained by putin (4). X for ting
Then, any solution of the second system Hence, the systems are equivalent.
satisfies (2).
involving any
number
of equations,
483.
to
We will now apply the principles of 481 and 482 show that the solutions of Ex. 1, 168, and the examples of 169 and 170 are equivalent to the given equations.
Ex.
1, 168.
By
and
481, the given system is equivalent to the system (1) (5), or to the system (1) and (6).
and (6) is equivalent to the system equivalent to the system (6) and (8). (7), (6) Then, the given system is equivalent to the system (6) and (8).
By
and
which
is
Ex.,
169.
By
and
482, the given system is equivalent to the system (3) (4), or to the system (3) and (5).
By
and
(5) is
(6).
Ex., 170.
Now
is equivalent to (3) and (4). values of x and y which satisfy (3) and (4) also any
satisfy (3)
and
(5).
is
and
(6).
By*
and
and
(7).
484. The principles of 471, 472, 473, 475, 477, 479, 480,
434
ALGEBRA
IMAGINARY NUMBERS
485. Let be any point in the straight line XX'.
suppose any positive real number,  a, to be represented by the distance from I \ to ^, a units to the right of ^' ^ ^ "^ A' a Ofa A ia OX.
We may
^
.
>.
a, may
Then, with the notation of 16, any negative real number, be represented by the distance from to ^', a units
in OX'.
to the left of
the same as (+ a) x ( 1), it follows from 485 that the product of + a by 1 is represented by turning the line OA which represents the number + , through two right angles, in a direction opposite to the motion of the hands
486. Since
a is
of a clock.
Then, in the product of any real number by 1, we may regard 1 as an operator which turns the line which represents the first factor through two right angles, in a direction opposite to the motion of the hands of a clock.
487. Graphical Representation of the Imaginary Unit
i
( 276).
By
the definition of
275,
1=
l
?',
^ ^ai
\i
i,
turns the line which represents the first factor through two right angles, in a direc
xi
"'
hands of a clock, we may regard multiplication by i as turning the line through one right angle, in the same direction.
tion opposite to the
OHO'
Thus,
let
right angles at 0.
Then,
if
niiits to
i by 0(7', where Also, f i may be represented by OC, and one unit below, 0, in YY'. is one unit above, and
of
Complex Numbers.
We
will
to represent the
inter
complex number
negative.
if 6 is positive,
below
if b is
negative.
Draw
AC equal
line
XX'
as
OB, and
Then, OC is considered as representing the result of adding bito a; that is, OC represents the complex number a + bi.
The
figure represents the case in
b are positive.
As another
Lay
off
illustration,
we
show how
in
complex number
OX', and
54i
left of
to represent the
YY', Draw line AC below XX', equal and parallel to OB, and line OC.
in
5
positive
;
and Y' represented by a line between and OX'. positive, by a line between
OX
EXERCISE
199
:
3i.
2.
6i.
3.
1.
4.
l + 2i.
436
5.
ALGEBRA
25i.
6.
53i.
of Addition.
7.
7 + 4i.
a,
now show how to represent the result of adding b to where a and b are any two real, pure imaginary, or complex numbers.
Let the line a be represented by OA, and
We will
AC
Then, 00 is considered as representing the result of adding b to a; that is, 00 represents a\b. The method of 488 is a special case of the above. If a and b are both real, B will fall in OA, or in AO produced
through 0.
will be true if a and 6 are both pure imaginary. one of the numbers, a and 6, is real, and the other pure imaginary, the lines OA and OB will be perpendicular.
If
The same
As another
illustration,
we
graphically the
sum
of
the
4 + 3i.
repre
OX
is
and
}
if
repre
OY
and
Draw
the line
BO
00
side of
j
to25i.
490. Graphical Representation
of Subtraction.
real,
numbers.
437
OBAC, By 489, OA
That
a;
is,
if h
sum
EXERCISE 200
Represent the following graphically
1.
:
The sum
of
2.
3.
of of
of
4.
5.
i.
Represent graphically the result of subtracting the secfirst, in each of the above examples.
438
ALGEBRA
XXXVIII. INDETERMINATE
491. In
FORMS
not
322,
we found
pression which could have any value whatever ; but this always the case.
^
.
X
or
ax
= a,
jSTow
^ x^a
cc
'
which
provided
The
or 2,
when
x approaches the limit a. This limit we call the value of the given fraction ivhen x = a. Then, the value of the given fraction when a; = a is 2. for the given In any similar case, we cancel the factor which equals value of X, and find the limit approached by the result when x approaches
the given value as a limit.
EXERCISE
Find the values
1.
201
:
of the following
3.
^^^^^^whenx==2a.
2a^5ar^
~
/'
4.
yi
^\
when
.
o^
=  4.
.
'
J^TS^
when . = a 0.
i,
4:X^4:XS
when x = f.
^!:rMl^whenx = 2.
x'Tx + e
INDETERMINATE FORMS
492. Other Indeterminate Forms.
439
oo,
or oo
co, for
certain
(a^\8)(l
+ ^\
x^
when x = 2.
2 ( 319).
oo,
when x =
Now,
(a;3
8) (l
+ ^] = x^h8 +
+ +2
12,
the
the
limit.
2.
^
1
X
oo
?^
OCT
when x
= l.
319).
1
the form
oo,
when x
1
=
x
1 (
2x
1x
1^2
+ x2a: lx2
la:2
+x
the
The
limit
1.
latter expression
when x approaches
1, is
is
is
indeterminate
"^
^ when
^
increased.
when X
is
indefinitely increased.
1
4^ 2 T 
5x
X
2
^
440
The
X
is
ALGEBRA
latter expression
2 2  ( 320), or ,
f
~"
when
indefinitely increased.
'^
fraction
In any similar case, we divide both numerator and denominator of the by the highest power of x.
EXERCISE 202
Find the limits approached by the following when x
definitely increased:
J
is in
4:^5xSx^
7x\4:X^'
2a;
'
3 2
+l  2*
:
a^2a;4
*
a,2
+5
a;
h 3*
12
r x2 afS
when x
= 2.
whena;
5.
(2a^5a;3)/'2f^')
= 3.
441
In finding the quotient of two expressions which are arranged according to the same order of powers of some common letter, the operation may be abridged by writing only the numerical coefficients of the terms.
If the term involving
any power
is
wanting,
it
may be
sup
coefficient 0.
aj^f5 a^
+ 18 x^0
by ^o^^x'Q,.
x^
ic^
3 a^ + 10 12
.a?
by
a^3a^ +
6a;2
10a;12
2a^ + a;3
4ar^ +
4a^2a^+ Qx
8a;2+
Ax
The dividend equals (2x^ + x'6) times the quotient. Then, we can find the quotient by subtracting from the dividend + x times the quotient, and 3 times the quotient, and dividing the result by 2 x^.
442
Or,
ALGEBRA
we can
find
it
+3
by adding to the dividend x times the times the quotient, and dividing the result
:
We may
2a^
443
We
:
will
now
method
1.
Divide
12
ar^
3 x22a;f4.
3x2
+ 2;c 4
4X
9 4
5,
Rem.
We
write the divisor in the lefthand column, with the sign of each
first changed. Dividing 12 x^ by 3 x^ gives 4 x for the first term of the quotient. We multiply + 2 x by 4 x and put the product, 8 x^, in the second
;
column
and multiply
16 x, in the
third column.
We
result
in the second column, giving 3 x^, and divide the 1 as the second term of the quotient.
We
column
+2x
by
and multiply
1 and put the product, 2 x, in the third 4 by 1, and put the product, + 4, in the
fourth column.
in the third and fourth columns, the sum is 2 x 5. Then, the quotient is 4 x 1, and the remainder 2 x 5. It is advantageous to use detached coefficients ( 494) in the synthetic method the work of Ex. 1 would then stand as follows
12
+2
4
41,
2.
+25
Divide
a+2a^&14a362__i5^^4_555 ^^ a''^ah\h\
444
The work
ALGEBRA
of Ex. 2 will appear as follows with detached coefficients
1
+3 1
14214 + + 15 _15 + 3 + 15
1
 15 + 5+05,
+5
EXERCISE 203
Divide the following by synthetic division
1.
:
2. 3.
4.
5. 6.
16 m^ by 2 mn^
+
4 m^ + 7i*.
6a^13x'20x'\55a^Ux19 by 2a^7a; + 6.
Sx^4:x'ySxylSxy^\21y'
by
4:a:^
2x^y{6xy^ 7y^.
by
7.
8.
37a'\50
+ a'70ahj
2a' + 5\a^6a.
2w'ab2aceb'+llbc4.c'
2a + 364c.
PERMUTATIONS
ANJD
COMBINATIONS
445
XL.
time, are aby ac, ba, be, ca, cb; three at a time, are abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba.
which can be formed from them without regard in which they are placed.
time, are ap,
498. The Combinations of things are the different collections to the order
Thus, the combinations of the letters a, b, c, taken two at a be, ca; for though ab and ba are different permu
tations, they
499. To find the number of permutations of n different things taken two at a time.
Consider the n letters a, b, c, . In making any particular permutation of two letters, the first letter may be any one of the n; that is, the first place can be filled in n different ways. After the first place has been filled, the second place can be filled with any one of the remaining n 1 letters.
Then, the whole number of permutations of the two at a time is n(n 1).
letters
taken
We
will
now
500.
takeri r at
Consider the n letters a, b, c, . In making any particular permutation of r letters, the first letter may be any one of the n. After the first place has been filled, the second place can be filled with any one of the remaining n 1 letters.
446
ALGEBRA
filled,
filled in
?*th
n (r l),
r
or
n r\l
Sit
Then, the whole, number of permutations of the a time is given by the formula
P,
taken
= n(7i  l)(n  2)
...
(n
 r + 1).
(1)
is
The number
of permutations of
501.
.If all
= n,
and
(1)
becomes
(2)
= n(nl)(n2)...3.2.1=:[n.
Hence, the number of permutations of n different things taken n at a time equals the product of the natural numbers from 1 to n
inclusive.
number of combinations of n
different things
The number
a time
is
of permutations of
r at
^ ^^^
_ i) (^ _ 2)
...
(^
_ r f 1)
( 500).
But, by
may
permutations. Hence, the number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time equals the number of permutations divided by [r.
\r
have
That
is,
^a,^
n(n~l){n2)...{nr + \)
\r
^g^
The number
of combinations of
503. Multiplying both terms of the fraction (3) by the product of the natural numbers from
Iton r
inclusive,
we have
Ijj:
.
n ^ n{nl)'" (n  r + 1) "
'
 r) {n
...
^
\r
[rxl.2...(nr)
which
is
\nr
447
The number of combinations of n different things taken r a time equals the number of combinations taken n r at a time.
we
leave a selec
also
be proved by substituting n
r for
r,
in the
505. Examples.
1.
How many
=
bells,
taking 7 at
a time ?
Putting w
10, r
5. 4
604800.
2.
How many
formed with 16
letters,
taking 12 at a time ?
By 504, the number of combinations of 16 different things, taken 12 at a time, equals the number of combinations of 16 different things, taken 4 at a time.
Putting w
16, r
= 4,
in (3), 502,
The number
taken 4 at a time,
is
^llli^,or70. 1.2.3.4
The number
of combinations of the 4 vowels, taken 2 at a time,
is
^,or6. 1.2'
Any
one of the 70 sets of consonants
;
may
hence, there are in all 70 x 6, or 420 sets, each containing 4 consonants and 2 vowels. But each set of 6 letters may have [6, or 720 different permutations
( 501).
number
of different
words
is
448
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 204
1.
How many
formed
with.
14
letters,
2.
taken 6 at a time
In how many different orders can the triangle be written, taken all together ?
3.
letters in the
word
How many
taken 5 at a time
4.
12 persons.
5.
certain play has 5 parts, to be taken by a company of In how many different ways can they be assigned ?
How many
taken 11 at a time
6. How many different numbers, of 6 different figures each, can be formed from the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, if each number begins with 1, and ends with 9 ?
7. How many even numbers, of 5 different figures each, can be formed from the digits 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ? 8. How many different words, of 8 different letters each, can be formed from the letters in the word ploughed, if the third letter is o, the fourth u, and the seventh e ?
9. How many different committees, of 8 persons each, can be formed from a corporation of 14 persons ? In how many will any particular individual be found ?
10.
line.
From
how many
of 48 men.
in
different
hands of
and
are in a
company
6,
If the of
how many
How many
and
1 vowel, can be
449
of 10 soldiers and 15 sailors, how many different can be formed, each consisting of 3 soldiers and 3 parties
Out
sailors ?
In how 15. A man has 22 friends, of whom 14 are males. many ways can he invite 16 guests from them, so that 10 may
be males ?
16. From 3 sergeants, 8 corporals, and 16 privates, how many different parties can be formed, each consisting of 1 sergeant,
Out of 3 capitals, 6 consonants, and 4 vowels, how many words of 6 letters each can be formed, each beginning with a capital, and having 3 consonants and 2 vowels ?
different
18.
How many
formed from 8
words of 8 letters each can be 4 of the letters cannot be separated ? these 4 can only be in one order ?
different
letters, if
formed from the digits 1, 2,"~^ 4, 5, 6, fourth, and last digits are odd numbers ?
the
first,
506. To find the number of permutations of n things which are not all different, taken all together.
Let there be n
c's,
letters, of which p are a's, q are 6's, and r are the rest being all different. Let denote the number of permutations of these letters
taken
all
together.
Suppose that, in any particular permutation of the 7i letters, the p a's were replaced by p new letters, differing from each other and also from the remaining letters.
Then, by simply altering the order of these
letters
among
themselves, without changing the positions of any of the other letters, we could from the original permutation form [p different permutations ( 501). If this were done in the case of each of the
N original
per[p.
number
of permutations
would be A^x
450
Again,
q
if
ALGEBRA
in
new
letters,
any one of the latter the q 6's were replaced by differing from each other and from the remain
ing letters, then by altering the order of these q letters among themselves, we could from the original permutation form [g and if this were done in the case of different permutations
;
each of the
tations
Nx[p_
would be Nx\jp_X\qIn like manner, if in each of the latter the r c's were replaced by r new letters, differing from each other and from the remaining letters, and these r letters were permuted among themselves, the whole number of permutations would be
ZVx[p x[g x[r.
We now
letters.
letters replaced
by n
different
of
time
is
[n ( 501).
Therefore,
^xlp x Ig
xr
= n;
or,
N=
\n
,
\^
[p\g\r
Any
Ex.
How many
e's,
let
ters in the
together ?
and
9,
= 4,
= 2,
= 2, we
have
5.6.7.8.9 =
22
3780.
[4[2[2
EXERCISE 205
1.
In
how many
word
denomination be written
2.
also alike; in
3.
There are 4 white billiard balls exactly alike, and 3 red balls, how many different orders can they be arranged?
letters of the
word
451
7 flags, of
How many
made with
if all
How many
In
different
numbers of 8
digits can be
formed
from the
6.
digits 4, 4, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1 ?
how many
and
different
5 dollars be distributed
among 14
quarters, persons, so
may
receive a coin?
To find for what value of r the number of combinations ofn different things taken r at a time is greatest. By 502, the number of combinations of n different things^
507.
taken r at a time,
is
^_
n{n
l)
1
'"
(yi
2 3
r + 2)(7i r + 1) l)r {r
/in
u
X r l]
I
'
/2') ^^
The expression
sion (2)
/o\
n\l ^ 1. r The latter expression decreases as r increases. If, then, we find the values of (1) corresponding to the val
by
r\l
r
r,
(1) is
,
or
ues
1, 2,
3, ..,
of
long as
I.
IS
> 1.
;
Suppose n even
and
let
= 2 m,
r
where
is
a positive
integer.
Then,
If r If r
!^=I+1
r r
becomes
lUL^l+l.
= m,
^~^"^
becomes
^
m
,
and
is
>1.
is
= m + 1,
^t_
r
becomes
m+1
and
< 1.
452
Then, ^Cr will have
II.
ALGEBRA
its
greatest value
let
when
r=m '
m
is
Suppose n odd
and
= 2 m 4 1,
r
where
a posi
tive integer.
2^r2.
^
m
,
If r
= m, = m + 1, = m + 2,
(7^
~
r
"*"
becomes
^
and
is
>1.
1.
If r
^^
~
r
"'"'''
becomes
^ "^
mfl
,
and equals
is
If r
m+2
< 1.
r equals
Then,
or
will
is,
have
its
greatest value
when
m+1
Then,
that
^^=^ or
^^^ + 1.
greatest value
(7,.
will
have
its
when
r equals
~1
^
or
n4l
T^
;
453
XLI.
If two expressions, containing the same variable ( 317), are equal for every value of the variable, and each approaches a limit ( 318), the limits are equal.
Let Let
A and B be two expressions containing the same variable. A and B be equal for every value of the variable, and
A'=B\
To prove
Let
Then,
A^A = m,2iX\diB'B = n.
and n are variables which can be made less than any assigned fixed number, however small ( 318). Then, either m n is a variable which can be made less than any assigned fixed number, however small, or else m n = 0.
But
m  n = A' A  (B' B)
==A'AB'^B=:A'B'',
for,
by hypothesis,
is
and
variable.
not a variable
and hence
its
mn
A'B',
is
not a
or
Then,
mn
is
0;
and hence
equal,
is
0,
A'=B'.
We have
n and
x,
n.i)
454
ALGEBRA
\_
\2
rv^
[3
n^
nxCnx
[2
1)
1
n"
n
I
nx(nx
l)(nx 2) ^
.^.
We may
which holds however great n may be. Now let n be indefinitely increased.
Then, the limit of each of the terms
Hence, the limiting value of the
first
2
( 320).
n n
, , etc., is
member
of (2) is
['+'+tt}
and the limiting value of the second member
is
By
that
the
Theorem
is.
Denoting the
series in brackets
by
e,
we
obtain
455
Putting
mx
we have
(4)
e'
= l + mx +
e"
Let
m = logg a.
^
e"*="
^+....
Then, by 412,
= a,
we
and
= a*.
Substituting in (4),
a^
obtain
.
(5)
This result
is
511. The system of logarithms which has e for its base called the Napierian System, from Napier, the inventor of
logarithms.
Napierian logarithms are also called Natural Logarithms. The approximate value of e may be readily calculated from
the series of
509.
and
will be
....
To expand
log, (1
+ x)
in asceyiding
Substituting in
(1
(5),
x.
a^)^
Expandiiig the
in
y^,
f,
etc.
(6)
This equation holds for every value of y which makes both members convergent; and, by the Theorem of Undetermined'
Coefficients ( 396), the coefficients of y in the
two
series are
equal.
456
ALGEBRA
is,
That
[4
Or,
log,(l
is
a.)
a;
+ J +
....
(7)
This result
CALCULATION OF LOGARITHMS
513. The equation Napierian Logarithms,
ber
(7),
if
is
is convergent; but unless x is small, it requires the sum of a great many terms to insure any degree of accuracy. will now derive a more convenient series for the calcula
We
514. Putting
we have
.
logJlx) 6eK J
= x~^x2
3
(8) ^^
(7),
we
obtain
logXl
Or (422),
=
^
2(x
Let
a:
=m n m + ;
ri
then ~ = x
l\x 1
(9)
(9),
we
obtain
1
log,n
m=2 m o
422,
Hl
1
I
M nV
1 /
m nY
m\ n
7)Z
S\m\nJ
5\m^nJ
;
But by
whence,
1
,
logem = log,n
mn +2 m n +
'
m nV
f'm
n\^
^\m\n)
5\m\nJ
457
the
515. Let
be
Putting
m=2
log.2
and n
=l
we have
= log,l + 2
=
my
S+3 3;+5
1/1 3'
+
}
Or
since log,l
log,
(418),
correct to six places of decimals. Having found log, 2, we may calculate loge3 and n 2 in the result of 514.
by putting
m=3
.
= 2.302585
To
calculate the
common
e in
Napieriayi logarithm.
Putting 6
'^"^
= 10
and a =
the result of
^"^"^
426,
5^ = 2 X
logio
Thus,
= .4342945
.693147
is
common
system.
Conversely, to find the Napierian logarithm of a number when its common logarithm is given, we may either divide the
common
it
by
EXERCISE 206
find the Napierian logarithm of each of the following to four significant figures
:
10000.
2.
.001.
3.
9.93.
'
458
4.
7.
ALGEBRA
5.
243.6.
.04568.
6.
.56734.
What
What
is is
8. 9.
If log 3
10.
If
how many
3^''
how many
INDEX
Addition, of fractions, 109.
of imaginary numbers, 243. of monomials, 18.
of polynomials, 21. of positive and negative
Definitions
Continued
Factor, 74.
Coefficient, 17.
Combinations, 445.
num
Logarithm, 376.
Multiple, 100.
of surds, 226.
Affected quadratic equations, 250. Any power, of a monomial, 63. of a fraction, 186. Any root, of a fraction, 192. of a monomial, 190. Approximate square root of an
arithmetical number, 201. Associative Law, for addition, 410.
for multiplication, 411.
Equation,
2.
Equation in Quadratic Form, 268. """^ Equation of Condition, 51. Equivalent Equations, 146. Equivalent Systems of Equations,
431.
Commutative Law,
for addition, 410. for multiplication, 410. Completing square, first method, 250.
Cube
an arithmetical num
of a polynomial, 202.
Definitions:
Abscissa, 173.
Absolute Value, 12. Affected Quadratic Equation, 248. Algebraic Expression, 9. Arithmetic Means, 335. Arithmetic Progression, 331. Arithmetical Complement, 390.
Axiom,
2.
Independent Equations,
146.
Binomial, 21.
Characteristic, 377.
459
460
Definitions
INDEX
Continued
Inequality, 180.
Infinite series, 350. Infinity, 305.
Division, 441.
by detached
coefficients,
monomials,
43.
Limit, 304.
of surds, 230.
Monomial,
17.
Napierian Logarithm, 455. Negative Exponent, 214. Negative Number, 12. Negative Term, 17. Numerical Equation, 51.
Ordinate, 173. Perfect Cube, 88. Perfect Square, 76.
by comparison, by substitution,
150.
149.
series,
Exponential equations, 393. Extraction of roots by the Binomial Theorem, 375. Factor Theorem, 414.
Factoring,
75, 76.
of
expressions
whose
factor,
terms have a
common
248.
two perfect
odd powers,
of the
89.
sum
or difference of two
ax
ax"^
\
General term of
sion, 355.
binomial expan
of
of imaginary unit, 434. of roots of equations, 179, 284. of solutions of simultaneous linear
Distributive
tion, 412.
Law, for
multiplica
equations, 176.
INDEX
of solutions of simultaneous quadratic equations, 301. of monomials, 33. of
461
polynomials
34.
by
monomials,
Graph, of
first
member
of a quad
of polynomials of positive
14.
of
inconsistent linear
equations
with two
177.
unknown numbers,
removal
of, 28.
with
178.
Partial fractions, 364. Permutations of things not all different taken all together, 449.
Problem
of
of a quadratic equation involving two unknown numbers, 300. of a quadratic expression involving one unknown number, 283.
of
first
Graphs in Physics,
Highest
327.
Common
Factor, of expres
all
Indeterminate
CO
 00
forms,
co
Reduction, of fractions to integral or mixed expressions, 106. of fractions to their lowest com
439.
mon
when
denominator, 107.
form
^,
304.
305.
form, CO
'
tored by inspection, 104. of fractions to their lowest terms when the numerator and de
nominator cannot
Lowest
Common
Multiple,
of
exof
by long division, 401. Meaning of a pure imaginary number, 243. Multiplication, of fractions, 115. of imaginary numbers, 244.
fractions with irrational denominators to equivalent fractions with rational denominators, when the denominators
are
in
the
forms
or
Vft,
V~a
Vh,
7a
Vfe, 405.
462
INDEX
of literal linear equations, 132. of quadratic equations by formula, 255.
number,
413.
197.
Remainder Theorem,
by
239.
of equations involving 134. of
Sum
decimals,
Sum and
equations,
equations,
fractional
127.
linear linear
of
54.
integral
Theorem
of
Undetermined
Coeffi
STAMPED BELOW
AN INITIAL FINE OF
25
CENTS
WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETTURN THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH DAY AND TO $1.00 ON THE SEVENTH DAY OVERDUE.
'JiAi
fd^tj
i^i{^
Bien plus que des documents.
Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.
Annulez à tout moment.