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'ALGEBRA

FOR

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

BY

WEBSTER WELLS,

S.B.

PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

BOSTON,
D. C.

U.S.A.

HEATH &

CO.,

PUBLISHERS

1906

3^"

Copyright,

1906,

By WEBSTER WELLS.
All rights reserved.

PREFACE
The
present work
is

intended to meet the needs of High

Schools and Academies of the highest grade.

While

in the

main similar
additional

to the author's " Essentials of Algebraj"

many

topics

have been introduced, and improvements

made; attention is especially invited to the following: 1. The product by inspection of two binomials of the form

mx +
2.

n and px

-\-

(% 100).

In the chapter on Factoring will be found the factoring of expressions of the forms x^ + ax^y^ + y* and ax^ + bx + c,

when
The
In
3.

the factors do not involve surds ( 115, 117).


later in

These forms are considered


solution of equations

298 and 300.


is

by factoring

also taken

up

in

this chapter.

107 will be found

many new

varieties of examples.

In

176 will be found a set of problems in which the

solutions are negative, fractional, or zero.


4.

In the chapter on Evolution will be found the square

root

by inspection of polynomials
a'

of the

form

b'

c'

+ 2ab + 2ac + 26c,

and the cube root by inspection of polynomials of the form


a

+ 3 a'b

-\-

Sab'

b'

( 212, 223).

The development
of polynomials

of the rules for the square

and cube root


to be

and arithmetical numbers leaves nothing

221708

iv
desired from

PREFACE
a theoretical point of view.
(See 213, 214,

217, 224, 225, 228.)

In the solution of quadratic equations by formula the equation is in the form aa^ -\- bx -{- c = 0.
5.
6.

( 289),

In

all
is

the theoretical work in Chapter


in the

XXI, the

quadratic

equation

form aof

-{-

bx

-\-

= 0.

In the chapter on Ratio and Proportion, in several of the 7. demonstrations of theorems, fractions are used in place of
ratio symbols.
8.

In 386 and 387 will be found the same proof of the


is

Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Exponents as


" in the " Essentials of Algebra
;

given

those wishing a more comcoefficients is

plete proof, in
for

which the general law of


will find

proved

any two consecutive terms,

it

in 447. Coefficients

9.

The proof

of the

Theorem

of

Undetermined

given in

396
;

is

the same as that given in the " Essentials of


is

Algebra
10.

"

a more rigorous proof

given in

450.

The author has thought it best to omit the proof of the Binomial Theorem for Fractional and Negative Exponents, as
a rigorous demonstration
preparatory schools.
11.
is

beyond the capacity of pupils

in

In Chapter

Factor and Lowest

XXXIII will be found Highest Common Common Multiple by Division; and also
its

the reduction of a fraction to

lowest terms,

when the

numerator and denominator cannot be readily factored by


inspection.

Any

teacher

with Chapters

who so desires IX and X.


and n

can take this work in connection

Chapter
all

XXXIII

also contains the proof of (1), 235, for


(
is

values of

tion

whose denominator

445); and the reduction of a fracirrational to an equivalent fraction

PREFACE
having a rational denominator, when the denominator
is

V
the

sum
of

of a rational expression

and a surd of the


( 446).

nth. degree, or

two surds of the nth degree

An
to

important feature of the


in

work

is

the prominence given

graphical methods;
of

Chapter XIII will be found the

graph and also of

a linear equation with two a linear


expression

unknown numbers, involving one unknown

number.
In 184, 185, and 186 will be found the graphical representations of the solutions of simultaneous
linear equations,

including inconsistent and indeterminate equations.

The
305,

subject

is

taken up for quadratic equations in 303 to

and 314

to 316.

To meet the demands


cal

of

many

schools, a

number

of physi-

problems have been introduced; these will be found at the end of Exercises 62, 128, 129, and 145.

At the end
are employed

of the chapter on Variation will be found a set

of problems in physics in
;

which the principles

of

variation

and also several

illustrations of the application

of graphs in physics.

All the above work in physics has been

prepared by Professor Kobert A. Milliken, of the University


of Chicago.

In nearly every set of numerical equations, beginning with Exercise 58, will be found examples in which other letters
than
X, y,

and

z are

The examples and problems

used to represent unknown numbers. are about 4000 in number;

and no example is a duplicate of any in the author's "Academic Algebra" or "Essentials of Algebra." There is throughout the work a much greater variety of
examples than in the above treatises. An important and useful feature of the work
is

the Index,

vi

PREFACE
to
all

which contains references


definitions.

operations and important

To meet

the wants of the most advanced schools, the author

has introduced nine additional chapters, which will cover the


entrance requirements in algebra at any American college or
scientific school.

These additional chapters are:

XXXIII.

The Fundamental Laws


cation.

for Addition

and Multipli-

XXXIV.

Additional Methods in Factoring.

XXXV. XXXVI.
XXXVII. XXXVIII.

Mathematical Induction.
Equivalent Equations.
Graphical Eepresentation of Imaginary Numbers.

Indeterminate Forms.

XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.

Horner's Synthetic Division.

Permutations and Combinations.


Exponential and Logarithmic Series.
desires
to

The author
ration of the

express his thanks to the

many

teachers in secondary schools, whose suggestions in the prepa-

work have been

of the greatest service.

WEBSTER WELLS.
Boston, 1906.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

Definitions and Notation

1 1
.
.

Symbols
Equations

2 2

Axioms
Solution of Problems

by Algebraic Methods

.3
9
11

Algebraic Expressions
II.

Positive and Negative

Numbers

Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers


Multiplication of Positive and Negative
III.

...
.
.

12

Numbers

14
17

Addition and Subtraction op Algebraic Expressions Addition of Monomials


Addition of Polynomials Subtraction of Monomials
Subtraction of Polynomials
.
.

18

21

....
.

.24
26 28
32

Parentheses
IV.

Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions Multiplication of Monomials Multiplication of Polynomials by Monomials


Division of Algebraic Expressions
Division of Monomials
. .

...
.
.

33
34

Multiplication of Polynomials by Polynomials

V.

Division of Polynomials by Monomials Division of Polynomials by Polynomials

......43 ....
.
.

36

42

45

46

VI.

Integral Linear Equations

.51
.

Principles used in solving Integral Equations Solution of Integral Linear Equations

....
.

52

54
57

Problems leading
/

to Integral Linear Equations with

One
63
74
91

Unknown Number
VII.

Special Methods in Multiplication and Division

VIII.

Factoring
Miscellaneous and Review Examples Solution of Equations by Factoring
vii

.... ....

94

Vlll
CHAPTER

CONTENTS
Highest CojviMon Factor.
Highest

IX.

Lowest Common Multiple

Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple


Fractions Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction

of Fractions
.

Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions .

Complex Fractions Miscellaneous and Review Examples


\J

XL

Fractional and Literal Linear Equations


Solution of Fractional Linear Equations Solution of Literal Linear Equations
.

Solution of Equations involving Decimals

Problems involving Linear Equations Problems involving Literal Equations


XII.

Simultaneous Linear Equations Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Elimination by Comparison
.

Simultaneous Linear Equations containing More than

Two Unknown Numbers


XIII.

Problems involving Simultaneous Linear Equati

Graphical Representation
Graph of a Linear Equation involving Two I'nknown Numbers
Intersections of Graphs

XIV.

Inequalities

XV.
XVI.

Involution

Evolution

Evolution of Monomials

Square Root of a Polynomial Square Root of an Arithmetical Number Cube Root of a Polynomial Cube Root of an Arithmetical Number
.

XVII.

Theory of Exponents

....

Miscellaneous Examples

CONTENTS
I

IX
PAGE

CHAPTER

XVIII

Surds

.........
.

222
222

Reduction of a Surd to its Simplest Form Addition and Subtraction of Surds To reduce Surds of Different Degrees to Equivalent Surds of the Same Degree Multiplication of Surds Division of Surds
Involution of Surds

226
227 228

230
231

Evolution of Surds

233

Reduction of a Fraction whose Denominator is Irrational to an Equivalent Fraction having a Rational

Denominator
Properties of Quadratic Surds

233 237 242

Imaginary Numbers

XIX.

Quadratic Equations
Pure Quadratic Equations Affected Quadratic Equations

248
248 250

Problems involving Quadratic Equations with One

Unknown Number
XX.
XXI.

..

.261
268 273
276

Equations solved like Quadratics

Theory of Quadratic Equations


Factoring
Graphical Representation of Quadratic Expressions with One Unknown Number

XXII.

Simultaneous Quadratic Equations

....

283
286

Graphical Representation of Simultaneous Quadratic

CONTENTS
CHAPTEK

PAGE

XXIX.

Undetermined Coefficients
Convergency and Divergency of Series Tlie Theorem of Undetermined CoeflScients
.

357 358

Expansion Expansion

of Fractions of

Surds

.... ....
.

360
361

363
364

Partial Fractions

Reversion of Series

370
. .

XXX.
XXXI.

The Binomial Theorem


Logarithms

372
372

Fractional and Negative Exponents

Properties of Logarithms Use of the Table

Applications Miscellaneous Examples

......... ..... ........


. .
.

376
378

383
388
391

Exponential Equations

393

XXXII.

Miscellaneous Topics
Highest

395 Factor

Common

and Lowest Common


395

Multiple by Division

Proof of
nents

(1), 235, for All

Values of

and

)i

405
407

The Binomial Theorem


The Theorem XXXIII.
plication
of

for Positive Integral


Coefficients

Expo.
.

Undetermined

408

The Fundamental Laws for Addition and MultiAdditional Methods

XXXIV.

Symmetry

.... ....
in
.

410

Factoring

413 416
422
426
434 438

XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

Mathematical Induction
Equivalent Equations

Graphical Representation of Imaginary Numbers


Indeterminate Forms

XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.

Horner's Synthetic Division

441

Permutations and Combinations

445
453
453 455
456

Exponential and Logarithmic Series The Exponential Series The Logarithmic Series
.
.

Calculation of Logarithms

Index

459

ALGEBRA FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ALGIBBRA
I.

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION

1; In Algebra, the operations of Arithmetic are abridged

and generalized by means of Symbols.

SYMBOLS REPRESENTING NUMBERS


2. The symbols usually employed to represent numbers are the Arabic Numerals and the letters of the Alphabet.

The numerals represent known or determinate numbers. The letters represent numbers which may have any values
whatever, or numbers whose values are to be found.

SYMBOLS REPRESENTING OPERATIONS


3.

The Sign

of Addition,

+,

is

read "plusJ^

Thus, a-{-b signifies that the number represented by b is to be added to the number represented by a a -\-b -{- c signifies
;

that the

number represented by b is to be. added to the number represented by a, and then the number represented by c added
;

to the result

and so

on.

The

result of addition is called the Sum.

We shall use the expression " the number a," or simply " a," to signify " the number represented hy a^''"' etc.
4.

The Sign

of Subtraction,

is

read " minusJ'


b is to be subtracted

Thus, a

signifies that the


;

number

from the number a a tracted from a, and then


so on.

b
c
'

signifies that b is to
-

be sub-

subtracted from the result;


-'

and

2
5.

ALGEBRA
The
Sign
of

Multiplication,

x,

is

read

'Himes/^ or

"

multiplied byJ^

Thus, a X b signifies that the number a is to be multiplied by the number b; a xb x c signifies that a is to be multiplied by b, and the result multiplied by c and so on.
;

usually omitted in Algebra, except between two numbers expressed in Arabic numerals. Thus, 2 X signifies 2 multiplied by x but the product of
sign of multiplication
is
;

The

2 by 3 could not be expressed 23.


6.

The Sign

of Division,

-i-,

is

read '^divided by."


is

Thus, a-i-b signifies that the number a


the

to be divided

by

number

b.

The

division of a

by

6 is also expressed -

EQUATIONS
7.

The Sign

of Equality,

=,

is

read "equals."
b.

Thus, a
8.

=b

signifies that
is

the number a equals the number

An

Equation

a statement that two numbers are equal.

of an equation is the number to the left Jirst of the sign of equality, and the second member is the number to the right of that sign.

The

member

Thus, in the equation 2

a;

3 = 5, the

first

member

is

a;

3,

and the second member

5.

AXIOMS
9.

An Axiom

is

a truth which

is

assumed as

self-evident.
:

Algebraic operations are based on the following axioms


1.

2.
3.

4.

Any number equals itself. Any number equals the sum of all its parts. Any number is greater than any of its parts. Two mimbers which are equal to the same number,
ar/i equal.

or

to

equal 7iumbers,

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION


5.

3
to

If the same number, or equal numbers, be added


tvlll

equal

numbers, the resulting numbers


6.

be equal.

If the same number, or equal numbers, be subtracted from equal numbers, the residting numbers ivill be equal.
7. If equal numbers be multiplied by the same number, or equal number's, the resulting numbers will be equal. 8. If equal numbers be divided by the same number, or equal

numbers, the resulting numbers will be equal.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS BY ALGEBRAIC METHODS


10.

The following examples

will illustrate the use of Alge-

braic symbols in the solution of problems. The utility of the process consists in the fact that the unknown numbers are represented by symbols, and that the

various operations are stated in Algebraic language.


1.

The sum
;

the less by 4

of two numbers is 30, and the greater exceeds what are the numbers ?
less

We will represent the


Then

number hj

x.

By

the greater will be represented by x + 4. the conditions of the problem, the sum of the less
is

number and
:

the

greater

30

this is stated in Algebraic

language as follows

+ + 4 = 30.
a;

(1)

Now, x + x
add
cal
it

= xx2 =2
+

for to multiply

an arithmetical number by

2,

we

twice.

Again, x x 2

numbers

is

the

x aj, or 2 a; ( 5) for the product of two arithmetisame in whichever order they are multiplied.
;

Therefore, x

= 2x;

and equation
2X

(1)

can be written

+ = 30.
4
;

The members of this equation, 2 x + 4 and 30, are equal numbers if from each of them we subtract the number 4, the resulting numbers will
be equal (Ax.
6, 9).

2 a; = 30 - 4, or 2 x = 26. Therefore, Dividing the equal numbers 2 x and 26 by 2 (Ax. 8, 9),


a;

we have

13.
is

Hence, the less

number

is 13,

and the greater

13

+ 4,

or 17.

4
The written work
Let
Then,

ALGEBRA
will stand as follows
:

X
a;

= the = = =

less

number.

+ +

the greater number.


30, or 2
26.
13, the less
aj

By

the conditions,

jc

+ 4 = 30.
number.

Whence,
Dividing by
2,
ic

2 x

x =

Whence,

+4=

17, the greater number.

2. The sum of the ages of A and B is 109 years,. and A is 13 years younger than B; find their ages. Let X represent the number of years in B's age. Then, x 13 will represent the number of years in A's age. By the conditions of the problem, the sum of the ages of A and B is

109 years.

Whence,
Adding 13
to

x-lS +
2

= = = =

109, or 2

13

109.

both members (Ax.


a:

5, 9),

122.
61, the 48, the

Dividing by

2,

number
number

of years in B's age. of years in A's age.

And,

13

The
Let

vn-itten

work

will stand as follows

X x

the

number

of years in B's age.

Then,

By

the conditions,

Whence,
Dividing by
Therefore,
It
2,
.

13 = the number of years in A's age. - 13 + = 109, or 2 x - 13 = 109. 2 x = 122.


a;

x
x
13

= 61,
= 48,

the

number

of years in B's age. of years in A's age.

the

number

must be

carefully borne in mind that x can only represent an abstract

number.
Thus, in Ex.
represent the
3.
2,

we

number of years

do, not say "let x represent B's age," but "let x in B's age."

as B,

A, B, and C together have $ 66. and C has 3 times as much as A.

A has

one-half as

much
?

How much

has each

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION


Let

X
2 3 the conditions,
ic
jc

= = =
=

the
the

number

of dollars
of dollars of dollars

A
B
C

has.
has, has.

Then,

number
number

and

aj

the
66.

By

2ic

3cc

But the sum


Whence,
Dividing by

of x, twice

oj,

and 3 times x
6x

is

6 times

a;,

or 6

x.

= 66.
=
11, the

6,

x
2x 3X

number
number

of dollars

A
B
C

has. has,
has.

Whence,
and

22, the

of dollars of dollars

= 33,

the

number

(By letting x represent the number of dollars


fractions.)

has, in Ex. 3,

we

avoid

EXERCISE
1.

The
it

exceeds
''

greater of two numbers by 49 find the numbers.


;

is

8 times the

less,

and

2.

The sum

17 years older than

of the ages of and B B find their ages.


;

is

119 years, and

is

Divide $ 74 between 3.^ more than B.


/ 4.

A and B
A
and

so that

may

receive

^ 48

Divide $108 between

so that

A may

receive

5 times as
*

much

as B.

5.

Divide 91 into two parts such that the smaller shall be

one-sixth of the greater.


^ 6.

A man

travels 112 miles

by train 54 miles farther than does he travel in each way ?


^
7.

by train and steamer he goes by steamer. How many miles


;

The sum

of three

numbers

is

69; the

first is

14 greater

than the second, and 28 greater than the third.


bers.

Find the num-

8. The sum of the ages of A, B, and C is 134 years 13 years younger than A, and 7 years younger than C.

is

Find

their afjes.

6
9.

ALGEBRA

one-twelfth as
'

cow and sheep together cost $91, and the sheep cost much as the cow how much, did each cost ?
;

10.

Divide $ 6.75 between

and

so that

A may

receive

one-fourth as
^

much

as B.

11. man has $ 2. After losing a certain sum, he finds that he has left 20 cents more than 3 times the sum which he
lost.

How much

did he lose

12.

much as B, and C much has each ?


13.

A, B, and C have together $ 140 has as much as A and


;

A
B

has 4 times as
together.

How

C,

A, B, and C have together $ 100 A has $ 10 less than and C has $ 25 more than B. How much has each ?
;

v.^14. At an election two candidates, A and B, had together 653 votes, and A was beaten by 395 votes. How many did each receive ?
-

15.

A field is
it is

7 times as long as
feet.

around
16.

240

Find

its

it is wide, and the distance dimensions.

My

horse, carriage,
is

325.

The horse

and the carriage is much is each worth?


17.

and harness are worth together worth 6 times as much as the harness, worth $ 65 more than the horse. How

The sum

of three

numbers

is

87

the third

number

is

one-eighth of the first, and the second Find the numbers. first.
18.

number 15

less

than the

At

received together 436 votes; votes, and over C of 3 votes.

a certain election, three candidates. A, B, and C, had a majority over B of 14

How many

did each receive ?

19. The sum of the ages of A, B, and C is 110 years B's age exceeds twice C's by 12 years, and A is 9 years younger than B. Find their ages.
;

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION


20.

the red

is

pole 77 feet long is painted red, white, and black; one-fifth of the white, and the black 21 feet more

than the red.


^

How many
first,

feet are there of each color ?

21.

Divide 70 into three parts such that the third part shall

be one-fifth of the
22.
.

and one-fourth

of the second.

receive one-half as

Divide $ 7.55 between A, B, and C so that C may much as A, and B $ 2.95 less than A and

together.

23. A, B, and C have together $22.50; B has $1.50 more than A, and C has $ 8 less than twice the amount that A has. How much has each ?

24.

The

profits of a

third as great as in the preceding year,

shopkeeper in a certain year were oneand $ 515 less than in

the following year.

were $ 2615, what were the


25.

If the total profits for the three years profits in each year ?

of four numbers is 96. The first is 4 times the and exceeds the third by 20 and the second exceeds fourth, the sum of the first and fourth by 4. Find the numbers.

The sum

>

26.

Divide $ 468 between A, B, C, and D, so that

A may

receive one-fifth as

much
as D.

as B,

one-fifth as

much

as C, and

one-fifth as

much

DEFINITIONS
11.
If a

number be multiplied by
is

the product

called a

itself any number of times, Power of the number.

An Exponent is a number written at the right of, and above another number, to indicate what power of the latter is to be
taken; thus, read " a
a^,
a^,
a*,
^^ or " a second power, denotes a xa', " a third read "a cu&e," or power" denotes a x a X a; read " a fourth" " a fourth power," or " a exponeyit 4,"

square,''^

denotes a

ax

a x

a,

etc.

8
If

ALGEBRA
no exponent is expressed, ihejirst power Thus, a is the same as a\
is

understood.

12. Symbols of Aggregation.

The

vinculum

parentheses ( ), the brackets [ ], the braces J j, and the indicate that the numbers enclosed by them are
,
;

to be taken collectively

thus,
c,

{a+b)xc,
all

[a

+ 6]

\a-\-b\

c,

and a-{-b x
6 to

indicate that the result obtained


c.

by adding

is to

be

multiplied by

EXERCISE 2

What

operations are signified by the following ?

2.

m(xy).
ab
^'

\^

yy

(m-n).

9_

(2a + 36)(4c-5d).

'

^'*
^.

, + (y-z).

7.

^-^.
b

10.

d
:

fl+^V^ yj
\x

Write the following in symbols


11.
12.

The

result of subtracting 6 times

n from 5 times m.

Three times the product of the eighth power of the ninth power of n.

and

y
*

13.

The quotient
d.

of the

sum

of a

and

6,

divided by the

sum

of c

and

14. 15.

The product of ^x-\-y and z^. The result of subtracting y z from


c d.

x.

The product oi ab and The result of adding the quotient quotient of x by y. 18. The square of m + n.
16.
17.
,

of

by

n,

and the

19.

The cube

of

a-

c.

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION


20. Tlie fourth 21.

9
x.

power of the quotient of a divided by


of the quotient of 1

The product
y.

by

a;

and the quotient

of

Ihj
13.

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
"
f

An

number expressed

Algebraic Expression, or simply an Expression, in algebraic symbols as,


;

is

2, a,
*^

or

2aj2-3a&

+ 5.

14. The Numerical Value of an expression is the result obtained by substituting particular numerical values for the letters involved in it, and performing the operations indicated.
1.

Find the numerical value of the expression


h

when a = 4,

= 3, c = 5,

and d =
4 x 4 o

2.

We

have,

4a +

-# =

+ ^-^-23= 16 + 10-8 =18.

If the expression involves parentheses, the operations indicated within the parentheses must be performed first.
2.

Find the numerical value, when a =

9, 6

= 7,

and

= 4, of

(_6)(6 +

c)-^.
= 16,
and
6

We have,

a-

= 2,

+ c = 11,

a-\-b

- c = 3.

Then the numerical value

of the expression is

2xll-M = 22-l^ = a
3 3

EXERCISE 3
;^

J^^

= 4,
1.

Find the numerical values of the following when a d = 5, m = 3, and n = 2:

= 6, 6 = 3,

a?h-cd\

2.

2ahcd.

3.

3a6 + 46c-5cd.

10

ALGEBRA

28 cZ^

POSITIVE

AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS

11

II.

POSITIVE

AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS

There are certain concrete magnitudes which are capatwo opposite states. Thus, in financial transactions, we may have assets or Uahilities, and gains or losses; we may have motion along a
15.
ble of existing in

straight line in a certain


tion;
etc.

direction, or in the opposite direc-

In each of these cases, the

effect of

combining with a magis

nitude of a certain kind another of the opposite kind, diminish the former, destroy it, or reverse its state.

to

Thus,

if

to

a certain

amount
is

of

asset

we add

a certain
or

of liability, the asset changed into liability.

amount

diminished, destroyed,

and besides denoting addition and subsigns , traction, are also used, in Algebra, to distinguish between the opposite states of magnitudes like those of 15.
16.

The

Thus,
are

by the sign

indicate assets by the sign -f-, and liabilities for example, the statement that a man's assets 100, means that he has liabilities to the amount of $ 100.

we may

EXERCISE 4
1.

If a
is

much
'

man has assets of $400, and he worth ?

liabilities of

$600,

how

2. If gains be taken as positive, and losses as negative, what does a gain of $ 100 mean ?

3.

In what position
In what position

is

man who
man who

is

miles north of a

certain place ?
4. is

is

50

feet west of a

certain point ?
5. How many miles north of a certain place goes 5 miles north, and then 9 miles south ?
is

man who

12
6.

ALGEBRA
is

How many miles east of a certain place 11 miles west, and then 6 miles east ? goes
17.
Positive

man who

and Negative Numbers.

and negative states of any concrete magnitude be expressed without reference to the unit, the results are
If the positive
called positive Thus, in
is

and

+ f 5 and $3, + 5
+

yiegative

numbers, respectively. is a positive number, and


called the positive sign,

3
and

a negative number.

For
'

this reason the sign

is

the sign
tive

the negative sign. If no sign is expressed, the number


;

is

understood to be posi

thus, 5

is

the same as
sign

+ 5.

The negative
number.
18.

must never be omitted before a negative

The

Absolute Value of a

number

is

the number taken

independently of the sign affecting it. Thus, the absolute value of 3 is 3.

ADDITION OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS


19.

We

meaning, so long as

shall give to addition in Algebra its arithmetical the 7iumbers to be added are positive integers

or positive fractions.

may then attach any meaning we please to addition involving other forms of numbers, provided the new meanings are not inconsistent with principles previously established.
20. In adding a positive number and a negative, or two negative numbers, our methods must be in accordance with the principles of 15.
If a man has assets of $ 5, and then incurs liabilities of f 3, he will be worth $2. If he has assets of $ 3, and then incurs liabilities of $ 5, he will be in debt to the amount of $2.

We

POSITIVE
If

AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS


$ 5, and then incurs amount of $ 8.
liabilities of

13

he has

liabilities of

^ 3,

he will be in debt to the

Now
may

with the notation of

be regarded as adding
the

$3

15,

incurring liabilities of

$3

to his property.

Whence,

sum

of

the

sum
sum

of of

+ |5 f5
- $5

and and

$3

is

and

the

and

+$3 is $3 is

+ ^2; $2; $8.

Or, omitting reference to the unit,

+ 5) + (-3) = +2; (_5) + ( + 3)=-2; (_5) + (-3)=-8.


(

To

indicate the addition of

5 and

3,
:

they must be enclosed in

parentheses ( 12).

We

then have the following rules

^ To add a x>ositive and a negative number, subtract the less absolute value ( 18) from the greater, and prejlx to the result the sign of the number having the greater absolute value.

y To add two negative numbers, add


prefix a negative sign
to the result.

their absolute values,

and

21. Examples.
1.

Find the sum of

+ 10
(

and

3.
7.

Subtracting 3 from 10, the result

is 7.

Whence,
2.

10)

+ ( - 3) = +
and

Find the sum of

12
(_
12)

+ 6.

Subtracting 6 from 12, the result

is 6.

Whence,
3.

+ ( + 6) =-6.

Add

-9
of 9

and -5.
and 5
is 14.

The sum
Whence,

(_

9)

+ (_

5)

=_

14

14

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 5

Find the values of the following

^1. (-6)
2.
3.
v'4.

+ (-7). (+8) + (-3).

8.

f-5Vf-'

(-9)+(4-5).

9.

5. 6.

17.

+ (-11). (-13) + (-18). (_42) + (+57). (-34) + (+82).


(+4)

f+D^f-l V V f y
+ (+12j). (+17f) + (-10A). (-14|) + (-21A).
(-15i)

1011.

12.

MULTIPLICATION OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE

NUMBERS
22. If two expressions are multiplied together, the first is called the Multiplicand, and the second the Multiplier. The result of multiplication is called the Product.
shall retain for multiplication, in Algebra, its arith23. metical meaning, so long as the multiplier is a positive integer or

We

a positive fractioyi.

That is, to multiply a number by a positive integer is to add the multiplicand as many times as there are units in the multiplier.

For example,
Thus,

4 three (-4)x(+3) = (-4) + (-4) + (-4) = -12.


to multiply

by

3,

we add

times.

24. In Arithmetic, the product of two numbers


in whichever oi^der they are multiplied.

is

the same

3x4 and 4 x 3 are each equal to 12. we could assume this law to hold for the product positive number by a negative, we should have
Thus,
If

of a

(+3)x(-4) = (-4)x(+3) = -12(23)=-(3x4).

POSITIVE
Then,
if

AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS


is

15
follow-

the above law

to hold,

ing meaning to multiplication by a negative

we must give the number


:

the absolute value ( 18)


the result.

To multiply a 7iumber by a negative number is to multiply it by of the multiplier, and change the sign of

Thus, to multiply + 4 by 3, we multiply giving + 12, and change the sign of the result.

+4

by +3,

That

is,

(+ 4) X (- 3)

= - 12.

4 by 3, we multiply 4 by +3, Again, to multiply 12 ( 23), and change the sign of the result. giving
That
25.
is,

(- 4) X (- 3)

= + 12.
:

From 23 and 24 we

derive the following rule

"^To multiply one number by another, multiply together


absolute values.

their

X Make
of like
26.
1.

the

sign,

product plus when the multipUcand and multiplier are and minus whe7i they are of unlike sign.

Examples.

Multiply
the rule,

+8
(+

by -5.
8)

By
2.

x (-

5)

=-

(8

5)

= - 40.

Multiply
the rule,

-7

by

- 9.
(7

By
3.

(- 7) x (- 9) = +

x 9)

= + 63.
b

Find the numerical value when a = 4 and


(a

= 7,

of

+ by.
-27.

We

have,

6)3 ^^

_ 7)(4 _ 7)(4 _7) (4

= (-3)(-3)(-3) =
EXERCISE 6
Find the values of the following
1.
:

(-H,5)x(-4).

2.

(-11) X (+3).

16 3

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

17

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF III. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS. PARENTHESES


*127.

Monomial, or Term,

is

an expression

parts are not separated by the signs or 5.


2x^,

or

13)
a?^,

whose

as 2

3 ah,

3 ah,

and

+5
is

are called the terms of the expression


.

2x"-^ah-^^.
^A. Positive
If no sign
tive.

Term
is

one preceded by a -h sign as + 5 a. expressed, the term is understood to be posi;

^A Negative

The

Term is one preceded by a sign as 3 ah. sign must never be omitted before a negative term.
;

28. If two or more numbers are multiplied together, each of them, or the product of any number of them,
of the product.
is

called a Factor

Thus,

a, h,

c,

ah, ac,

and

he are factors of the product ahc.

*'29. Any factor of a product is called the Coefficient of the product of the remaining factors. Thus, in 2 ah, 2 is the coefficient of ah, 2 a of 6, a of 2 h, etc. V 30.
als,

and the other in


the

If one factor of a product is expressed in Arabic numerletters, the former is called the numerical
latter.

coefficient of

Thus, in 2 ah, 2 is the numerical coefficient of ah. If no numerical coefficient is expressed, the coefficient 1 is
understood
31.
;

thus, a

is

the same as 1

a.

By
is,

25,

That

3 a is
is

(-3) X a

=-

(3

Then,

3 and a. the product of the numerical coefficient of a in

a)

= -3a. 3 a.

/Thus,

in

a negative term as in a

positive, the numerical coeffi-

cient includes the sign.

18
^'

ALGEBRA
Similar or Like Terms are those which either do not

32.

differ at all, or differ only in their

numerical coefficients

2 x^y and 7 x^y. " Dissimilar or Unlike Terms are those which are not similar
as 3 x^y

as

and 3 xy'^.

ADDITION OF MONOMIALS
33.

The sum

of a

and

h is expressed

+6

( 3).

V 34. define Subtraction, in Algebra, as the process of finding one of two numbers, when their sum and the other number are given. The Minuend is the sum of the numbers.

We

The Subtrahend is the given number. The Remainder is the required number.
35.

The remainder when


( 4).

h is subtracted

from a

is

-6

expressed

Since the
the minuend

sum

of the remainder

and the subtrahend gives

( 34),

we have

ah-\-h = a.
^

Hence, if

the

same number

he both

added

to,

arid subtracted

from, another, the value of the


^

latter is not

changed.

36. It follows from

35 that terms of equal absolute value,

but opposite sign, in an expression,


37.

may

be cancelled.

We

will

now show how


a

to find the

sum

of

a and

b.

By 35,
for adding

and

But by 20,
for

+ {-b) = a + {-b) + b-b; subtracting b does not alter a + ( 6). (-6) + ^ = 0;


numbers of the same absolute
a-\-

(1)

and

b are

value, but

opposite sign.

Therefore,

{b)

=a

b',

for the other terms in the second


other.

member

of (1) cancel each

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


*^38.
It follows
is effected

19

from 33 and 37 that the addition of monoa,

mials

by uniting their terms with their respective signs

Thus, the sum of

d, and ab-\-c d e.
b,c,

e is

^39. We assume that the terms can be united in any order, provided each has its proper sign. Hence, the result of 38 can also be expressed

c-\-a
This law
"^

e db, d b-\-c e-\-a,


Commutative

etc.
;

is

called the

Law for

Addition

compare
4,

451.

40.
4,

To multiply

3 by

5 + 3 by 4, we multiply 5 by and add the second result to the first.

and then

Thus,

We
a by
c,

then assume

+ 3)4=5x4 + 3x4. that to multiply a + 5 by


(5
c,

c,

we multiply
to the
first.

and then

by

and add the second result

Thus,
This law
is

(a

+ b)c = ac
will

-\-

be.
its

called the Distributive

for the various forms of

number

Law for Multiplication ; be found in 455.

proof

41. Addition of Similar Terms ( 32).


1.

Required the sum of 5 a and 3 a.


5a

We have,
2.

3a

(5 + 3)a = 8 a.

( 40)

Required the sum of


have,

5 a and

3 a.
(31) (40) (20) (81)

We

(_ 5a) + (- 3a) = (-

5) x a +(- 3) x a = [(-5) + (-3)]xa = (-8)xa = -8a.

3.

Required the

sum

of 5 a

and

3 a.

(40)
( 20)

We have,

5a+(- 3)a =[5 +(- 3)] x


= 2 .

20
4.

ALGEBRA
Required the sum of
(_ 5)a +

5a
3 a

and 3a.
(40)
2 a.

We have,

=[(-

5) + 3] x a = (-2)x a (20) = -

/ Therefore, to add two similar terms, find the sum of their numerical coefficients ( 20, 30, 31), and affix to the result the
common
5.
letters.

Find the sum of 2

a,

a, 8a,

12 a,

and 6

a.

Since the additions


positive terms first, these two results.

may be performed in any order, we may add the and then the negative terms, and finally combine
and 6 a
is

The sum The sum

of 2 a, 3 a, of

11 a.

a and

12 a
is

is

Hence, the required sum


6.

11

13 a. a + ( 13 a),

or

2 a.

The sum The sum

Add 3(a-b), -2(a-b), 6(a-b), and -4(a-6). of 3(a - b) and 6(a - b) is 9(a - b). of 2(a &) and 4(a &) is 6(a 6).
is

Then, the result

[9

+(-^ 6)](a

6), or

3(a

6).

If the terms are not all similar, we may combine the similar terms, and unite the others with their respective signs ( 38).
7.

Eequired the sum of 12


a;.

a,

5x,

3 y^, Ba,

Sx, and

The sum The sum

of 12 a and
of

-6x,

5a Sx, and
is

is

7 a.
a;

Then, the required sum

- 3 is 7 a Sy^.

( 36).

EXERCISE 7

Add
^1.
2. 3.

the following

11 a and

6 a.
a;.

6.
7.

abc

and 12 abc.

7x and -10

8a^/ and -29a^/.

-4n

and -9w.
and 5a6.

v8. 9(a
9.
^^

4.
v*

13ab

+ &) and -2(a + 6). ITa^n^ and 60a%nl

5.

-17 a^

and -loa^.

10.

8a, 7a, and -^9a.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


11.

21

15m, m,
16 xyz,

12.
13.
14.

5 4 xyz,

711,

and

12 m.

xyz,

and

6 xyz.
and -147il

6(x y),
18
n2,

-5(x y), and 10(x-y).


2n2,

-13^2,

7i',

15. 16.

rl7.
18.

19.

^20.

-3a% -17a% and 10a6. 3 ax, and 2 9 7 ax, 8 5 llz, 2x, and 10?/. (m + n), 4 (m n), 3 (m 4- n), and 7 (m 14 a, Ad, 8c, 6, 2a, 3c, 15 and 4 3 9 and 2 6 X, 7 52;, Sy,
19a3?>, 2a^b,
6?/,
6?/.
a;,
2;,

2/,

'8

ri).

c?,

c.

2/,

2,

a;,

?/,

2;,

a;.

i^ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS
42.

Polynomial
;

is

an algebraic expression consisting of

more than one term

as a

b,

or 2x^

xy 3 y^.
;

A A A

polynomial
Binomial
Trinomial
is is

is

also called a multinomial. as


;

a polynomial of ^wo terms

b.

a polynomial of three terms

as a

+6

c.

polynomial is said to be arranged according to the descending powers of any letter, when the term containing the highest power of that letter is placed first, that having the next lower immediately after, and so on.
43.

Thus,
is

x'

+3

ar^2/-

2a^/ + 3a;/-4/
x.

arranged according to the descending powers of


The term

?/*, which does not involve x at all, is regarded as containing the lowest power of x in the above expression.

polynomial is said to be arranged according to the ascending powers of any letter, when the term containing the lowest j)ower of that letter is placed first, that having the next higher immediately after, and so on.
Thus,
is

x'-\-3a^y-2x^y^-\-Sxf-4:7/^
y.

arranged according to the ascending powers of

22

ALGEBRA
,

44. Addition of Polynomials.

Let

it

be required to add &

+ c to
and
a.

a.

Since 6

+c

is

the
c

sum
a

of h

c ( 3),

we may add

+c

to

a by adding h and

separately to

Then,
The above assumes

+ (6 + c) = a + & + c.
of &

(To indicate the addition

c,

we

enclose

it

in parentheses.)

that, to

add the sum

of a set of terms,

we add

the

terms separately. This is called the Associative


in 452.

Law for Addition;

its

proof will be found

45. Let

it

By

37,

Then, to
( 44).

6 c is the sum add h c to a,

be required to add h
of b

cto and
h

a.

c.

we add

and

separately to a

Whence,
46.
'"^To
1.

-f-

(6

c) = a + & c.
following rule
:

From 44 and 45 we have the


add a polynomial, add
its

terms with their signs unchanged.

Add 6a 7a^,

3a^ 2a + 3?/^,

and

.2 a^

a m/i.

We set the expressions down one underneath the other, similar terms being in the same vertical column. We then find the sum of the terms in each column, and write the results with their respective signs thus,
;

-7 - 2a + 3 + 3 a + 2aj2 a 2 4- 3
6a
a:2 a:2 a;2

?/3

?/3

mn _ ^^

2. Add 4:X-3x'-ll + 5x\ U-^ea^ + lOx-^x".


It is

12a;2_

7_8 a^-15a;,

and

convenient to arrange each expression in descending powers of x


thus,

( 43)

5x^- 3a;2+ 4a; -11 -Sx^ + V2x^-lbx- 7


GccS3x3

Qx^+lOx+U - X- A

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


3.

23

Add

9(a

+ ^>)-8(6 + c),
8(6

_ 3(6 + c) - 7(c + a),


+ c) + c)-7(c + +4(c + + c) - 3(c +

and

4(c

+ a)-5(tt + 6).
9(a+6)-5(a+6) 4(a + 6)
3(6
a) a) a)

ll(&

4.

Add fa + |6 ic and i-a-f6 + fc.

EXERCISE 8

Add

the following
1.

2.

i^.
-17am-{4.bn

Sa-7b

6a^-16y^

-5+46
a-2b
4.

9a^+ 32/' -12a^ + 10y^

6am-llbn
9am-{-19bn
2!.

7 x-{-6y

9z

and 4ic

8?/

+5

5.
6.

4m^ 4mwH-n', 5 a 7 6, 4 6 9

m' + 4 m?i H- 4
c,

w',

and

5m' + 5n'.
S

and 6

2 a.
x'-6 xy-4.y\

Vrt.
8.

^:^-2xy + 7y% -^ x'^^ xy-10 yS^ndi

a-9-8a2 + l6a^
^(a

+ 15 a=^- 12 a-2 a',

and Ga'-lOa^ + lla-lS.


9.

+ b)-4.x(x-y), -6{a + b) + ^x{x-y), and 8 (a H- 6) 7


cc

(a;

2/).

10.

Vll.

|a-i6-y\c 5m4-9w + 4a;,


^8^aj-h|2/

and

-f a
7 m.

+ i6--^c.
-10 + 8a; + 2m,
2/

-3a;-72/-6n,
and JVa;-|2/-i2;.

and n-\-lly
12.

+ H2

24
13.

ALGEBRA
4(y-{.z)-9(z + x\ 7{z-\-x). 6c + 2a-Sb, 4.d-7 c-{-12 a, Sb-5d + and -10 a -11 6 + 9 d. _7(a-6)2 + 8(a-6)+2, 4(a - 6)2 - 5 (a - 6),

U(x -{-y) -17 (y + z),

and S(x-^y)

14.

c,

n5.
16.

3(a-by-9. 8a3-lla-7a2, 2a-6a2 + 10, -5 + 4a3 + 9a, and lSa'-5-12\


a;22/

and

17.

+ 2a;2/' + 3i^

o^^/'

4-

2/^

_ 5 ^^^^

6a^

+ 5tf-7 xy',

and _82/' + 9a^2/-7aj3.


'^18.

lla^-13 + 4a:3^5^^ -14x + 2a^ + 7 + 12a^, Sx'-3x-10-{-6x% and l-15a^H-9a;- 16

a^.

|a2-|a-|, -Ja^ + a + l, and _7a2_6tt_^|. ^20. 5mhi-n^-4.m^-\-2m7i% 7 mn^ ~lSm^n + 2m^-d7i%


19.

V2l.

- 15 m7^2 + 3 m^n + 16 + 8 m%_ 5 m^ + 3 mn^ 6 + 10 m^n. -5n3 + 2n-12-15<, - 14 + 7 n - n^ - 9 n^, 6?i2+137i3^3_ll^^ and ^-nn + 10n^ + 4.n\
71^

and

?i^

t SUBTRACTION OF MONOMIALS
47.

The remainder when

h is subtracted

from a

is

expressed

a-6(4).

We will
By
34,

now show how to subtract h from a. the sum of the remainder and the subtrahend equals

the minuend.

that,

Then, the required remainder must be an expression such when it is added to 6V:^he sum shall equal a. But if a- + 5 is added to 6, the sum is a ( 35). Therefore, the required remainder is a + b.

That
48.

is,

a-(-6) = a + 6.
47,

Prom

we have

the following rule


its sign,

To
the

subtract

a monomial, change

and add

the result to

minuend.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


1.

25

Subtract 5 a from 2

a.

'

Changing the sign of the subtrahend,


uend,
2 a
2.

and adding the

result to the

min-

2 a

+ (-

5 a)

= -3 a

( 41).

Subtract

2a from 5 a,
5a^(-2a) = 5a + 2a = 7a.

3.

Subtract

5a from 2a.
-2a-(-5a)=-2a +
5 = 3a.

4.

Subtract 5{x-\-y) from 2(x-\-y).

- 2(a: +
The

?/)- 5(a;

?/)

=-

7(x

?/).

pupil should endeavor to put down the results, in examples like the above, v^^ithout writing the intermediate step ; changing the sign of the subtrahend mentally, and adding the result to the minuend.
5.

From

23 a take the
23 a

sum

of 19 a

and

5 a.
is to

It is

subtracted,

convenient to change the sign of each expression which and then add the results.
19 a

he

We

then have

+ 5 a,

or

37 a.

EXERCISE 9
Subtract the following
1.
:

9 from

3.

4.
5.
'''e.

-5

from

12.

Y.
8. 9.

y^2.
3.

2 from - 6. - 16 from - 10.


10. 11.

42 from

15.

- 28

from

- 61.

-f from 3^. - if from - f. - 3|. lOf from


--14.

v*12.
a?

13.

14 a

^^a^
4
g^

8a
15.
16.

-11a;
6c.

15 mn - 1 mn

12 x'y

7 x'y

5 6c from
xyz from

19.

19 (a -6) from 17 (a -6).

- 8 xyz.
'

20.
21. 22.

17.
18.

25

a^x^

from 13 a-x\

- 40 ahc from - 23 ahc.

- 18 a^c" from - 45 a%c\ From 7 x take - 11 y. From - 2 a^ take 5 w^.

26
23.

ALGEBRA
From
the

sum sum

of

18 ab and

9ab

take the

sum

of

21 ab
24.

and 11

ab.

From

the

of

13 n^

and 24

n^ take the

sum sum

of

46 n^ and

19 n^.
the
aj?/^,

V 25. From 29 x^^ 34


J\
49.

sum
and

47

of 16 xy^
ic^/^.

and 37

a;?/^

take the

of

SUBTRACTION OF POLYNOMIALS
may be regarded as the sum we have the following rule
:

Since a polynomial

of its

separate terms ( 38),

To subtract a polynomial, change and add the result to the minuend.


1.

the sign

of each of

its

terms,

Subtract 7 a^^

_ 9 a'b -\-Sb^

from 5

a^

- 2 a'b

-\- 4.

ab\

subtrahend under the minuend, so that similar terms shall be in the same vertical column. We then mentally change the sign of each term of the subtrahend, and
It is

convenient to place tlie

add the

result to the

minuend

thus,
4:

,6a^-2a^b +

ah^

+ 7 a62 ^ 8 63 5a3+ 1 a% -Sab^-Sb^


9 d^h
2.

Subtract the

sum

of 9x^

Sx-{-x^

and d
is

a^ + x

from
and

6a;3-7ic-4.

We change the sign of each expression which add the results. ^ ^ a; 4 6x^ 7 -x^-9 xl+ 8 X
6
aj3

to be subtracted,

+ x'^- x-5 _ 8 x2 -9
10

EXERCISE
Subtract the following:
1.
aj^

2.
-|-

3.

4- 13

a?

11

3a^-\-6x5

2 m^ 4 mn 9n^ 8m^ 7 mn +, 14 n^

ab \-bc + ca ab bc-^ ca

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


4.

27

5.
6.
7.

From Sx + 2y 7z subtract Sx 2y-\-7z. From 4:a^- 5a^ -15a-6 take a^ -120,' -3a

+ ll.

From

7a 9c 6

subtract

5c + 12 a 85.

8.

Subtract 5(x+y)-\-9(xy) from 7 (x-{-y)6(xy). Take 49 x^ + 16 m^ - 56 mx from 25 m^ -f- 36 a^ - 60 mx.

9.

10.

V 11.
12.

+ 6 a^?/ 4 11 9 xry + 14: xy^ Sy^? Take 8 a - 12 a^^ + 6 aft^ - 6^ from a^-6 o?h + 12 a^^ _ 8 h\ What expression must be added to 3 a^ + 5 By how much does 2 m 4 m^ 15 + 17 m^ exceed 9 + 6 m^ 11 m 14 m^ ?
By how much
does 15
or^

a??/^

2/^

exceed Sx^

a?

to give

13.
14.
15.

From

+ 15 ar^- 18 subtract ~2x' -13 + 41 Take 3 6-16 d + 7 a -10c from -13c-hl4 a-5d^9 Subtract 12a; 7^-6?/ from lln + 3m 8a;.
a?
ix^.

6.

v'le.
17. 18. 19.

From

7r-5+20 7i3+13n

take

-9-14

71^

+16ii+5

rz^.

From fa tV^ + to^ subtract ia + |6 fc. Subtract 15 a -21^2 + 17 from -12d' + 22a^-9a
Take a^-Qo? -Ua^-Sa-\-4:
from 7a^

+ 3a'^-5a2-lla-9. \7i-\-^p take fm J7i + Jj9. ^m From n^-10A'-nV + 8wa;=^ + 3a;4 ^1. take 5 n^ + 4 n^a; - 9 n^a;^ + 2n:x?- 12 a;^ 22. Take 18a;*-8a; + 6a;^ + 12-8a;3 from -10a;3^2-15a;2 + llar^-4a;. - 10 a%'' + 13 a'W - 7 ah'' -5 b' 23. Take from 9 (f + 3 a'b + 6 r/// - a^fts _ ig 5 xy - ?/ and 7 x^ 3xy-\-9y^ ^ 4. From the sum of 2 ^ Ql subtract 4x^ 6xy-{-S y^. O' ^ 25. From 5 a^ 1. subtract the sum of 4 a^ and 3 a
20.

From

a-^

55^

.r-

'^

"*.

28
26.

ALGEBRA
From 7x 5z~3y
and
subtract the
4tX.

sum

of S y

-\-

2x

11 z

27.

28.

29.

6z~12y + 6 n 11 subtract the sum of 2 4 n 3, 77i2-107i + 4, and -3n2 + 8n-12. From the sum of 36 + 2a-4c and 9G-\-3b~5d subtract the sum of 6 7 a and 8a 7d + 9& + 5c. From the sum of 4a-l + 5a^-8a^ ll-da'+Sa^-T a,
From
671^
r^^
c?

and

3a^-7+10a-a^

subtract
30.

a*^

+ 9 a 6 a^ + 2.
3a^-10a;-5

From

the

sum

of 7 a^-4.x^-\-Gx and

take the

sum of 5a^ + 4ic-|-12 and 8a^-lla;2_2.

PARENTHESES
50. Removal of Parentheses.

By

45,

a+

(6

c) = a + 6

c.

Hence, parentheses preceded by a -\- sign may he removed without changing the signs of the terms enclosed.
Again, by

(h G) = a h-\-c. Hence, pa7-entheses preceded by a sigyi


49,

may
-{-

be
to

removed if

the sign

of each term enclosed be changed, from

, and from

to

^.
rules apply equally to the removal of the brackets,

The above
braces, or

( 12). It should be noticed in. the case of the latter that the sign apparently prefixed to the first term underneath is in reality

vinculum

prefixed to the vinculum the (a b), and

thus, 4- a

ab

same as

6 means (a b).

the same as

61.

1.

Eemove

the parentheses from

2a-36-(5a-4 6)4-(4a-6).
By
the rules of
50,

the expression becomes

2a-3&-5a + 46 + 4a-6 = a.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


Parentheses sometimes enclose others
be
;

29

in this case they

may

by the rules of 50. Beginners should remove one at a time, commencing with the innermost pair but after a little practice, they should be able
in succession
;

removed

to

remove several signs of aggregation

at

one operation, in which


pair.

case they should


2.

commence with the outermost

Simplify 4fl? \^ x -\remove the vinculum

{ 2 x x a)\.
then the parentheses, and finally the

We
braces.

first,

Thus,

4a;-{3x+(-2x-x-a)} = 4x-{3x + (-2aj-x + a)} = 4x {3x 2x x + a} = 4x 3x + 2x4-aJ = 4x a.


EXERCISE
II

Simplify the following by removing the signs of aggregation, and then uniting similar terms
:

1.

2.

Z.

4.
5.

6.
^7.
*8.
9.

m + ( 4 m + 6 2x-^y-[px + y-]+\-^x-ly\. a-6-2c + 2a-b-c -^-2b-c. 4.y^-2x'-l-4.x^-7xy + 5y^^ + (Sx^-9xy). Sa^-5ab-l-4.a'-{-2ab-9b^-7a'-6ab + b\ 5a-(7a-[9a + 4]).
9
?i)

(3 m n).

7x-l-Sy-10x-lly]. 6 m?i + 5 ([ 7 m7i 3] 5 m7^ 11 ). 8 a^ - 9 - (5 a^ - 3 a + 2) + (6 a^ - 4 a - 7).


J J

10.

^11.
12.

2x-{Sy-\-5x-5x-y)-(-9y-^3x). 25- (-8- [-34-16-47]).


7x-(5x-[-12x-\-6x-ll']).

/13.

2a-(-3b-\-c-la-b])-(Sa-\-2c-[^2b-{-ScJ).

30
14.

ALGEBRA

5m-[7m- J-3m-4wi + 9i -6m-8]


+ 7) j]. m [71 6 m] [m + 7 nj). 2a+[-6&- S3c + (-46-6c + a)J]. 7x-(-6x-l~5x-[-4:X-3x-22l). 5 n - [S - (3 n + 6) - - 6 n -\-7 - 5\'].
37-[419
513
j

15.
16. 17. 18. 19.

-(56 -28

m (3 n +

71

71

20. 21.
22.

4a-[a- 5-7a-(8a-5a + 3)-(-6a-2a-9)|].


a?_
5

-11 2/- [2 a;-(-42/-S- 7 aj-5 2/1 -6 i-9?/)]j.

3a-[6-(46-7c)-f2a-(36-5c)-66 + cn.

^23. 2aj-[-4iK-{oa;-(aj-7a; + 6)j+(3aj-8a;-9)].


52. Insertion of Parentheses.

To

enclose

terms in parentheses, we take the converse of the

rules of 50.

A7iy 7iumber of terms


by a
-{-

may
may

be enclosed in pa7^entheses preceded

sign, without cliangi7ig their signs.

Any mimber
by a

of terms

sign, if the sign

or fi-om

be e7iclosed in parentheses p7'eceded each ^erm be changed, froin -{- to , of

to

-\-.

Ex.

Enclose the last three terms of a

parentheses preceded by a
Result,

b + c d-\-e

in

sign.
e).

{c-\-d
12

EXERCISE

In each of the following expressions, enclose the last three terms in parentheses preceded by a sign
:

1.

a b c-\-d.

5. 6.
7.

"2.
3. 4.

m3

+ 2?7i2 + 3m + 4.

4:X^ y^ 2yz z\ d\ a^ + b- - c-\-

x'^xhj-xy''-7f.

x'^-2xy^7f + 3x-4.y.

a2-462 + l26-9.

V%. n^-b n^-S7i'' + ^n

+ l.

ADDITION AND SUBTIIACTION


9.

31
in

In each of the above results, enclose the last two terms

})arentheses in brackets preceded

by a

sign.

53. Addition and Subtraction of Terms having Literal


cients.

Coeffi-

To add two

or

more terms involving the same power

of a

certain letter, with literal, or numerical and literal, coefficients, it is convenient to put the coefficient of this letter in parentheses.
1.

Add ax and

x.

Bji 40,

ax-\-2x
(2

(a

2)x.
'

2.

Add
n)ij

m + n)y
3 7i)y

and (m

3 n)y.

(2

m+

+ (m -

w + w) + (w - 3 n)']y = (2 m + w + m - 3 ri)?/( 50) = (3 w - 2 w)?/.


[(2
to put

(The pupil should endeavor


3.

down

the result in one operation. )

Subtract (b
48,

c)a^ from
ax2

ax^.

By

(6

c)a;2

= ia-(ib- c)]x2 = (a - & + c)x2 (


13

50).

EXERCISE

Add
1.

the following
bx.
cc^.

ax and

4.
5.

mx, nx, and px.

y 2.
3
.

mx^ and 2 mny and pqy.

VQ.

aV and (ab b^)af. 7 d)n. (3 a + 4 b)n and (5 c


nxy from
(p

Subtract the following :


^^i^.
8.

2 bx from 3 ax.

9.

aa;^/.

mny from
V 11.

a6?/,

10.

+ g)a;

from

ma;.

(2

-3

b)y^

from

(5 a

- 4 b)y\

32

ALGEBRA

IV.

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


h are

54. The Rule of Signs.


If a

and

any two positive numbers, we have by

25^

(+ a) X (+ &)= + ab,
(a)x(-{-b) =

ab,
we may
state
:

(+a) X (- &) = - db, (_,) x ( 6) = + &.


what
is

From

these results

called the Rule of

Signs in multiplication, as follows

TJie product of two terms of like sign of two terms of unlike sign is 7iegative.

is

positive; the product

55.

We

have by

54,

( a) X (

6)

X (

c)

= (ab) x ( c) = abc
;

(1)
(1),

(- a) X (-

6)

X (- c) X (- d)=(- abc) x(-d), by

= abcd',

etc.

That is, the product of three negative terms is negative the product of four negative terms is positive and so on. ^ In general, the product of any number of terms is positive or
;
;

negative according as the

number of negative terms

is

even or odd.

56. The

Let

it

Law of Exponents. be required to multiply a^ by al


a^

By
and

lly

Whence,

a^

= a X a X a, a^ = axa. a^ = a X a x a x a x a =
a""

a'^.

We
Let

will
it

now

consider the general case.

be required to multiply

by

a",

where

m and n

are

any positive integers.

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGP^BRAIC EXPRESSIONS

38

We
and

have

a'^^axax
a''

to

m factors,
n
factors.
?-

Then,

(r

a''

= axax =a x ax
, is

-" to

to

m+

factors

= "*+".

(The Sign of Continuation^

read ''and so

ony)

^tlence, the exponent of a letter in the product is equal to its exponent in the multiplicand plus its exponent in the multiplier.

This

is

called the

Law

of Exponents for Multiplication.


three or more

similar result holds for the product of powers of the same letter.

Thus,

a^xa^x

a'

= a^+'*+^ = a^.

MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS
57.
1.

Let

it

be required to multiply 7 a by

2 5.

By

31,
7

_,26=(-2)x&.
a x (- 2

Then,

6)=

7 7

a x

(-

2)

&

=
In the above solution,
ivritten in

x(-2)x

a X

6=-14a&.

(54)

we assume

that the factors of a product can he


its

any order.
called the

This

is

the various forms of

Commutative Laid for Multiplication ; number will be found in 453.

proof for

2.
(

Eequired the product of

2 a^h^,

6 ab^, and

7 a^c,

- 2 a^b^) X

Q ab^ X

(-

7 a^c)

= (-2)a^b^x 6ab^x(-7)a*c = ( 2) X 6 X ( - 7) X ^2 X X = 84 a^ftSc, by 55 and 56.


Of

6^

6^

We

then have the following rule for the product of any


of

number

monomials

>^To the product of the numerical coefficients ( 30, annex the letters ; giving to each an exponent equal to
its

31, 55, 56)


the

sum

of

expo7ients in the factors.

34
3.

ALGEBRA
Multiply

-Ba^bhj -S
5

aW.

(4.

a%) X

8 ah^)

40 a^+i^i+s

^ 40 a^^i,

Find the product of 4


4 w2 X

n^,

3 n^,

and 2 w^

3 w6) X 2 w*

= - 24 ^2+6+4. = - 24 n".

5.

Multiply x'^hj 7 x\

6.

Multiply 6
6
c

(?.

+ ny by
7

(m

+ nf= 42 (m +
14
w)^-

(m + ny X

(m +

w)^

EXERCISE
Multiply the following:
1.

a;''

by 4

a;2.

V 9.
10.

2.-8 a^h by 7 ab\ - 3 by. V* 3. 11 ax by 4.-7 xf by 9


/5.

HI.
1^12.

a.-^?/.

15

6V by

a^ft^
1^

13.

v6.
7.

^8.

- x^y^'z' by a^/2;. by 2/)^ 13 - 5 a%h' by - 12


(a;
2/)

14.
15.

+ 5)^ by 6(a + &)' - 6 aV/ by 11 x^zK - 2 a^-ft^n by - 5 a"^6^. 14 xPy""^ by 8 4 m^ - 7 m^ and - 3 m\ 2 a^ 6 6^ and - 8 c^
9(a
a;*?/*^.

(aj

a^^6,

ft^c"*,

and cV^.

17.

V 18.
y

19.

20.

21.

a'^^'^c^ 16. - 5 a^y, - 9^V, and- z'x x^, 6 and 4 2 - 3 a% - 5 5^c, - 2 c^a, and - a^ftV. 3 mhi^a?, 4 mhi^y^, 5 m^o^y'^, and 6 A-y. - WPd', - a'^d^, and - 0. a2"tc^ 2 mx^, 3 my, 5 iiV, and 4 n^?/*. m^Ti^,
a)^,
aj'',

aj^.

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS


58. In
ac
40,

we assumed

that the product of a

+6

by

was

+ he.

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

35

We

then have the following rule for the product of a poly:

nomial by a monomial

V Multiply
add
Ex.

each term of the multiplicand by the multiplier^ and

the 2)ciTtial products.

Multiply 2a^-5aj + 7 by -83^

(2a;2_5x+7)x(-8a:3)

= (2a:2)x(-8x3) + (-5a;)x(-8a;3) + (7)x(-8a;S) = _ 16x5 + 40x4-56^:3.


The student should put down
the final result in one operation.

EXERCISE
Multiply the following
/I.
2.
:

15

5a;-12 by 7 x.
10 a^b -^7 ah' by

5.

8a;^

by 6x^-\-5x-17.

-6ab\
by

6.
7.

-4:a^b^ by
7
x'^y^''

3a^-2ah-ib\
by 3xhf.

^. x^ 4:X^y^ + 4:y^
,4.

Sm^'-m^-S
k
9.

by

xY-l 5m^
7i^

S x^y"

e,

8.

6a^-4a^-5a^ by 9a^

m^n + 8
2
a'b'

^ 10.

by

3 m'* by 12 m^n'^. a^ ~ 6 a^^ + 12 aft^ _ g 53^ +


7i4

kll. 9?i2_6-2n3-57i
/12.

by

-3n^

bo^-2x'y-{-4.xy''-3f hy llxy.

iMULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS BY POLYNOMIALS


59.

Let

it

be required to multiply a-\-b by c-\-d.

As

in 40,

we multiply
(a

a-\-b by

c,

and then a-\-b by


that
is,

d,

and add the second result

to the first;

+ 6) (c + d) = (a 4- b)c + (a + b)d = ac be -{ ad bd.


-\-

-\-

We then

have the following rule

Multiply each term of the multiplicand by each term of the


multiplier, arid

add

the partial products.

36
60.
1.

ALGEBRA
Multiply 3 a

-46

by 2 a- 5b.

In accordance with the rule, we multiply 3 a 5 &, and add the partial products.

ib

by 2

a,

and then by

convenient arrangement of the work being in the same vertical column.

is

shown below,

similar terms

3a -4& 2a -5b

6a2- Sab
6 a2

- 15 a5 + 20 62 _ 23 a6 + 20 h^

The work may be

verified

by performing the example with the multi-

plicand and multiplier interchanged.


2.

Multiply 4 aa^

+ a^ -Sa^ -2a^x

hj 2x

+ a.

convenient to arrange the multiplicand and multiplier in the same order of powers of some common letter ( 43), and write the partial
It is

products in the same order. Arranging the expressions according to the descending powers of a, ^^^^

we

a3-2a2x + 4ax2-8a;3
a
a*

+2x
- 2 a^x + 4 a'^x^ - 8 ax^ 2 a^x - 4 a2y2 + Sax^16 x*

o^

-16x*

EXERCISE
Multiply the following
:

16

VI.
2. 3.

5x-7 hj Sx + 2, 8 m -f n by 8 m + n. 2a-3 hy 6a-7,


7.

V^4.
5.

6.

+ 8 by -5a;?/-4. m 3 by m + 3. m^ a^- a- 12 by a- 7.
-10a;?/

4(a-6)-3by4(a-6)+3. ^8. x^-2xy-\-Sy^hj x-3y.


9.

4.m^-h9n^-6m7ihj3n-{-2m.

10.
/ 11.

ia-i6by-ia-i6.
x 4:yhjx^-{-4:xy

+ 16 y^.

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBKAIC EXPRESSIONS


12.

37

13.

14.
15.
16.

+ & + c by a 6 3 m 5 m^ by 6 m^ 4- 5 m\ " - 4 + 2 _ n3 by 2 + 8 2ci2-3a + 5by a2 + a-2. + 1 by 7(m + w)- 2. 6(m + n)2 - 5(m +
a
c.
-{4:

71

7i2

71.

ii)

17.
18. 19.

2ar^-3aj2_5^_jLby
2

3a.'-5.

6x-\-2af-\-Shy -4:-\-x^-3x.

^20.
21.
*

+ m^ + 3 mn by 2^^^ - 3 mn + m^. fx2_|^ + _4^ by fa^ + |. 4 a^ + 6 a - 10 by 2 a- - 3 a + 5.


7i2

22.
23.

9aj

+ 2a;2_5by4 + 3.r2-7a;.
-j-3n-4rhy9n'-5n- 6.

10 n'

^24.

x^p+'^y
a-^

xhf

by

a^^i'-i

+ ^/^"^
62.

25. 26.
V

27. 28.
29.

30.

+ 2a26 + 2a62 + &'by a2-2a& + m^ - 3 m^ + 9 m^ - 27 m + 81 by m + 3. 3(a + &)'-2(a + ?>)+l by 4(a + 6)2-(a + 5) + 5. 3 + aV-7a-4a2by a + a2-7. 8 m' + 12 mhi + 18 m^i^ + 27 by 2 m^^i - 3 innK 4 a'^+'b' - 3 a'b'' by a^+'b - 2 a6"-\.
71^

V'31.
32.

-a^-2cv'-Jr6a-5hya'-2a-{-10.
5a;*-6a:^-4a^ + 2ic-3by 3a;-2.
m^'

V33. 4

+ 6 m^n - 5 7^71^-3 yf by 3
wo?

771^

+ 2 mri - tiI
'

'^

35.

mx + my nx ny by

my + nx ny.

36. 37.
^

38.

+ 3 a'x + 3 ax- + a^, a^-6a;?/ + 9/by 0^3-90^2^ + 27 a;?/2-27 c^ by a'" 6" + a"' +
a^
2/3.
Z)'*

a^-3a'x + 3ax'-a^hj

c^.

38
39.
40.

ALGEBRA

2n^-Sn^-n + 4:hj 2n^-Sn^-\-n-4:, 5x'-7 + 2x'-8xhj -4:-i-3x^-5x,


5a^ +

41.
42.

a^-2a'-6a-j-3hj2d'-a-6.
by
-i-m-

fm^-fm-l
a

+ im-|.

43.
44.

+ 3,

4- 4,

and

a 5.

45. 46.

^47.
48. 49.

+ l. 2 + 4 and m-\-2n, im? 7, 5 8, and 6 5. 4 wi + 2, 3, cc- 5, and + 6.


a?-6, 3a?-2, and4a;
77i7z
7?^,

m^

8 nK

771

7>i

0^

.T

a;

+ 2&,

3a-45, and3a--2a6-862.
7n

2x + y,2x y,4.x^ + y^, and


2m-\-on, 2
n2
71

50.
51.

V52.
61.

+ + 2, a-2, a + 3, 3a-l,
722
71

+ y^. Sn, Sm-{-2 n, and 3 m 2 w. + 2, and + 3^2 4.


16
x^
71^

and 3 a^-2 a^- 19 a-6.

same power

If the product has more than one term involving the of a certain letter, with literal, or numerical and

literal, coefficients,

we put

the coefficient of this letter in paren-

theses, as in

53.

Ex.

Multiply x^
x^

ax bx + ab

by x a.

ax

xa

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


^2.
3.

39

4.
V^ 5.

:k? -\-

6.
7.

8.

mx nx mn by xp. hx cx-\-hc by x a. ax hx Z ah hj X h. x^ + ax + 2bx-\-2 ab by x + 5 gaj 5 j)g by 3ax bx-\-8ab by + 2 a. x' mx -^nx mn by x-\-'dn.
x^
x'^

-{-

-\-

c.

ic^

2>a;

a?

r.

ic^

cc

4:

4:

^9.
10. 11.
}/ 12.

a;2_^3ax-26a; + 6a6 by i-4c.

{a-h)x-3ab hj 2x-(a-b).
ic^"

5 ax"" 4- 4 5a;" 2ab by + - l)a;2 + (a + 2)x - (a + 3) by (2 a


ic"

c.

(a

- 2)x - a.

^a?. Simplify {a-2 xf -2{3 a^x){a-x). yC.62. To simplify the expression, we first multiply a 2 aj by itself

then find the product of


result

2,

3a

x,

and a

( 11)

we

x,

and subtract the second

from the
a

first.

3a +
a

aj

40
4.
5. 6.

ALGEBRA

3m + iy(Sm-iy. X -y){x'- if) - (x + 2/)(a^ + y").


2a + 3 6)2-4(a-5)(a + 5
6).

^
7.

3x-{5y + 2z)-]\Zx-{by-2z)-].

8.

9.
/

10. 11.

m + 2 w (2 m n)'\ [2 m + (m 2 n)]. a + 6)+c2-(a-6-c)l a + 2)(a + 3)(a _ 4) + ( - 2)(a - 3)(a + 4).


?^

ix-^^y + \z)\
2x2+(3^-l)(4.T + 5)][5x2-(4a; + 3)(aj-2)].

12.
13. 14.

15.
16.

^17.
^

18.

+ 2 & - c - 3 c^)l a - 2)(a + 3) - (a - 3)(a + 4) - (a - 4)(a + 5). + 2) (2 - 1) (3 - 4) - - 2) (2 4- 1)(3 + 4). - - ^)] [^ - (^ -2/)]^-{ya - h) {o? + [a(a -\-h) + a + 6-2c)2-(& + c-2a)2+(c + a-26)2.
a
aj ic
aj

(a;

a;

a;

2^)] [2/

(^^

?>3)

Z)^].

#19.
20.
'

21. 22.
23.

24.

+ l)3+(2a;-l)l + & + c)(a& 4- &c 4- ca) (a + b)(h + c)(c + a). aJr'2hf-2{a + 2h){2a + h) + {2a + hf. x + y + zf-3{y + z)(z + x)(x + y). aJ^hf + 3{a-^rh)\a-h) + ?>{a + h){a-hf-{-{a-hY
2aj

DEFINITIONS
monomial is said to be rational and integral when it number expressed in Arabic numerals, or a single letter with unity for its exponent, or the product of two or more such numbers or letters.
63.
is

either a

Thus, 3 a^W, being equivalent to 3

&

6, is

rational

and

integral.

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

41

A
term

polynomial
is

is

said to be rational
;

and integral when each

rational

and integral

as

2 a^ -a6 + cl

letter

64. If a term has a literal portion which consists of a single with unity for its exponent, the term is said to be of the

fifbt degree.

Thus, 2 a

is

of the hrst degree.


rational

The degree of any the number of terms

and integral monomial ( 63) is of the lirst degree which are multiplied
3 a%^, being equivalent
;

together to form its literal portion. Thus, 5 ah is of the second degree


to 3

&

&

5, is

of the fifth degree

etc.

The degree cf a rational and integral monomial equals the sum of the exponents of the letters involved in it.
Thus,

a6V

is

of the

eiglith

degree.
is

and integral polynomial of its term of highest degree. degree 3c d'^ is of the third Thus, 2 a^h degree.
of a rational

The degree

the

65. Homogeneity.

Homogeneous terms are terms of the same degree. Thus, a^, 3 bh, and 5 x^y'^ are homogeneous terms.

A polynomial
homogeneous ;

is

said to be

homogeneous when

its

terms are

as a^ 4- 3 &^c 4 xyz.

66. If the multiplicand and multiplier are homogeneous, the product will also be homogeneous, and its degree equal to the sum of the degrees of the multiplicand and multiplier.

The examples
the third,
first,

in 60 are instances of the above law

thus,

in Ex. 2, the multiplicand, multiplier, are homogeneous,

and of

and fourth degrees,

respectively.

possible, apply the prinhomogeneity to test the accuracy of algebraic work. Thus, if two homogeneous expressions be multiplied together, and the product obtained is not homogeneous, it is evident that

The student should always, when

ciples of

the work

is

not correct.

42

ALGEBRA

V.

DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

67.

We

define Division, in Algebra, as the process of finding

one of two numbers, when their product and the other number
are given.

The Dividend is the product of the numbers. The Divisor is the given number. The Quotient is the required number.
68. The Rule of Signs.

Since the dividend

is

the equations of

54

may

the product of the divisor and quotient, be written as follows


:

^=+b, =^= + h, =^ = -6, a +a +a


Froiji these results,
sion, as follows
:

and

+^ = -6.
a

we may

state the Rule of Signs in divi-

The quotient of two terms of like sign of two terms of unlike sign is negative.
69. Let

is

positive; the quotient

- = x,

(1)

quotient,

Then, since the dividend is the product of the divisor and we have a = hx
Multiply each of these equals by
ac
c

(Ax.

7, 9),

= hex.
he as the divisor,

Eegarding ac as the dividend,


quotient, this

and x as the

may

be written

Prom
That

(1)

and

(2),

=
^.

(Ax.

4, 9)

(3)

a factor common to the dividend and divisor cayi he or caiicelled. removed,


is,

DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


70.

43

The Law
it

of

Exponents for Division.

Let

be required to divide a^ by al

-og^-,
Cancelling the

a^axaxaxaxa
a^

ax
factor a

common
a^
a^

xa

( 69),
o

we have

= a xaxa = a^.

We
Let

will
it

now

consider the general case.


a"*

be required to divide

by

a",

where

and n are any

positive integers such that


vKj
a"*
Yi

m is

greater than n.

_a

X a Xa X

to
to

m
?i

factors

a**

a X a X a X
factor

factors
factors,

Cancelling the

common
a""

axaxax-"ton
torn

^ = axaxax
Hence,
exponent

% factors = a"*"".

the exponent of a letter in the quotient is equal to its

m the dividend,

minus

its

exponent in the divisor.

This

is

called the Laio of Exponents for Division.

DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
71.
1.

Let
'

it

be required to divide

14a^6 by

7a^.

By857

-14a25
7a2

^ (_2)x7xa2x&
7xa2
or-

Cancelling the

common

factors 7

and

( 69),

we have

Then
To
minus
the

to find the quotient of

two monomials
coefficients

the quotient

of

the

numerical

annex

the letters,

giving to each
its

an exponent equal

to its

exponent in the dividend


letter

same exponent in

exponent in the divisor, ajid omitting any the dividend and divisor.

having

44
2.

ALGEBRA
Divide 54
a'h^c'

by

- 9 a^6l
= - 6 a5-4c2 = - 6 ac2.

54 a663c2

3.

9 a*63

Divide

2x'^'^y''z''

by

'"i/V.

4.

Divide 35 (a

- hj by

7 (a

6)^

EXERCISE
Divide the following
1.
:

19

30by-5.

4.
5.

-64by8.

7. 8.

-H^y^.
21
a^^

2.

- 42

by

6.

- 135 by - 9.
176 by -11.
-

by 3 a^

3.

-48 by -4.
6 a^Y" by

6.

10.
^11.

- a^y^\
3 (a -5)2.

18.
19.

9 (a

-6^ by
by

12.
13. 14.

xifz^

--2/^.

20. 21. 22.


23.
24.

- 13 m%i*' by - 13 m'n\ 45 {x + by - 5 (x 4- ?/)^


?/)^

15. 16.

72a;yby6a;y.

- 40 a^h'c' by - 8 he.
90ai^ajby

-63mVby7mV. - 28 a^6V by 2 6V. a"+i6'*+3 by - a6^ - 55 afyh''' by - 11 yh\ - 70 a^6V by 14 a5V. - 32 by - 8 V- 96 a^"^-Y by 12 aj^'+V52 a^^ftV^ by - 4 a'h(^.
9.
x^Py''-^'a;

17.

9aV.

25.

132 a^y^^^ by 12 a^y^.


6

Find the numerical value when a = 2,


(^

= 4,

= 5,

and

= -3of:
10 a6
c(^

2g
ftir

8ac
*

6d

2ft

CT4-4&

^^^y^

3c4-d*

+ 14& 12c - 9 & + 17 c' & & c 29 'a + 36 6 + 5c


28
'^
'

13 a

c + 4d*
c
(?

DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMLALS
72.

45

We have,
we may regard

(a
is

+ b)c = aG-{- be.

Since the dividend


( 67),

ac

the product of the divisor and quotient be as the dividend, c as the divisor,

and a

+&

as the quotient.

Whence,

^^^^ = a + 6.
c

Hence, to divide a polynomial by a monomial, we divide each term of the dividend by the divisor, and add the results.
Ex. Divide 9
a^b^ -^a''c-\-

12

a^bc^

by

- 3 a\

9 a-252 - 6 g^c + 3 ^2

12 a%c^

^ _ 3 5. ^ ^ aH -A abcK

EXERCISE 20
Divide the following
V
:

1.

25a-15a + 40a^by 5a^

'.

2.
3.

24 mV + 33 mn^
36 xhjz^- 9
54 a^^V

by

3 mn^.
9
3^y.

xyz^- 27 ix^yh^hy

4.
.

- 60 a^6V by 6 a6V.

5.
6.
*

7. 8.

- 22 x^V + 30 xY + 26 xy by - 2 xy. 70 n'^ - 56 n^^ - 63 n^ + 49 n' by 7 n'. 66 + 77 xy^z 55 xyz'^ by 11


cc*2/^
ic^/^J.

9.

10.

+ 28ai2-4a9-20aby4a. _ a;?+y by cc^. 14 m^n^ - 28 mV + 28 m^n^ - 14 wiV by - 14 m^n\


36ai^
a;^+'?2/'*+2

11.
12.
'^IS.

32a;^5

84

14.

+ 24a;i3_4g^n_4o^9]^y _8aj8^ - 108 xyz^ - 48 a^y^^ by 12 xyz\ a^^6'c*'' a^b'^(^-' - a^b^^'c^'' by a^c^\ 30 d^%i^7i^ 60 a^m^n^ 45 a%n^ by 15 dimn?.
aj2/'2;'

46

ALGEBRA
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY POLYNOMIALS

73.

Let

it
c.

a;2

-4-3

be required to divide 12

+ 10 x^ 11 21
a;

ic^

]3y

Arranging each expression according to the descending powers of x ( 43), we are to find an expression which, when 3 a? 4, will produce the multiplied by the divisor, 2 a^ 10 a? - 21 aj^ - 11 a; + 12. dividend, It is evident that the term containing the highest power of X in the product is the product of the terms containing the highest powers of x in the multiplicand and multiplier. Therefore, 10 ic^ is the product of 2 x'^ and the term containing the highest power of x in the quotient. Whence, the term containing the highest power of x in the quotient is 10 x^ divided^ by 2 .x^, or 5 x. Multiplying the divisor by 5 x, we have the product 10 a^ 15 a^ 20 aj which, when subtracted from the divi 6 a;^ + 9 x + 12. dend, leaves the remainder This remainder must be the product of the divisor by the rest of the quotient therefore, to obtain the next term of the 6 a^^ + 9 a? + 12 as a new dividend. quotient, we regard Q>x'^, Dividing tlie term containing the highest power of x, by the term containing the highest power of x in the divisor, 2 aj2, we obtain 3 as the second term of the quotient. 3, we have the product Multiplying the divisor by 6 + 9 aj + 12 which, when subtracted from the second dividend, leaves no remainder.
; ;

a.-^

Hence, 5

a;

3 is

the required quotient. 2 a^

lOa^^-

3 4,
a;

Divisor.

DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


Arrange
the dividend

47

and

divisor in the

same order of powers

of some common letter. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and ivrite the result as the first term of the quotient. Multiply the ivhole divisor by the first term of the quotient, and
subtract the product from the dividend.

If there be a remainder, regard it as a new dividend, and, proceed as before; arranging the remaiyider in the same order
of powers as the divideyid and divisor.
1.

Divide

^aW -{-a^-'db^ -5a-b by ^W + d'-2ab.


a,

Arranging according to the descending powers of


a3

5 a2&

9 a52 _

a?

2 a6

+ 3 52

48
5.
'

ALGEBRA
a^-Sb^ by a -2b.
28n2 + 34n-12 by -7n-\-2.
64ar^

6.
7.
V 8.

+ 27/

by

4aj

+ 3?/.
by 3(a;-2/)+4.

6(x-yy-7(x-y)-20

9.

vlO.
11.
12. 13.
14.

25mV-36 by 6 + 5mn. -25a^?/ + 12a?* + 12a^?/2 by 3a;2-4a;2/. 1877i3-17ma^-6aj3 by 3m + 2a;. 2n2-6 + 5n3-197i by -871 + 5^2-3. 124-13i2-19a;-12ar^by -3aj2-4 + y^ 2yz z^hjx y
x'^

a;.^

z.

15. 16.

+ bf-c" by 2(a + &)-c. 8 m'*/i 24 m%^ + 12 m^ 31 m^7i^


Sia

by 6m^ 8n^ 5mn.

17.

8a + 9a*-l-16a2 by l-3a2-4a.
|m^ ^m I by

18.

|m +

-i-

vl9.
20.
^^'21.

2x3_io_6^_|.^4^-|^]!

^.

by

2-{-a;2-ic.

a;*-81 by a;3_3 ^52+ 9 a;_27.

a4-256
m^

6^

by

a-4 6.
n'^

22.
23. 24.

7 mV +

by m^ + 3

mw + n\

81a:^-l by l+3a;.

6-a34-6a^-8a-23a2 by 2a + 3.
{x-^yy-9(x-hyy + 27(x-\-y)-2T by (x + y)-3. -36a;2_i-|.4a;4-12aj by -2:2^1 + 6a;.

^25.
26.

27.

10a-a2-25 + 16a^

by 5

+ 4a2-a.
by Sn^ + 4:n-}-l.
3 x^
-{- y"".

28.
,29.

^a^ + |iby |aj + f.' 3n*-lln3-25n2-13n-2


2a;y + 2/' +
73ic
9aj'

30.
.

by

- 2 xy

-{-

31.

+ 37aj5-35 + 20a;^-15a;2

]^y

_5 + 4a;2-|-9

a;.

DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


32.

49

243n^
a;^

33.
34.

+ l by 3n + l. + 16^ + 96a;2 + 256aj + 256

by

(x-\-4:f.

-60n^-\-127n'-{-2Un-336 by

- 12

rr'

+ 11 n + 66.

35.

_32 + a' by 8a4-a^ + 16 + 2a3_|_4a2.


j^^y

V36. a2'"+^5-"4-2a2-+3^2n+l_^^2m+552n+2
37.

a^ft"-!

+ a'+25n

38. 39.
'

40.

.41.
42.

k43.
44.

45.

46.

47.
48.
,

49.
50. 51.

52.

+ T6^'-6V&' ^>y i-i&. 5a^ + 24-33a;2 + l0aj + 3x4 by -4 + 3a;. a^ + S7a^-70x + 50 by x2-2a; + 10. a^'+2 4- 8 + 4 a^'^-i. by af"'+^ _ 2 {Sa' + 5a-2){2d'-a-6) by (3 a-l)(2a + 3). 63cc^ + 114ar^ + 49a^-16a;-20 by dx'-^-Qx-Q. a^+^52 - a6^^+' by a^+^h^-a+\ _ 55 _ 5 ^4^ 5 ^^4 _^ 10 a62 _ 10 a?h^ by a^-63-3a26 + 3a6l -6?i^-25n^ 4-7^3 + 81^12 + 3^-28 by _2n3-5n2 + 8yi + 7. 23a^-5i^-12 + 12a^ + 8a;-14a^ by a;-2 + 3a^. 15a3-4a^-15 + 8a-5a-2a4+3a2 by -a + 4a3-3. 52x3 + 64 + 18a;^-200.'K2 + by 6a^- 8 +a^-12a;. 6^" 2 6"c^ c^^ by a'" a-'" a-6aV + 9a2n^-47i^ by a^-2 o?n-an'' + 2n\ 3x^-7a;^-lla;^ + 5aj3 + 7a;2 4.5aj-2 by 3a^-a5-2. 5n3+6n-ri^-8 + 6n+46n2-38n^
2V^'-T2'^
a;^'"-!

a^*"

a-^

_l_

a;^

d**

c^.

by 2-57z24_3yi3_4^^^
53.
54.

^
V

55. 56.

fm^-f m-^. 9a^-252/'-402/2-1622 by 3a; + 52/ + 42!. 90 n* - 143 n^ - 102 n^ + 131 n + 60 by (2 n - 3)(5 n + 4). + a^'"^/^ + by a^"* aj*"/" +
by
a:*"

4m^-2m3 + -|m2-Jg

2/^

2/^^.

50

ALGEBRA
0?^

^57. 4
V
58.

- 21 a^y + 21 xY - 4

2/^

by (x-y)(x-2y){2x + y).
by (a-2)2 + 8a.

a5

+ 32 + 10a(a3 + 8)+40a2(a + 2)

74. By 66, if the dividend and divisor are homogeneous, the quotient will be homogeneous, and its degree equal to the degree of the dividend minus the degree of the divisor. 75.

The operation

of division is often facilitated

by the use
a;

of parentheses.

Ex.
x^

Divide x^-j-(a-\-bc)x^-{- {ah bcca)x abc by

+ a.

+ (a +

&

c)x2

{ab

be cd)x

abc

x-\-'a
x2 4- (6

x^+
ih
(ft

r^
c)x2
c)x'^

- c)x -

be

+ {ah

ca^x hex hex


EXERCISE 22

abc

Divide the following


^

1.

x^ -]-(a

2.
3.

05^

b c)x^ + { ab \-bc ca)x + abc b)x ab. x^ (a + (ab be ca)x abc by x + (a + 6


by
-\-

c)ic^

c.

o^(a + b-\-c)x^-\-(ab-}-bc-{-ca)xabc by
-j-

x'^(b-\-c)x-{-bc.

4.

a^_(a-2&-3 c)x^ {-2ab -\-6bc-3 ca)x - 6 abc by x^(a 3 c)x 3 ac.


a^+ (3 a + 64-2 c)r^+ (3 a&+2 bc-\-6 ca)x+6 abc by
a;4-3 a.

5.
.

6.
V

a(a-6)c2+(-a& + 624-&c)a;-c(6+c) by (a-b)x+c.

7.

m(m +
a?^

8.

9.

+ w^jaj + 7i(m n) by mic n. (m 2 n)x 2 m^ + 11 mn 15n^ by + m 3 n. - 9 mTi - 15 n^)x - (12 mn - 9 n^) (2 m2 4- 10 mn)x^ + (8 m^ 2 ma? 3 n. by
yi)^;^

(m^

a?

10.

a;3-(3a + 26-4c)a;''^4-(6a6-86c+12ca)a;-24a5cbya;-26.

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS

51

VI.
76.

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


of either

Any term

member

of an equation

is

called a

term of the equation.


77. A Numerical Equation is one in which all the known numbers are represented by Arabic numerals as,
;

ic

7=

a-

4- 6.

An Integral Equation is one each of whose rational and integral expression ( 63) as,
;

members

is

78. An Identical Equation, or Identity, is one whose members are equal, whatever values are given to the letters involved as {a-\-h){a-h) a?-h\
;

The sign =, read "is identically equal of the sign of equality in an identity.
79.

to,''''

is

frequently used in place

An

equation

is

said to be satisfied
it

by a

set of values of

when, on substituting the value of each letter in place of the letter wherever it occurs, the equation becomes identical. Thus, the equation x y = 5 is satisfied by the set of values 07 = 8, y = S; for, on substituting 8 for x, and 3 for y, the equar tion becomes 8 3 = 5, or 5 = 5; which is identical.
certain letters involved in
.

80.
or

An

Equation

of Condition is

an equation involving one


is

more

letters, called

Unknown Numbers, which

satisfied

only by particular values of these letters. 2 = 5 is not satisfied by every value Thus, the equation a; of X, but only by the particular value x = 3.

An equation of condition is Any letter in an equation


unknown number
;

usually called an equation. of condition may represent an

but it is usual to represent bers by the last letters of the alphabet.

unknown num-

52
81.

ALGEBRA
If an equation contains but one

unknown number, any


the equation
is

value of the

unknown number which


a;

satisfies

called a Root of the equation. Thus, 3 is a root of the equation

+ 2 = 5.

To

solve

an equation

is

to find its roots.

82. If a rationaland integral monomial ( 63) involves a certain letter, its degree with respect to it is denoted by its

exponent. If it involves two letters, its degree with respect denoted by the sum of their exponents etc.
;

to

them

is

Thus, 2 aWx^y^ is of the second degree with respect to of the fifth with respect to x and y.
83.
If

x,

and

an integral equation

( 77)

contains one or more unis

known numbers,

the degree of the equation

the degree of

its

term of highest degree. Thus, if X and y represent unknown numbers,

axby = c
aj2
ic

is

an equation of the first degree

= 2, an equation of the second degree -f 4 2x^3xy^ = 5, an equation of the third degree etc.
;
;

A Linear, or

Simple, Equation

is

an equation of the

first

degree.

PRINCIPLES USED IN SOLVING INTEGRAL EQUATIONS


84.

Since the

we may

members of an equation are equal numbers, write the last four axioms of 9 as follows
:

1. TJie same number, or equal number's, may be added to both members of an equation imthout destroying the equality. 2. Tlie same number, or equal numbers, may be subtracted both members of an equation imthout destroying the equality. from 3.

Both members of an equation may be multiplied by

the saine

number, or equal numbers, without destroying the equality.


4. Both members of an equation may be divided by the same number, or equal numbers, imthout destroying the equality.

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


85. Transposing Terms.
c. Consider the equation x-\-a b Adding -- a and + 6 to both members

53

( 84, 1),
-\-

we have

In this case, the terms

X= ca + a and b are

b.

said to be transposed

from the

first

member

to the second.

Hence, any term may be transposed from one equation to the other by chariging its sign.
86. It follows from

member of an

85 that

If the same term occurs in both members of an equation affected


with the same sign,
it

may

be cancelled.

87. Consider the equation

ax=b
Multiplying

c.

(1)

each term by 1 ( 84), x a = G b\

we have

which

is

the same as equation (1) with the sign of every term

changed.

Hence, the signs of all the terms of an equation without destroying the equality.
88. Clearing of Fractions.

may

be changed,

Consider the equation

-X
3

5 = -x
6

9 8

the denominators (Ax.

Multiplying each term by 24, the lowest 7, 9), we have

common

multiple of

16x-30 = 20x-27,
where the denominators have been removed.

Removing the
is

fractions

from an equation by multiplication

called clearing the equation of fractions.

54

ALGEBRA
SOLUTION OF INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS

89. To we put it

solve an equation involving one into a succession of forms,

unknown number,
finally leads to the

which

value of the root.

This process is called transforming the equation. Every transformation is effected by means of the principles of 84 to 88, inclusive.
90. Examples.
1.

Solve the equation


5a;

7 = 3a; + l.
member, and
l.

Transposing 3cc to the


^^^'^

first

to the second ( 85),

we

5x-3x = 7 +
2x

Uniting similar terms,


Dividing both members by

= 8. = 4.

2 ( 84, 4),
a;

To

verify the result, put

cc

=4
20

in the given equation.


7

Thus,
2.

12

which

is

identical.

Solve the equation


7

5_3

6''"3~5''"4'
Clearing of fractions by multiplying each term by 60, the L. C. M. of
6, 3, 5,

and

4,

we have
70
a;

100

= 36 X -

15.

Transposing 36 x to the
70

first
a;

member, and

100 to the second,

- 36 X =
34 x

100 - 15.

Uniting terms,

= 85. = = -.
34

Divided by 34,
3.

Solve the equation


(5

-3

a:)

(3

+4

ic)

= 62 - (7-3 a;)(l --4a;).

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


Expanding,
Or,

65

15 15

+
+

11 x

12

x'-^

11 X

12 x2

31 x + 12 x^). = 62 - 7 + 31 X - 12 x^

62

(7

Cancelling the

12 x^ terms ( 86), and transposing,


11

31 X

= 62 40.

- 15.

Uniting terms,
Dividing

20 x =
x

by 20,

= 2.
is

To expand an

algebraic expression

to perform the operations indicated.

From

the above examples,

we have

the following rule for

solving an integral linear equation with one

unknown number

Clear the equation of fractions, if any, by multiplying each term by the L. C. M. of the denominators of the fractional coefficients.

Remove

the parentheses, if any, by

performing

all the

opera-

tions indicated.

Transpose the unknown terms to the first member, and the to the second ; cancelling any term which has the same coefficient in both members.

known

Unite similar terms,

of

the

and unknown number.

divide both

members by

the coefficient

The

pupil should verify every result.

EXERCISE 23
Solve the following equations, in each case verifying the

answer
1.

8x + 7 = 95.
9x = 5x-S2.
7a?

8. 9.

6x-2S = 15x-lS.
19-13a; = 31-29a;.

2. 3.
>4.

5.

6.

V7.

+ 15 = 2a; + 45. 10a;-3 = 3a;-38. 6a; + 13 = lla;-7. 5-18a; = 83-12a;. lla;-3 = 4 + 3a;.

10.
11.

Ux-51 = 27 x-33.
13

+12 = 37 + 43.
a; a;

V12.
13. 14.

= 51 -16aj. lla; + 17 = 65a; + 47. 98-16a; = 23-41a;.


21a;- 23

56
15.
16.
17.

ALGEBRA
17 a;- 9

+ 47 = 41 a;- 35 + 27. 13x-39 = 48a;-29ic-81. 54 = 26 a;-31x + 19a;-9.


a;

V18. 2x-

^x + -x = l(),
3
7

21.

V19.

^x ^x
24.

<^20.

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS

57

PROBLEMS LEADING TO INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH ONE UNKNOWN NUMBER


91. For the solution of a problem by algebraic methods, the following suggestions will be found of service
:

1.

Represent the unknown number, or one of the unknown


if

numbers
2.

there are several, by some letter, as

x.

Every problem contains, explicitly or implicitly, just as many distiyict statements as there are unhiown numbers involved.

Use
3.

all

but one of these to express the other


x.

unknown num-

bers in terms of

Use the remaining statement

to

form an equation.

92. Problems.
1.

Divide 45 into two parts such that the less part shall be
the greater part and the less. suggestion of 91, we represent the greater
;

one-fourth the greater.


Here there are two unknown numbers
In accordance with the
part by
x.
:

first

The first statement of the problem is, implicitly The sum of the greater part and the less is 45.
The second statement is The less part is one-fourth the
:

greater.

In accordance with the second suggestion of 91, ment to express the less part in terms of x.

we

use the Jirst state-

Thus, the

less part is

represented by 45

x.
state-

accordance with the third suggestion, use the second ment to form an equation.
in

We now,
Thus,

58

ALGEBRA

Let X represent the number of dollars B had at first. Then, 2 x will represent the number A had at first.

Now

after giving

$28,

has 2

a;

- 28

dollars,

and

+ 28

dollars

we then have

the equation

2a;-28=:^(x + o
Clearing of fractions,
a;

28).

Expanding,
Transposing,

6 84 = 2(cc + 28). 6 x - 84 = 2 + 56.


a;

Dividing by 4,

and
3.

= 140. = 35, the number of dollars B had at first; x 2 X = 70, the number of dollars A had at first.
4
cc

is

as old as B.

3 times as old as B, and 8 years ago he was 7 times Eequired their ages at present.
X

Let
Then,
Also,

the
the

number
number number
number
7

of years in B's age. of years in A's age.


of years in B's age 8 years ago, of years in

and

Sx= x S= 3ft 8 =

the
the

A's age 8 years ago.

But A's age 8 years ago was


Whence,
Expanding,
Transposing,

times B's age 8 years ago.

3x-8 = 7(x-8). 3x 8 = 7a;-56. ._ 4 x = 48.


4, = 12, = 36, 3x
x
the

Dividing by

number
number

of years in B's age.


of years in

Whence,
4.

the

A's age.

sum

coins, all

of money amounting to $4.32 consists of 108 dimes and cents how many are there of each kind ?
;

Let

X
108

= the number

of dimes.

Then,

x = the number
to 432 cents.

of cents.

Also, the X dimes are worth 10 x cents.

But the

entire

sum amounts

Whence,
Transposing,

10 x + 108 - x = 432.

Whence,
and

= 324. = 36, the number of dimes - X = 72, the number of cents. 108
9 x

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 24
>/l.

59

The

difference of

smaller exceeds the greater by 30.

two numbers is 12, and 7 times the Find the numbers.

2.

The sum

of

their difference
3.

by

4.

two numbers is 29, and the smaller exceeds Find the numbers.
is
-J,

Find two numbers whose sum

and difference

-|-.

4.

The sum

of

two numbers

is

three-fourths the smaller number.

44, and their difference Find the numbers.

is

45.
as old.
6.

A
'

is

4 times as old as B; and in 22 years he will be twice


ages.

Find their

is

3 times as old as
ages.

B and 6|- years


;
;

ago he was 5 times

as old.

Find their

J 7. A has 3 times as much money as B but after B gives him $9, he has 6 times as much as B. How much had each
at first?
8. man has 21 coins, all pieces, valued in all at $3.30.

dimes and twenty-five-cent

9.

A is

will

25 years be t\^o-thirds

How many has he of each? of age, and B is 16. In how many years as old as A ?

^ 10. Divide 43 into two parts such that if the greater be added to 17, and the less to 30, the resulting numbers shall

be equal.
11.

that one-third the

Twice a certain number exceeds 35 by the same amount number exceeds 5. Find the number.

12. Divide $280 between A, B, and C so that A's share exceed | of B's by $96, and B's share exceed C's by $20. 13.

may
ago

is

22 years of age, and


?

is 18.

How many years


and

was A's age f of B's


14.

A man

has $4.10,
five-cent
?

all five-cent

fifty-cent pieces;

and he has 5 more


has he of each

than fifty-cent pieces.

How many

60

ALGEBRA

15. The sum of f and f a certain number exceeds f the number by |. Find the number. 16.

If

give

has i 5.50, in order that B

and B ^3.50, how much money must may have | as much as A ?

room is f as long as it is wide; if the width were 17. increased by 1^ feet, and the length diminished by the same amount, the room would be square. Find its dimensions.
18.

The sum
is J.

ference

of two numbers is {^ the Find the numbers.

greater,

and their

dif-

A boy buys a certain number of apples at 2 for 5 and double the number at 3 for 5 cents, and spent in
V 19.
cents.
20.
.

cents,
all

35

How many

of each kind did he

buy

receive

Divide $320 between A, B, C, and D so that A may $ 35 more than B, C f 15 more than B, and D $ 25 less

than C.
21.
is

The sum
B's,

of the ages of A, B,
is

and C

is

f of
22.

and he

8 years younger than C.

52 years A's age Find their ages.


;

In a certain school the boys are 15 fewer than | of the whole, and the girls are 33 more than ^. How many boys, and

how many
I

girls, are

there ?

The sum of $900 is invested, part at 4%, and the rest 5%, per annum, and the total annual income is $42. How much is invested in each way ?
23.

at

1^24.

In 9 years
as old.

was I
25.

What

will be f as old as are their ages ?

and 12 years ago he

Let X represent the number of years in A's age 12 years ago.

and

has f of a certain sum of money, B has ^5 C has f, has the remainder, $8. How much have A, B, and C ?
;

v/ 26.

bought 8 hens, 7 sheep, and 12 pigs for $ 269 each sheep cost -U- as much as each hen, and $3 less than each
pig.

A man

What

did each cost ?

27.

Divide 66 into two parts such that f the greater shall

exceed f the less by 21.

INTEGRAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


|/ 28. Find two numbers whose sum
29.
is 10,

61

such that the square

of the greater exceeds the square of the less

by

40.

Find two consecutive numbers such that ^ the greater


2.

exceeds I the less by

1^30. person attempting to arrange a certain number of counters in a square finds that he has too few by 12; but on reducing the number in the side of the square by 3, he has

21 left over.
31.

How many

has he

twice as

many

purse contains a certain number of 10-shilling pieces, 5-shilling pieces, and 5 times as many shillings,

the contents of the purse being worth 5. there of each coin ?

How many

are

32. The square of the third of three consecutive numbers exceeds the product of the other two by 13. Find the numbers.

33.

shall be as
34.

Divide 39 into two parts such that 3 times the smaller much below 58 as twice the greater exceeds 38.

product
^

Find two numbers whose difference is 3, and whose is less by 33 than the square of the greater.

35.

the

The total "number of persons at a certain factory is 196; number of women is f the number of men, and | the num-

ber of boys.

How many

of each are there ?

room is twice as long as it is wide, and it is found 36. that 50 square feet of carpet, 1 foot in width, are required to make a border around it. Find its dimensions.
37.
cents,

A purse
$
5.74.

contains a certain
bills,

and ^ as many $ 1

number of dimes, |- as many the value of the entire contents

being
38.

How many
starts to

are there of each ?

starts to

time that

end of 2 hours. what are their rates


39.

walk from P to Q, 12 miles, at the same walk from Q to P. They meet at the If A walks one mile an hour faster than B,
?

ceive

$ 10

Divide ^210 between A, B, C, and D so that B may reless than A, C y- as much as B, and D | as much as A.

62

ALGEBRA

40. The sum of $ 32 is divided between 7 men, 8 women, and 16 children each child receiving J as much as each man, and each woman 75 cents more than each child. How much is received by each man, each woman, and each child ?
;

41. A boy had a certain number of marbles. He lost 6 of them, gave away ^ the remainder, and then found that he had 5 more than i of his original number. How many had he at first ?
.

42.

There are two heaps of

coins,

one containing 5-cent

pieces and the other 10-cent pieces. The second heap is worth 20 cents more than the first, and has 8 fewer coins. Find the

number

in each heap.

43. In an audience of 435 persons, there are 25 more women than men, and 3 times as many girls as men and the number of boys is less by 195 than twice the number of girls. Find
;

the
{.

number

of each.

uct of the

Find four consecutive odd numbers such that the prodfirst and third shall be less than the product of the second and fourth by 64.
44.

sum of money, amounting to $19.30, consists of $2 25-cent pieces, and 5-cent pieces. There are 13 more bills, 5-cent pieces than $ 2 bills, and -J as many 5-cent pieces as
45.

25-cent pieces.
46.
tively.

Find the number of each.

Two

A
as

certain

barrels contain 46 aijd 45 gallons of water, respecnumber of gallons are drawn from the first,

and I

many from
.

the second, and the second

now

contains

f as many gallons from each ?


47.

as the first.

How many gallons

were drawn

tank containing 150 gallons can be filled by one pipe and emptied by another in 25 minutes. After the first pipe has been open a certain number of minutes, it is closed, and the second pipe opened; and the tank is emptied in 24 minutes from the time the first pipe was opened. How many minutes is each pipe open ?
in 15 minutes,

SPECIAL METHODS

63

VII.

SPECIAL METHODS IN MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION


Any Power
of a

93.

Power.

Eequired the value of (a^y.

By

11,

(a'y

= a'xa'xa'=: a\
:

We will
integers.

now

consider the general case


(a"*)",

Eequired the value of

where
-"

and n are any positive


factors

We

have,

(a*")"

= ar xoT X
^m+m+'"
to

ton

n terms __ Qjnn

94.

Any Power

of

a Product.

Required the value of (abf.

By

11,

(ahf

= abxabxab = a^h\
:

We

will

now

consider the general case


(a&)",

Eequired the value of

where n

is

any positive

integer.

We haye,

{ahy =ab xab x-" to n


(abc

factors

= a''6".

In like manner,

"y

= a'^b^'c^

whatever the number of factors in


95.
1.

abc--*,

Any Power

of a

Monomial.

Find the value of {-baff.


31,

By

(-5a4)3=[(-5)xa4]3

= (2.

5)8

(4)8( 94)

=-

125ai2(93).

Find the value of (- 2 m^ny.


have,
(

We

m^Y = - 2)*
(

x (m^)* x n*

16 m^^n^.

64
.

ALGEBRA
From 93 and 94 and
the examples of
95,

96.

we have
:

the following rule for raising a rational and integral monomial ( 63) to any power whose exponent is a positive integer

Raise the absolute value of the numeyical


exponent of the required power. Give to every power of a positive

coefficient
letter

to

the

required power, and multiply the exponent of each

by the

teryn,

of a

7iegative term, the positive sign ;

and to every even power and to every odd power of

7iegative

term the negative

sign.

EXERCISE 25

Expand the following


1.

(a^y*z'y.

5. 6.
7.

(Ta^b^^y.

9.

(a^b^cy.

2. 3.
4.

(m\^py\

(-nV/)i.
{2m'x'y.

10. 11.

(a^^y^z^y\

(-ab'cy.

(-3mVa;)*.

(^llaffy.

8.

(~4:x'yzy.

12.

(-2amV)^

97.

Square of a Binomial.
it

Let

be required to square a-\-b.

a
a^

+b
+ ab
ab-{-b'
(1)

a-\-b

Whence,
That
of the
is,

(a -\-by = a^ + 2 ab + b\

the

square of

the

sum of two numbers

equals the square

first, i^lus

twice the product of the first by the second, plus

the square
1.

of

the second.

Square 3 a
have,
(3 a

+ 2 &.
+
2 6)2

We
Let

(3

aY +

2(3 a) (2 h)

(2 6)2

= 9 a2 +
it

12 a6

62.

be required to square a

b.

SPECIAL METHODS
a

65

h
b

a
a^

ah
(2)
the

Whence,
That
is,

- a6 + h\ {a-hf = a? -2 ah + h\
the square
first,

of the difference of two numbers equals

square of the

twice the product of the first by the second, plus the square of the second.
In the remainder of the work
ence of a and

minus

6"

to

we shall use the expression "the differdenote the remainder obtained by subtracting h from a.
also be derived

The

result (2)

may
a;^

by substituting

h for &, in equa-

tion (1).
2.

Square 4
have,

5.
5)2

We

(4 x^

= (4 x'^Y - 2(4 x^) (5) + = 16 X* - 40 + 25.


a;2

52

If the first term of the binomial is negative, it should be enclosed, negative sign and all, in parentheses, before applying

the rules.
3.

Square

- 2 a^ + 9.
(2 a^

^ J^

"

We have,

9)2
'

^ [(_ 2 ^3) + gp = (-2a3)2 + 2(-2a3)(9)4.92 = 4 a6 _ 36 a3 ^. 81.


EXERCISE 26

Expand
1.

the following

13.
14.

(4.

:x?- 11 yzy.

{5

ax

- 12 byf.

15.

(_3 7i^-Hl0ny.
(8a;^-h9a;y.
(7

16.
17. 18.

a^m^- 13 6V)l

{-e>oyy

-11 xzf.

20.

{2a^~^a^)\

66
98.

ALGEBRA
Product of the
it

Sum

and Difference

of

Two Numbers.

Let

be required to multiply a

+b

by a b.

a+b ab
<j?

+ ab
-ab-b^ -b\
.

Whence, (a + &)((^-&) = a^
That
is,

the

product of the sum and difference of two numbers

equals the difference


1.

of their squares.

Multiply
the rule,
(6

6a + 563 by 6a-56l
5 63)

By

5 63) (6 a

(6 a)2

(5 63)2

= 36 a2 _ 25 66,

2.

Multiply

-a^ + 4 by
a;-2

-x^-L
4)

(_

+ 4) (-

x2

= [(- x') + 4] [(- a;2) - 4] = (_x2)2_42 = x4-16.

3.

Expand
(x

{x-\-y-\-z){x
z) (X

y-\-z).
z)

+y+

^ z) = {(x + z) +y'\\_(x + = (X + zy - y2 = x^ + 2xz + z^2/2.

- y'\

4.

Expand (a + 5 c) (a 6 + c). By 52, (a + 6 - c) (a - 6 + c) = [ + (6 - c)] [a - (6 - c)] = a2 - (6 - c)2, by the rule,

= a2 _ (-52 _ 2 6c + c2) = a2 _ 52 + 2 6c - c2.


EXERCISE 27

Expand the following


1.

(7a + 2b)(7a-2b).

N-3.
4.

2.

(9m2H-4)(9m2-4).

-8 +8 (3 a^ (-a3 + 6)(-a3-6).
(3
a;^

^/^^^

2/;^^.

SPECIAL METHODS
5.

67
12 b'c)(5 a'- 12 bh).

(llm'-{-5n')(llm'-5n').

7.

(5 a'

-\-

10.
w 11.

12.

m% - 13 a^). 13. (1 +a- 6)(1 -a + (a-b + c)(a-b-c). + x-\-l)(af-^x-l). ^'14. (a2 + 3a+l)(a2-3a4-l). 15. + + 3) - - 3). (x + y-^z){x-y-z). 16. + + 2/0 (a^ - + 2/^. 17. .(a' + 5a-4)(a2-5a + 4).
'

9.

(-10 m*7i+ 13

a^)

(- 10

2>).

(^x'

(a;

2/

(a;

2/

(aj^

aj2/

a;?/

18. 19.

(42_^3^_7)(^4^_3^_7>)^
(m^

+ 5mV + 2nO(m^-5mV-2%^).
Binomials having the Same First Term.

99.

Product of
it

Two

Let

be required to multiply x

+a

hj x +

b.

x-\-a

68
3.

ALGEBRA
Multiply ab
coefficient of
last

ab

4:

The The

is

the

by ab-{-7. sum of

4 and
7,

7,

or

3.

term

is

the product of

4 and
a^b"^

or

28. 28.

Whence,
4.

(ab

4) (a&

7)

+ 3 a6 -

Multiply a;2 + 6 2/^ by x^-\-Sy\ The coefficient of x^ is the sum of 6 y^ and 8 y^, or 14 y^. The last term is the product of 6 y^ and 8 y^, or 48 y^.
Whence,
{x^

6 y^) {x^

+ 8y^) = x*-^

14 x^y^

48 ^.

EXERCISE 28

Expand the following by


1.

inspection

(x

+ 3)(x +

4:).

ni. (x-y + 7)(x-y-6y


12.

1-2.
3.

(x-2)(x-{-5).

(a

+ 8a;)(a4-9a;).

(x-ll)ix-l).

13.

(a;-92/)(aJ-52/).

^4.
V 5.
6.
,J7.

(a-7)(a + 2).

-14.
%,

(m2-f6 7i)(m3-7 7i).


(a

+ 15)(a2 + 1). (m3-3)(m3 + 8).


(a'

15.

16. 17.
18.

(ar^'

+ & + 2)(a + 6 + 13). + 102/'")(c2--9y^).

(a;-2)(a;''-6).
(a'" + 10)(a'" + 2).

(a^-9b%a' -}-Sb').
(mn-14.xy)(mn-^xy).

8.

9.

(m7i-7)(m7i-3).
(ab + l){ab-S).
of

V19.
20.

(m-7i-3)(m -7l4-ll)
(a^^

VlO.

+ 11 c3)(a26- 12 c^).

100. Product

Two Binomials
:

of the

Form mx + n and px + g.

We

find

by multiplication

mx-{-n

px-\-q

X
4-f-

mpx^

npa;

mqx-\-nq

mpx^ -\- {np + mq) x-j-nq.

SPECIAL METHODS

69

The first term of this result, mpx^, is the product of the first terms of the binomial factors, and the last term, ng, the product of the second terms.

The middle term, (np -\- mq)x, is the sum of the products of the terms, in the binomial factors, connected by cross lines.
Ex.
The The
or

Multiply 3aj
first

+ 4by2a; 5.
x"^.

term

is

coeflicieiit of

the product of 3 x and 2 a;, or 6 x is the sum of 4 x 2 and 3 x

(
20.

5)

that

is,

8-15,

7.

The

last

term

is

the product of 4 and

5,

or

Whence,

(35c + 4)(2a;

5)

= 6x2 -

7ic - 20.

EXERCISE 29

Expand the following by


1.
(aj

inspection
9.

+ 6)(3a; + 2).

(2aa;-3)(5aa;

+ 6).
2 y),

2.

{2x-^l){lx-l).
(2a;-5)(4aj + 3).

10.
11.
12. 13.

(3x^2n)(10x-n).
(4.

3.
4.

- ^ y){^ x

-\-

(4a-3)(5a-3).

(7a- 2m)(7a-4m).
(6a;"

5. 6.
7.

(4m + l)(4m + 3).


(3n

+ 2)(57i-2).

14. 15.

+ 2/)(9" + (6a2 + ic2)(8a2-5a^).


2/)-

(2a2-l)(lla2-4)
(5a;^ + 6)(6a;4 + l).

{^m^ -2n%107n?-7 n").

8.

16.

{^ax-^hy){^ax + nhy).

17.
18.

[6(m4-w)-5][(m + ri)-2].

[3(a-&)+4][4(a-6)-3].
division^

101.

We find by
-

= a-5. ao
That
is,

~ = a + 6.

If the difference

sum of the numbers,

of the squares of two numbers he divided by the the quotient is the difference of the numbers.

70

ALGEBRA

If the difference of the squares oftivo numbers be divided by the difference of the numbers, the quotient is the sum of the numbers.
1.

Divide 25 2/V
96,

-9hj5yz^- 3.
;

By

26 y^z^

is

the square of 5 yz^

then,

by the second

rule,

2.

Divide
the

x^

(yzy by
^^

x + (y

z).
y

By

first rule,

" Cy - ^^ = x -(y - z) = x + iy-z}


EXERCISE 30

+ z.

Find, without actual division, the values of the following:

^1.

S6a'p-121b*'

225ai2_i00 6i8

SPECIAL METHODS
If
the difference

71

differeiice

of the cubes of two numbers be divided by the of the numbers, the quotient is the square of the first

number, plus

the product of the first by the second, plus the square of the second number.
1.

Divide l
96, 8 a^
is

+ Sa^

by l

+ 2a.
;

By

the cube of 2 a

then,

by the
^

first'

rule,

ll^ = ^+(^<^y =:l-2a + (2ay = l-2a + 4a^. ^


l+2a

l+2a

2.

Divide 27 x'the second rule,

64. y^

hj 3x^-4. f.

By

3x2-4^/3

3x2-4?/3

^^

^^^

^^

= 9 X* + 12 xV + 16

2/.

EXERCISE

31

Find, without actual division, the values of the following

^1.

^!A'.
a^

+ 62' +5

11

27a^-125i/

3x^-5y
*

7mw4-2p
^g
64a^6^

64a;^"-l

+ 216c^

jQ
cc22/4_23

343 m + n

'

Im^ + n
division,

^^g 729aV4-512y
'

da^x + Sy""

103.

We

find

by actual

a*-b'

72

ALGEBRA

a+b
^'~^'
a

a'

+ a'b-\-a'b' + ab^-\-b';

etc.

In these
I.

results,

we observe the following laws

The exponent of a in
its

1 than

the first term of the quotient is less by exponent in the dividend, and decreases by 1 in each

succeeding term.
II.

Tlie exponent

of b in the second term of the quotient

is 1,

and

increases by 1

m each succeeding term.


is

III.

If the divisor

ab,

all the

terms of the quotient are

positive;

if the divisor is a-{-b, the terms of the quotient are

alternately positive

and

negative.

A general proof of these laws will be found in 466.


1.

Divide a^

b''

hj a b.

By

the above laws,

a
2.

b
16x*-Sl hj 2x-{-S, 16 x^ - 81 ^ _(2 .)4 3^ 2a: + 3 2x + S = (2 x)3 - (2 x)2

Divide
have,

We

=8

a;3

12

a:2

4.

+ 2 X 32 - 33 18 X - 27.
.

EXERCISE 32
Find, without actual division, the values of the following
1
:

^*

~ ^* ab

'

^!^ll. x 1

oif
'

sc^

^ + y^'

m + n'

+ a'

^^

a'

-be''

74

ALGEBRA

VIII.
105.

FACTORING
is

To

Factor an algebraic expression

to find

two

or

more

expressions which,

when multiplied
we

together, shall produce the

given expression.
In the present chapter
consider only the separation of rational and
integral expressions ( 63), with integral numerical coefficients, into factors of the same form.

A Common
which
106. It

Factor of

two or more expressions

is

an expression

will exactly divide each of them.

is not always possible to factor an expression there however, certain forms which can always be factored; these will be considered in the present treatise.
;

are,

107. Case
mo7i factor.
1.

I.

When

the terms

of the expression have a com-

Factor 14 a6^- 35 a^^l


factor 7 ab^.

Each term contains the monomial


Dividing the expression by 7 ab^,

we have 2b^
7 ab^ (2 62

5 a\

Then,
2.

14 a6*

35 a%^
0.-2

_ 5 ^2).

Factor (2

m 4- 3)

+ (2 m 4-3)^.
m + S)y^=(2m + 3)
+ y^).

The terms have the common binomial factor 2 m + 3. Dividing the expression by 2 m + 3, we have x^ + y^.
Then,
3. (2

m + 3) x2 +

(2

{x^

Factor {a
52,

b)m-\-(b a) n.
b-a= -(a- 6). m -^ (b - a) n = (a - b) m b)
:

By

Then,

(a

(a

- b)n

= (a-b) {m-n).

We may

also solve Ex. 3 as follows

(a~b)m-\- {b- a)n

= {b-a)n-

(b

a)

m = {b-a)(n-' wi).

FACTORING
4.

75

Factor

5a(x y) Sa(x-{-y). 5 a (z- y) - 3 a(ix + y) = a[5 (x - y) - S (x + y)2

= a(^x 5y Sx Sy)
I

=a(2x-8y)=2aix-4:y).
EXERCISE 33

Factor the following


^
1.

63x^-54:x\

5.
6.
l

(a-2)b*-{a~2yd'.

2.
3.

a'-5a'-2a'-\-3a\
m^n^ + m V mn\ _ 40 24 _^ 55 ^Y
a:^^^^

7.

+ 5)m+ (3 x + 5). + m) (m
(3
a;
-^i)

(a;

?/)

(ri

2;.

4.

3,2^^2

8.

a(a^-2) -\-3(2-a^.

^'9.

(a?

2/)

(m 4- ^)

(ic

+
(a

2/)

w).

^10.

a(6 + c)-a(5-c). ^1. 3aj2(a;-l)-(l-a;).


12.

13.

5(2x-y) -5(x + Sy).

14.
15.

+ m)2-3(a + m).

6(3a + 4&) + 6(5a-26).


16.

aj2(52/-2;2) -a^(22/

2;).

(m-ny-{-2m(m-ny.
3a2"+^-7a''+2^

17.
V

+ a".

18. 19.

(a-b)(m'-\-xz)-{a-b)(m^-yz).

(m ny-~2m(m nf -{.m\m nf.


so
ex-

The terms of a polynomial may sometimes be arranged as to show a common binomial factor; and the
108.
pression can then be factored as in
1
.

107.

Factor ab
107,

ay + bx a^.

ay

By

ab

The terms now have the common


Whence,
2.

+ bx~xy = a(h-y) + x{h factor h y.

2^).

ah

ay -\-hx

xy =

{a

x)(b

y).

Factor a3

+ 2a2-3a-6.
is

If the third

term

negative,

it is

convenient to enclose the last two


sign.

terms in parentheses preceded by a

76
Thus,
a8

ALGEBRA
+
2 a2

-3a -6 =

(a3

(72)

a2(a

2)

(3 a + 6) - 3(a + 2) =

(a2

- 3)(a + 2).

EXERCISE 34
Factor the following
:

1.

ac

-\-

ad

-\-

be

-{-

bd.

V"3.

mx + my nx ny,

2.

xy-3x-{-2y--6,
5.

4.

ab-a-5b + 5,

6.
7.

+ 15 ab. 42. m* + 6m^ 7m


Sxy-\- 12 ay -{-10bx

6-10a + 27a2-45a^
20 ab

8.

9.

- 28 ad\- 5 be m^ m^?i 4- mn^


63-\-S6x' + 56a^

-\-

cd.'

?i^.

11.
12.

48

i2/

+ S2x^. + 18 na; - 88 mi/ - 33 m>i.


-{-\-

13. 14.
,

mx + m^/ + nx-\-ny -{-px + pz/.

15.

V 16.

ay az bx by bz. 3 am Q an ^bm 8 bn + cm 2 en. ax -{-.ay az bx by-{-bz-\-ex-\-ey cz.


ax
-\-

109. If an expression can be resolved into two equal factors, it is said to be a perfeet square, and one of the equal
factors is called its square root. Thus, since 9 a^b^ is equal to 3 a^6

a^b,

it

is

a perfect

square,

and 3a^6

is

its

square root.

9 a*62 is also equal to ( 3 a^h) x ( 3 a%)', so that square root in the examples of the present chapter, the positive square root only.
;

3 a%
we

is also its

shall consider

110.

The following

rule for extracting the positive square


is

root of a

monomial perfect square

evident from

109

FACTORING
Extract the square root of the numerical of each letter by 2.
coefficienty

77

and

divide

the exponent

Thus, the square root of 25 a'*6V


111. It follows from

is

a^b^c.

97 that a trinomial

is

a perfect square

and last terms are perfect squares and positive, and the second term plus or minus twice the product of their

when

its first

square roots. Thus, in the expression 4:xr 12 xy -{-9 y^, the square root of the first term is 2 x, and of the last term 3 y and the second term is equal to 2 (2 x) (3 y).
;

Whence,
112.

4t

x^

12 xy

-\-

9 y^

is

a perfect square.

To

find the square root of a trinomial perfect square,

we

reverse the rule of

97

Extract the square roots ( 110) of the first and third terms, and connect the results by the sign of the second term.
1.

Find the square root of


the rule, the result

4:

x^

-i-

12 xy

-{-

y^.

By

is2x

Sy.

(The expression may he written in the form

(_2x)2 + 2(-2rK)(-3y) + (-3

2/)2,

which shows that (2x) + (Sy), or 2x~Sy, is also its square root but the first form is simpler, and will be used in all the examples
;

of the present chapter.)

2.

Find the square root of m^ 2mn-\- r?.


the rule, the result
is

By

m w.
2

(The expression

may also be written w^


is

mn + w^

in

which

case,

by

the rule, its square root

m.)
the expression is

113. Case II.


square.
1.

When

a trinomial

perfect

Factor 25 a^

+ 40 aV -^\

^> c\

-i-

h^
6a

By 112, the square root of the expression Then, 25 a? + 40 a62 + 54 ^ (5 ^^ 52)2.

is

+ 6^,

2.

Factor

m''

4 m%^ + 4 n*.

78 By
2 n2

ALGEBRA
112, the square root of

the expression

is

either

m^

2 w^,

oi

m2.

Then, m*
3.

- 4 m%2 + 4 w* =

(m2

2 n2)2, or (2 n^

- m2)2.

Factor

We have

a^- 2 %-;2) + (?/-)2. - zf a;2 - 2 x(y z)-{-(y


=[(y -

or,

;s)

- a5]2 =

(?/

- - jc)2,

4.

Factor

-9a*-6a2-l.

-9a*-6a2_i=_(9a4 + 6a2+i) = _(3ei2 + i)2.


EXERCISE 35
Factor the following:
1.

5c2_^8ic_^i6;.

5. 6.
7.

2. 3.

9-6a4-a2.
m2 + 10mn4-25w3^
4a-4a'''6c2
V 9.

+ 14a;2/ + 49. 36 a^ - 132 a6 + 121 6^. - 16 a^ + 24 aa; - 9


a^2/'
ar^.

4.

+ 52c4.

10.

8. 81 m^ + 180 mn + 100 n^. - 60 x'fz^ - 36 i/V. 64 aV _ 240 ahxy + 225 6y.

- 25

aji*^

11.
12.
13.

49 m2

^14.
15.

+ 168 m"a;^ + 144 a^^. 100 a262 4- 180 a6c2 + 81 c^ 144a;V-312a^"2/^^ + 169". - 121 aV_|_ 220 a^ft^mn- 100 6V.
a62 _^
2/)2

169
(a^

364

(^4^c2^3 4.

195 (Aa\

^16.
17.

^18.
19.

'^20.

+ 22(x + ^) + 121.'': a2-8a(m-w) + 16(m-w)^ + + 2)'. 9x2-6a;(2/ + nf 2(m n)n + n^, (m 25(a4-6f + 40(a + 6)c + 16c2. +
;2)

(2/

FACTORING
21. 22.

79

36(a-a;)2-84(a-% + 49/.
49 m^ 4- 42

m(m + a;) + 9(m + a;)2.

v^3. (a
24.

+ &)' + 4(a + &)(a-&) + 4(a-5)2. 9(a5 + 2/)^-12(a; + 2/)(^-2/)+4(aJ-2/)^


III.

114.

Case

When

the expression is the difference of

two perfkct squares.

By

98,

a"-

b'

= (a + b) (a - b).

Hence, to obtain the factors, we reverse the rule of

98

Extract the square root of the first square, and of the second square; add the results for one factor, and subtract the second
result
1.

from

the first

for the other*


4:9

Factor 36 a'b^-

c^
is

The square
Then,
2.

root of 36 a^b^

ab'^,

and

of 49 c^ is 7

c^.

36 a'^

49

c^

= (6 ab"^ + - (x -

7 c^) (6 ab^

7 c^).

Factor
the rule,

(2x-Syy-{x- y)\
(2

By

3 y)2

y)^

= [(2x-3y) + (x-y)][(2x-3y)-(x-2/)] = (2x-3y + x-y)(2x-3?/-x + y) = (3x-4y)(x-2?/).

A polynomial of more than two terms may sometimes be expressed as the difference of two perfect squares, and factored by the rule of Case III.
3.

Factor 2
first,

mn

-\-

m^

- 1 + n\
may be grouped
112, is the

The
m^

second, and last terms


n^
;

together in the order

+ 2mn +
Thus,

which expression, by
1

square of

w + w.

2 mn + w2 -

+ w2 = (w2 + 2 mw + n2) - 1 = (m + w)2 - 1 = (m + n + 1) (m + w 1).

4.

Factor 12y

+ ic2-9/-4.

80

FACTORING

81

+ 6'-l-26. Z2.' y' + 2xy-4=-[-x^. 33/4:7)1^ mn-\-n^p^.


31.
a2
4:

34. 35.
36.

9 9

a^+ie 6^-25 0^+24 a6.

-a' -{-2ab -b\

Am^ p^ 9 n^ 6np.

37.

V 38.
39.

V40.
V/41.
42.

+ 16a:^-9z''-4.y\ + n^ a^ + 2a;2/ ^. a2H-2a?> + 62_^2_2c(^_(^2^ a2 + ar'-62-/ + 2aaj + 26?/. a^-/ + m2-l-2maj-22/.


12yz

m^ 2 m?^

a'-4ax-{-Ax'-b'-{-6by-9y\

43.

16a2_8a6 + ?>'-c'-10cd-25d2.
28a;2/-36z2

^"44.

+ 492/2 + 60;3-25 + 4a^.

115. Case IV.

When

the expression is in the form

x'^-\-axhf-\-y^.

Certain trinomials of the above form

expressing them

as the difference of

may be factored by two perfect squares, and

then employing
1.

114.
a262

Factor a4 +

?>^

a perfect square if its first and last terms are perfect squares and positive, and its second term plus or minus twice the

By

111, a trinomial is

product of their square roots. The given expression can be


its

second term

and

this

made a perfect square by adding a%'^ to can be done provided we subtract ^252 from the

result.

Thus, a^

+ a262 + 54 = (* + 2 ^262 + 54) _ ^252 = (a2 + 62)2 _ a262, by 112,

= (a2 + 62 =
2.
{oP-

1).

ah) (a^

^- ah),
62).

by

114,

a6

+ 52) (a2 -ah +

Factor 9

a;4

- 37V + 4.
be a perfect square
if its

The expression

will

second term

is

12

x"^.

82
Thus, 9x*-37ic2

ALGEBRA
+ 4=(9x4- 12x2 + 4)-25x2 = (3 x2 - 2)2 - (5 xy = (3x2 4-5x-2)(3x2-5iC-2).
also be factored as follows :

(The expression may


9
a;4

- 37 x2 + 4 =(9 a;4 +

12 x2

+ 4) - 49

a;2

= (3x2 + 2)2-(7x)2=(3.r2 + 7a; + 2)(3x2-7x+2)


Several expressions in Exercise 37

The factoring

of trinomials of the

may be factored in two different ways. form x* + ax^y"^ + y*, when the factors

involve surds, will be considered in 300.)

EXERCISE 37
Factor the following
I
:

1.

.ic\+524-9.
a'

''6.

9a;^

2.
3.
4.

-21 ani^ + ZQh\

6.
^^1.

16 a^ 64

+ 6a;y + 49^. - 81 a^ 16.


-f-

4-33a^ + 4a;\

-64^^ + 25 ml
a^

25m*-14mV + 7il
115)
:

8.

49

- 127 a^a^ + 81 a;l

Factor each of the following in two different ways (compare

Ex.

2,

9.

x'^-llx'^-n.

-ll.
12.

16m*-104mV4-25a;*.
36

10.

9-148a2 + 64a*.
When

a^-97aW + 36ml
form

116. Case V.

the expression is in the


x^
-{-

ax -{-

b.

99, that the product of two binomials of the and x -\- n, was in the form x^ -\- ax ^ b-, where the coefficient of x was the algebraic sum of the second terms of the binomials, and the third term the product of the second terms of the binomials. In certain cases, it is possible to reverse the process, and resolve a trinomial of the form op^ -\- ax -{- b into two binomial factors of the form x -\-m and x -{-n.

We

saw, in
-{-

form X

FACTORING

83

To obtain the second terms


verse the rule of
is the coefficient

99,

of x,

of the binomials, we simply re^ndjind two yiumbers whose algebraic sum and whose ijroduct is the last term of the tri-

nomial.

The numbers may be found by


1.

inspection.

Factor
find

a;2

14

a;

4- 45.

two numbers whose sum is 14 and product 45. By inspection, we determine that these numbers are 9 and

We

5.

Whence,
2.

a;2

14 x

45

(ic

9)

(ic

5).

Factor x^
find

5x-^4:.

two numbers whose sum is 5 and product 4. We Since the sum is negative, and the product positive, the numbers must
both be negative.

By

inspection,

we determine
cc2

that the

numbers are
4)(x 1).

4 and

1.

Whence,
3.

- 5x +

(x

Factor
find

r^

+ 6 a^ - 16.
;

two numbers whose sum is 6 and product 16. Since the sum is positive, and the product negative, the numbers must be of opposite sign and the positive number must have the greater abso-

We

lute value.

By

inspection,

we determine
x^ + 6x^ -

that the

numbers are

-f

8 and

2.

Whence,
4.

16

(x^

8) (x^

-2).

YsiGtoT
find

x'-abx"- ^2

a'b\
is

two numbers whose sum The numbers must be of opposite


have
tlie

We

sign,

and product 42. and the negative number must


are

greater absolute value.

By

inspection,
x^

we determine

that the

numbers

Whence,
5.

abx^

42 ^252

(a;2

7 a6)(x2

7 and + 6ab).

-|-

6.

Factor
find

l+2a 99a2.
is

We
By

two numbers whose sum

+ +

inspection,

we determine
1

that the

2 and product numbers are -f


11 a) (1

99.
11

and

9.

Whence,
If the x^

2 a

99 a^

(1

- 9 a).

negative, the entire expression should be enclosed in parentheses preceded by a sign.


is

term

84
6.

ALGEBRA
Factor 24:-\-5x-x^.
24

We have,

ic

a;2

==-

(a;2

5x

24)
3)

(X

8)(x

(8

a;)(3

x)

changing the sign of each term of the


(In case the numbers are large,

first factor.

we may proceed

as follows

Required the numbers whose sum is 26 and product 192. One of the numbers must be + and the other Taking in order, beginning with the factors + 1 x 192, all possible 192, of which one is + and the other we have pairs of factors of
,
.

+
'

192.
96.
64.

+
+

XX X X

+4 +6
Since the

48.
32.

sum

of

6 and

32

is

26, they are the

numbers required.)

EXERCISE 38
Factor the following
1.
:

x'

+ ^x + S.
'

13.
14.

x'-17x + 52.

2. x'-Tx-i-lO. 3. a2 + 7a-18.
4.
5.
6.

15. 16. 17.


18. 19.

m-- 14 m -15.
2/2-162/
x'

+ 18a + 56. S4. + 5x-xK if + 16 y- 57.


a2

+ + lQx + Sd.
55.

x'-lOx-TB.
m2

+ 19m + 90.
72

95-14
x^- 20
a2

n^.

8.

66-5n-n^.
a^- 14 a + 48.
ic2

20.
21. 22.

9.

+ + 21a + 98.
a;

96.

10.

+ 20aj + 51.

a?2_7^_78.

11.
12.

x'-12x-4.5.
yi2

23. 24.

105-8

m-?7i2.
104.

+ 14w-32.

c^-21c2 +

FACTORING
25.
26.

85

x^-23a^ + 76.

43.

27.
.28.

+ a'-llO. w' - 16 n^ - 80.


a^
a^*^

44. 45.
46. 47.

l-\-5a-Ua\ m^ - 17 mn + 66 n^.

+ 18 a" + 65.
+ ll^"-12.

+ 12 a6 + 27 - U mx AO m\ x^
a^
ftl
-\-

29.
30.

x2-

l-dx-SGx".
m' + S
cc^

c^-19c2^ + 88.
a^/-13a;2/3_3o;
a'b^- 23 ah' -^112.

48.
49^

mn - 54. n\
a^i/
2/2.

/31.
32.

50.
51.

+ 20 a-V - 17 a6c + 60
_^

12

c^.

33. 34. 35.

nV + 25nx-hl54.
126

1-13 71-68^2.
a^

'

36.
'

37. 38.

+ 15 2/'-/. aV + 9aV-162. m<^" - 23 + 120. '^ (a + 6)2 + 14(a + 6)+24.


771^'^

52. 53. 54.


55.

(x-yy-15(x-y)-16.
(m-n)2+21(m-r6)-130.

56.

+ 15 aa; - 100 l+17mn + 70mV. - 17 aj^y^^ 4. 72 i/V. a^ + 6 a'^6 - 91 - 108 iy. 1 -3


a;^^
ft^.

ic?/

39.

57. 58.
59. 60.

a"

-32 abc + 112 b'c\

^0.
41.
42.

+ ic)2-28(a + a- + 6ax + 5x^,


(a

a;)

+ 192.

+ 29 a^ys; - 170 ^l y-(2m + 3n)a; + 6mn.


a;y

x'-Txy-Sy'.
Case VI.

x"- (a-b)x-ab.
is in the

117.

WJien the expression


ax^

form

+bx

-\- c.

We
form
the

saw, in

mx + n and px + q, was

100, that the product of two binomials of the in the form ax^ where 6a; c

term was the product of the first terms of the binomial factors, and the last term the product of the second terms. Also, the middle term was the sum of the products of the
first

terms, in the binomial factors, connected by cross lines. In certain cases it is possible to resolve a trinomial of the form ax^ -\-bx-{-c into two binomial factors of the form mx n

and px +

q.

86
1.

ALGEBRA
Factor 3
first
J

a^

+8

a;

4- 4.

The
is

ic2

terms of the binomial factors must be such that their product they can be only 3 x and x.

The second terms must be such that their product is 4. The numbers whose product is 4 are 4 and 1,-4 and 1,2 and 2, and
and

the possible cases are represented below

FACTORING
Thus, in Ex.
1,

87
numbers

we need not have


would have
left

tried the

and

4,

nor

and 2

this

only three cases to consider.


last

(b) If the last term of the trinomial is negative, the of the factoids will be one -{-, the other
.

terms

If the X-

term

is

negative, the entire expression should be enclosed in

parentheses preceded by a

sign.
is

If the coefficient of x^ of X divisible

pression
3.

may

a perfect square, and the coefficient the square root of the coefficient of x^, the exby be readily factored by the method of 116.
a;2

Factor 9

_ 13 ^
9 x^

_l_

5^

In this case, 18

is

divisible

by the square root


5

of 9.

+ = (3xy - 6(3 x) + 6. numbers whose sum is 6, and product 5. The numbers are 5 and 1. 9x2 - 18x + 5 = (3a; - 5)(3 - 1). Then,

We have We find two

-[Sx

^EXERCISE 39W
Factor the following
V 1.
2.x'
:

>

+ 9x + 9.

1_2.

10a^-39x + 14.

>2. 3a:2_i-|^^_20.
3.

>13. 12
14.

4:x'-2Sx + 4.5.
6x'-\-7x-S.
5x'-36x-{-S6.
16aj2

+ 2. 20 a V - 23 ao; + 6.
a^^

_^

11 x

4.
5.
>

n5. 36 a^-j- 12
16.

a?

-35.

6.
7.
8.

+ 56ir + 33. 8n2 + 18w-5.

17.
18.

G-x-Wx". 5 + 9a;-18a:2^
72-\-7x-A9x\
28a^-a;-2.
21
o^"*

4.x^-Sx-7.
9x2

>19. 24:X^-17nx-\-S7A
20.
21.

9.

+ 12a;-32.

-10,
11.

6x'-^7ax-^2a\

+ 23 C'"/~ + 6 .y^
a'b'.

25x'-25mx-6m\
v23.

22.
tt^

IS

x^- 27 abx~ 35

24

+ 26 tt^- 5.

88
118. It
is

ALGEBRA
not possible to factor every expression of the form

x^-^ax

+ hhj the
let it

method

of

116.
-\-

Thus,

be required to factor x^ -\-l%x

35.

We

must

find

two numbers whose sum

is 18,

The only
and 35 and
ax~ -\-hx-\-c

pairs of positive integral factors of 35 are 7 1 and in neither case is the sum 18.
;

and product 35. and 5,

It is also impossible to factor

every expression of the form

by the method of

117.

Thus, it is impossible to find two binomial factors of the 4 a; 1 by the method of 117. expression 4 a;^ In 298 will be given a general method for the factoring of

any expression of the forms

x^ -\-ax -\-h, or aoi? -\-hx-\-c.

tors, it is said to
is

119. If an expression can be "resolved into three equal facbe a perfect cube, and one of the equal factors
called its cube root.
o?b,
it

Thus, since 27 a%^ is equal to 3 a-5 x 3 a'b x 3 perfect cube, and 3 a^b is its cube root.

is

120. The following rule for extracting the cube root of a positive monomial perfect cube is evident from 119:
Extract the cube root of the numerical of each letter by 3.
coefficient,

and

divide

the exponent

Thus, the cube root of 125 a^6V


121. Case VII.

is

a^b^c.

When

the expression is the

sum

or difference

of two perfect cubes.


ible

sum or difference of two perfect cubes is divisthe sum or difference, respectively, of their cube roots by in either case the quotient may be obtained by the rules of 102.

By

102, the

1.

Factor

a^- 27
is

2/V.
is x^,

By

120, the

cube root of x^
x^

and

of 27

yV is 3 y^z.
is

Then one

factor

3 y^z.
a;^

Dividing a^

27 y^z^

by
X*

3 y^z^ the quotient

Then,

x^

+ 3 x'^y^z + 9 y^z-2 ( 102). - 27 y^z^ = (x^ - 3 y^z) (x^ + 3 xY^ + 9 y^z'^).

^-^^^^^^z FACTORING
2.

89

Factor a^
factor
is

+
+

?>^
h^.

One

a^
h^
::3

Dividing a^

by
(a2

a^

&'^,

the quotient
^525-2

is

a*

cC^h^

+ &*

Then,
3.

+ 56

_ 52) (^4
{x

+ ^4).

Factor {x +

of

of.

= [(ic + rt) - (x-a)][(x + a)2+ (a;+a)(a;-a) + (a;-a)2] = (5C + a - + a) (x2 + 2 ax + a2 + x^ - a2 + x2 - 2 aa; + a^)
a:

90

ALGEBRA
+
5^

Q
Dividing a^

by a

Then,

(a^

6^)

+ &, the quotient is a* - a^b + a2&2 _ ab^ + 6*. ^ (^t + 5) (a* - a^b + a^&s _
EXERCISE
41

( 103)

ab^

).

Factor the following


vl.
2. 3.

a^

+ /.

5.

1+xl
aj^

9.

32a^-6'^.

a^-1.

v6.
7. 8.

n^.

>10. 243a^
*^

1-mV.
a7-5^
123.

a^-1.
n^^4-32.

11.

mi^

4.

v 12.

+ + 128n^. 32 a^^^^n _ 243


2/^.

cIOp.

sion

By application of the rules already given, an expresmay often be resolved into more than two factors. If the terms of the expression have a common factor, the
of

method
1.

107 should always be applied


aoc^y^

first.

Factor 2
107,

8 axy\
8 axy^

By
2.

ax^y^

= 2 axy'^(x'^ - iy^) = 2 axy\x + 2 ?/) (x -

?/),

by

114.

Factor .a-6.
114, 121,

By

a6

56

= (^3 +
ah

53) (^3

53).

Whence, by

a^-h^ =
3.

(a

b){a^

&2)(a

b)(a^

-\-

ab

62).

Factor
114,

a^-/.
afi-y

By

= (x^ + y^)(xi - y^)


=
(x^

y*)ix^

+ y^)(.^ + y)(ix - y)-

4.

Factor 3 (m

+ w)^ _ 2 (m^ - n^).


n^)

3(m +

w)2

- 2(m2 -

= 3(m + n)2 - 2(m + w)(wi - n) = (m + w) [3(w + n) - 2(m - w)] = (m + w) (3 + 3 n - 2 m + 2 w) = (m + w)(n + 5n).


?7i

FACTORING
5.

91

Factor
a(a

a(a-l)-&(6-l).
1)

6(6

1)

= a2 - a - &2 + 6 = a2 _ 52 _ + 5
(3j

= (a + 6) (a -6) -(a -6) = (a-6)(a + 6-l).


The following is a list of the type-forms in factoring, considered in the present chapter
:

ax

-\-

ay

az.

92
21.
22.
23.

ALGEBRA
m'^-l.
a^'-l.
24. 25.

-121m+22m*-l.
36x^-\-24.a^-21x\
a'b^ -^

a%'- 30 a'bc^-{- 216 c\


27. 28.

26.

aY - b^x^ - x'f.

+ 2 6)2 + 8(a + 2 6) (2 a -6) +16(2 a -6)2. 4a;(a-6-c)+52/(6 + c-a). 29. (m + 7iy 2 (m + n)^ + (m + n)l 30. x^-16xY + 64.y^ 32. a;-26^3-27. 31. 81m^-256 7i^ 33. (x + 2yf-\- (Sx-yf. 34. (a + 2a;)2 + 10(a + 2x)-144. 35. 27 x''-75y^-120yz-4:Sz\ 39. 49 a'^^^ _^ 12 a^ft^ + 4 a^^io, 36. (a2 + 4a6 + 62)2_(^2_^^2)2^ 40. Ux'-25x-^6. 41. a''-x'\ 37. (16m" + n2)2_64mV. 42. aj^*-2a;^ + l. 38. 49a2 + 4-3662_28a. - 16 a'd' - 36 6V + 64 b'(P. 43. 9 aV 46. a^ + 128 6^ 44. mV-243mV. 47. 48 ar^ - 52 a.y - 140 45. _7aj2-26a; + 8. 81 into two factors, one of which is a 3. 48. Resolve 49. Eesolve x^ 64 into two factors, one of which is x-\-2. 50. Eesolve x^ y^ into two factors, one of which is x y.
(a
a;^/^
a'^

51.

Eesolve

a^ -\-l into

two

factors,

one of which

is

a+

1.

52. Eesolve l-\-x^ into three factors by the method of Case VII. 53.

Eesolve

a^

512 into
:

three factors.

Factor the following


54.
a^ m^
-{-

-}-

m.

55.

(x2^4a^)2-37(a^ + 4x)
711"

+ 160.
57.

56.

-1024.

m^

+ m + a^ +

a;.

FACTORING
58.

93

a2c3-4&V-8a2(i3-|-32 6W

59.
60.
61.

(m

7i) (x^

y^) -\-{x-{-y) {m? rv^.

(x-iy-{-6(x-iy + 9(x-l).

62.

64.
65.

66. 67.
68.

+ w) (jn? a^) (m-\-x) {w? n^. 63. a2-462_a-26. + 4 - ;2y - 16 a;y _ 9 ^)2 ^ 4 (^2 _ 9 _ 140. a^63 + 27 ay _ 8 6V - 216 y. (m^ + m)2 + 2 (m^ + m){m + 1) + (m + 1)^ 69. (4 a^ - 6^ _ 9)2 _ 36 (2a;2-3)2-ar^.
(m
(a;^
2/'

(a;2

a;)

52^

73. 74.

78.
79.

+ ^yf -x{o? -4.y''). 16a;24-2/2_25;s2_i^8x2/ + 10^. 72. (a2 + 6a + 8)2-14(a2 + 6a + 8)-15. _ ^2/ (x + 75. (a^ + + (1 + (1 4a*-9 + 2a(a2 + 3). 76. (a- 8 m)-a(a-2m)2. 77. 9a2(3a + 2)2 + 6a(3a4-2) + l. w?-m' + 32 w? - 32. 80. m^ (m +p) + n^ (n - p). 81. + 8 + + 8. a(a-c)-b{b-c). 82. (27m-a^)4-(3m + aj)(9m2-6mx + 83. (4a2 + 9)2_24a(4a2 + 9)4-144a2. 84. 16a2 + 962_25c2-4d2_24a6-20cd 85. m + m^-64m-64. 86. (x" -\-yy - 4:xy(x' -^y^.
70.

64aV + 8a3-8ar'-l.
71.

(x

ar^)

a;)3.

^/^^^

2/).

ic^

aj

o.-^

a;2).

87.
88.

a'-\-a'b-i-a^b^-{-a^b^-{-ab^-hb^.

(8n3_27)+(2n-3)(47i2-f-4n-6).
a^

89.

+ 2iB2 + 2a; + l.
+
2 X), or (x

(By

altering the order of the terms, this

x8

(2

a;2

l){x^

may be written - x + 1) + 2x (_x-\-

1),

and X

1 is

a factor of the given expression.)

94
90.

ALGEBRA
x^-3x''-\-3x-l.

92.

S a^

+ SQx'y + 54:xy' -}-27 f.

Additional methods in factoring will be found in 298 to


300, and in Chapter

XXXIV.

124.

By

54,

(+ a) x (+ 6) = -f ab, (+ a)x(-b) = - ab, ( a) X (+ 6)= - ab, ( a)x{b) = + ab.

Hence, in the indicated product of two factors, the signs of may be changed without altering the product; but if the sign of either one be changed, the sign of the product will be
both factors

changed.
If either factor is a polynomial, care must be taken, on changing its sign, to change the sign of each of its terms. Thus, the result of Ex. 3, 107, may be written in the forms
(b

a)(n m), (b a)(m n),

or

(a b)(n m).

factors, the signs of

In like manner, in the indicated product of more than two any even number of them may be changed

without altering the product; but if the signs of any odd

number
( 65).

of them be changed, the sign of the product

will be

changed

Thus,

b){G d)(e f) may (a

be written in the forms

ia-b)id-c){f-e),

(b-a)(c-d)(f-e),

(6 a)(d c)(/ e),

etc.

SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS BY FACTORING


125. Let
it

be required to solve the equation

(x-S)(2x-i-5) =

0.

It is evident that the equation will be satisfied when x has such a value that one of the factors of the first member is equal to zero for if any factor of a product is equal to zero,
;

the product

is

equal to zero.

FACTORING

96

Hence, the equation will be satisfied when x has such a value


that either
or

aj-3 =

0,

(1)

Solving (1) and

(2),

2a; + 5 = 0. we have x = 3

(2)

or

5 -

It will be observed that the roots are obtained

factors of the first

member

separately equal to zero,

by placing the and solving

the resulting equations.

126. Examples.
1
.

'^

Solve the equation a^

5 24 = 0.
a;

Factoring the first member, (x 8) (x Placing the factors separately equal to

+ 3) = 0.
( 125),
;

( 116)

we have

and
2.

= 0, whence x = 8 + = 0, whence x = 3.
8 3

Solve the equation 4 a^

2 = 0.
ic

Factoring the first member, 2x(2x 1)=0. Placing the factors separately equal to 0, we have
2X

= 0,

whence x

=
-

and
3.

2 x.

1=0, whence x =
ar'
a;

Solve the equation


first

+ 4a:^ 4 = 0.
108,

Factoring the

member, we have by

(x + 4)

(x2

1)

0, or
0,

Then,

x X

+4
1 1

and
4.

+ X

= 0, = 0,

+ 4) (X + whence x = 4 whence x = 1
(X

1)
;

(a;

-1)

= 0.

whence x

1.

Solve the equation a^


first

- 27 - (a^ + 9 - 36) = 0.
a;

Factoring the

member, we have by 116 and


(X

121,

(x
Or,

3)(x2 + 3x + 9)

- 3)(x +

12)

= 0.

(x-3)(x2 + 3x +

Or,

9-x-12) = 0. (x-3)(x2 + 2x-3)=0.

96
Or,

ALGEBRA
(a:-3)(a;

Placing the factors separately equal to

+ 3)(x-l) = 0. 0, x = 3,

3,

or

1.

pupil should endeavor to put down the values of x without actually placing the factors equal to 0, as shown in Ex. 4.

The

EXERCISE 43
Solve the following equations
1.
2. 3.
:

+ 7a; = 0. 5a:3-4a^ = 0. 3a^-108a; = 0.


a;2

11.
'^

a;4

+ 18a^ + 32ar^ = 0.
-VSx'-^ZQ^i).

12.
13.

x'

4.
5.

(3a;-2)(4a;^-25)

= 0.

14.

6.
7.

8.

9.

+ 54 = 0. + 23ic + 102 = 0. a^ + 4:X-96 = 0. a^-a;-110 = 0. x^-\-ax-2a^ = 0.


a;2-15a;
a;2

15.
16.

17.
18.

19.

10.

{5x-\-l){x^-6x-91)
21.
22.

23.

24.
25.
26.

= 0. 20. s(^-2cx-8x-\-16c = 0. x'^-{-3m-x 5m^x15m^ = 0. 27a^ + 18a;2_3^_2 = o. (a;-2)2-4(a;-2)+3 = 0.


(4

= 0. -' Q>x' + lx + 2 = 0. 3 or^- ma: - 4 m^ = 0. lOo^^ + T a;-12 = 0. 15x'-\- x-2 = 0. 12a;-29a^ + 15a; = 0. a^-ax + bx-ab = 0. x^ + mx -^ nx mn = 0.
8 a;2_i0a;4-3
-\-

x^-A9)(a^-3x- 10)(8 a;^ _^ 14 - 15)


a;

= 0.

(a'-2)(5a;2

27.

+ 3a;-4)-(x2-4) = 0. (a;2-l)(a^-9) + 3(a;-l)(a; + 3) = 0.

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR

97

IX.

HIGHEST

COMMON FACTOR. LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE

consider in the present chapter the Highest Common Factor and Common Multiple of Monomials^ or of polynomials which can be readily factored by inspection.

(We

Lowest

The Highest Common Factor and Lowest Common Multiple of polynomials which cannot be readily factored by inspection, are considered
in

439

to 443.)

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR


127. The Highest
expressions
If several

is

their

Common Factor (H. C. F.) of two common factor of highest degree (

or

more

64).

that the

common factors are of equally high degree, it is understood highest common factor is the one having the numerical coeflBcient

term of highest degree. For example, if the common factors were 6 a; 3 and 2 a: former would be the H. C. F.
of greatest absolute value in its

1,

the

128.

Two

expressions are said to be prime

to

each other

when

unity

is

their highest
I.

common

factor.

129. Case

Highest

Common

Factor of Monomials.
d'bc,

Ex, By

Eequired the H. C. F. of 42 o?h\ 70

and 98 a'Wd\

the rule of Arithmetic, the H. C. F. of 42, 70, and 98 is 14. It is evident by inspection that the expression of highest degree which will exactly divide a%'^, a%c, and a%hP is a^h.

Then, the H. C. F. of the given expressions

is

14 0,%.

It will be observed, in the above result, that the exponent of each letter is the lowest exponent with which it occurs in any of the

given expressions.

EXERCISE 44
Find the H.
1.

C. F. of the following:

14a^2/^

21xy\

2.

Ua'b\ 112 6V.

98
3.
4.

ALGEBRA
m(x-yy,
7. 8.

S4:{x-y)\

5. 6.

72

a'b',

27a'b',

99 a'b\
a^fz'.

108 m^nY, 90 mhipl

44 x'yz% 88 x^z', 110

32 aV, 128a6V, 192 aVi/^.

ISGa^mV,

51 &%)i, 119c2mV.

9.

72xyz', IQSx^yh', 120xYz\


26(a-W'6)2(a-6), 91{a

10.

+ b)%a-by.

130. Case II. Highest Common Factor of Polynomials which can be readily factored by Inspection.
1.

Eequired the H.
5 x'y - 45 x^y

C. F. of

and 10 xY
5x^y

- 40 xY =
5x^y(x^

210 xy^
9)
(1)

By
and

107, 114,

and

116,

45x2?/

10 x^y^

40

xV

210 xy^

= 5x2^(0: + 3)(x- 3); = 10 xy^(x^ - 4 x - 21)


=:10x?/2(x-7)(x

3).

(2)

The H.

C. F. of the numerical coeflB.cienls 5 and 10

is 5.

It is evident by inspection that the H. C. F. of the literal portions of the expressions (1) and (2) is xy(x + 3). Then, the H. C. F. of the given expressions is 5x?/(x + 3).

sometimes necessary to change the form of the factors in finding the H. C. F. of expressions.
It is
2.

Find the H.
116,

C. F. of a^
a2

+2a-3

and 1

- al
+
a^).

By

By 121,

+ 2a-3 = (a-l)(a + l-a^ = (l-a){l +


first

3).

By

124, the factors of the

expression can be put in the form


a)-

Hence, the H. C. F.

is 1

-(l-a)(3 + <z.

EXERCISE 45
Find the H.
C. F. of the following
1.
:

30icy-fl0ary,

15xY-S0xf.

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR


2.

99

2
4. 5.

+ Sab-\-16b\ m--14m4-45, m'-10m + 25.


a'-16b',
a-

:^-5a^-\-3x-15,
a3

4:x'-\-12a:^,

+ 64, a'-Ta-U. 6c ac? + bd, + 13x-^22,


d^

6.
7.

9-a^, a;2-a;-6.
ac
x^

cl

8. 9.

2a;2

+ 9a; + 10.
x"
a;2

3ac-4:ad-6bc-\-Sbd, a--j-7ab-lSb\

10. 11.
12.
13.

+ y^-z''-2xy, 3aj2-16a.-?/ + 5 2/^


x'

y""

- z" + 2 yz.

+ 10aj?/-75 2/^
lG.

m^-8m2, m^-f^m^ +
2aj2-7a;

14. 15.
16.

17.
18.
19.

20. 21.

22.
23.

+ 6, Qx'-llx-\-3. 2ar'-13a.'?/ + 62/2, jc?/2-4a^. l-lla + 18a2, Sa^-l, 18a2-5a-2. - 10 a^b - 28 aft^ 12 8 a^ - 26 a^^ + 20 + 18a; + 77, _^ 22 + 121, a^ + i-110. 16m2-9w2, 16m2-24mw + 9n2, 9mn2-12m2n. ar5-27, a^-6x4-9, 2 aa;-6 a- 6a; + 3 6. 27a3+86^ 9a2-46^ 9aH12a6 + 46l a2-3a-18, 2a2-a-21, 3a2 + 4a-15. 2a^-12a^ + 16a;, 3 - 3 - 36 ;^, 5 a^ 4- 5 - 100 a^. 125m*-8m, 10 m^ m^ - 2 m, 25m3-20m2 + 4m.
afe^,
a=^
a;2

ic^

a;

a^^

a;^

a;^

-\-

24.

a^

+ 3a2-40,

a^-25,

25.

2a;3_aj2_g^_j_3^

+ a^-Sa-S. 6a;2-19aj + 8, 4a;2_^8^_5^


a^
2/3.

26.
27. 28.

a^-{h
8a^2/

+ cf,

(6-a)2-c2, 62_(^_^)2^

+ a;V, 64a;y + 2a;/, 24 a^?/ - 30 a^/ - 21 2a=^ + 17a4-36, 4a2-4a-99, 6a2 + 25a- 9.

}\\
^^

'^'^

100

ALGEBRA
LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE

131.

Common
is

Multiple of two or

expression which

exactly divisible

more expressions by each of them.

is

an

132. The Lowest


expressions
If several

is their

Common common

Multiple (L. C. M.) of two or

more

multiple of lowest degree.

that the lowest

common multiples are of equally low degree, it is understood common multiple is the one having the numerical coeffi-

its term of highest degree. For example, if the common multiples were 4 a: 2 and 6x former would be the L. C. M.

cient of least absolute value in

3,

the

133. Case

I.

Lowest Common Multiple

of

Monomials.

Ex. Eequired the L. C. M. of 36

a%

60 ay, and 84 caj^.

By
is

the rule of Arithmetic, the L. C. M. of 36, 60, and 84 is 1260. It is evident by inspection that the expression of lowest degree which

exactly divisible by a%, aP'y'^, and cx^ is aHx^y'^. Then, the L. C. M. of the given expressions is 1260 aHx^y^.

each

It will be observed, in the above result, that the exponent of letter is the highest exponent with which it occurs in any of

the given expressions.

EXERCISE 46
Find the L.
1.

C.

M.

of the following
5. 6.
7.

5 a^y% 6 xy.

105

a%

70 b'% 63

c'a,

2. 3.
4.

IS

a%

4:5 b'c.

50 xY, 2i a^f, ^0 a^y\


21
ab*,
a'b^,

2Sa^,S6y\
42

35

b'c%
ba^,

91

a'(^.

m%^

98 ny.
9.

8.
a'bc',

56

84

48 xy.

60

75 a'b% 90 a'c'd\
66 m^ny, 165

10.

99

m'^naf,

nV/.

134. Case II. Lowest Common Multiple of Polynomials which can be readily factored by Inspection.
1.

Required the L. C. M. of
a^

5a; + 6,

c^

4a;-f4,

and

a^

9 x.

LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE


By By
116, 113,

101

x2

a;

(X

3)

(a;

2).

By

114,

x2-4x + 4=(x- 2)2. x3 - 9 X = x(x + 3) (x by inspection that the L.


C.

3).

It is evident

M.

of these expressions

is

x(x-2)2(x + 3)(x-3).
It is
2.

sometimes necessary to change the form of the factors.


h^

Find the L. C. M. of ac-bc-ad-\- bd and


108,

- al

By

ac-bc-ad+hd =

(^a- h) {c-d).

By By

114,

b^-a^=(h + a){h-a).
first

124, the factors of the

expression can be written

\b-a)(^d-c).
Hence, the L. C. M.
is

(6

a) (6

a)

(d-c),

or (62

a^)

(d-c).

EXERCISE 47
Find the L. C. M. of the following
:

2.

o?b^-2a^b\2a'b''

3.

4.
5. 6.

+ ab\ m2-6m + 9, m2-llm + 24. a* - 49 a'bS a' + 12 a^b + 35 o?b\


2a^ + 2a;2-84i, 3x^-3ar'-90a;.
o?-:x?,a^-o?x-\-ao?-:x?.

7.
8.

+ 27 l-5a;-24a:2 ac 3 ad - 2 6c + 6 6d, 3 ac + ad 6 6c 2 bd.


1
0.-3,

9.

x^-y'^-z'^^2yz,o?-y'^ + z^-{-2xz.

11. 12.
13.

+ 8, 4a;2_(a^ + 4y 2aj2 + 3a;-35, 2a^ + 19x + 45, - 27 n + 8, 3 - 2n - 16. 9


a^
71t?^

102
14.
15. 16.

ALGEBRA

17.

18.
19.

20.

21. 22.

23.
24.

25.
26.

+ 15 xy, 8 xy - 10 y\ x'~15x + 50,x^ + 2x-S5,x^-^x-10. a^ - 4 a6 + 4 a^ - 8 6^ a^ft + 2 a^ft^ + 4 a&^ m^ 10 m^i + 21 n^, m^ 5 m?i 24 m'' 8l9i^. + 5x + 6, a^-2a;-8, a^ + 2 + 5 + lO. 9a5^-4a^6, 8 ac + 2 ad-12 5c-3 6d 4. 5 + 4 a. a^-16et, a^-3a3_4a, 27 + 64 n, 18 n^ - 32 n\ 9 n^ + 21 n' + 12 n^. 9a;2 + 30a? + 25, 6aj2^7a5-5, 10a:2-9ic + 2. n2-5n + 6, 9^2-^^ 10-n-2nl ^-f, o?-2xy + y\ x' + xY + y'ac-4.ad-2hc + %hd, ?>(?-llcd-4.d\ 3ac+ad-6 6c-2
16
x^

- 25 y^

12 x^

52,

?i^,

a;2

ic2

a^

a'^

a'^

?i*

6rZ,

2a;2-flj-15,

2aj2_7^^3^ ^x'-^x^^.

27. 28.

a2+462_9c2_4a6,a2-462_9c2+12&c,a2-462+9c2-6ac.
3 m^ 9 m^n

29.

+ m^ti 2 mn^, 6 m^n + 11 mn^ + 5 + 5 m^n^ 4 mn^. 32a + 4a^ 12 a4 + 12 a^ + 3 a^, 32a^ + 8a3 + 2a.
ti^,

FRACTIONS

103

X.
135.

FRACTIONS
by
h is written

The quotient
h
is

of a divided

( 6).
is

The expression

called a Fraction

the dividend a

called

the numerator, and the divisor h the denominator. The numerator and denominator are called the terms of the
fraction.

136. It follows from

69, (3),

that

the

If the terms of a fraction he both multijMed, or both divided, by same expression, the value of the fraction is not changed. 137.

By

the Rule of Signs in Division

( 68),

-\-a_

+ 6""^"

a _

4-a

'^~

a
-i-b

That is, if the signs of both terms of a fraction be changed, the sign before the fraction is not changed ; but if the sign of either one be changed, the sigii before the fraction is changed.
ing
If either term is a polynomial, care must be taken, its sign, to change the sign of each of its terms.

on chang-

Thus, the fraction

^~ cd

by changing the signs of both

numerator and denominator, can be written

ba
d
c

( 51).

138. It follows from 124 and 137 that if either term of a fractio7i is the indicated product of two or more expressions, the signs of any even number of them may be changed without
changing the sign before the fraction; but if the signs of any odd number of them be changed, the sign before the fraction is changed.

Thus, the fraction

^^
(c-d)(e-f)

may

be written

a-b

b-a

b-a
(d-o)(/-e)'

^^^^

(d-c)(f-ey (d-c)(e-fy

104

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 48

Write each of the following in three other ways without


changing
-

its

value

a
2

!?L?.

7
(^

2-x

4
in

2xl x+2
four

%x-^
(a:-3)(2/+4)

6.

Write

- ^) ( - ^)

other ways without

{x+b){y-2)
changing
its value.

REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS
139. Reduction of a Fraction to
its

Lowest Terms.

A fraction

is

said to be in its lowest terms

when

its

numerator

and denominator are prime

to each other ( 128).

(We consider in the present chapter those cases only in which the numerator and denominator can be readily factored by inspection. The cases in which the numerator and denominator cannot be readily factored by inspection are considered in 444.)
140. By 136, dividing both terms of a fraction by the same expression, or cancelling common factors in the numerator and denominator, does not alter the value of the fraction.

We then

have the following rule

Resolve both numerator and denominator into their factors, and


cancel all that are
1.

common

to both.

Eeduce

^ ^ !^. to 40 a^b^cH^

its

lowest terms.

We have

24

a'^b'^cx

2^ 23

40 a%^cM^

x 3 x a^h^cx X 5 X a^b^c^d^ x
a'^b^c.

^ 3 a^x

5 cd^'

by cancelling the common factor


2.

2^

Reduce

/v3_ 27
a^-2a;-3
xB

to its lowest terms.

By 121 and 116,'x2-2x-3 ^(x ^^^


_
3.
_.

27

3)(x^ + 3x + 9)^^^ + 3x + x+ 1 (x-3)(x + l)


.
.

9,

Reduce

ax bx
to b^

ay-\-by. to its lowest terms. a^?


,
, ,

FRACTIONS
By
By
108
138,

105
-b)(x
y)

and

ax-bx114,
ft-i

ay
a^

by

(a
(&

a) (6

a)

the signs of the terms of the factors of the numerator can be changed without altering the value of the fraction and in this way the first factor of the numerator becomes the same as the second factor of the
;

denominator.

men,

ax-bx~

ay

by

62_2
if all

_ -

(b

a)(y

x)

(^i)^a)(ib-a)~b
1

_ y -x + a'
remains to form a it is a case

If all the factors of the

numerator are cancelled,

numerator

the factors of the denominator are cancelled,

of exact division.

EXERCISE 49

Keduce each of the following


'

to its lowest terms

5 xYz'

3
-

54 mn^
'

3xfz^'
2
12
'

99

mV*

126 a^6V
'

'

14
'

aV

90 aV7i\ 36 am V*
88
x'y'z^

a'b^

63 a^j/V
S4.x'y'z''

42
g

6V*
d'b^c''
'

26 m^nV 130 mV/*


*

66x^yz''

120

75a6V
a^
'

^Q

'

15x'y-{-10xY 6ar^?/* 4-4^2/


,

12

^3

14

15

+ lla& + 28 6^ + 14: a'b + 4.9 ab'' 64a^ + 72a;^?/ + 8a;/ 64 Q(?y 81 ^^^ + i^^n 56 m^n^ m^ 64 mn^ ' + &'
a'
?/^

'

20
2^

+ x-12' 3a^-4a^-3a + 4
x''

a;^-9a;
'

+ 18
>

'

'

,^

no

16

a2-2a6-362* ac + 3d + 26c + 66(^

23
,

3ac-a(^ + 66c-26cZ* .8 0^-125

24
25

'

2aj3

+ a^-15a;*
/

+ 9 a2-16 a-16* 4m^ + 16mn + 15n^ ^w? mn 15 16 + 4 o^ + 1 8 o^ 1 fl^-9.^^-2^ + 6y2! o?-9 + z^ -2xz (a-2 6)^- (3 c -df (a + d)^- (2 6 + 3 cf* + 28a^6^ + 27 6 a^4-9 a^ft^ + Sl 6^
9 a3
ii^
a?'*

y""

ct

jg

a^ + a-12 3a2-13a + 12'

26
27

25 -a^
'

a^-lla; + 30'
*

19

(a?'-49)(a^-16a; + 63)
(a2_;I^4a,^49^^(^2_2aJ_63)*

9a;^-49/
28 a;/

- 12 a^2/

^.-i^^w-flc^^^^^r

106

FRACTIONS
12x3-8r.^
Thus,
4
x'^

107
.

+ 4a;-5^3^ +3
EXERCISE 50

4 x2

6x-l +3

Reduce each
1

of the following to a
.

mixed expression
ba^

i.

15m2 + 12m-4

om
9a;^+2
g

o ^.

30a-5a^4-15a2 + 7
14a^ + 39
a^

49a^
'

*3i-l*
a^-y3

+ 4a- 19

'

lx-\-^y
y
'

2a + 5
35
'

' +

?/

a^4-85^ a2b

+ 5^ b m^-nV
a^

^^

a?^-h

100.-4-3

5x + 2
3a''^

^^

m-\-n
'

+ 8a^-4 a^4-2a 3
4o^-2oj4-5

,,.^

12

150^^-60.-^-20 a;^-7

^3

24o^ + 21a; + 19
*

3o;2-4
j^

6a^-17a'^6-21a^6^ +

19a^>^

+ 22 6^

2a'-5ab-6b'

143. Reduction of Fractions to their Lowest Common Denominator.

To reduce

fractions

to

their Lowest

Common Denominator

(L. C. D.) is to express them as equivalent fractions, each having for a denominator the L. C. M. of the given denominators.

Let
.

it

lowest

common

- and to their be required to reduce 3a'b^' 2ab^' ^.d'b . denominator.

-,

The L.

By
same

C. M. of 3 a'b', 2 ab% and 4 a% is 12 a'b' ( 133). 136, if the terms of a fraction be both multiplied by the expression, the value of the fraction is not changed.

Multiplying both terms of ^^ ^

Sa'b^

^^,

by 4 a, both terms of -|^, ^


6^,

2ab^

by 6 a^&, and both terms of

4a^6

^ by 3
-,

we have

16 acd 18 a%m 12 a'b'' 12 a^b^'

^"^

15 b^n 12 a'b^'

108
It will be seen that the

ALGEBRA
terms of each fraction are multiplied

by an expression, which is obtained by dividing the L. C. D. by the denominator of this fraction.

Whence
Find

the following rule.

the L. C.

M. of

the given denominators.

Multiply both terms of each fraction by the quotient obtained


by dividing the L. C. D. by the denominator of this fraction.

its

Before applying the rule, each fraction should be reduced to lowest terms.

144. Ex. Eeduce

mon denominator. We have,


,
,

a^

^ to their 4 and a- ^ oa-{-6


^

lowest com-

a"^

-4 =

(a

+ 2){a-2),

and

a2_5^_^6=(a-2)(a-3).
is

it

Then, the L. C. D. is (a + 2) (a -2) (a - 3). 2), the quotient Dividing the L. C. D. by (a + 2) (a 2) (a 3), tlie quotient is a + 2. by (a
Then, by the
rule, the required fractions are

( 134)
;

dividing

4C-3)
(a

^^^
(a

+ 2)(a-2)(a-3)

Sa(a + 2) + 2)(a-2)(a-3)'
51

EXERCISE

Keduce the following


.

to their lowest
c "

common denominator
2

Tab 3bc 2ca


'

Aa^

10'
^

15'
^
7

4a2-9' 6a'-9a
1

2
o
*

g
m
' '

2m^n 5 7)i^n^^
3x-\-4:Z

mn^

mn
3yi

2 mhi^ mn 2(m n)^' 3(m n)^

6x 5y
33yz^

~22xf''
.
'

n^- 8' 71^-471 + 4


g 2 2
'

cV 9a'm Sbhi 12 a'b' Ub^c 21 (^a


11

3a
2a
-\-

a^

+ 3 a'
6

-{-

6' a'

+ 27'

x + 2'

x-2'

ar^-3'

FRACTIONS
jQ
..
a;2

109
a

a4-36
2cH-3

36

+ 46

+ 3a;-10'

2a^

5 a;4-2 + 7a;-15' 2x'-Tx + 6


a;

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS


*

145.

By

72,

+ a _ ^ = *-ii^. a a
:

We

then have the following rule

To add or subtract fractions, reduce them, if necessary, to equivalent fractions having the lowest common denominator. Add or subtract the numerator of each resulting fraction,
according as the sign before the fraction is -\- or the result over the lowest common denominator.

, and

write

The

final result

should be reduced to

its

lowest terms.

146. Examples.
1

1.

Q.

Simplify
L. C. D.
is

V*

4a + 3 __I_
4a^6
12 ^253
.

+ __--. 6a6^
,

1-662

The
3
&2,

multiplying the terms of the

first

fraction

by

and the terms

of the second

by 2
_^

a,

we have
2 a

4a +
4a2&

-6&2 ^
6a63

12 a62
12

9 52

12

ah'^

a^fts

12 a2^3
_^

^ 12 a62
If a fraction

_|_

9 52

2 q

12 a&2

^ 9 ^2 ^

2 g

12a263

V2.a%^

whose numerator
it

by a

sign,

is

is a polynomial is preceded convenient to enclose the numerator in

parentheses preceded by a sign, as shown in the last term of the numerator in equation (A), of Ex. 2.
If this is not done, care must be taken to change the sign of each term of the numerator before combining it with the other

numerators.
2.

Simplify ^
'

5^-4y _7x-2y.
6 14

110
The
6
L. C. D. is 42
7
;

ALGEBRA
whence,

6x-4y

x-2y _ S5x-2Sy
14

21x-6y
42

42 35
a;

28 y

(21 X

6 y)

42
35
a;

.^. ^ ^
14
g;

- 28 y 42

21

a;

f 6y

42

22 y

_7 ~
a;

11 y

21

^
3.

^
a;

Simplify
x^

a^
a:

x^

a; = a;(aj 1). 1), and a;^ Then, the L. C. D. is a:(a; + l)(a: - 1), or x{y? - 1). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by a: 1, and the terms of the second by a; + 1, we have

We have,

= x(a; 4-

1
a;2

x^^-x

_
X

x{x?-

-1 - 1)
l-(a;

x(a:2

+l - 1)

_ a;By

1) __

x-l-a;-l _
X(X2-1)

-2
X(X2-1)'

X(X2-1)

changing the sign of the numerator, at the same time changing the

sign before the fraction ( 137),


Or,

we may

write the answer

x(x2

by changing the

sign of the numerator,

and
2

of the factor x^

1) 1 of

the denominator ( 138),

we may

write

it

4.

Simplify
a^
4.

a2_3a + 2

1 _-L-____A__+ a^-Sa + G a'-4.a + ^

We have,
and
a2

Q^

Then, the L.

3 a + 2 =(a - l)(a - 2), a^ - 4.a-^^ = {a-l)(a-^), = (a - 2)(a - 3). C. D. is (a - 1) (a - 2) (a - 3).


^

Whence,

a2-3a + 2

a2-4a +

2,1
3

a2-5a + 6

a-3
(a-l)(a-2)(a-3)

2(a-2) (a- l)(a -2)(a -3)

a-l
(

_ i)(a-2)(a-3)

a-3-2(a-2)-t-a-l _ a-3-2a + 4 + q-l - l)(a - 2)(a - 3) - l)(a - 2)(a - 3) (a (a


0.

(a-l)(a-2)(a-3)

FRACTIONS
EXERCISE 52
Simplify the following
1
:

111

4a;

+7

6x 5
15
5

a
*
*

2m-\-5n

10
2 3
'

8mV
5a-7b
27a
^

3m + 4yi
6mn^

a+6b
36 6

'

2a'b^

Ta'b'

4(X

9
y

3a 8
12

x?/

2/

^^
\

3a;
_

'

2
'

2/2

2;a;

2(6n + 5)
11

3(n + 6) 22

4(5n-4)
44

3a-2
3a^
8a;

4a-7
7 a'

a-3
9a

'

+l

lOy-9

9^ + 8
21
z

'

7x
2a^ + 3
6 a'

Uy
Sa^'

jQ

+l
a^

Sa^-2
36
a'

12
6a;

11

4a;-3
5

+5
,

5x + 2
15

a;

-10

'

10

20

io 12.

3m-2 7m-8 + 9m + 4 lOm + 7 8 6^ -4 9'


2a;

13
^

'

+ ~8~~

?/

5a;

+ 4?/
16~"

8x 3?/lla; 2y
24~""^
18.

32

14.

5
15.

2m m 2 + + 3

-?^^

2x + y
^

2x y
^

^x-7

-i

1-.
4a;
,

+
.

19.

3a-9
5^
a;

5a-15
4a;^ a^
a;

16.

m "^ m+ +
a-\-3

2m
a3 a+3

^ 2

on 20.

y*

2i

a;

x 3y

+3

j?/

+ 3a; 1 + -12 A^ 3
a;
-y

x-\-3y

U-

112
22.

ALGEBRA
a

23.

24.

25.

33.

FRACTIONS
39
1

113

0?

x-1
41

x^-l^;!?-!

-Q

'

g-l g + l a + l"^a-l

o?-l
a^

+1

42

43^

4yi 1 3n-hl 6w2-17n + 12 10n2-97i-9 a-4 3a-l 5a^-9a + ll 2a-3 a + 2 "^ 2a2 + a-6 a;-2 +4 a;4-3 i^-x-6 x'-lx-\-12 x'-2x-^
a;
^

'

/~~~

m^

mn + n^

m^

+ mn + w^

m"*

+ m^n^ + n* ~^ t*^ /

/^

.^

>/

147. In certain cases, the principles of 137 and 138 enable us to change the form of a fraction to one which is more convenient for the purposes of addition or subtraction.
1.

Simplify

^ -+ a^

'

Changing the signs of the terms in the second denominator, at the same time changing the sign before the fraction ( 137), we have
3

2& + a
a'^-b^

a-h
The
L. C. D.
is

now

a^

62.

rpjjgjj '

__3

a-b

2& + q ^ 3(fl + 6)-(26 + a^-h'^ a^-b^


a2

a)

_ 3a + 36-26-q ^ 2a+
62

b
52'

^2

2.

Simplify
138,

{x-y)(x-z)

(y-x)(y-z)

(z-x)(z-y)
;

the sign of the factor y a; in the second denomiand we nator, at the same time changing the sign before the fraction change the signs of both factors of the third denominator.

By

we change

The expression then becomes

1.1

(x-y)(ix-z)

{_x-y){y-z)

{x-z){y-z)

114
The
L. C. D.
is

ALGEBRA
now
(x

?/)

(x

z) (y

z);

then the result


z

^ _ ~

(y

z)-^ (X

- z) - (x -

y)

-h

{x-y)(x-z)(ii-z)

(x-y){x-z)(ti -z)
(x

2y-2z
(xy){x

_
-z)

z){y

2(y-g)
y)(x

2
z)

-z){y-z)~ (x- y)(x -

EXERCISE 53
Simplify the following
:

a S

2o}

3a-3
2
a;^

2-2a
2 4
6
a;

+ a 3-a
"^

o?-^
2

3a;

3a;

16

ar^

a;l

+h
5

h
6-'

_1
n+^

1__,

n6

e-^ah
*
y,

Sb'^-ab
o-

1_^'^2^3^_4
2b-a
r

,8m + -i-rz 2m-l l-4m2


7.

3a,2a,8a6 TTi+TT.
+ 26
1
x'

a^-Ab'

6a;^-8a;-32
9a;^-16a;

4-3a;
4-

10.

^ (x_y)(a7-2!)

(y-x){y-z)
3a
a2

i-11.
12.

2^

4 a6

+ 62
.+
^
. a;^

q3_53

+ a64-62
^

?,_

jQ

.+ 2 4 3m2 2m 4 3m4-l, m 4 3m-l 5-2m Gm^-lTm + S


a;^ 5a;4-6

a;

a;^

(a-5)(a-c)

(6-c)(6-a)

(G-a)(c-6)

148. Reduction of a Mixed Expression to a Fraction.

Ex.

Reduce 2x S
a;

4-1

to a fractional form.

FRACTIONS
We may regard
2x
3

115
1,

2
;

a;

3 as a fraction having the denominator

and

use the rule of 145

thus,

4x-5 ^ (2a;-3)(x + l)-(4x-5)


x

+1

_ 2x'^-x-S-^x + 5 _ 2x'^ -5x + 2

x+1
EXERCISE 54
Reduce each of the following
1.
a=

x+1

to a fractional
10.

form

+3+

^.
4a;

2x^-5x + 2(^112.
4a:

+9

2.

2a-5-^^^. 7a
^-^^ + 1.
a

11.

3a'

^ + S-^<^^-^). 7a-2

4.

+ 2m

13.

a-\-b
14.

-^ + -1
a

1.

^^ + y

+ q7,2 5 + 3/1 2a-T6


2f)

15.

m^-m\ + 7)in^-n^ ^ + ^^
a;-3+

2n^

16.

(^-2(^ +
<^

1.

8.

^ + 2.y + ,f + X 2y

^.

17.

(^^^+a^+2a+4. ^a-j-4:
^^ + ^5/
.

9.

a-46-^l+Mll

18..2a.+5y-

MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS
149. Required the product of - and -.

Let

|x|

= ..

(1)

116

ALGEBRA
7, 9), 9),

1 Multiplying both members hy b x d (Ax. (Ax.

^X-Xbxd=xx bxd, d
Now
we have
X
6

or

(?X^)^('3X^)=^xZ>xrf;

for the factors of a product may be written in any order. since the product of the quotient and the divisor gives

the dividend

( 67),
-

= a,
x

and
{c)

-xd =
x

c.

Whence,

(a)

= x xb
cZ

d.

Dividing both members by 6 x

(Ax.

8, 9),

xd
x

From

(1)

and

(2),

=
^

^.

(Ax.

4, 9)

Then, to multiply fractions, multiply the numerators together for the numerator of the product, and the denominators for its denominator.
150. Since
c
1,

denominator

may be regarded we have, by 149,

as a fraction having the

-XC--X--Dividing both numerator and denominator by


c ( 136),

a
b

^,

a
c

b^c

Then, to multiply a fraction by a rational and integral expresdivide the denominator of the f-action by the expressi07i; otherwise, multiply the numerator by the expression.
sion, if 2^ossible,

151. Common factors in the numerators and denominators should be cancelled before performing the multiplication. Mixed expressions should be expressed in a fractional form ( 148) before applying the rules.

FRACTIONS
1.

117

Multiply

3^^
^^

Sb'a^

by

10 a^y 9 bx^

3 b^x^
4

aV

^2

3--2

x 5 x 3 x a^h^x^y x 22 x a^ftarV
&,
a;^,

_ 5 6%
q^

'

The

factors cancelled are 2, 3, a^,

and

y,

2.

Multiply together

aj^

f + 6 2-^^, a3 +
, flj

^^

and

a^-4

a;2

+ x-6

V
a;2

x-3y
^^

a;2

4 4
^^

_ ^

a;2

+2X + x-6
a;(a;

2a;-6-a; +

a;2-9

x-3
a;

2)

2
^^

^^

(x
(x

(x

3)(a;-2)
x

x-3

x2-4 + 3)(x - 3) ^ x + 2)(x-2) x-2

The

factors cancelled are

2,

2,

+ 3,

and x

3.

3.

Multiply

^^^
m mn

by a -6.

Dividing the denominator by a

^ a2
&,

a2

+ "^

62^^^^ x
62

(a ^

^^

6) '

= a2.52 a + 6

4.

Multiply

by m-\-n.

Multiplying the numerator by

m + n,

x (m

+ n) = ^

"^

^^

'

EXERCISE 55
Simplify the following
.
:

8 am'

Sot'

15

2/^

28

2^^

o
*.

21 a^6^

4c^d^

"

8cd
5 a^
9

35a36^*
&3
c^

14 6^c 15a
28 m^

5c^
126^
,

6a^
7c**
5 21
a^

^ 7

c*

6^

10

6 a*

25

nV

15 w 14

mV

mV

118

ALGEBRA

7.

^^x(2a-5). a-26
'

9.

'-'

^-^
a;^

"*

9^-16''

V ^'''' + 1^ (3x ^^I

10 ^^'

+ 7i-^2 '-2a-35 4a^-9a 2a3-3a^ a-7


n'
""
*

^i!fl|5x 4.n'

j^

+ 9a^y + 18.v^
^.^

a;y^-4y
a;^

a^-9i2/H-20/

+6

ic?/

+9

2/^

a^-27

4a2-20a + 25

j^

25

16

17

4m^ + 8m + 3 6m^-9m 2m2-5m + 3 4m2-l m^ + mx -{-nx-\- mn x^ mx nx-^ mn ^ v? ~ 2 a6 + 5^ c^ a + ^ c a2 + 2a6 + &'-c2 OL-h-\-c 16a;-4 20a;4-5 + 2a; + l ^a;^
tc^
on^

<^^

^^^

ci2

18.

_ 11 a + 30

a^

_3^
a2

^2

_9

a_6a2 + 9a
V

a2-25

+ 3a-54
J

19.

f3a + ^^^-^^-^^Y2a-^^^-^^^-^Y ^^-^

2a+3

20
\ n.

^ + 8y^
a;3_32/3

a;

a:-2y + 2y

A
V
a;2
;r

a;y

x^-^xy-V^y")
3/

X.

9^M-i2ax + 4a2 X
x^
a^

22

2n^-n-3
n*_8n2 + 16

+ aa;^/ 2a^ + 2aa;-a' X 2ax-a^ 3x + 2a / \ n^4-4n + 4 n^-yi-2 w^ + w 27i2-3n'


3x-{-2a

DIVISION OF FRACTIONS
152. Required the quotient of ^ divided by |<

FKACTIONS
Let

119

1^1
( 67),

= ..

(1)

Then
quotient

since the dividend is the product of the divisor

and

we have
a
h
c

d
7, 9),

Multiplying both members by (Ax.

-x- = -Xxx- = bed


c
,

d
c

x.

/ox

(2)

From
Then,

(1)

and

(2),

= X ^ -^ a ^ c

(Ax.

4, 9)

to divide

one fraction by another, multiply the dividend

by the divisor inverted.

153. Since

c
1,

may
we

be

regarded as a fraction having the

denominator

have, by

152,

a
b

1 a -^c = -x- =

a
b

be
( 136),

Dividing both numerator and denominator by c

a-i-c

Therefore, to divide a fraction by a rational and integral

expression

If possible, divide the numerator of the fraction by the expression


;

otherwise, multiply the denominator by the expression.

154.

Mixed expressions should be expressed


148) before applying the rules.

in a fractional

form
1.

Divide

i^ by
6^25
'

li^.
9^253

Wehave

6^25
^

iPa^y
^ci^b^

4y

dx^y^

lOa^V

5a;V

^b^

120
Divide

ALGEBRA

2.

2-^Hy3-?|5f^
^ 2x + 2-2a; + 3
X
5
.

3a;2

x2

- 3a;2 + -1

13

^
1

x^-l _ 5(x + l)(x-l) _x-l^


10

2x5x(x+l)

3.

Divide '^l~'^\jm-n.

Dividing the numerator by

m - w,
6.

^^

~
^^
-h

^'^ (m - n) = "^.^^ t

^'^
'

4.

Divide ^iA' by a + a6

Multiplying the denominator by a

a2 4-7)2
6,
^-

(a

&)

= a^ + _
a^

62

52

If the numerator and denominator of the divisor are exactly contained in the numerator and denominator, respectively, of the dividend, it follows from 149 that the numerator of the
quotient

may
the

he obtained by dividing the numerator of the divi-

dend by

numerator of
the divisor.

the divisor;

the quotient by dividing the

and the denominator of denominator of the dividend by the

denominator of

5.

Divide i^inil-' by 3^2J?. * x ar y^ y


9x2

We have,

-4y2 ^ 3x + 2y _3x

x2-2/2

x-y
EXERCISE 56

+y

Simplify the following:


*
'

'

'

'

4.fn

55(^d'

22c'd'

FRACTIONS
'

121

a-3
4.x-i-y

a2

+ 6a + 9
\5y
x^

a-\-3

^
,
*

^^
n^

\^y^3j
5n
^^

2J

n^-3n-40
4?^

+ 4n-5

0^-3 xy
'

x^

y^

. '

x'-10xy-^21y^
-\-

xy
.^
^

-\- y"^

a2_^5_262
'

^
'

w'-^ab'
7

9a;^-4j/^

. '

a-26 a + 36* 9x^ + 6xy


^^-^
9-x^

^^

4a?^
'

+ 12a; + 5
4.X-3

^+

.^

>

^g

8yi
'

+l

4n^-2n + l
n2

'

iex^-25y^
13.

Sxy-lOy^'

2n^-\-4.n

+ 4n4-4

(2-^ +
(a;2-2/2

^-{'-W).

14.

+ 22/^-;22x^^Ill^.
*

15

m^ + 2m^ + m + 2 m^ m^ m + l

m"*

m^4-3m^ + 2 2m^ + l

jg

2a^-a6-36^
9a2-2562

3a^ + &-26^ 9a2_30a6 + 25i

COMPLEX FRACTIONS'
155.
It is

Complex Fraction

is

a fraction having one or more

fractions in either or both of its terms.

being the dividend, and


1.

simply a case in division of fractions its numerator its denominator the divisor.
;

Simplify

h-

^^

^=

axj-am)= bd"^ bd
c
^

It is often advantageous to simplify a complex fraction by multiplying its numerator and denominator by the L. C. M. of their denominators ( 136).

122
a
2.'

ALGEBRA

Simplify

ab

a__

'
a+b
+
b)(a

The

of a + & and a - 5 is (a both terms by {a -\- b)(a Multiplying

L. C.

M.

&).

b),

we have

a-b
h

a-i-b a
_^

ab
3.

_ a(a + ~ & (a +

?^)- a (a
6)

a (a

&)
6)

_ a^ + ab ab + +
b'^

a^ \- ab

a^

2 ab
a^

ab

b^'

a+b

Simplify

i+-i
X
a;

(B

+l

i+i X
In examples like the above, complex fraction.
Thus,

-+i
it is

best to begin
1

by simplifying the lowest


X

we

first

multiply both terms of


1

by
4-

x,

giving

_ ^
1, giving "=

and

"T i

then multiply both terms of


J

X x

by x
1

X+1 x+ 1 +x

EXERCISE 57
Simplify the following
:

^
a;

^
2/

^
^^

x-\-y

FRACTIONS
3a ^ 46 + + 3^ 46
.

123
g^

r>

27
14.

h^

a
^'

6.

-+! a
^,
^

^+3+a
b

6
y_

15.

%! + ^ + 4:X^ y^
a?-4y
2a;-2/

'

xY a^2/^
a;y

i
J

+ a^y^
^^^
16.

a;

+4
1

5a;

1-a^y
j

+
1

a;?/

xy
1

0^4-4 1 5a;

4 +1 4 5a; + l
ic

5a;
ic

'

x^

\ x
9.

y^ z^
2yz

^
'

\-\-x
17.
o^

+f
2xy

<

1
a-2

10.
a;

18.

+2+

+ + 2)^ a + 2 2a^ + 2a-l a a^ 4 a


(a

3a

11.

119.

(x-yy
X
a;

x-y
2/

1+a
10
20.

+
2/

^-y

-y /2a;-9;:

^_ty_f x+y x+ t
x-\ry

13.

^>1
ha

a^-f-1 aj%>>4^

4a-l 1- 2a + 5 3a-2

>aSs-L,
.1

^^

124

ALGEBRA
a

oi

a^

a^

ax a + a;

a^

a?-\-iii?

MISCELLANEOUS AND REVIEW EXAMPLES


EXERCISE 57
a
:

Reduce each of the following


J

to a

mixed expression
3
'

a;^

-2

a:^

- 20
*

m'-\-n\
'

12 a^

mn

12 a^-3 a^-22 a + 8

3a^ 5

Simplify the following

6-

;TTT;'^^'* + ")2 ma;

a;<-2a^ + 8a;-16
o \
13.

7.

4a;4-om
8.

""^;

^(2m-3a;).
.

/n

(a_6)2_(c-d)
(6 4. d)2

_ (a 4. cV

ar^-5g^-84 27a;3-8
3a;
I

x-\-l

14.

3a;-2
'^
-

^^ +
2
a;

-3
/^

15

J^ 1_ J_ 3a; 2y 2a;"^3y 42-92/^"^9 a;2_4y2a'6d - a6^c - acd^ 4- hcH


b'cd
-\-

J_

'

abc"

- ab(P - d'cd

16

+2

Y
8

3_\

17.

a;3_2ar^4-2a;-l x*-\-x'+l

jg

'

_J_ ,_4
a

a
. '

a-\-b

lla-56 W a?

19

27a;^+l 25x'-4:

15a;^-a;-2
25a;2-20a;

+ 4*

FRACTIONS
20
(l
^

125
1

+ 4a;-21 \
2c

(x +

x-^\
c

2j

d + 4:bd
2

+ 2d

ac-^2ad-\-2bc
22.

ac-ad+Abc -2bd

^2.-l+ ^^-;^ Ur. + 3- ^"+n


g+ 2 a+3 + 3a + 2)"^a2 + 4a-h3 4(a2
,

23

+1

4(a2+5a + 6)'

25.

y-=^

^-=^

x^-{y-zf
26

(x-zf-y^

- (2 a- 3b -cf (3a + b-2cy-(2a + 6b-{-2cy


(a-^ 2 b -{-S cf

27.

1-1-^^ +
3

4:

4:

(First

combine the

first

two

fractions, then the last two,

and then add

these results.)

28
27i
29.

3
J

+ l'2?i-l

5n2 Sn^ + l

71^

8 71^-1

\f^_iy(^^i\ypjt=^^.
^-^
(a-b)(a-c)

30.

'-^
-f

^-^
{c-d){c-b)

(b-c){b-a)
,

3.

(2a;^ + 5a;-2y-25 (3x'-4x-3y-16'

32

'

a+3

1
I

a'-\-2a
'

a-3

a'-9

a'-\-9

and

(First add the first two fractions, to the result to this result add the last fraction.)

add the third

fraction,

33

3q

3a

Go"
a^

12
a*

a*

a+b

a-b

b''

+6*

126
Xj

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 127

XI.

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


SOLUTION OF FRACTIONAL LINEAR EQUATIONS

156. If a fraction whose numerator is a polynomial is preceded by a sign, it is convenient, on clearing of fractions, to enclose the numerator in parentheses, as shown in Ex. 1.
If this is not done, care each term of the numerator
1

must be taken

when

to change the sign of the denominator is removed.


4a;

1.

C11

4.1, 4.Solve the equation

Sec

1
4

5
5

= .,7a7 +
4 H 5
--^

10

The

L. C. M. of 4,

5,

and 10

is 20.

Multiplying each term by 20,

we have

Whence,
Transposing,

15a;_5_ (16X-20) =:80 + 14x + 10. 15 - 5 - 16 x + 20 = 80 + 14 + 10. - 16 x - 14 x = 80 + 10 + 5 - 20. 15


aj
a:

a;

Uniting terms,
Dividing by

15 x

15,
2

= 75. = 5.
5 2

2.

Solve the equation ^


L. C.

x-2
2,

x
x2

+ 2 af-4
4
is

= 0.

The

M.

of

2,

and
4,

x2

4.

Multiplying each term by x^


2 (X Or,

we have

2)

5 (x

2)

2X

+ - 5X +

10

2 = 0. - 2 = 0.
12,

Transposing, and uniting terms,

3x =

and x

= 4.

If the denominators are partly monomial and partly polynomial, it is often advantageous to clear of fractions at first

partially multiplying each term of the equation of the monomial denominators.


;

by the L. C. M.

128
o

ALGEBRA
6x-\-l a 1 the ^ 4.Solve 4.1, equation -^ 15

3.

2x-4. = 2x-l -
7
a;

-16

5
5,

Multiplying each term by 15, the L. C. M. of 15 and

6x+l-- x-lQ =6jc-3. 1


Transposing, and uniting terms, 4
Clearing of fractions,

'

^ ~ X IQ
a;

28

ic

- 64 = 30 2 x = 4,

60.

Then,

and x

= 2.

EXERCISE 58
In Exs. 5, 11, 22, and 32, of the following set, other letters than X are used to represent unknown numbers. This is done repeatedly in the later portions of the work.
Solve the following equations
.
:

l__l==i
2
9a;

L
Qx
a;

2
7

'

bx

lOx
'

^ = -1..
15a;
12*

A_ J__ 8^ 12 3
a;

a;

24
7.

a;

^11 8
+2

4.

4^ + ^^I = -^.

^2
15

a;-i^ + ^^^ = -2.


3fi^

'38
8

5.

^ + 3_2l3 =
5
7a;

2v.
*

* 8.

5a;-6 ^5
4

5
a;

8a;-9
7

^^

4
-Q

14*

8a;-ll 9

7a;+4 12

3a;-8
8

_Q

5(a;-l)
6

2(a;

+ 2) ^^
3

5a;-15
4

12

lli)

+ 12

4p-6
ll'a;-7
5

18

9^4

5j?-9 ^

8a;-l
3

13 a;4-3 10

^ 14 + 38
a;

15

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 129


13
,.
5a;

+4

3
3(a;-f7)

16 x-{-5 9
7a;

^ lOx-9
5

4(3a;-2)
15

'

7x
..

Sx

+ 10 ^ 4a;-7
6

2(7x-l)
21

(3a;-4)(3a; 2
^

+ l)
-

(8 a;- 11) (x

+ l) ^ (5 a;- 1)(4 -3)


a;

16

130
32

ALGEBRA

^-3
3
a-

+ 4._

St

+ lS
a;

03

a;

34.

5 _ 4a; + 2 _ 15 1 7 10 3a; + 2~ 5* + l _ + 2 _ x-\-5 _ x-\-6 x-\-2 x-\-8~x-j-6 x + t'


2
a;

(First

add the fractions in the

first

member
x7 x5

then the fractions in the

second member.)

35.

x
36.

2
5

a;4-l x 1

x x
4:

4:

4x + 7

8a;

12ic

+l

5a;-l
9(5a;4-2)

15
1
J

45

37
Q

^+3
2(0^-8)

2a;-l
3(a;2
,

6(a;-2)
1
,

39

2x-l x-2 2a; + l


'

2a;

3a;

+ + 10
3

(a;

+ 2a; + 4) 5a^ + 30a; - 2) (3 + 10)


a;

3a;-5

5a;-6 ^2
2a;

23fl^-10
6x^

+7

+ llx-S5
Equations.

157. Solution of Special Forms


1.

of Fractional

Solve the equation

|^^ + ^^ =
its

2.

We divide
l

each numerator by

corresponding denominator

then

Clearing

= o. + -^-+l-^+l = 2, 2x-3 cc2 + 4 2x-3 a;2 + 4 of fractions, 2 5c2 + 8 - (2 a:2 + 6 x - 12) = 0.


2x2

or-A__^

Then,

+ 8-2a;2_5a; + 12 = 0;

whence,

a;

= 4.

We reject a solution which does not satisfy the given equation. ~ 2. Solve the equation x-S + x-2 x^-5x-{-6
Multiplying both members by (x

3) (x

2)

or x2

jc

+ 6,

x-2 + a;-3

= 3ic-7.

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 131


Transposing, and uniting terms,
If

x 1,
X

or x

2.

we

substitute 2 for

aj,

the fraction

becomes
2

Since division by
the given equation,

is

and we

impossible, the solution aj = 2 does not satisfy the equation has no solution. reject it
;

"3.

Solve the equation


aj

3 H + lO
-

4
x-\-^

=
ic

2^
+
a;

+8

+9

Adding the fractions in each member,

we have
58

7x +
(x

+ 10)(x + 6)
all

^
(x

7a; + 58 + 8)(x4-9)*
first

Clearing of fractious, and transposing

terms to the

member,
(1)

(7x + 58)(x + 8)(x + 9)-(7x + 58)(x + 10)(x + 6) = 0. - (x + 10) (x + 6) ] = 0. Factoring, (7 x + 58) [ (x + 8) (x + 9)


Expanding,
Or,
(7

+ 58) (x2 + 17 x + 72 - x2 (7x

16 x

- 60) = 0.
12)

+ 58)(x-f

= 0.

This equation
Placing 7 X

may be

solved by the method of 125.

+ 58 = 0, we

have x have

Placing

+ 12 = 0, we

=^ x = - 12.

we should solve equation (1), in Ex. 3 of both members by 7 a; + 58, we should have dividing
158. If

157,

by

Then,

In this
r
I

+ 8)(a; + 9)-(a; + 10)(a; + 6) = 0. a^ + 17 + 72-a^-16 ic-60 = 0, = is lost. way, the solution


(x
a;

or

a;

= -12.

ic

-^^-

from this that it is never allowable to divide both members of an equation by any expressio7i which involves the unknown numbers, unless the expression be placed equal to and
It follows
this

\the root preserved, for in

way

solutions are

lost.

EXERCISE 59

132
3

ALGEBRA

_8
a;+3

3_^J^
a;-7
a;

5_ x+9 x-2
*

2x-\-S
'

2a;-3
2x^-'^

36

2x-6
x^l

4a;2-9~

^^

aj

+2
3

+3

a;

+4
4
_

x^^^x^l
a^+3a;-7 ^^ a^+3aj+l
4
A.x-\-\

a;4-9

a;+4

2^1 a;+3
5
ic

a^_2a;4-5
'

a;+18*
1
6a;

a.-2-2a;-3

10
3a;

+5

SOLUTION OF LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


159.

Literal Equation is

one in which some or

all

of the

known numbers

are represented
2a;

by

letters

as,

+ a=62 + io.
xa

Ex. Solve the equation


Multiplying each term by
aj^

^-^ = ^^1'. ar a^ x-\-a,

a2^

- a) = a2 + 62, x{x + a) (x + 2 6) (x - (a;2 + 2 6a; - ax - 2 6) = a2 4. 52^ a;2 + aa; or, + ax - x2 - 2 6a; + aa; + 2 a6 = a2 + 62, or, 2 ax - 2 6x = a2 - 2 a6 + or, 2 x(a 6) = (a 6)2. Factoring both members,
a;2

62.

Dividing by 2(a

6),

^^^^

In solving fractional literal equations, we must reject any solution which does not satisfy the given equation. Compare Ex. 2, 167.

EXERCISE 60
Solve the following equations
1.
:

3a;

= h{a^-'b\ 2. (aj_2a-6)2=(a; + a + 26)2. 4a; + 3a x~2n _fy


{ax-h){})x^d)
a
'

6ct

2x + n

2x

4a; 3a

+ 56 _q 6a 5b

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 133


.

+ + -- = a + & +
ao
be

c.

ca

7.

+ 4:6) b^ xb _ x+_a^ a^ b^ a+b ab m^x 4- n _ n^x-\-m _m n


^(<^

mx

nx
^
I

mnx
^ a
2
c

^~^
b

^
c

_ be (x-\-b) ab^ a?c + abx


abc

9.

3m
6a^H-7ma7 20m^

2x + 6m
<^
cf
I

3aj

4m

10

+^ 'a;
^^

11

'a
x

26 _ (2a 6)a; + 3a6 x^ o? +a b) g^ + ^^ _ g^ (g "


a;

a;

'

o?

b^

12.

a
b

a
o;

b c

ic

14.

15.

jg

17.

+ 6)(a;-g + 6)-(g-6)a; + a2-62 = 2g(a; + a-6). (a;+i> + g)(a;-p + g) + ^^=(a;-i>)(a; + g). 4a? + 3n 4:X 5n 10 n^ 3n x x^ nx 6n^ x-{-2n Sx _ 5 ax 2 b ^ g + 3 5a; _ ax-{-2a^ ^h
(g
^

2
18.

4g
b

86

16a6

a
x-\-b

x-{-a
a;

ic

a b +g+6
2ga;

19

a;

+g

20.

a;

117
2g
x
ic^

g + 3g

19g^

+ gaj 6g^
8g

_^
3

2g

6a;

+g

3a;

2a;

3a

134
21.

ALGEBRA
1

22

4:n x-{-n ^ 2 go; + x^ 2ax 3a'^


x
ft^

x-\-4:n
,

x-\-3n

x^-\-ax
x^
-\-

2a^ _ q
-\-

ax

2 o?

23
24.

ah_o x-\-a x-\-h xa xb x-i-a + b x'-{-(x-ay+(x-by = 3x(x--a)(x-b).


x

SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING DECIMALS


160. Ex.
Solve the equation
.2
a;

+ .001 - .03 = .113 - .0161.


a; 0^

Transposing,

.2

a:

.03

a;

Uniting terms,
Dividing by .057,

.113 x = - .0161 .057 x = .0171. x = - .3.

.001.

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:

61

2.
3.

- 3. 75 = .23 -f .125. 3 + .052 -7.8 = .04 -5.82 -.0696. .05v-1.82-.7'u = .008v-.504.


7.98
a; oj a; a;

a?

(Here, v represents the


4.

unknown number.)
a;

.73

a;

+ 8.86 = .6(2.3

-.4).

5.

.07(8a^-5.7) = .8(5a: + .86) + 1.321.


3.2

6.

X-. 84 + -^^ ^--^^^ = .9


.9

a;.

6.15 x

67

.6aj-.81

Sx
.Sx-6.52 .8a;-(
.5

V8
9.

-^^-^'^^ -2.84
.3

^r^^

-3.1 201x-Il^^^^^^ = ^-^-.135.


.6

.03

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 135


PROBLEMS INVOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS
161. The following problems lead both to integral and fractional equations; the former being than those of Exercise 24.
1
.

somewhat more

difficult

in 10 days.

can do a piece of work in 8 days which B can perform In how many days can it be done by both working

together ?
Let

X
_

= the number = the


= the

of

days required.

Then,

X
8

part both can do in one day.

Also,

part

A can do in one day,

and

= the part B can do in one day.


10
the conditions,

By

8
5
ic

=
10
0!

Clearing of fractions,

4-

oj

= 40,
= 4|,

or 9

ic

= 40.

Whence,
2.
if

x
digit of a

the numbfer of days required.

The second

number exceeds the

first

by 2

and

the number, increased by 6, be divided by the Find the number. digits, the quotient is 5.
Let Then, X

sum

of its

= the

first digit.

x
2
itself is
a;

-\-

2 2

= the second
= the sum

digit,

and

of the digits.
first digit,

The number
Then,
10
a;

equal to 10 times the


a;

plus the second.

+ (a; +

2), or 11

+
2

= the

number.

By

the conditions,

lla;

+6^^
+
8
2

2x +
11 x

Whence,
Then,

10 a:

10,

and x

= 2.

11 x

= 24,

the

number

required.

136

ALGEBRA

3. Divide 44 into two parts such that one divided by the other shall give 2 as a quotient and 5 as a remainder.

Let
Then,
44
since the dividend

11

= =

the divisor. the dividend.

?i

Now

is

equal to the product of the divisor and

quotient,- plus the remainder,

we have

44

+
n

5,

whence

3 n

39.

Then,

13, the divisor,

and
4.

44

31, the dividend.

Two

persons,

and B, 63 miles

apart, start at the

same

time and travel towards each other. A travels at the rate of 4 miles an hour, and B at the rate of 3 miles an hour. How far will each have travelled when they meet ?
Let
Then,
4X

= the number of miles that A travels. Sx = the number of miles that B travels.
4x
7

By

the conditions,

a;

63.

Then,

= 63,
the

and x

= 9.
of miles that

Whence,
and
It is

4x

= 36,

number

A travels,
B
travels.

3x =

27, the

number

of miles that

number

often advantageous, as in Ex. 4, to represent the by some multiple of x instead of by x itself.

unknown

5. At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a watch opposite to each other ?

Let X

the

number

of minute-spaces passed over

by the minute-hand

from 3 o'clock

to the required time.

hand

Then, since the hour-hand is 15 minute-spaces in advance of the minuteat 3 o'clock, X 15 30, or x 45, will represent the number of

minute-spaces passed over by the hour-hand. But the minute-hand moves 12 times as fast as the hour-hand.

Whence,
Then,

12 (x

45), or x

12 x

540,

a;

= -

540,

and x

49^^

Then the required time

is 49^^^

minutes after 3 o'clock.

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 13T


EXERCISE 62
of a fraction exceeds twice the numerar numerator be increased by 14, and the denominator decreased by 9, the value of the fraction is ^. Find the
1.

The denominator
If the

tor

by

4.

fraction.
2.

Divide 197 into two parts such that the smaller shall be

contained in the greater 5 times, with a remainder 23.


3.

in

4i hours

in 2f hours, and by B piece of work can be done by in how many hours can the work be done by both
;

working together
4.

The second digit of a number of two figures exceeds the by 5 and if the number, increased by 6, be divided by the sum of the digits, the quotient is 4. Find the number.
first
;

5.

At what time between 12 and 1

o'clock are the hands of

a watch opposite to each other ?


6.

of a

At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock is the minute-hand watch 10 minutes in advance of the hour-hand ?

7.

in 10 days. finishes the

A piece of work can be done by A and B working together After working together 7 days, A leaves, and B work in 9 days. How long will A alone take to
?

do the work
8.

be 3 times as
143.

Divide 54 into two parts such that twice the smaller shall much above 29 as 4 times the greater is below

9. At what time between 8 and 9 o'clock are the hands of a watch together ?

of a fraction exceeds the denominator by numerator be decreased by 9, and the denominator increased by 6, the sum of the resulting fraction and the given fraction is 2. Find the fraction.
10.
5.

The numerator

If the

11.

At what time between 2 and 3


of a

o'clock is the minute?

hand

watch 5 minutes behind the hour-hand

138
12.
first;

ALGEBRA
and

The second digit of a number of two figures is i the if the number be divided by the difference of its
and the remainder
3.

digits, the quotient is 15,

Find the

number.
13. A garrison of 700 men has provisions for 11 days. After 3 days, a certain number of men leave, and the proHow many men leave ? visions last 10 days after this time.

14.

A woman

finds that 7 eggs cost as

buys a certain number of eggs for $ 1.05 she much more than 18 cents as 8 eggs
;

cost less than 27 cents.


15.

How many
is

eggs did she buy ?


If the

The width

of a field

its

length.

width were

increased by 5 feet, and the length by 10 feet, the area would be increased by 400 square feet. Find the dimensions.
16. After A has travelled 7 hours at the rate of 10 miles in 3 hours, B sets out to overtake him, travelling at the rate of 9 miles in 2 hours. How far will each have travelled when B

overtakes
17.

A?
first digit

The

of a

number

If the second, and exceeds the third digit by 2. divided by the sum of its digits, the quotient is 38.

of three figures is f the number be

Find the

number.
18.

A, B, and
5,

as

A takes
together.

takes

divide coins in the following way as often takes 6, C takes 7. 4, and as often as
:

After the coins have been divided,

has 29 fewer than

and

How many

coins were there ?

19. A can do a piece of work in 3^ hours, B in 3| hours, and C in 3f hours. In how many hours can it be done by all working together ?

20.

A man walks 13|- miles, and returns in an hour less time


is

by a carriage, whose rate


Find his
21.

f as great as his rate of walking.


o'clock are the

rate of walking.

At what times between 4 and 5

hands of

a watch at right angles to each other?

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 139


borrows a certain sum, paying interest at the After repaying $180, his interest rate on the 5%. balance is reduced to 4J%, and his annual interest is now less by $ 10.80. Find the sum borrowed.
22.

A man

rate of

23.

The

digits of

a certain
If the
is

number
is

are three consecutive

numbers, of which the middle digit


first digit

the least. the quotient

its digits,

the greatest, and the number be divided by the sum of Find the number. ^-p-

24.

certain
first

number

boys.

The

of apples were divided between three received one-half the entire number, with one

apple additional, the second received one-third the remainder, with one apple additional, and the third received the remainder, 7.

How many

apples were there ?

25. freight train runs 6 miles an hour less than a passenger train. It runs 80 miles in the same time that the passenger train runs 112 miles. Find the rate of each train.

half as

and B each fire 40 times at a target A's hits are onenumerous as B's misses, and A's misses exceed by 15 How many times does each hit the the number of B's hits.
26.
;

target ?
27.

A freight

train travels from

to

at the rate of 12

has been gone 3^ hours, an express for B, travelling at the rate of 45 miles an hour, train leaves and reaches B 1 hour and 5 minutes ahead of the freight. to B, and the time taken by the Find the distance from
miles an hour.

After

it

express train.
28. A tank has three taps. By the first it can be filled in 3 hours 10 minutes, by the second it can be filled in 4 hours 45 minutes, and by the third it can be emptied in 3 hours 48 minutes. How many hours will it take to fill it if all the

taps are open ?


29.

A man
;

at

4|%

after

income

is

sum at 3f %, and \^ this sum an income tax of 5%, his net annual paying $ 195.70. How much did he invest in each way ?
invested a certain

140

ALGEBRA

30. train leaves for B, 210 miles distant, travelling at the rate of 28 miles an hour. After it has been gone 1 hour

and 15 minutes, another train starts from B for A, travelling an hour. How nmny miles from B will meet ? they
at the rate of 22 miles

do a piece of work in | as many days as B, and as many days as C. Together they can do |the work in 3^^ days. In how many days can each alone do
31.

A can
it

can do

in

the work ?
32.

A vessel

runs at the rate of 11| miles an hour.

It takes

just as long to run 23 miles up stream as 47 miles stream. Find the rate of the stream.
33.

down

man

starts

from his home to catch a train

at the rate

If he had of one yard in a second, and arrives 2 minutes late. walked at the rate of 4 yards in 3 seconds, he would have been

3^ minutes too

early.

Find the distance

to the station.

34. crew has bread for a voyage of 50 days, at IJ lb. each After 20 days, 7 men are lost in a storm, and the a day. remainder of the crew have a daily allowance of li lb. for the

balance of the voyage.


35.

Find the
at 4^

original niimber of the crew.

A man invests

$ 230

%.

He

then invests a certain

part of a like sum at S^%, and the balance at 5J%, and obtains the same income. How much does he invest at each
rate ?
36.

a watch
37.

At what times between 5 and 6 make an angle of 45 ?


At a
is

o'clock do the

hands of

certain time between 12 noon

and 12.30
it is

p.m., the

distance between the hands


later.

f as great as

10 minutes

Find the time.

38.

She then

an egg more than half her eggs. an egg more than half her remaining eggs. third time she does the same, and now has 3 eggs left.
sells half sells half

A woman

How many

had she

at first ?

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS


39.
-g-

141

He

A merchant increases his capital annually by of itself. adds to his capital $ 300 at the end of the first year, and $350 at the end of the second; and finds at the end of the
is

third year that his capital


his original capital. 40.

|f of his original

capital.

Find

A and B together can do a piece of work in 5| days, and C together in 6| days, and C and A together in 5f days. In how many days can it be done by each working alone ?
73

41.

her

own

pursued by a hound, and has a start of 77 of The fox makes 5 leaps while the hound makes leaps.
fox
is

many
42.

but the hound in 5 leaps goes as far as the fox in 9. How leaps does each make before the hound catches the fox ?

puts a certain sum into a savings bank paying At the end of a year he deposits the interest, At the end of a interest on the entire amount. receiving second year and a third year he does the same, and now has

A man

interest.

$ 2812.16 in the bank.

What was

his original deposit ?

PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
1.

The

density of a substance
is

is

defined as the
total

grams in one cubic centimeter.


grams, M, in any body
its

Hence the
its

number number

of
of

volume, F;

density, D, multiplied or, to state this relation algebraically,

equal to

by

M=DV,
V
in grams. being given in cubic centimeters, and Two blocks, one of iron and one of copper, weigh the same

number

of grams; the iron has a volume of 10 cubic centimeters and a density of 7.4 the copper has a density of 8.9. Find the volume of the copper block.
;

2. When 100 grams of alcohol, of density .8, is poured into a cylindrical vessel, it is found to fill it to a depth of 10 centimeters. Find the area of the base of the cylinder in square

centimeters.
3.

A cylindrical
TT

mass of 3 kilograms.
Let

iron bar, 2 centimeters in diameter, has a Find the length of the bar.

3}.

142

ALGEBRA

4. When a body is weighed under water, it is found to be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water which it

displaces. If a boy can exert a lifting force of 120 pounds, how heavy a stone can he lift to the surface of a pond, if the density of stone is 2.5 and that of water 1 ?
5.

When

a straight bar

is

sup1),

ported at some point, o (Fig.

and masses mi, ma, etc., are hung from the bar as indicated in the
figure,
it is

mi

^
"

(_j

m*

found that when the


^iQ-

^*

bar

is in equilibrium, the followrelation always holds, ing

mi X ao

+ m^

x
is

ho

m^x co

-\-

m^x

do

-\-

m^ x

eo.

10 feet long, where must the support be in order that a 70-pound boy at one end may balance a placed 60-pound boy on the other end plus a 40-pound boy 3 feet from
If a teeter board

the other end ?

bar 40 inches long is in equilibrium when weights of 6. 6 pounds and 9 pounds hang from its two ends. Find the position of the support.
7.

and if mi = 40, mg = 60, mg = 60, m^ = 15, and m^ = 5, where must a mass of 100 be placed in order to produce equilibrium ?
8. A gas expands ^rs of its volume at 0 centigrade for each degree of rise in its temperature i.e., the volume, Vt, at any temperature, t, is connected with the volume, Vo, at the
;

If in Fig. 1, ao

= 100,

bo

= 40,

co

= 30,

do

= 60,

eo

= 110,

temperature 0 centigrade by the equation


F,

= F + ^^F,
air at 0

or

V,= V,(l+^\^t).
expand

To what volume will 100 cubic centimeters of when the temperature rises to 50 centigrade ?
9.

centigrade contract

To what volume will 100 cubic centimeters of air at 50 when the temperature falls to 0 centigrade ?

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 143


10. To what volume will 100 cubic centimeters expand when the temperature changes to 75?
11.

of air at 50

When

momentum
its

of the first

a body in motion collides with a body at rest, the body (i.e., the product of its mass, m^, by

original velocity, v-^ is found to be in every case exactly equal to the total momentum of the two bodies after collision
{i.e., to the product of the mass, mg, of the second body times the velocity, ^2, which it acquires, plus the product of mj by the velocity, 'Ug, which it retains after the collision). The alge-

braic statement of this relation

is

billiard ball, the

mass of which

is

50 grams, and which

was moving

at a velocity of 1500 centimeters a second, collided with another ball at rest which weighed 30 grams. In the
collision the first ball

centimeters per second. the collision.

imparted to the second a velocity of 1600 Find the velocity of the first ball after

PROBLEMS INVOLVING LITERAL EQUATIONS


162. Proh.
first shall

Divide a into two parts such that


b.

times the

exceed n times the second by


X a

Let

one part.
other part.

Then,

x = the
mx =
n(a

By

the conditions,

x)

b.

mx = an

nx
b.

b.

mx \xijn

nx
n)

=
=

an
an

6.

Whence,

= 9l!1A
m-\-n
r, a

the

first part.

(1)

A^ And,

^= x

an^b = am + m+n am b the other


wi

an
7n

an b +n
(2)

part.

144
The
results

ALGEBRA
can be used as formuloe for solving any problem of the
be required to divide 25 into two parts such that 4 times the

above form.
Thus,
first

let it

shall

exceed 3 times the second by 37.

Here, a

25,

m=

4t,

yi

= 3,

and

37.

Substituting these values in (1) and (2),

the

first

part

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL LINEAR EQUATIONS 145


by two taps in a and h minutes, and emptied by a third in c minutes. How many respectively, minutes will it take to fill the tank if all the taps are open ?
9.

vessel can be filled

10.

Divide a into two parts such that one shall be


h as the other lacks of
c.

m times
as B,

as

much above
11.

A can
can do

do a piece of work in one-mth as


it

many days

and

do the work in p days, working together, in how many days can each alone do the work ?
in one-nth as

many

as C.

If they can

12.

was

times as old as
in 6 years.

times as old as
13.

B a years ago, and will be n Find their ages at present.

How many

minutes after n hours after 12 o'clock will

the hands of a watch be together ?

A and B together can do a piece of work in a hours, and C together in h hours, and A, B, and C together in c In how many hours can each alone do the work ? hours.
14.

15.

of a

How many minutes after 2 o'clock will the minute-hand watch be n minutes in advance of the hour-hand ?

16. A and B together can do a piece of work in m days, B and C together in n days, and C and A together in p days. How many days will it take to do the work if all work

together ?
17.

sum

of

entirely of quarters
quarters.

money, amounting to m dollars, consists and dimes, there being n more dimes than
are there of each ?

How many

146

ALGEBRA

XIL

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


UNKNOWN NUMBERS
unknown numbers
of sets of values of

CONTAINING TWO OR MORE


163.

An equation
by an

containing two or more

is satisfied

indefinitely great

number

these numbers.

Putting = 1, Putting x = 2,
a;

Consider, for example, the equation x-{-y

we have we have

1 -{-y

= 5,

+ i/=5,

= 5. = 4. or y = 3; etc.
or
?/

Thus the equation

is satisfied

by the
4:,

sets of values

and

= l,y = x = 2, y =
x

S',

etc.

An equation which is satisfied by an indefinitely great number of sets of values of the unknown numbers involved, is
called

an Indeterminate Equation.

164. Consider the equations

+ y = 5, \2x + 2y=10.
r

(1)
(2) (2)

Equation

(1)

can be made to take the form of


;

by

multi-

plying both members by 2 then, every set of values of x and y which satisfies one of the equations also satisfies the other.

Such equations are called

equivalent.

Again, consider the equations


|a^

+ = 5, [x-^y = S.
2/

(3)
(4)

In this case, it is not true that every set of values of x and y which satisfies one of the equations also satisfies the other; thus, equation (3) is satisfied by the set of values x =3, y = 2, which does not satisfy (4). If two equations, containing two or more unknown numbers,
are not equivalent, they are called Independent.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


165. Consider the equations

147

+ y = 5y x-\-y = 6.

(1) (2)

It is evidently impossible to find a set of values of

x and y

which shall satisfy both (1) and (2). Such equations are called Inconsistent.
166. system of equations is called Simultaneous when each contains two or more unknown numbers, and every equation of the system is satisfied by the same set, or sets, of values
of the

unknown numbers

thus, each equation of the system

is satisfied

by the

+ y = 5, \x-y = 3, = 1. set of values = 4,


(x
2/

Solution of a system of simultaneous equations is a set of values of the unknown numbers which satisfies every equation of the system
;

to solve a

system of simultaneous equations

is

to find its solutions.

independent simultaneous equations of the form be solved by combining them in such a way as to form a single equation containing but one unknown number. This operation is called Elimination.
167.
ax-{-by = c may

Two

ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION


168.
1.

Solve the equations


4,
3,

5x-3y = 19.

Multiplying (1) by
Multiplying (2) by

Adding

(3)

and

(4),

Whence,
Substituting x

2 in (1),

Whence,

The above

is

an example of elimination by addition.

15x + 82/=

1-

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


'

149

(7x-Sy= 10. [Sx-5y = -5.

)0

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


Clearing of fractions,

151

152

ALGEBRA

1.

Solve the equations

\ 3
a;

y-\-4:

=0.

-f

(1) ^^

[x{y-2)-y(x-5) = -13.

(2)

Multiplying each term of (1) by (x


7

+ 28

+ 3) (?/ + 4), - 3 X - 9 = 0, or 7 y - 3 X = - 19.


or

(3)

From

(2),

xy

-2x- xij + 6y = -13,


2,
3,

by -2 x = -lS.
2/

(4) (5)

Multiplying (3) by Multiplying (4) by

Subtracting (5) from (6),


Substituting in (4)
,

14 _ 6 x = - 38. 16y-6x = - 39. _ 1. y

(6)

Whence,

_ 5 _ 2 x = - 13. - 2 x = 8,

or x

= 4.

In solving fractional simultaneous equations, we reject any solution which does not satisfy the given equations.

(2x-\-Sy
2.

=13.
1

(1)
,p>,

Solve the equations

1
]

[x-2
Multiplying each term of (2) by (x
?/

y^~
2) (y

'

^"^

3),

we have
6.

-3

4-

0,

or y

=-X+
x
5

(3)

Substituting in (1), 2 x
Substituting in (3),

-3x+

15

13, or

= 2. =
3.

y
the
first

= -

This solution
it

satisfies

given equation, but not the second

then

must be

rejected.
if

EXERCISE 67
:

Solve the following

2x_5j^_l
5
a?

2'
3.

4:X

Sy
14

x 6y _

5y_5

T"2*
*

2x + Sy = -10.
8

11

4.

\e-2t-3
[

l'

8a;-52/ = l.

5e + 2 = -7.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


'

153

Sx-4:y
2
x-{-5
2/

11.

X
6.

^ 11

= 5.
-3
2/.

5.

+1

= 0.

9 2

+5
3

^U2x-l){y-4.)-(x-5)(2y + 5)
I

= 121. 4aj-32/ = -29.


' '

8
ic

= 0.
12.

y-5
5
32/4-4:

2a; 32/ 4a;+62/ _ ~ "*" 4 3

1
2*

= 0.

5^+2^ "^ 7^-3^ ^39


2
5
2/ 2/

^2a;-l
7

~10*

fa^4-ll_^.V^^_4
5
9.

a^ cc

+ ^

1
.

10

13.

iC-1
2

2/

+ 4 = -45.
10
1
5*

3^-1-8

2/-4

^ 6jr-J. 22/ + 3*

cZ-2n
10.

Sd-{-7i-\-3

-{
15.

5a;-i(3a;-22/ + 5)=ll.
5(^_42/)-K^-2/)
^^

= 16.

c^+4n_7
.08a;
11.
I 1

ii'

3
,

2/

5_ 3 ~6
2/

+ .9i/ = .048.

.3

a;

-.35 2/ =.478.

16.

;(i>-^)-Kp-3g) = g-3.
f(i>-^)+l(P+^)
16
5

= 18.
^
3^

'6^+5^_3^-4^^
17.

5X
5a;
2fl;

4 _
2/

+ 42/

13

+ 52/ + l
a;

3x + 2/-3 _

^,

o,,

18.

a;

4 +6 -2 -18
2/ 2/

154

ALGEBRA

3x-y-l19.
^

5x-7y-\-2
20.
i

g;

4y+7

= + 4.
2/

a;

3 +4
?/

6x 5y-\-7 _ x-2.
X
3
23

5
21.

ic

2
7

-i/

Sy
2"
2.

12 4
2/

3"

U-2 + 4(2a;-^)=0.
ri4.74-l
22.
'21.^

10-^-3

+1

5^

+ 2 ^ 63.(7-130^
3
21

2
3a;
23.

+l

2x-^y
2
4a;

x-\-2y
8
5^7

^^
'

^3
24.

+ 4, _ y
?/
a.'

~~5~'
17

+3 H2/ + 5.
2a;
t

= 0. + 5)(62/ + 7) (a;_l)(2/H_2)-(a; + 3)(2/ + 4) = 12. .13 + .29 .32 + .17 + .21. r.08a;4-35
62/

3a!4-4

2(42/

,^

a;

15
.9

2/

.6

25.
.02a;

+ .17

.08^-.47 ^q
.3

172. Solution of Literal Simultaneous Equations.

In solving
of

literal simultaneous linear equations, the method elimination by addition or subtraction is usually to be

preferred.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


Ex. Solve the equations
Multiplying (1) by b\
Multiplying (2) by
Subtracting,
&,

155
(1)

J
I

ax + by =
a'x + h^v =

c.

c'.

(2)

ah'x
a'bx
iab>

+ +

= = a'b)x =
bb'y bb'y

h'c.

be'.

b'c

be'.

Whence,
Multiplying (1) by

b'c,

be'

ab'

a'b

a',

aa'x

Multiplying (2) by

a,

aa'x
(ab'

Subtracting (3) from (4),

+ a'by = + ab'y a'b)y =


y

ca'.

(3)

da.
c'a c'a ab'

(4)

ca'.

Whence,

ca'

a'b

In solving fractional literal simultaneous equations, any solution which does not satisfy the given equations must be
rejected.

(Compare Ex.

2,

171.)

EXERCISE 68
Solve the following
i

5x6y=Sa.
ax-\-by

1.

mxny=mn.
m'x-\-n']y=m'n.

\4:X+9y=7a.

-^ + mi

X=
97i2

J:..

mg
ng

^2
1/3.

l. cx-{-dy = 1. aiX-{-a^ = \. I a^ a-^=h2.


(

'

2ax
a

by

+ Wo
1.
\
i-

5.

hxay=h^.
(ab)x-{-by=a^.

m
J
\n-\-y
8.
1

[w

^ +

o;

>/ll

= 2 a. n ^ 9. b^y = a^-{a^x mx 2)y = S a. n (a + T)x -\-(a VIO. y m 4)?/ = 7 a. (a + 3)a; + (a 6)a; + ab(a + 5)?/ =^a? -\-2ab W. a6(a ax-\-by = 2.
ax + by
b'i
,

156
r

ALGEBRA
12.
\

= 2. n^(x y^ = m 7nr(x -{-y)


(a

m(x -\-y)+ n(x y)

n.

13.

+ b)x + (a - b)y = 2(a^ 4- b^). b a _ a-\-b xab y

16.

+ b)x -\-(a-b)y = 2 a^ - 2 b\ 14. X _ 4:db y a b a + b o? b^ bx-\-ay = 2. 15. ab(a b)y = a^ b\ ab{a + b)x a-{-b _y a y 61 x-\-b x-\-a-\-b ay bx = d^ 17. x __. = 2a?-2 b\ a b '[(a {a-\-b)x + {a-b)y y-b a
(a
-\-\*

[{p? -b'')x-\- {o?

-W)y =^2a^ + 2b\

173. Certain equations in Avhich the unknown numbers occur in the denominators of fractions may be readily solved

without previously clearing of fractions.

15-9 = 8.
X
,Ex.

(1)

Solve the equations

y
(2)

X
Multiplying (1) by
5,

y
40.

50_45
X
y

Multiplying (2) by

3,

Adding,
Substituting in (1), 5

= 37,

74

37 X, and x

= 2.

= 8, - - = 3,

and

y=-S.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 69
Solve the following

157

[6 X
1.

+ - = -1.
12
y
3.
\

a X
a'

2
3a;
5.
,

A=i
4^
3y
3
12*

y
c'.

y
^

[X
9

b' -+-=

^
4.x

L^13
72*

14__11

89
30*

d"^
10
6

s~

2
6.

X
^5

by
a;

2.

+ 2y:
f

21
s

3'

-7.
\p
9.
i

6^_59^
y
18*

ld~^

a
&ic

_ a-\-b
ah
b^

ay
_a

b_

ax

by

a'b'

2pq q^ y p(p + q) P P-hq^ 2pq q\ X y p{p + q)

q
X

p'^

a + y -\-b
b
,

= 1.
10.

2x

-\-y

x x

4:y = -2.
-

24

+ xa

a
y

= 1.

16

2x-\-y

4ty

= -3.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS CONTAINING MORE

THAN TWO UNKNOWN NUMBERS


174. If
containing
of

we have three independent simultaneous equations, thr^ee unknown numbers, we may combine any two

them by one of the methods of elimination explained in 169 to 171, so as to obtain a single equation containing only two unknown numbers.

may then combine the remaining equation with either of the other two, and obtain another equation containing the same
two unknown numbers. By solving the two equations containing two unknown numand substituting them in bers, we may obtain their values
;

We

either of

unknown

the given equations, the value of the remaining number may be found.

158

ALGEBRA

proceed in a similar manner when the number of equaand of unknown numbers is greater than three. The method of elimination by addition or subtraction is usually the most convenient.
tions
In solving fractional simultaneous equations, any solution which does not satisfy the given equations must be rejected. (Compare Ex. 2, 171.)

We

Qx-

42/

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 70
Solve the following
:

159

(4.x-3y=
1.

1.

O-i

^x lly ^z
10.

9.

3^ = ^15.

8a;+4?/
il6a;+

[4.z-3x=
(

10.

7 2/4-62

= 11. = 64.

4.

6.

22. f8aj4-4^+ 32 =-52. 4:X i)y 6z = \bx- y^l2z = -52. 11. X y+ z = 6. 9 + 7 - 6 2 = - 36. 22. z= [^x 4+ 3 2= 42. 3x y z = 14 <j^)l) 6a;^" 2 = 16. 12. 10a;- 5 2/- 2= .2. x-\-3y 6 -172/ + 4 2 = 46. 3 2 = 10. x-\r2a; + 5 2/+32 = -7. ^+ h-k = 2L 13. 22/- 4 2 = 2-3 + 3/,_A: = 6L j4^ 5a;+9 = 5 + 7 2. [6^-5/i-A; = ll. r5_8 = -3. + 52/= 1. [3a; 9a;+52 = -7. 8_3 = 1. 14. 2. l92/ + 32= ^ y 4:2 = 5. f5aj + 25 ^^ 2 3a; + 52/ + 62 = -20. |3x ccH-32/-82 = -27. ^-^ + i = 10' 3 = -26. f2x-52/ T_ 7a; + 6 2=-33. 15.
-

a;

2/

'

-f-

2/

a;

2/

a;.

2/

a;

2/

2/

a;

2/

2/_4
2a;
a;

^4 +
2
2/

42/
2*

2;

30'

J^

+ 42/ 2 = 2. - 8 + 4 2 = - 25. 18 [10ic4-42/-92 = -30. 3p-|_4g + 5r = 10. 4p_5g_3r = 25. 5p_3g_4r = 21.

152

a;

12*

ax-\-hy

=
ahc

16.

by

-\-

cz

b^

+ c^
+ g^
ahc

cz

-\-

ax =

c^

160

ALGEBRA
4.e-12t-20w = 9.

17.

18.

+ 10?^ = 5. [12e-lSt- 5 IV = 13. u x-\-y= 15. x y-}-z = 12. 13. y z-{-u= [Z U-\^X =
8e6^
(

ri^i = a. -+a;

24.

1+1
2/
2;

= 6.

- + - = c.
L2;
iC

14:.

r5 a;

+-=
2/

c.

ri^i
X
19.

1
z

y
z

25.

1^1
y
iz

a c ~+~= z X
.y
c
-f-

b.

b z

= a.
c a

1^11
X
y
20.
\

by = a^ ah^. hz = a^h ay [az hx = ab^ a^b. 3 u-]-x = 5.


(ax
If.
(

0 c
26.

c a +^=6+c+2a. a 6
^

ab -h^=:c-\-a-^2b. bG

21.

5y

4:X-y= 21. + z=-19.


39.

[6z-u=

x+y xz
27.

y -\--=-3. 3
22.
z_

_6
4

5_ = i
5
2.
2;

31
a;

+
2;

3'^4
3

?/

12*

8a;+ 9?/+15^ = -29.


4
2
28.

17

a;

-10 2/4-13 = -12.


2;

a?- y 3
23.
^

lla;-152/+

72=

15.

y-z
3
z

z+x _
5 5

13
15"

t*-j-3a;_22/
29.

2=

3.

2w-a;-y-f-32=
[3u-2x-{-y-\-z=

23.

+ x _ X y _ 43
2

u-\-x-\-3y-2z = -12.
22.

~io'

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


(x-[-y
30.
]

161

= 0. 4- (c + a) + (a + 6) = 0. (6 + c) bcx 4- cay + abz = 1.


-\-z
05 2/
;2
'

6x-{-5y
3
31.

y4:Z _
5

14 5

^ 4

+ 1-1= 6 3
4

28.

g 5 a;
32.

7a;+3y ~ _
'

4
9'

6^3

4y+6g "^ Sz-\-x ^


3

15
2*

PROBLEMS INVOLVING SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE UNKNOWN NUMBERS
175. In solving problems where two or more letters are used to represent unknown numbers, we must obtain from
the conditions of the problem as many independent equations 164) as there are unknotvn numbers to be deter rniyied.
1.

Divide 81 into two parts such that three-fifths the greater

shall exceed five-ninths the less

by

7.

Let

162
3.

ALGEBRA
of

sum
$1

money was divided

number
received

of persons.
less
;

equally between a certain there been 3 more, each would have had there been 6 fewer, each would have re-

Had

ceived $ o more. How much did each receive ?


Let
X

many

persons were there, and

how

and
Then,

= the number of persons, y = the number of dollars received xy = the nuijiber of dollars divided.

by each.

Since the sum of money could be divided between x + 8 persons, each whom would receive y 1 dollars, and between x persons, each of whom would receive y + 5 dollars, (x + S)(y 1) and {x 6)(2/ + 5)
of
(3

also represent the

number

of dollars divided.
-{-

Then,

(x

S)(y

- 1)=

xy,

and
Solving these
4.

6){y + B) = xy. (x x = 12, y = 5. equations,


of the three digits of a
8,

The sum

number

is

13.

If the

be divided by the sum of its second and third digits, the quotient is 25 and if 99 be added to the number, the digits will be inverted. Find the number.

number, decreased by

Let

X = the
y
z

first digit,

and
Then,

and

= the second, = the third. 100 x + 10 + = the number, 100 z + lOy x = the number with
?/
2;

-\-

its digits

inverted.

By

the conditions of the problem,

and
Solving

+ z = 13, 100 X + 10 y + g - 8 _ t)r ~ +^ 100x-^10y-\-z + 99 = 100z + 10y + x. these equations, x = 2, y = S, z = 3 and the number is
x-i-y
2/
;

283.

5. A crew can row 10 miles in 50 minutes down stream, and 12 miles in li hours against the stream. Find the rate in miles per hour of the current, and of the crew in still water.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


Let
X
y

163

= number
= number

of miles

an hour of the crew

in still water,

and
Then, x

of miles an

hour of the current.

and

+ y = number of miles an hour of the x y = number of miles an hour of the


of miles

crew down stream, crew up stream.


is

The number

an hour rowed by the crew

equal to the dis-

tance in miles divided by the time in hours.

Then,

+ = 10 -- = 12,
?/

and

164
Substituting in (1),

ALGEBRA
io~io'^
^'

^^

TR
71

'

^^^^^e, y

75.

EXERCISE
1.

less shall be less


2.

Divide 79 into two parts such that three-sevenths the by 56 than four-thirds the greater.
If the numerator of a fraction be increased by 4, the
is

value of the fraction


creased by
3.

while

if

the denominator
is |.

is

de-

3,

the value of the fraction


of the

Find the
is

fraction.

The sum

two

digits of a

number

14

be added to the number, the digits will be inverted.

and if 36 Find the

number.
4.

A's age

is

f of
ages.

B's,

and 15 years ago his age was if of

B's.
5.

Find their

the

If the two digits of a number be inverted, the quotient of number thus formed, increased by 101, by the original number is 2 and the sum of the digits exceeds twice the excess of
;

the tens' digit over the units' digit by 5.


6.

Find the number.


fraction,
;

If 3 be

added to the numerator of a

and 7 sub-

tracted from the denominator, its value is ^ and if 1 be subtracted from the numerator, and 7 added to the denominator, Find the fraction. its value is -|.

two 7. A's age is twice the sum of the ages of B and C years ago, A was 4 times as old as B, and four years ago, was 6 times as old as C. Find their ages.
;

8. If the greater of two numbers be divided by the less, the quotient is 1, and the remainder 6. And if the greater, increased by 14, be divided by the less, diminished by 4, the quotient is 5, and the remainder 4. Find the numbers. 9. If 8 yards of silk and 12 yards of woolen cost $ 27, and 12 yards of silk and 8 yards of woolen cost $ 28, find the price per yard of the silk and of the woolen.

10.

Find two numbers such that one shall be n times as

much

greater than a as the other is less than a; and the quotient of their sum by their difference equal to b.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


11.

165

certain

number

of

sum

of its digits by 4.

two digits exceeds three times the If the digits be inverted, the sum of

the resulting number and the given number exceeds three times the given number by 2. Find the number.
12.

The sum

of the three digits of a

number

is

16

the digit
;

in the tens' place exceeds that in the hundreds' place by 4 and if 297 be added to the number, the digits will be inverted.

Find the number.

A rectangular field has the same area as another which 6 rods longer and 2 rods narrower, and also the same area as IS a third which is 3 rods shorter and 2 rods wider. Find its
13.

dimensions.
14.

Find three numbers such that the

first

with one-half the


;

second and one-third the third shall equal 29 the second with one-third the first and one-fourth the third shall equal 28;

and the third with one-half the


shall equal 36.

first

and one-third the second

15. The circumference of the large wheel of a carriage is 55 The former makes inches more than that of the small wheel.

many revolutions in going 250 feet as the latter does in going 140 feet. Find the number of inches in the circumference of each wheel.
as
16.

the
is

sum
;

If the digits of a number of three figures be inverted, of the number thus formed and the original number

1615 the sum of the digits is 20, and if 99 be added to the number, the digits will be inverted. Find the number.
for B, 112 miles distant, at 9 a.m., and 17. A train leaves one hour later a train leaves B for A; they met at 12 noon. If the second train had started at 9 a.m., and the first at 9.50
A.M.,
18.

they would also have met at noon.

Find

their rates.

has $ 1.50 with which he wishes to buy two kinds of note-books. If he asks for 14 of the first kind, and 11 of the
second, he will require 6 cents more and if he asks for 11 of the first kind, and 14 of the second, he will have 6 cents over.
;

A boy

How much

does each kind cost ?

166

ALGEBRA

19. A man invests $10,000, part at 4^%, and the rest at S^%. He finds that six years' interest on the first investment exceeds five years' interest on the second by $658.

How much

does he invest at each rate

20. A man buys apples, some at 2 for 3 cents, and others at 3 for 2 cents, spending in all 80 cents. If he had bought j as many of the first kind, and f as many of the second, he

would have spent 99

cents.

How many

of each kind did he

buy?
21.

An

money at 3%. at 3%,


vested

is obtained in part from and in part from money invested 3^%, If the amount invested at the first rate were invested and the amount invested at the second rate were inat 3i%, the annual income would be $825. How

annual income of $800

invested at

much
22.

is

invested at each rate ?

A tank containing 864 gallons can be filled by two A and B. After the pipes have been open together for pipes, 9 minutes, the pipe A is closed, and B finishes the work of
filling in

pipe

How
23.

had elapsed before the have finished in 2 J minutes. many gallons does each pipe fill in one minute ?
15| minutes."
closed,

If 15 minutes

was

B would

The contents

of one barrel

wine.

How many

gallons

is f wine, and of another -| must be taken from each to fill a

barrel -whose capacity is 24 gallons, so that the mixture

may

be I wine ?

A boy spends his money for oranges. Had he bought more, each would have cost a cents less if n fewer, each would have cost b cents more. How many did he buy, and at
24.

what price
25.

A vessel

contains a mixture of wine and water.

If 50
;

gallons of wine are added, there is J as much wine as water if 50 gallons of water are added, there is 4 times as much

water as wine.
at
first.

Find the number of gallons of wine and water

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


26.

167

buys 15 bottles of sherry, and 20 bottles of If the sherry had cost j as much, and the for ^38. claret, Find the claret f as much, the wine would have cost $38.50.
cost per bottle of the sherry,
27.

A man

and of the

claret.

If a field

were made a feet longer, and

b feet wider, its


if its

area would be increased by

square feet

but

length

width d feet less, its area would n square feet. Find its dimensions. be decreased by
c

were made

feet less,

and

its

28.

If the

numerator of a fraction be increased by


b,

a,

and the
if

denominator by

the value of the fraction

is

and
d,

the

numerator be decreased by c, and the denominator by


of the fraction is
29.

the value

m
71/

Find the numerator and denominator,

digits.

certain number equals 59 times the sum of its three The sum of the digits exceeds twice the tens' digit by and the sum of the hundreds' and tens' digits exceeds twice
6.

the units' digit by


30.

Find the number.

by

B
.

A piece of work can be done by A and B in 4|- hours, and C in 2| hours, and by A and C in 3 hours. In how
each alone do the work ?
of a fraction has the
;

many hours can


31

The numerator

same two

digits as

the denominator, but in reversed order the denominator exceeds the numerator by 9, and if 1 be added to the numerator

the value of the fraction

is |.

Find the

fraction.

32. A man walks from one place to another in 5^ hours. If he had walked ^ of a mile an hour faster, the walk would have taken 36| fewer minutes. How many miles did he walk, and

at

what
33.

rate ?

A man

invests a certain

sum

of

money

at a certain rate

of interest. rate 1

If the principal had been $ 120l) greater, and the greater, his income would have been increased by

had been $3200 greater, aiid the rate income would have been increased by $ 312. % What sum did he invest, and at what rate ?

118.

If the principal

greater, his

168
34.

ALGEBRA

A sum of money at simple interest amounted to $ 1868.40


and
to

in 7 years,

$ 2174.40

in 12 years.

Find the principal

and the
35.

rate.

If

A
36.

A and B together can do a piece of work in 3| hours. works I as fast, and B | as fast, they can do it in the
In how

same time.

many

hours can each alone do the work

?
;

Two men

together can do a piece of work in 30 hours

they can also do it if the first man works 25^ hours, and the second 32|- hours. In how many hours can each alone do the

work
37.

crew row 16J miles up stream and 18 miles down They then row 21 miles up stream and 19 J miles down stream in 11 hours. Find the rate in miles an hour of the stream, and of the crew in still water.
stream in 9 hours.
38. A train travels from A to B, 228 miles, and another from B to A. If the trains start at the same time, they will meet 3f hours after. If the first train starts 3 hours after the second, they will meet 2 hours after the second train starts. Find the rates of the trains.

has quarter-dollars, dimes, and half-dimes to the and has in all 12 coins. If he replaces the quarters by dimes, and the dimes by quarters, the value of the coins would be $ 1.55. How many has he of each?
39.

man
$

value of

1.40,

the

The middle digit of a number of three figures is one-half sum of the other two digits. If the number be divided by the sum of its digits, the quotient is 20, and the remainder 9
40.
;

and if 594 be added Find the number.

to the

number, the

digits will be in verted..

41. A certain number of workmen receive the same wages, and receive together a certain sum. If there had been 9 more men, and each ha*d received 30 cents less, the total received would have been increased by $ 12.30. Had there been 8 fewer men, and each had received 40 cents more, the total received would have been decreased by $ 13.20. How many men were there, and how much did each receive ?

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


42.

169

66 gallons.

merchant has three casks of wine, containing together He pours from the first into the second and third he then pours from the secas much as each of them contains ond into the first and third as much as each of them then conThere is now 8 times as much in the third cask as in tains. the second, and twice as much in the first as in the second. How many gallons did each have at first ?
;

43.

certain majority.

In a meeting of 600 persons, a measure is defeated by a It is afterwards successful by double this

majority, and the number of persons voting for it is | as great How as the number voting against on the former occasion.

many
44.

voted

for,

and how many against, the measure on the

former occasion?
I bought apples at 3 for 5 cents, and oranges at 2 for 5 spending in all $ 1.70. I sold three-fourths of the apples and one-half of the oranges for $ 1.10, and made a profit of 5 cents on the latter transaction. How many did I buy of each ?
cents,

45.

A gives

to

and C as much money as each of them has;

then gives to A and C as has C then gives to A and

then has.
46.

much money as each of them then as much money as each of them Each has now $ 8. How much had each at first ?

has one-half as many dimes as dollars, and B eightmany dimes as dollars. They have together 3 more dollars than dimes, and B's money is 60 cents less than A's. How much money has each ?
sevenths as
47.

A man buys
1200.

a certain

number

of

$ 100 railway
;

shares,

when
for

at a certain rate per cent discount, for f 1050 and at a rate per cent premium twice as great, sells one-half of

when
them

How many
B

shares did he buy, and at what cost ?

48.

A
A

and

can do a piece of work in |4 hours,


in ^^ hours,
it

in

i^'

hours,

A and D

How many
49.

hours will

A and C and C in ^f- hours. take each alone to do the work ?


and

and B run a race of 280 feet. The first heat, gives The second a start of 70 feet, and neither wins the race. heat, gives B a start of 35 feet, and beats him by 6| seconds.

How many

feet can each

run in a second ?

170

ALGEBRA

50. A, B, C, and play at cards. After B has won onehalf of A's money, C one-third of B's, one-fourth of C's, and one-fifth of D's, they have each f 10, except B, who has $ 16.

How much
51.

had each

at first ?

The sum

of the four digits of a

number

is 14.

The

sum
the

of the last three digits exceeds twice the first by 2. Twice the sum of the second and third digits exceeds 3 times

sum

of the first

and fourth by

3.

the number, the digits will be inverted.


52.

If 2727 be added Find the number.

to

and B run a race of 210 yards. The first heat, a start of 8 seconds, and beats him by 20 yards. The second heat, gives B a start of 70 yards, and is beaten by 2 seconds. How many yards can each run in a second ?
gives

53.

sum

of

money
is

half-dimes.

Its value is as
its

consists of half-dollars, dimes, and many dimes as there are pieces of

money; and
dimes

value

also as

many

half-dollars as there are


is

less 1.

The number

ber of half-dollars.
54.

5 more than the numFind the number of each coin.


of dimes
of a carriage

The fore-wheel

makes a revolutions more

than the hind-wheel in travelling b feet. If the circumference of the fore-wheel were m times as great, and the circumference
of the hind-wheel n times as great, the fore- wheel would make c revolutions more than the hind-wheel in travelling d feet.

Find the circumference of each wheel.


55.

which delays

then proceeds at a rate one-nth of Had the acciits former rate, and arrives Sit B b hours late. dent occurred c miles nearer B, the train would have been d hours late. Find the rate of the train before the accident,
It

train running it a hours.

from

to

meets with an accident

and the distance to

B from

the point of detention.

56. A man buys 60 shares of stock, each having the par value ^100, part paying dividends at the rate of 3|%, and the remainder at the rate of 4^%. If the first part had paid dividends at the rate of 4^%, and the other at the rate of 3|%,

the total annual income would have been


shares of each kind did he buy ?

^12

less.

How many

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


176. Interpretation
1.

171

of Solutions.

The length of a field is 10 rods, and its breadth 8 rods; how many rods must be added to the breadth so that the area

may
By

be 60 square rods

Let
the conditions, 10 (8

= number = 60. = 60,


or

of rods to be added.

+ x)
10a:

Then,
This
signifies that 2

80

x=

-2.

rods must be subtracted from the breadth in order

that the area


If

may

be 60 square rods.

(Compare

16.)
:

we should modify

the problem so as to read

" The length of a field is 10 rods, and its breadth 8 rods rods must be subtracted from the breadth so that the area
square rods
?

"

how many may be 60

and

let

x denote the number of rods to be subtracted,

we should find x = 2.
is

negative result sometimes indicates that the problem

impossible.
2. If 11 times the number of persons in a certain house, increased by 18, be divided by 4, the result equals twice the number increased by 3 find the number.
;

Let

X
the conditions,
'^'^^+'^^

= the

number.

By

4
lla;

= 2x + S. = 8a; +
12,

Whence,

18

and
is

a;

= -2.

The negative

result

shows that the problem


also be impossible

impossible.

A
3.

problem

may

when

the solution

is

fractional.

A man

has two kinds of


of coins is 23, of each ?

total

number

money dimes and cents. and their value 37 cents.


:

The

How

many has he
Let
Then,

X = number
23

of dimes.
of cents.

= number

The X dimes are worth 10 x

cents.

172

ALGEBRA
+ 23 x = 37
;

Then, by the conditions, 10 x

and
is

x=

14

The

fractional result

shows that the problem

impossible.

EXERCISE 72
Interpret the solutions of the following
1.
:

If the length of a field is 12 rods,

and

its

width 9 rods,

how many rods must be subtracted from area may be 144 square rods ?
2.

the width so that the

A is 44 years of age, and B 12 years; how many years was A 3 times as old as B ? ago 3. The number of apple and pear trees in an orchard is 23 and 7 times the number of apple trees plus twice the number
;

of pear trees equals ^2.


4.

How many

are there of each kind ?

of silver coins in a purse exceeds the number of gold coins by 3, and 5 times the number of silver coins exceeds 3 times the number of gold coins by 3. many

The number

How

are there of each kind ?


5.

A's assets are double those of B.

When A

has gained

250, and B $ 170, A's assets are 5 times those of B. the assets of each.

Find

6.

cistern has
;

in 7i hours

two pipes. When both are open, it is filled and the first pipe alone can fill it in 3 hours.
fill it

How many
7.

hours does the second pipe take to


of a fraction
is

The numerator
if

and
by

15,

4 times the denominator; the numerator be diminished by 9, and the denominator the value of the fraction is f Find the fraction.
.

8. and B are travelling due east at the rates of 41 and 3| miles an houi^ respectively. At noon A is 5 miles due east of B. How many miles to the east of A's position at noon will

he overtake

A has ^ 720, and B f 300. After A has gained a certain "9. sum, and B has gained two-thirds this sum, A has 3 times as much Jiioney as B. How much did each gain ?

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

173

XIII.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
of a Point.

177. Rectangular Co-ordinates

A
Ms
3f

Mi
-X-

l/i

A.

Let

XX' and YY'


0;
let

angles at

Pj be any point in the plane of

be straight lines intersecting at right XX' and YY',

XX'. and J/iPi are called the rectangular co-ordinates, Then, OMi or simply the co-ordinates, of Pi OM^ is called the abscissa, and MiPi the ordinate.
and draw
line P^Mj^ perpendicular to
;

178. It is understood, in the definitions of 177, that are positive, and to the abscissas measured to the right of from XX' left, negative; also, that ordinates measured upivards
are positive,

and downwards,

negative.

Thus, let Ps be to the left of YY', and above XX', and Pg and P4 below XX', respectively to the left and right of YY, an^^

draw
Let

lines PyiWa? P^^^z^ ^"^^

P^M^ perpendicular

to

XX'.

0Mi = 5, M,0 = 3, M,0 = 5, 0M^ = 2, M,P^ = S, M,P, = 5, P,Ms=S, P,M, = Then, the abscissa of Pi is + 5, and its ordinate + 3 the abscissa of P, is 3, and its ordinate + 5 the abscissa of P. is 5, and its ordinate 3 the abscissa of P. is 4- 2, and its ordinate 4.
4..

174
179.
axis of

ALGEBRA
The
lines of reference,

XX' and
;

YY', are called the


the origin.

X, and axis of Y, respectively

and

express the fact that the abscissa of a point is b, and its ordinate a, by saying that, for the point in question, x b and more concisely, we speak of the point as the point y a\ or,

We

where the first term in parentheses is understood to be (h, a) the abscissa, and the second term the ordinate.
;

If a point lies upon XX', its ordinate is zero upon YY', its abscissa is zero.

and

if it lies

The

co-ordinates of the origin are (0, 0).

180. Plotting Points.

To

plot a point

when

its

co-ordinates are given, lay off the


-2,3)-

abscissa to the right or left of 0, according or and then draw a perpenas it is , in length to the ordinate, dicular, equal

above or below XX', according as the

-^ Thus, to plot the point (2, 3), lay off 2 units to the left of O upon XX', and then erect a perpendicular 3 units in length above XX'.

ordinate

is

or

EXERCISE 73
Plot the following points
1.
:

(1, 4).
(2,

6. 7. 8.

(-4, -3). (-1,


(4,

11. 12.
13.

(5, 0).

2.
3. 4. 5.

-2).
6).

2).

(0, 4).

(-3,

-6).

(-2,
(0,

0).

(-2, -4).
(3, 1).

9.

(r, 3).

14.
1).

-3).

10.

(-6,

GRAPH OF A LINEAR EQUATION INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN NUMBERS


181. Consider the equation y

= x + 2.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
If

175

we

relation y

U x = 0,
If X If

give any numerical value to x, we may, by aid of the .-\- 2, calculate a corresponding value for y. -p-^ -

'

V=2.
2/

{A)
,

= 1,
= 3,

x=:2,
a;

2^

If
If
If If

2^

a;=-l,
a;
a:

2/

= - 2, = - 3,

2/

2/

= 3. = 4. = 5. = l. = 0. = 1

(B)
.

(C)
(X)

() (F)
;

etc.

(6^)
;

Now
let

let these

be regarded as the co-ordinates of points

and

the points be plotted, as explained in 180. Thus, to plot tlie point A^ lay off 2 units above
will be

The points
is

found to

lie

on a certain

line,

upon YY\ QD^ which

called the Graph of the given equation.

By assuming

fractional values for x,

we may

obtain intermediate

points of the graph.

EXERCISE 74
Eind by the above method the graphs
equations
1.
2/
:

of the following

2.

2/

= 2a; + 3. = -3x-4.
We
shall

3.

4?/

4.

+ = 6. ?>y-2x = -Vl.
cc

5.

?/

= 5a;.

6.

3a;-f-2?/

= 0.

182.

linear equation, involving line for a graph.

always find (and it can be proved) that a two unknown numbers, has a straight
is

Then, since a straight line


it is sufficient,

determined by any two of

its

when finding the graph of a linear equapoints, tion involving two unknown numbers, to find two of its points,
and draw a straight line through them. The points most easily determined are those in which the
graph intersects the axes. For all points on OX, y = 0; hence, to find where the graph cuts OX, put y = 0, and calculate the value of x. To find where the graph cuts OY, put x = 0, and calculate
the value of
y.

176
Ex.
Put y

ALGEBRA
Plot the graph of 2x-\-^y

= l,
7

=
.

^',

then 2

cc

= 7,
2

and x

Then ofO.
Put X

plot

A
;

on OX', - units

to the left

X-

=
plot

then 3 y

and y

= - J.
0.
is

Then

Draw

3 the straight line

on OT', - units below

AB

this

the re-

quired graph.

The above method cannot, of course, be used for a straight line passing through the origin, nor for the equations of 183.
183. Consider the equation y

= 5.

This means that every point in the graph


has
ordinate equal to 5. the graph is the straight line parallel to XX', and 5 units above it.
its

Then

AB,
is

In like manner, the graph of x

=3

the straight line CD, parallel to YY', and 3 units to the left of it.

The graph
axis of Y.

of y

is

the axis of

X, and the graph

of x

is

the

EXERCISE 75
Plot the graphs of the following equations
1.
:

3x-^2y =
x-4.y =

6.
4:.

3. 4.

2.

= 2. y = -4:.
a;

5.

16x-27y = -72.
Sx-\-15y

6.

= -6.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Let

177

Since

AB and CD intersect at E. E lies on each graph, its co-ordinates must satisfy both
;

given equations hence, to find the co-ordinates of E, we solve the given equations. In this case the solution is x 3, y 2; and it may be verified in the figure that these are the co-ordinates of E.

We then

have the following important principle

If the graphs of two linear equations, with two unknown


hers, intersect, the co-ordinates

num^

of the point of intersection form a

solution of the equations re'presented by the graphs.

EXERCISE 76
Verify the principle of

184 in the following equations


3.

'

+ 5 = 24. \3x-2y = - 5. + 72/ = 5. |3a.' [Sx-\-3y = 18.


r

4 07

2/

(5x-4.y=
i

0.

7x + 6y = -29.

(9x-\-Uy = -25.
'

[Sx-

4.y

22.

As additional examples, the pupil might verify graphically the solutions of Exs. 3, 8, 11, and 12, Exercise 65, and of
Exs.
7, 8, 9,

and

16, Exercise 66.

185. Graphs

of Inconsistent

Linear Equations with

Two

Un-

known Numbers.
Consider the equations

(3x-2y= 5. \6x-Ay = -7.


The
bers
first

(AB) {CD)

6x 4:y =
by
2.

10,

equation can be put in the form by multiplying both mem-

Then, the given equations are inconsistent ( 165), and it is impossible to find any values of x and y which satisfy both equations.

178

ALGEBRA

We shall always find that two inconsistent equations, with two unknown numbers, are represented by parallel graphs; for if the graphs could intersect at any point, the co-ordinates of this point would be a solution of the given equations ( 184).
186. Graphs of Indeterminate Linear Equations with

Two

Un-

known Numbers.
Consider the equations

3a;-22/=
The

5.

first

of the second,

equation can be put in the form by multiplying both members

by 2, and the graphs coincide. The given equations are not independent in any similar case, we shall find that the graphs are ( 164)
;

coincident.

EXERCISE 77
Verify the principles of 185 and 186 in the following
equations:

r3aj-f42/=
3a;

12.

{2x- 7y = U.
4aj-14?/ =
5x-\28.

2.

+ 42/ = -12. 2x- 5y= 0. 6x-15v = S0.

2/

= 15.

'( 15x-\-lSy = ^5.


of Linear

187. Graphical Representation One Unknown Number.

Expressions involving

Put

Consider the expression 3 a; + 5. = 3 a? + 5 and let the graph of 2/


;

this equation be

Putting y
cuts

found as in 183, -^; then the graph 0, x =

gs

I units to the left of 0. Putting x = 0, y = 5; then the graph cuts YY' 5 units above 0.

XX'

The graph

is

the straight line

AB.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION"
188. Graphical Representation of Roots
Ill

179
( 81).

of

Equations

order to find the abscissa of the point A ( 187), where the graph of 3 a? 5 intersects XX', we solve the equation

3a;

+o=
is,

( 182).

That

the abscissa of

^ is a root of the equation 3 a;+5=0.


which the graph of the
first

Hence,

the abscissa of the point in

member of any linear equation, with one unknown number, sects XX', is the root of the equation.
EXERCISE 78

inter-

Plot the graphs of the first members of the following equations, and in each case verify the principle of 188
:

1.

2a;

+ 7 = 0.

2.

5a;-4 = 0.

180

ALGEBRA

XIV.

INEQUALITIES
> <
,

and are read " is greater 189. The Signs of Inequality, than " and " is less than," respectively. " a 6 is read " a is greater than 6 6 is read " a Thus, a

>

<

is less

than

6."

190. One number

is

said to be greater than another

when

the remainder obtained by subtracting the second from the first is a positive number.

One number

is

said to be less than another

when

the remainfirst
is

der obtained by subtracting the second from the


negative number.
if

Thus,

is

a positive number,

a>b; and

if

&

is

negative number,

a<b.
two expres-

191.
sions
is

An

Inequality is a statement that one of greater or less than another.

The

First Me^nber of an inequality is the expression to the

left of the sign of inequality,

and the Second Member


is

is

the

expression to the right of that sign.

Any term

of either

member

of an inequality

calle^ a term

of the inequality.

Two

or

more
first

when the
Thus, a

member
and

inequalities are said to subsist in the same sense is the greater or the less in both.

>6

G>d

subsist in the

same

sense.

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES
192.

An

same number has been added


members.

inequality will continue in the same sense after the or subtracted from, both to^

For consider the inequality a'>b. By 190, a 6 is a positive number.

INEQUALITIES
Hence, each of the numbers

181

c) (6 c) is positive, since each is equal to a h. a + c>h -{-c, and a c>h Therefore,


(a

+ c) (6 + c),

and (a

c.

190)

193. It follows from from one member of an


sign.
If

192 that a term

may

he transposed
its

inequality to the other by changing

the same term appears in both


it

members

of

an inequality, affected

with the same sign,

may

be cancelled.

the sign

194. If the signs of all the terms of an inequality be changed of inequality must be reversed. ^

For consider the inequality a


Transposing every term,

That

is,

h>c d. d c>b a. b a<d c.

193)

195. An inequality will continue in the same sense after both members have been multiplied or divided by the same positive

number.

For consider the inequality a > b. By 190, a 6 is a positive number.


Hence,
if

is

a positive number, each of the numbers

m(a

b)

and

or

ma mb and

mm

is positive.

Therefore,

ma > m6, and >

m m

an inequality
ber, the sign

196. It follows from 194 and 195 that if both members of be multiplied or divided by the same negative num-

of inequality must be reversed.

197. If any number of inequalities, subsisting in the same


sense, be

also subsist in the

added member to member, same sense.

the residting inequality will

182

ALGEBRA

Each

For consider the inequalities a>h, a^ > b', a" > b", . of the numbers, a b, a' b', a" b", , is positive.
Then, their sum a

b^a' b'-\-a"-b"-\
(&

or,
is

+ a' + a"-\

+ &' + &"+ )>

a positive number.

Whence,

+ a' + a" + .> 6 + 6' + b" +

If two inequalities, subsisting in the same sense, be subtracted member from member, the resulting inequality does not necessarily subsist in the same sense. Thus, if a > & and a' > b', the numbers a b and a' b' are positive. But (a b)-(a' - b'), or its equal, (a - a') - (6 - b'), may be posiand hence a a' may be greater than, less than, tive, negative, or zero
;

or equal to 6

b'.

198. If a
6', is

>6
b',

and

a'

>b', and each of the numbers


^^,

a, a', b,

positive, then
a'

^ ^^,^
(1)

Since

>

and a

is positive,

aa'>ab' (195).
Again, since

a>b, and

b' is

positive,
(2)

ab'>bb'.

From

(1)

and

(2),

aa'

>

56'.

199. If we have any number of inequalities subsisting in the same sense, as a>6, a' >b', a"> b", , and each of the numbers a, a', a", -, b, b\ 6", , is positive, then
aa'a"...>66'&"..-.

For by 198,
Also,

aa'>bb'.

a">&".
aa'a">bb'b".

Then by 198,
obtain finally

Continuing the process with the remaining inequalities,

we

INEQUALITIES
200. Examples.
1.

183

Find the limit of x

in the inequality

Multiplying both members by 3 ( 195),


21
a;

we have
15.

23

<2 +
a;

Transposing ( 193), and uniting terms,


19 X

< 38.

Dividing both members by 19 ( 195),

cc<2.

[tMs
2.

means

that, for

any value

ofa;<2,7x-^<^ + 5.
in the following
:

Find the limits of x and y


|3a^ l2a;

Multiply (1) by

3, 2,

a;

+ 22/>37. + 32/ = 33. + 6 y > 111.


+ 6y= m.

(1)

(2)

Multiply (2) by

4a;

Subtracting (192),

5x>
6x
6x

45,
74.

and a;>9.

Multiply (1) by
Multiply (2) by
Subtracting,

2, 3,

?/

>

Divide both members by

+ 9 y = 99. 5 > 25. 5, ?/< 5 ( 196).


?/

(1),

(This means that any values of x and y which satisfy (2), also satisfy 9, and y provided x is 5.)

>

<

3.

Between what limiting values of


we have

ic

is a^

4 < 21 ?
a;

Transposing 21,
x2

4X

is

< 21,

if

x2

- 4 X - 21

is

< 0.
7
;

- 7) is negative. is, if (x + 3)(x Now (x + 3) (x - 7) is negative if x is between - 3 and < - 3, both X + 3 and x - 7 are negative, and their product if X is > 7, both x + 3 and x 7 are positive.
That
Hence, x^

for

if
;

positive

x is and

4x

is

< 21,

if

is

>- 3,

and

< 7.

184

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 79

Find the limits of x in the following


1.

2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

+ 5)(2aj + 3). + 2) + 3) - 4 > (3 X - 2) - 3) + 36. + 4) (5 - 2) + (2 - 3)^ > (3 + 4)^ - 78. - 3)(a; + 4)(aj _ 5) < + l)(a5 - 2)(x - 3). {x a2(a;-l)<2 6=^(2a;-l)-a&, if a-2h is positive.
(4a;+5)2-4<(8a^
(3
a;

(ic
a;

oj

(a;
a;

(a;

ic

(a;

^~^ + 2 > ^"^^


n

if

and w are

positive,

and m<,n.

Find the limits of x and y in the following


-

(5x-\-6y<4:5. l3a;-42/ = -ll.

'

42/>41. J7aj [3x + 7y = 35.


a;

9.

Find the limits of x when

3a;-ll<24-lla;, and
10.

+ 23<20 x + 3.

If 6 times a certain positive integer, plus 14, is greater

than 13 times the integer, minus 63, and 17 times the integer, minus 23, is greater than 8 times the integer, plus 31, what is
the integer ?
11.

If 7 times the

number

of houses in a certain village,

plus 33, is less than 12 times the number, minus 82, and 9 times the number, minus 43, is less than 5 times the number,
plus 61,
12.

how many houses


a
3, is less

are there ?

number, plus

of cows such that 10 times their than 4 times the number, plus 79 and 14 times their number, minus 97, is greater than 6 times the Dumber, minus 5. How many cows has he?
;

A farmer has

number

13.
14. 15.

Between what limiting values of a; Between what limiting values of x

is
is

ar'H-3a;<4?

x^<Sx 15.
3 a;^ + 19 x< 20
?

Between what limiting values

of

a;

is

201. If a and b are unequal numberSj


a^

+ b^>2ab.

INEQUALITIES
For

185

(a-6)2>0;
2ab,

or,

cv"

-2 ab + b^>0.
3,

Transposing
1.

a^-\-b^>2ab.

Prove

that, if

a does not equal


(a

+ 2)(a-2)>6a-13.
if

By

the above principle,

a does not equal


a2

3,

> 6 a.
+ 2)(a - 2) >6 a 13.

Subtracting 13 from both members,

a2_4>6a-13,
2.

or (a

Prove that,

if

a and

b are

unequal positive numbers.

a^-{-b^>a'b

+ b'a.
ab

We have,

a^

b'^>2 ah, or ^2

+ b^> ah.

Multiplying both members by the positive number a

+ 6,

a^-\-h^> a^b

h'^a.

EXERCISE 80
1.

Prove that for any value of

x,

except

f,

3aj(3a;-10)>-25.
2.

Prove that for any value of

x,

except

|,

^x(x-5)>Sx-A9.
3.

Prove that for any values of a and

6, if

4 a does not equal

^'

- 3 6) > 6 6 (4 a - 3 6). (4 a + 3 6) (4 a
Prove that for any values of x and y,if

4.

5x

does not equal

^^^

5x(5x-6y)>2y(5x-Sy).
that, if

Prove
5.

a and

6 are

unequal positive numbers,


6.

a'b

+ ab'>2a'b'.

^-h->2. b a

7.

a^-\-a'b

+ ab^-^b^>2ab{a-^b).

186

ALGEBRA

'^
202. Involution

XV. INVOLUTION
is

power whose exponent

the process of raising an expression to any is a positive integer.

We
203.

gave in

whose exponent

is

96 a rule for raising a monomial to any power a positive integer.


of a Fraction.

Any Power

Wehave,
and a similar

axaxa
b b b gy=^x?x^ bxbxb
b^'

result holds for

any positive integral power of

Then, a fraction may be raised to any power whose exponent a positive integer by raising both numerator and denominator
the required power.
J.

is

to

2 x'Y

(2

xW.

...

(2 x'Y

32

..

q^.

EXERCISE
Find the values of the following
6
1.
:

81

a^by

3aV ^^
^'2/

f_2mJcfy
V 6

'

cwy

V
.
'

ny

J
*

/9

mny

(_A^X
V

/^Jf^\
\3l b'cny

[Sp^j'
204. Square

52/V;*

of a Polynomial.
:

We find

by actual multiplication
a
-\-b

+c
ab
ab
-\-

-\-b -\-c
-\-

a^-\-

ac

+b^-{ac
-\-

be bc

+ c^ a" + 2 ab -^2 ac + b^ + 2bc + c"

INVOLUTION
The
result, for

187

convenience of enunciation,

may be

written

(a

+ b + cy = a' + b' + c'-{-2ab-{-2ac + 2bc.


:

In like manner we find


(a

+ b-{-c + dy = a'-\-b'-\-c'-\-d'
-{-2ab-{-2ac

+ 2ad-{-2bc-\-2bd + 2cd',
:

and so

on.

We
its

then have the following rule


is

The square of a polyywmial

equal to the

sum of

the squares

terms, together with twice the product of each term by each of of the following terms.

Ex.

Expand (2x''-^x- 5)2.

of the terms are 4 x*, 9 x^, and 25. Twice the product of the first term by each of the following terms gives the results - 12 x^ and - 20 x^. Twice the product of the second term by the following term gives the

The squares

result 30 x.

Then,

(2 x^

-3 sc

5)2

= 4 x* + 9 + 25 - 12 jc^ - 20 ic^ = 4 x* - 12 aj3 _ 11 aj2 30 + 25.


a:^
_j. a;

-j.

30 x

EXERCISE 82
Square each of the following
1.
:

ab-{-c.
x + y-z.

10. 11.

ic^

4a^ 5 2/^

2.
3.

Q>a^

+ ab-Zb\

?i2_3^_i.

12.
13.

2a^-8a4-9.
6aj^-4a.V + 52/*.

4. 5.
6.
7.

^x + y + 2z.
l

+ Zx-4.0?.

14.

2a'"- 5a"- 1.

15.
16.
17. 18.

44-3m3 4-2m.
77i3_n2 +
2aj
'

a^b-c-d. a-6 + c + d a^ + a^^a-Z.


2a;3-4a;2-3a; + l.

8.

6.

9.

+ 32/ + 5.

3-2a + 4a2-5a^

188
10 19.

ALGEBRA
^ m+4 m
,

aft 20.

4 a^

ox

, 1

2 -.
oar

205. Cube

of a Binomial.

We find by

actual multiplication

(a + by = a' + 2ab + b^ a +6

a^^2d'b+ aW
o?b + 2ab^-\-b^ = a^ -{-^ o?b -\-^ ab^ -\-b^ {a-\-bf

That is, the cube of the sum of two numbers is equal to the cube of the first, plus three times the square of the first times the second, plus three times the first times the square of the second,
plus the cube of the second.

Again,

(a

by a^ 2ab + 6^ a -b
a^-2a'b-\-

aW

- a% + 2ab''-W = a'-3a'b + 3ab'-b^ {a-by


is, the cube of the difference of two numbers is equal to cube of the first, minus three times the square of the first times the second, plus three times the first times the square of the second, minus the cube of the second.

That

the

1.

Find the cube of a


(a +

+ 2 6.
ft*.

We have,

2b)^ = =

a^

+ 3a%2b)+ Sa(2by +(2by a^-\-6a^b + 12 ab^ + 8

2.

Find the cube of 2 a^ - 5 2/^


(2
a;8

y^y

= (2 x^)^ - 3(2 x3)2(5 y^) + 3(2 x^) (5 y2)2_ (5 ^2)8 = 8 ic9 - 60 x6?/2 + 150x32/4 -125^6.

The cube
if

of a trinomial

two of

its

may be found by the above method, terms be enclosed in parentheses; and regarded

as a single term.

INVOLUTION
3. (X2

189

Find the cube

oix^-2x-l.

- 2 X - 1)8 = [(X2 - 2 X) - 1]3 = (x2 - 2 x)3 - 3(x2 - 2 x)2 + 3(x2 _ 2 x) - 1 = x6 - 6 x5 + 12 x* - 8 x3 - 3(x* - 4 x3 + 4 x2) + 3(x2 - 2 x) -1 = x6 - 6 x5 + 12 X* - 8 x3 - 3 X* + 12 x3 - 12 x2 4- 3 x2 - 6 X - 1 = x6 - 6 x5 + 9 x* + 4 x3 - 9 x2 - 6 X - 1.
EXERCISE 83

Cube each
1.

of the following
7.

a'b-ab\
a + 3.
2x-{-y,

2. 3. 4.
5.
6.

a-5b.
6a^+l.

m4

71^.

190

ALGEBRA

XVI.

EVOLUTION

206. If an expression when raised to the nth. power, n being a positive integer, is equal to another expression, the first expression is said to be the nth Root of the second.

Thus,

if a"

= b,

is

the

nth. root of b.

Evolution
expression.

is

the process of finding any required root of an

207.

The

sion, indicates

Radical Sign, ^, when written before an expressome root of the expression.

Thus,

Va indicates the second, or square root of a; Va indicates the thircl, or cube root of a Va indicates the fourth root of a and so on.
;
;

The index

of a root

is

the

number written over the

radical

sign to indicate what root of the expression is taken. If no index is expressed, the index 2 is understood.

An
root

even root

is

is one whose index is an even number one whose index is an odd number.

an odd

EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS
208.

We will
is

now show how

to find

any root of a monomial,

which

a perfect power of the same degree as the index of

the required root.


1.

Required the cube root of a^6V.


(abH^y
206,

We have,
Then, by
2.

a%'^c^.

v/o^&V
fifth root of
(

ab^c\

Required the

-32a^
= - 32 a^.
=2
qj.

We have,
Whence,

2 a)^

y/

32 a^

EVOLUTION
3.

191

Required the fourth root of


have either

a*.

We

(+

)* or

( ay

equal to
a.

a*.

Whence,
,

Vc^ =

The sign called the double sign, is sion when we wish to indicate that it is
209.

prefixed to an expreseither -f- or

From

208,

we have

the following rule

Extract the required root of the absolute value of the numerical coefficient, and divide the exponent of each letter by the index of
the required root.

Give to every even root of a positive term the sign every odd root of any term the sign of the term itself.
1.

and
,

to

Find the square root of 9


the rule,

a'^ftV".

By
2.

VOa*^^ =

a:^b^<^.

Find the cube root of

64 x^y^.

The

resolving
3.

root of a large number may sometimes be found it into its prime factors.

by

Find the square root of 254016.


\/254016

We have,
4.

= VWxWxV' =23x32x7=

504.

Find the value of


y/n X 76 X

V72 X 75 X 135. 136 = \^(28 x 32) x (3 x 52) x (38 x 5) = V28x 36 X 53 = 2 X 32 X 5 = 90.


EXERCISE 84

Find the values of the following


1.

V36^.
V64a^263c.

4.

v'Sl

n%^y

7. 8.

-^U a'7i'\

2.
3.

5. 6.

V121

a^^^^c^

V-243

a)^2/''-

-sZ-xy^z"".

-\/-216afyz''.

9.

Vl69 x^y'

192
10.

ALGEBRA
^/'128 m^'n'K
13.

V2916.
V30625.

16.
17.
18.

11.
12.

V343 ic^+^^z"^.
^/625 a^'^b*^
19.

14.
15.

VSlx 64x324. V84x 54x126.


^5832.

V86436.
S3

Vl5 xy X

yzx 55 zx.
23.
24.

20. 21.
22.

-^21952.

^104976.
a/59049.

V627264.
-v/112

X 168 X

252.

25.

a/135 x 375 x 625.

26.

V(a2 _ 5 a + 6)(a^ + 2 a - 8)(a2 + a - 12).


of

210.

Any Root
from

a Fraction.

It follows

each of whose terms

is

203 that, to find any root of a fraction, a perfect power of the same degree as

the index of the required root, extract the required root of both numerator and denominator.

Ex.

3/

27a^b'

</ 27 a^b^

64

c^

-</64?

Sab\ 4 c^

'

EXERCISE 85 Find the values of the following:


.

/64^
49
2*

5/

32 g^
6'c^

V
\256iis

^
.
*

"

27 a
3/

125

6*

7/_128^
2/''

e/
'

g^^"*

"^729 6^*

211.
^a;.

We

have

V(o^ =

Va"'"

= g*" =
=
16

Eequired the value of


have,
v^(32 aio)*

V (32 a^y.
(2 a2)4
a^.

We
32

= ( ^32 aio)* =

This method of finding the root is shorter than raising g^" to the fourth power, and then taking the fifth root of

the result.

EVOLUTION
EXERCISE 86
Find the values of the following
:

193

SQUARE ROOT OF A POLYNOMIAL


212. In 112, we showed how to find the square root of a trinomial perfect square. The square roots of certain polynomials of the form.
a2

+ 62 + c2+2a6 + 2ac4-26c

can be found by inspection.

Ex.

Find the square root of


9 x^
-\-y^-\4.

z^-\-

6 xy

12 xz
:

4:

yz.

We
I

can write the expression as follows

(3a:)2

+ 2/2+(_2^)2 +

2(3ic)y

+ 2(3x)(-2^) +22/(-20).

204, this is the square of Sx -{- y Then, the square root of the expression

By

+(2 z).
is

3x +

z.

(The

result could also

have been obtained in the form 2z

y Sx.)

^<y.

EXERCISE 87

Find the square roots of the following:


1.

a'-{-b'-^c'-2ab-2aG + 2bc.
o(^

2.
3.

+ 4:y'-\-9 + 4:Xy + 6x-\-12y.

4. 5.

l+25m2 + 36n2-10m + 12n-60m7i. a2 + 8162 + l6 + 18a6-8a-72&.


9x^-{-y^-\-25z'-6xy-S0xz-{-10yz. 36 m^ + 64 n^ 4- ic^ + 96 mn 12 mx 16 nx,
16 a^

6.
7.

8.

25

a;

+ 49

+ 9 5^ + 81 c^ + 24 a^"" + 72 aV + 54 6V'. + 36 - 70 a^2/^ + 60 ^z" - 84 /^^


2/''
;^

194
213. Square Root
of

ALGEBRA
any Polynomial Perfect Square.

By

204, (a

+ & + c)2 = a- + 2 a6 + &' + 2 ac + 2 5c + c^ = a'-\-(2a + b)b + (2a-\-2b-{-c)c.


:

(1)

Then, if the square of a trinomial be arranged in order of powers of some letter


I.

The square
a.

root of the first term gives the first term of

the root,
II.

If

from

(1)

we
(2a

subtract

a^,

we have
..

+ 6)6 + (2a4-2& + c)c.


this,
first
b.

(2)
ah-, if this

The

first

term of

when expanded,
term of the

is

2 2

be
the

divided by twice the next term of the root,


III.

root,

a,

we have

If

from

(2)

we

subtract (2a

+ b) b,

we have
(3)

(2a

+ 2 6 + c)c.

The

first

term of

this,
first

divided by twice the term of the root, c.


IV.
If

when expanded, is 2ac; if this be term of the root, 2 a, we have the last

from

(3)

we

subtract (2a-\-2b

+ c)c,

there

is

no

remainder.
Similar considerations hold with respect to the square of a polynomial of any number of terms.

214. The, principles of 213 may be used to find the square root of a polynomial perfect square of any number of terms.

Let

it

be required to find the square root of

4:x'-j-12x^-7x'-24.x-\-16.
4:x'-\-12x^- 7a^-24a;
a'

+ 16

|2ar'+3a;-4

= 4.x'

EVOLUTION
The

195

first term of the root is the square root of 4 a^, or 2 x'^. Subtracting the square of 2 x^, 4 x*, from the given expression, the first remainder is 12x^-1 x:^ - 24 x + 16. Dividing the first term of this by twice the first term of the root, 4 aj^^

we have

the next term of the root, 3 x ( 213, II). this to 4 x^ gives 4 x^ + 3 x multiplying the result by 3 x, and subtracting the product, 12 x^ + 9 x-, from the first remainder, gives the

Adding

second remainder,
Dividing the

16 x^ 24 x + 16. term of this by twice the first term of the root, 4 x^, we have the last term of the root, - 4 ( 213, III). 4)( 4), or If from the second remainder we subtract (4x2 + 6x 16 x2 - 24 X + 16, there is no remainder then, 2 x^ + 3 x - 4 is the

first

required root ( 213, IV). 4 x2

The expressions 4 x^ and 4 x^ + 6 x are called + 3 X and 4 x^ + 6 x 4 complete divisors.

trial-divisors^

and

We

then have the following rule for extracting the square


:

root of a polynomial perfect square

the expression according to the powers of some letter. Extract the square root of the first term, write the result as the the given first term of the root, and subtract its square from

Arrange

expression, arranging the

remainder in

the

same order of powers

as the given expression.

Divide the first term of the remainder by twice the first term of
the root,

and add

the quotient to the

part of the root already found,

and
and

also to the trial-divisor.

Multiply the complete divisor by the term of the root last obtained, subtract the product from the remainder.

If other terms remain, proceed as before, doubling the part of


the root already

found for

the next trial-divisor.

215. Examples.
1.

Find the square root


9 x*

of 9

aj^

+ 30 aV + 25 a\
|

30 a3x2
30 a^^a 30 aH"^

4.

25 a^

3 x^

5 a

I
;

9x4 6x2 + 5a3

+ 25 a^

It is usual, in practice, to omit those terms, after the first, in each remainder, which are merely repetitions of the terms in the given expression thus, in the first remainder of Ex. 1, we leave out the term 26 a^.

196

ALGEBRA
work the
multiplier of the

It is also usual to leave out of the written

complete divisor.

f^'

2.

Find the square root of

Arranging according to the descending powers of


9 x6

x,
|

we have

12 x5

28 X*

22

a:3

+ 20 x2 -

8 X

3x^-2x2 + 4x-l

9x6

6x3-2x2

EVOLUTION
12.
13. 14.

197

- 16 rv^x" + 36 n^x^ - 40 n^x^ + 25 a^. 30 xy - 24 a^y - 31 xY + 25 + 16 /.


4
n''

4a;2

+ 20a; + 29 + 4-A+ 12i + 8a^-22a^ + 16a;6 + 4.


136^
46^ ,46^

15. 16.

a^-2a^-a^ + 6a^-3a2_4a4-4.
5a^-23a;4

17 17.

a.2

2a&

+^
,

9^
5n
~6"

+ 9^25
16'

18
19.

n^

_ w^ _ 41^
3"

"36"

9 a + 6 a^a; + 31 aV - 14 o?ci? 4- 17 aV - 40 aic 4- 16 x\

"

16 21

42/

202/'

5/25/
3a^
2
63

25

15a
6
a^^^

'4
44

41a^ 4 &2
6

a^

16

64*

22.

- 30 a'h + 4 a'^^ + 25 a^ - 16 ah' - 31 a*6^

SQUARE ROOT OF AN ARITHMETICAL NUMBER


216.

The square

root of 100

is

10

of 10000

is

100

etc.

Hence, the square root of a number between 1 and 100 is between 1 and 10; the square root of a number between 100

and 10000 is between 10 and 100; etc. That is, the integral part of the square root of an integer of one or two digits, contains one digit of an integer of three or four digits, contains two digits and so on.
;
;

Hence, if a point

he placed over every second digit of

an
the

integer,

heginning at the units' place, the of digits in the integral part of

numher ofpoints shows


its

numher

square root.

217. Square Root

of

any Integral Perfect Square.

The square root of an integral perfect square may be found in the same way as the square root of a polynomial.
Required the square root of 106929.

198

ALGEBRA
106929 300 + 20 + 7 = 90000 = a-\-b-\-c
-

a^ a

2a-{-b=

600

-h

20 20

16929 12400

2a+26 + c = 600 + 40 + 7

4529 4529

Pointing the number in accordance with the rule of 216, we find that there are three digits in its square root. Let a represent the hundreds' digit of the root, with two
ciphers annexed; b the tens' digit, with one cipher annexed; and c the units' digit.
less

Then, a must be the greatest multiple of 100 whose square than 106929 this we find to be 300.
;

is

is

Subtracting 16929.

a^,

or 90000,

from the given number, the result

a, or 600, we have the quotient which suggests that b equals 20. Adding this to 2 a, or 600, and multiplying the result by b, or 20, we have 12400 which, subtracted from 16929, leaves 4529.

Dividing this remainder by 2


;

28+

Since this remainder equals (2a can get c approximately by dividing

+ 2 6 + c)c ( 213, III), we it by 2 a + 2 &, or 600 + 40.


the quotient

Dividing 4529 by 640, suggests that c equals 7.

we have

7+; which

Adding this to 600 40, multiplying the result by 7, and subtracting the product, 4529, there is no remainder. 20 Then, 300 7, or 327, is the required square root.

218. Omitting the ciphers for the sake of brevity, and condensing the operation, we may arrange the work of the example of 217 as follows
:

106929 |_327
9

62

EVOLUTION
The numbers 600 and 640
are called trial-divisors,

199
and the numbers

620 and 647 are called complete divisors.

We

then have the following rule for finding the square root
:

of an integral perfect square

Separate the number into periods by pointiyig every second beginning with the units'' place.

digits

Find the greatest square in the left-hand period, and write its square root as the first digit of the root; subtract the square of the
first root-digit

from

the left-hand period,

and

to the result

annex

the next period.

Divide
of

this

remainder, omitting the

last digit,

by twice the part

the root already

found, and annex

the quotient to the root,

and

also to the trial-divisor.

Multiply the complete divisor by the root-digit last obtained, and


subtract the product from the remainder.

If other periods remain, proceed as before, doubling the part of


the root already

found for

the next trial-divisor.


that,

Note
by the

1.

It

sometimes happens

digit of the root last obtained, the

on multiplying a complete divisor product is greater than the


is

remainder.
less

In such a case, the digit of the root last obtained must be substituted for it.

too great,

and one

Note 2. If any root-digit is 0, annex to the trial-divisor, and annex to the remainder the next period. (See the illustrative example of 220.)
219. Ex.

Find the square root of 4624.


4624 L68 36
128

1024 1024

The greatest square in the left-hand period Then the first digit of the root is 6.
Subtracting
this
6^,

is 36.

or 36, from the left-hand period, the result

is

10

to

we annex

the next period, 24.

part of the root already found, or 12, the quotient the root, and also to the trial-divisor.

Dividing this remainder, omitting the last digit, or 102, by twice the is 8 ; this we annex to

200

ALGEBRA
8,

Multiplying the complete divisor, 128, by from the remainder, there is no remainder. Then, 68 is the required square root.

and subtracting the product

220.

We

will
is

now show how


not integral.

to find the square root of a

number which
Ex.

Find the square root of 49.449024.

EVOLUTION
4.
5.

201
12.

8427.24.
.165649.
.133225.

8.

7974.49.

.30316036.

9.

.00459684.

13.

39.375625.

6.
7.

10. 11.

22014864.
1488.4164.

14.
15.

.000064272289.
889060.41.

54.4644.

221. Approximate Square Roots.

number has no exact square the operation by annexing periods root but we may continue of ciphers, and obtain an approximate root, correct to any desired
If there is a final remainder, the
;

number
Ex.

of decimal places.

Find the square root of 12 to four decimal


12.00000000
.3.4641

places.

9 64

202
Find the
13. 14.
|. first

ALGEBRA
four figures of the square root of
If.
i.
:

15. 16.

17.

f.

19.

if.

21.

If

|.

18.

|.

20.

a.

22. i|.

CUBE ROOT OF A POLYNOMIAL


223. The cube roots of certain polynomials of the form
a^

+ Sa'b + Sab^ + b^
of 8 a^

can be found by inspection.

Ex.

Find the cube root

- 36 w'b^ + 54 a&* - 27 b\
:

We can write the


By

expression as follows
(2 a)2(3 62)

-3 (2 ay

205, this is the cube of 2 a Then, the cube root of the expression

+ 3 (2 a) (3 - 3 &2.
is

&2)2

_ (3 5238.

2 a

3 52.

EXERCISE Find the cube roots


1.

91

of the following

a^-{-6a^

+ 12a-\-S.

2.
3.

l-9m-^27m'-27m^
647i3-48n2 + 12n-l.
125ix^-j-75x'y
a

4.
5. 6.
7.

+ 15xy^ + f.
59.

125 m + 150 m^n

+ 18 a^6^ + 108 a^^^H- 216 + 60 mn^ + 8 n^


a^ft^c

27 a^ft^- 108

4.

144 a&c^- 64 c^.

8.

m-21mV + 147mV-343a;i2
of

224. Cube Root

any Polynomial Perfect Cube.

By205, (a + 6 + c) = [(a + 6) + c] = (a + 6)3 + 3(a + 6)2c + 3(a + 6)c2 + c3 = a^ + 3 a'b + 3 ab'' + b^ + 3(a + byc-\-3(a -\-b)c^ -[-(^ = a3 4- (3 a2 + 3 a& + b^)b + [3(a + bf + 3(a + &)c +

c'^Jc.

(1)

EVOLUTION
Then,
if

203

the cube of a trinomial be arranged in order of


letter
:

powers of
I.

some

The cube
root, a.

root of the first term gives the first term of the

cube
II.

If

from

(1)

we

subtract

a^,

we have
-f- c''\c.

(3 a^

+ 3 a6 + b')b + [3(a 4- bf + 3(a + b)c


term of
this,

(2)

The

first

when expanded,

is

3 a^b

if

this be

divided by three times the square of the first term of the root, 3 a^, we have the next term of the root, b.
III.

If

from

(2)

we

subtract (3 a^

+ 3 ab + b^b^ we have
(3)
is

[3(a

+ 6)2 + 3(a + b)c + c']c.


when expanded,
3a^c;
if this

The

first

term of

this,

be

divided by three times the square of the 3 a^, we have the last term of the root, c.

first

term of the

root,

IV. If
there
is

from (3) we subtract [S(a + bf + S(a + no remainder.

b)c

c'']c,

Similar considerations hold with respect to the cube of polynomial of any number of terms.

225. The principles of 224 may be used to find the cube root of a polynomial perfect cube of any number of terms.

Let

it

be required to find the cube root of


a;

y
.^.

'

+ 6ar^ + 3a;*-28a^-9x2 + 54a;-27.


a^

^C

x8+6a;H 3x*-28x3-9x2+54ic-27

= x^

204
Dividing the
first

ALGEBRA
root, 3

term of this by three times the square of the first we have the next term of the root, 2 x ( 224, II). Now, Sab + h^ equals 3 x ^2 x 2 x + (2 x)2, or 6 x^ + 4 x^. Adding this to 3 x*, multiplying the result by 2 x, and subtracting the product, 6 x^ + 12 X* + 8 x^, from the first remainder, gives the second
term of the
a;*,

remainder,

- 9 x* - 36 x^ - 9 x2 + 54 x - 27
first

( 224, III).
first

Dividing the

term of the

root,

term of this by three times the square of the 3x2, we have the last term of the root, 3.

Now, 3(a+&)2 equals 3(x2 + 2x)2, or 3 x* + 12x3+ 12x2; 3(a equals 3(x2 + 2 x) ( - 3), or - 9 x2 - 18 x and d^ = 9. Adding these results, we have 3 x* + 12 x^ + 3 x2 18 x + 9.
;

+ 6)c

9 X* 36 x^ 9
is

Subtracting from the second remainder the product of this by 3, or 27, there is no remainder then, x2 + 2 x 3 x'-^ + 54 X the required root ( 224, IV).
;

The expressions 3 x* and 3 x* + 12 x^ + 12 x2 are called trial-divisors, and the expressions 3 x* + 6 x^ + 4 x2 and 3 x* + 12 x^ + 3 x^ - 18 x + 9
complete divisors.

We then have the

following rule for finding the cube root of


:

a polynomial perfect cube

powers of some letter. Extract the cube root of the first term, write the result as the first term of the root, and subtract its cube from the given expression; arranging the remainder in the same order of powers
Arrange, the expression according to the
as the given expression.

of the first term of the


of the
root.

Divide the first term of the remainder by three times the square root, and write the result as the next term

Add

to the trial-divisor three

times the product of the term of

the root last obtained by the part of the root previously found,
the square of the term of the root last obtained.

and

obtained,

Multiply the complete divisor by the term of the root last and subtract the product from the remainder.

the square
divisor.

If other terms remain, proceed as before, taking three times of the part of the root already found for the next trial-

226. Examples.
1.

Find the cube root oiSx^- 36 x'^y + 54 xy - 27 f.

EVOLUTION
Sx^-S6x^y +
8 x^ 12 X*
54 x^y^

205

- 27 y^ 2x^-Sy
\

18

x'^y

?/2

ii6

x^y

3e> a:4y

54

a;V

- 27 y^

It is usual, in practice, to omit those terms, after the first, in each remainder, which are merely repetitions of the terms in the given expression and also to leave out of the written work the multiplier of the com;

plete divisor.
2.

Find the cube root of 40 a^ - 6 ar' - 64

+ - 96
x,

a;.

Arranging according to the descending powers of

we have

206

ALGEBRA
CUBE ROOT OF AN ARITHMETICAL NUMBER

227. The cube root of 1000 is 10; of 1000000 is 100; etc. Hence, the cube root of a number between 1 and 1000

is

between 1 and 10; the cube- root of a number between 1000 and 1000000 is between 10 and 100 etc. That is, the integral part of the cube root of an integer of one, two, or three digits, contains one digit of an integer of and so on. four, five, or six digits, contains two digits
; ; ;

Hence, if a point he placed over every third digit of an integer, heginiiing at the units' place, the number ofpoints shows the number of digits in the integral part of its cube root.
228. Cube Root
of

any Integral Perfect Cube.

The cube
the same

root of an integral perfect cube may be found in way as the cube root of a polynomial.

Required the cube root of 12487168.


12487168 200 + 30 + 2 = 8000000 = a + 6 + c

as

EVOLUTION

207

kp
is

Subtracting 4487168.

a^,

or 8000000,

from the given number, the result

Dividing this by 3 a^, or 120000, we have the quotient 37+ which suggests that b equals 30. Adding to the divisor 120000, 3 ab, or 18000, and b% or 900, we have 138900. Multiplying this by b, or 30, and subtracting the product 4167000 from 4487168, we have 320168. Since this remainder equals [3(a + 6)^ + 3(a4-6)c4-c^]c
;

( 224, III), we can get c approximately by dividing it by 3(a + by, or 158700. Dividing 320168 by 158700, the quotient is 2+ which sug;

gests that c equals 2. Adding to the divisor 158700,


4,

3(a

+ b)c,
2,

we have 160084
Then, 200

multiplying this
is

product, 320168, there

by no remainder.

or 1380, and c", or and subtracting the

+ 30 + 2,

or 232, is the required cube root.

229. Omitting the ciphers for the sake of brevity, and condensing the process, the work of the example of 228 will stand as follows
:

12487168 8 1200

1^

208

ALGEBRA

Find the greatest cube in the left-hand 2)eriod, and write its cube root as the first digit of the root; subtract the cube of the first rootdigit

from

the left-hand period,

and

to the result

annex

the next

period.

Divide

this

remainder by three times


root.

the square

of the part of

the root already

found, quotient as the next digit of the

tvith ttvo ciphers

annexed, and write the

Add

to the trial-divisor three times the

digit by the

product of the last rootpart of the root previously found, ivith one cipher
last root-digit.

annexed, and the square of the

Multiply the complete divisor by the digit of the root last obtained, and subtract the product from the remainder.
the square

If other periods remain, proceed as before, taking three times of the part of the root already found, with two ciphers

annexed, for the next trial-divisor.

Note Note
divisor,

1.

Note
If

1,

218, applies with equal force to the above rule.


to the trial-

any root-figure is 0, annex two ciphers and annex to the remainder the next period.
2.

230. In the example of

228, the first complete divisor is


(1)

3a2-|-3a6H-6l

The next
This

trial-divisor is 3{a-{- by, or 3 a^

+ 6 a6 + 3 61
it

may
is,

be obtained from
its

(1)

by adding to

its

second

term, and double

third term.

That
required

if the first

number and

the double

of the second number


to the

to

complete any

trial-divisor be

added

complete

divisor, the result, with two ciphers annexed, will give the next
trial-divisor.

This rule saves


231. Ex.

much

labor in forming the trial-divisors.

Find the cube root of 157464.


157464 [54
125

7500

EVOLUTION
232.

209
cube root of a

We

will
is

now show how


not integral.

to find the

number which
Ex.

Find the cube root of 8144.865728.


v^8144. 865728

We have,

8 144865728 ^^ 1000000

^
|

V8144865728

^1000000
2012

8144865728
8

120000

144865

600
1

120601

120601

600
2

24264728

12120300
12060
4

12132364
Since 1200

24264728

in the

as the second root-digit, is not contained in 144, we write above example we then annex two ciphers to the trial-divisor (Note 1, 229.) 1200, and annex to the remainder the next period, 865. The second trial-divisor is formed by the rule of 230.
;

Adding

to the complete divisor 120601 the first

number, 600, and twice

the second number, 2, required to complete the trial-divisor 120000, have 121203 annexing two ciphers to this, the result is 12120300.
;

we

Then, v'8144.865728

^
600
1

= 20. 12.
as follows
:

The work may be arranged

8144.865728

20.12

120000

120601

210
It follows

ALGEBRA
from the above
that, if

a point he placed over every

third digit of miy number, beginning with the units'* place, ayid extending in either direction, the rule of 229 may be applied to
the result, the root.

and

the decimal point inserted in its

proper position in

EXERCISE 93
Find the cube roots of the following
1.
:

54872.

6.

2.
3.

262144.
103.823.
.884736.

4.
5.

.000493039.

16. 17.

4. 9.

or

233. If the index of the required root is the product of two more numbers, we may obtain the result by successive ea>-

tractions of the simpler roots.

For by

206,

v^)-" = a.
members,
(1)
(1),

Taking the nth root

of both

(VS)"=-e^.
Taking the mth root of both members of

Hence, the mnth root of an expression is equal to the mth root of the nth root of the expression. Thus, to find the fourth root of an expression, we find the
square root of its square root to find the sixth root, the cube root of the square root, etc.
;

we

find

EVOLUTION
EXERCISE 94
Eind the fourth roots of the following
1.
2.
:

211

a'

-16 a%' + 96 a'b' - 256 a'b' + 256 b"^.

81 a'

- 108
a;

a'

-\-

162

a'

- 120 a' + 91 a* - 40 a^+lS a'-4. a

+ 1.
3.

16

+ 32 - 72 a^ - 136 a^ + 145 a;^+204 ar^-162 oj^-lOS x'

81a^.
4.

.011156640625.

Find the sixth roots of the following


5. 6. 7.

+ 240aj + 160a^ + 60a;^ + 12a;2 + la - 18 a^ + 135 a' - 540 a' + 1215 a' - 1458 a + 729.
64a;i2_^192a;io

34296.447249.

234.
Also,

By 206,

{\/aby

= ab.

(Va X Vby = ( Va)" X ( V6)" = ab.


(-v/a6)

Then,

Whence,

= v^ x a/&)". Voft = -v/a x "Vb.


(

212

ALGEBRA

XVII.

THEORY OF EXPONENTS

235. In the preceding portions of the work, an exponent has been considered only as a positive integer.

Thus,

if

m is

a positive integer,

a*^

=aX

a X aX

to

m factors.

( 11)

The following

results have been proved to hold for any-

positive integral values of


a*"

m
a"

and n

= "*+" ( 56). = a"*" ( 93). (a'^y


X

(1)
(2)

236. It

is

necessary to employ exponents which are not


;

and we now proceed to define them, positive integers the rules for their use. prove
will be convenient to

and

In determining what meanings to assign to the new forms, it have them such that the above law for multiplication shall hold with respect to them. We shall therefore assume equation (1), 235, to hold for all values of m and n, and find what meanings must be attached
in consequence to fractional^ negative,

and

zero exponents.

237. Meaning of a Fractional Exponent.

Let

it

be required to find the meaning of a^.

If (1), 235, is to hold for all values of 5 5 5 5,5,5

m and n,
_

a^

Xa^ xa^ = a^^^ = a\


a^.

Then, the third power of a^ equals Hence, a^ must be the cube root of

a^,

or a^

= -\/a^.
p
a^,

We
Let

will
it

now

consider the general case.

be required to find the meaning of

where p and q

are any positive integers.

THEORY OF EXPONENTS
If (1), 235,
>'

213
n,

is

to hold for all values of

and

i-

a'

'

X
p

a'

to q factors

= a*

^+^+^+... to? terms


' *

^X? = a* = a^

Then, the gth power of a* equals


Hence, a' must be the gth root of
.

a^.

p
a^,

or a*

= Va^.

Hence,

a fractional exponent,
root.

the

numerator denotes a

power, and the denominator a

For example, a^

= -\/a^

b^

= V&^

x^

= -y/x

etc.

EXERCISE 95
Express the following with radical signs
1.
:

aK
ic^.

3.

7mK
5x\

5.

ahK
icV'"-

7.

8aW.
lOn'a;'^^.

9.

x^yk^.
2a^b^c'^.

2.

4.

6.

8.

10.

Express the following with fractional exponents


11.
12.

^'.
^a.
19.

13.
14.

Vt^'.

15.

3</F.

17.
18.

9Vm^^.

^n\

16.

4^/.

^^^/.

i^a-y/'.

20.

-J/^V?^a/^'.

^^^
iyv>^f

.238. Meaning of a Zero Exponent.


-l^^

(^)^

2^^>

is

^^ ^ol^ ^o^ ^^^ values of


a"*

m
=

and

w,
''-

we have

a^

= a'"+" = a. = = 1.
a"*

Yf

Whence,

We

must then

define a^ as being equal to 1.


of a

239. Meaning
'jet it

Negative Exponent,
a~^.

be required to find the meaning of If (1), 235, is to hold for all values of
a-'

and

n,

a^

a-^+^

= = 1

( 238).

214

ALGEBRA
,-3

Whence,

now consider the general case. be required to find the meaning of a~% where s represents a positive integer or a positive fraction. and n, If (1), 235, is to hold for all values of
will
it

We

Let

a-'

a'

= a-*+' = a = 1
a~'

( 238).

Whence,

=
by
a*.

We

must then define

a~' as being equal to 1 divided

For example, a-2 =


240. It follows from

a~^

^x-^y~^

--,

etc.

239 that

Any
to

the

factor of the numerator of a fraction may be transferred denominator, or any factor of the denominator to the
its

numerator, if the sign of

exponent he changed.

Thus,

^^_V_^^^^^^ ^^_
EXERCISE 96
:

Express with positive exponents


1.

THEORY OF EXPONENTS
17
^"^

215
on

iQ

2m^
j^Q

7 ah-^

9w-V]^^

Transfer all literal factors from the numerators to the denominators in the following:
21

^^
^.

23

^~^^^~^

25

^ a~^6^

07

9 m-^n~^

22.

24.

^.

26.

^.

28.

A^^.

obtained the definitions of fractional, zero, and negative exponents by supposing equation (1), 235, to hold for such exponents.

241.

We

Then, for any values of

and

n,

a'^xa''

= ar+\

(1)

of this result for positive or negative, integral or and n will be found in 445. fractional, values of

The formal proof

1.

Find the value of


a^

a^

a~^.

We have,
2.

x a~^

= a^-s q-s^

Find the value of a x Va^


237,
a x\/a^

By
3.

a X a^

= a^+^ = a^.

Multiply a

+ 2 a*- 3 a^

by 2

- 4 a"^ - 6 a"^.

2-4 a~^-6 a'^


2a

+ 4 a^ _ ^_ 4 l

6 a3

8 a^ + 12 - 6a^ -12 +

IS

a^

2 a
It

20 a^

+
>

18 a ^

must be
power
of

carefully observed, in examples like the above, that the

zero

any number equals

( 238).

216

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 97

Multiply the following


1.

a^

by

a^.

4.

by n-\

7.

a;"*

by 7 x\
-l^^.
a^.

2.
3.

x-^
a^

by x-l
a~^.

5. 6.

3 a-' by a'l

8. 9.

x-'

by

by

m
.

by 4

^'.

\^

by

/^
\j
10.

m^ by

A.
^

13.
y 14.

3x-V'

by
4x-iy^

11.
12. 16. 17. 18. 19.

SVF^by </^^
6 a26 by a-^^"^.
a;^

'i

a-"^*^ by a-Va;*.

15.

, ^

Hi

"by

3 m~'n^

2 a;3^^ + 4 2/^

by x^-\-2y^.

2n-^-5-6ri^ by 3n-?-4.

20.

^^

21.

22.

23.
24.

+ 10a-2 + 25 by 2a-2-5. a^ - ah^ + &^ by + ah^ + 6^ a;"^ a;~%^ + 2 ic"^2/^ by x~^y^ x~^y^ -\-2y. - 4 a"^^-^ - 3 &-. orh'' + 4 a-i + 3 a~?6-3 by a~^ a;^-4a;^-5 + 6x-Hy 2x-^ + a;-t-3aj-l a"^ - 2 a-i^-i + 3 a^n-'' by 2 a-^n-^ + 4 a'^Ti-^ - 6 n-^. 2 a^a;^ a^x 5 a^a;^ by 4 a~%"^ + 2 a-'^x~^ + 10 a"i
4a-''
a^'

242.

To prove
240,

=
a

oJ^-""

for

all

values of

m and n.

By
and

^ = a- X a-" = a^-% by
where
given in 70.

(1),

241.

The proof

of this result in the case

m > n,

m and n are positive integers,


<

is

1.

Find the value of

a-2

We have,

= oi+2^ai

THEORY OF EXPONENTS
2.

217

Find the value of

Vd'

^
3.

.2

-JLZ

.1

Divide 18 xy-""- 23

+ x~Hj + 6 a;-y
by 3
x^y~'^
1

+ cc^ 2
_1

a;~^2/.

18 18

xy-"^ a;y-2

-2Z +

^2/

+
12

x-i?/2

6 x^y-i

6 x??/-i

-2a; ^-3a; ^y

-6ccV^-ll+ x^?/ + 6x-V - 6 x^w-i 2 + 4 X ^i 9 - 3 X ^y + 6 X- V


9-3x"
6
x-12/2

It is important to arrange the dividend, divisor, and each remainder in the same order of powers of some common letter.

EXERCISE 98
Divide the following
1.
:

x^

hj

x^.

4.

by Vwi.
^

7.
8.

V^^ by -yF"^
S-y/mT'

2.

a^ by a\

5.

a-3

by .

by 2 m'^.

'^a^ 6.
a;^

3.

n by n~K
aj"2 2 a;"' 8

x^ by x~^.

9.

9a-%-Hy3a'b-l

10. 11. 13.

by x~^

4:X^.
12.
7?.-

a-i-&-i by a-^-5-l
7

af-1 by

a;^

+ l.

+ 71-^

by

71^

+3+

^14. a~^
ul5.
16.

17.

+ 4a-^-2a-^-12a-^4-9 by a-* + 2a~^-3 8 m^ + 12 m^w^ + 6 7n^n^ -^-n^ by 2 m^ + ni x^y-^^-llx'y-^ + 1 by a^V' + 3 orV' - a^2/"'. a-J + 2 a-^6-2 + 9 1)-' by a-^ + 2 a-'fe-^ + 3 a-^&-2.

218
18. 19.

ALGEBKA
4a

V^ - 17 a^x" + 16 a'^oif
10 m^7i^ + m~*n
now show how
will

by 2 a^
by 3 m-?i^

a^

- 4 a~^^
-f-

9 m^n~^

4 mri^

m%.

243.
for

We

to prove equation (2), 235,

any values of

and

n.

We
any
I.

will consider three cases, in each of which may value, positive or negative, integral or fractional.

have

Let

71

The proof given


Let w

be a positive integer. in 93 holds if n

is

a positive integer, what-

ever the value of m.


II.

=
If)

where p and q are positive

integers.

Then, by the definition of


(pj-y

237,

III.

= -V(oFy = -VaFp ( 243, I) = a^. where s is a positive number. Let n =


s,

Then, by the definition of


(a-)-

239,

= -1- = i

( 243, I or II)

= a""".

Therefore, the result holds for


1.

all

values of

m and n.

Find the value of

(a^)-^
(a2)-5

We have,
2.

a2x-5

= ^-lo,

Find the value of

(a-^)"^.

(a-3)-*
3.

a"^^-^

= a.

Find the value of (Va)l

EXERCISE 99
Find the values of the following
1.
:

(a^)-".

2.

(x-y.

3.

(x^)i

4.

(a-'yK

THEORY OF EXPONENTS
5.

219

(m-^y.

8.

(a^)-^^.

11.

(^O"'-

14.

,^\'

6.(nl)-.
7.

M^')*.
"
V^;'

12.

(^.

i5.[(ti)irl.
16.

(a-ri
244.

13. (^'')'".

(a'^-'r';

The value

of a numerical expression affected with a

fractional exponent may be found by first, if possible, extracting the root indicated by the denominator, and then raising the
result to the

power indicated by the numerator.

Ex.

Eind the value of (-8)i


(8)^

By

243,

[(- 8)^]2

(^/38)2
100
:

= (_ 2)2 = 4.

EXERCISE
Find the values of the following
1.

27l
lel

5. 6.
7. 8.

SrK
(-32)1
36-1

9.

256-4.

13.
14.

243-^

2.
3.

10.

(-512)-^.

(-128)1
729-^
.

64l
64l

11.
12.

9k

^^

15. 16.

4.

(-216)1

(-S)"^.

512i

245.

We

will

now show how

to prove the result

for

any fractional or negative value of


of this result in the case
in 94.

n.

The proof
integer,
I.

where n

is

any positive

was given

Let n

^,

where p and q are any positive

integers.

By

243,

l(ahyj = (ahy = a^b'

( 94).

(1)

By

94,

(ahly = (a^y(b^y = a^bK


and
(2),

(2)

From

(1)

[(abyj = (a'b^y.

220
Taking the gth root of

ALGEBRA
botli

members, we have

II.

Let

7i

s,

where

s is

any positive integer or positive


94, or 245, I)

fraction.

Then, (a6)-

= -1- = J-(
(aby
a^b^

= a-6-

EXERCISE
Find the values of the following
1.
:

101

(ah-y.
(m-^n^)-^

3.

(x-^y^)i
(a^a?^)"*-

5. 6.

(n-V^)"".

2.

4.

(^\/6^.

^"miscellaneous examples
exercise
102

Square the following by the rule of


'

97

1.

3a^ + 4 6"l
Square a^b~^

2.

5m-V-8m2n-*.
rule of 204.

3.

-2a^ - ar'^b^

by the

4.

Expand

(4:

x^y'^ -^ 7 z-^) (A x^y~^

- 7 z-^)

by the rule of

98.

Find the value of


^

5.

25a--49m^ ^ ~y by 5 a~^ 7 m?
8
a.-2

.t.

the rule of

101.

...

+ 27 ?r^

2
7 '

a;*

+3 2/"^
a?-"
_

_^,

-,

a;
-;;

z^'

8.

a^_5-|
J,

by the rule of

103.

9.

(Sx^-Ay-fy.

10.

(a-2^)3_j_ 2^36-2)3.

THEORY OF EXPONENTS
Find the square roots
11.

221

of the following
12.

16a-^mK

A9 x^yz'i

13.

^?

14.

9x^-6xi-{-25-Sx-^ + 16x-\

1^15. 4a-^ + 20a-5


t-16.

+ 21a-^-10a-^ + l. aV3-6aV2 + 5 6-i + 12a"* + 4a-^6.


:

Find the cube roots of the following


17.

8a^r'-

18.

-64.a-'bh-i.

19.

?1^^!l^, ^
x^y

20.

27x^-\-54.xiy~^-\-36x^y~^-\-Sy-^.
x^

21.

-6

x^^

-^21 x-i -Ux'^^

+ 63 x~^ -54:X~^ + 27 x~^.


all

Simplify the following, expressing


:

the results with posi'

tive exponents

25.

(^^xo^^O^.

31.

^
y^m+\

2wi

/y^2m\

mn
32.

+ ^ _a^ + &\ a-6 a^ + b^


"^

l^j
w 1 n 1

a^

+ 6^
I

-^

+ 6-^

n+l

27.

(a"-^--a^)"2^.
33.

Sm

^:^i+^!::i

30

^^

+ y^

^-\-y

35

g^

+ 2 6^

7 a^6^

+ 6 &^

222

ALGEBRA

(k,

^^^A^

'

XVIII.

SURDS

/)

246.

A
is

which

Surd is the indicated root of a number, or expression, not a perfect power of the degree denoted by the index
;

of the radical sign


/v.oJb>wX.

as
is

V2, V5,

or -\/x

+ y,
when
it is

247.

monomial

said to be rational

rational

or else a fraction ^^^^j^^ ^^and integral ( 63),


,

whose terms are rational

ijult ^"d
c tA..'-'

integral.

w^wT

polynomial

is

said to be rational

when each

of its terms is

rational.

An expression
as 2

is

said to be irrational

when

it

involves surds

a positive or negative integer, or a positive or negative fraction. An irrational number is a numerical expression involving surds as 3, or 2 + V5.
;

+ V3, or Va + 1 Va. 248. A rational number is

249. If a surd
of the surd,

is

in the

form bVa,

b is called the coefficient

and

7i

the index.
is

250.
is

The

degree of a surd

denoted by

its

index

thus,

V5

a surd of the third degree. quadratic surd is a surd of the second degree.

REDUCTION OF A SURD TO
'{

ITS

SIMPLEST FORM
form when the

251.

surd

is

said to be in its simplest

expression imder the radical sign is rational and integral ( 63), is not a perfect power of the degree denoted by any
factor of the index of the surd, and has no factor perfect power of the same degree as the surd.

which

is

252. Case

I.

When

the expression

under

the radical sign is

a perfect power of
Ex.

the degree denoted by

a factor of

the index.

Reduce
have,

V8
\/8

to its simplest form.

We

\/2^

=2

'^

( 237)

= 2^ = \/2.

SURDS
^^XERCISE
Keduce the following
1.

223
103

to their simplest
9.

forms

</25.
a/16. \/i2i.

5.

a/49.

a/243.

13.
14.

a/216 aV.

2.

6.
7.

^8l.
a/64.

10.
11. 12.

^^343.

a/64^^.
Vs^^^'.
a/625 a^^y.

3.
4.

a/144 a^y.
-\/27

15.
16.

a/125.

8.

^81.

nV.
under

253. Case
rational

II.

When

the expression

the radical sign is


is

of the
1.

and integral, and has a factor which same degree as the surd.
to its simplest form.

a perfect power

Eeduce a/54
\/64

We have,
2.

= ^27 x2 =

v^ X \/2

( 234)

= 3^2,
simplest form.

Reduce a/3 a^b

12 a^b^ + 12 ab^ to its

V3 a3& - 12 a262 + 12 a^^ = v (a2 _ 4 a6 + 4 6^)3 a6

= Va2-4a6 + 462V3^ = (_26)V3^.

We then have
the second

the following rule

Resolve the expression under the radical sign into two factors, of which contains no factor which is a perfect power of

the

same degree as

the surd.

Extract the required root of the first factor, and multiply the
result by the indicated root

of the second.

If the expression

factor

under the radical sign has a numerical which cannot be readily factored by inspection, it is
it

convenient to resolve
3.

into its prime factors.

Keduce a/1944
v'lQii

to its simplest form.


35

= V2^

= v/28 X 38 x\/32 = 2x3xv/9 = 6v^.


to its simplest form.
72

4.

Reduce a/125 x 147


X 147

\/l25

= V63,x

72

= V52 x

x y/bx^ =

5x1

X ViS

=;

35 VI6.

224
t/

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
104

Eeduce the following


1.

to their simplest

forms

V90. V72.
V96.

5.

-\/56.

a^l9^.
a/432.
a/256.

13.

V242 afy^.

2. 3.

^6.
7.

tVW. ^Vo.
'

14. 15.

-VMO^W.
^162mh^'.

9^81.
a/48.

11.

4.

V75.

8.

12.

V500
19.

a'bl

16.

A/i60^^.
2/').

17. 18.

V75 a^/ - 100 xYa/128 a^63_|_320 a^b\


21.

V(3a;

+ 2?/)(9ar2-4

20.
a^b -^

V3a-24a2+48a.
50 ab\

-VIS

60

a^b^ i-

N
23.
24.
'896.

22.

V(2 x'-\-x- 15)(2 a^ - 19 a; + 35).


26. 27.
28.

V98X196.
V432x504.
-v^l372.

29.
30.

\/7875.

V2268. V5145.
32.

a/375 X 405.

25.

^31. a/54x 63x336.

a/63 xy'

x 175 2/2' x 875 zx".

When the expression under the radical sign a fraction. In this case, we multiply both terms of the fraction by such an expression as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same degree as the surd, and then proceed as in 253.
254. Case III.
is

Ex.

Reduce \/-

^8a^

to its simplest form.

Multiplying both terms of the fraction by 2

a,

we have

8^3=/i||r=Vi^^=Vi^, X
EXERCISE
Reduce the following
1.

^
:

=i^.v^-

105

to their simplest
3.

forms

V|.

2.

Vf.

a/^-

4.

^^.

5.

Vf|.

SURDS
23
*

225

^7. ^.^-^^^
3/T

12-

A'32a^*
</\'-'

25 6
20.

13.

VJ.
</^-.

,.

^/llaV

*:

14.

^20W'

x^-5^.
^^^2/V

a;3

22.

/3

or^

x^ 5 x-\-6

_ 18 + 27
a;

a^

255. To Introduce the Coefficient


Sign.

of a

Surd under the Radical

The
Ex.
^^^^'

coefficient

of

a surd
it

may

radical sign

by raising

to the

be introduced under the power denoted by the index.

Introduce the coefficient of 2-\/3 under the radical

2^3 =

X v/3

^5^81^3 ( 234)

= \/24.

of

247) may be expressed in the form of a surd any degree by raising it to the power denoted by the index, and writing the result under the corresponding radical sign.

A rational expression (

A
signs
1.
:

EXERCISE

106

Introduce the coefficients

O^B^following under the


^^JP"^
5.

radical

3V7.
6^6.
10

3.

4^/5.
5-V/7.

4^5. 2v8.

7.

2^/3.

2.

4.

6.

8.

9xV2^.

9.

a'bWe^,
!*

10.
11.

6xy'''s/4^^.

(2 + l)V4i=-i-

5an^^/2a^n. 5an^^/2^r

12.
13.

Sa'b'Vs^'.
(a

+ + "" + l>'a2-4a + 3
/

a-1

g^

3 a

-6)^-^.

16.

^,_2^;2-^--^^.

226

ALGEBRA
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF SURDS

differ

256. Similar Surds are surds which do not differ at only in their coefficients as 2 Vaa.*^ and 3 Vic^;

all,

or

Dissimilar Surds are surds

which are not

similar.

257. To add or subtract similar surds


tract their coefficients,

and multiply the

( 256), add or subresult by their common

surd part.
1.

Required the sum of

V20 and ViS.


form
( 253),

Reducing each surd

to its simplest

V^ + V45 = VT^^ + V9^ = 2 \/5 + 3 V5 = 5 Vs.


2.

Simplify

VJ + V|-V|.

= lV2+lV6_V^ = lV6-lV2.
2

We then have
Add

the following rule


to its simplest

Reduce each surd

form.

or subtract the similar

S2irds,
'

and

indicate the addition or

subtraction of the dissimilar.

EXERCISE
Simplify the following
:

107

^1.
2.
7.

3. V300-VI47. 5. -2/135-^40. V8+V32. V28-V63. 4. a/2 + -^128. 6. ^S0-h</iO5, 8. V250 - V90 - Vm. V3+V192-V243.

9.

12.

lAO. V| + V^ V99-V275 4-V396.


-v/56

V^ + Vf.
14. 15.

^1-^^. VS-V-^ + VVvll.

Vl3.
16.

4-^i89-f-^162.

V||+V||-V-^.

V72^-a;V98^4-a;V200^.

SURDS
17.
1-18.

227

a V80

+ ab V270 a'b' + b' V640 a'b. V27^M^36^ + V48aj/ + 642/.


a'b'

21.

v/128

22.

^23.
24.

+ ^250-^432-^88. V50 a' + V72 6^ _ V50 a^ + 120 a& + 72 b\ ^96 + ^486-^^6.

^25.
26. 28.

V294-V2I6+V405-V600. V52^2_^^]j7^_yj26a^ + aV56a^.


27. V|f-VS-V| + V?. VI + VI-VS-VS. V50a; + 40a;2^_8^_y32^_48a^_l_18a,. Vl25a^-150a;2/ + 452/2 + V5a;2^_g()^2/ + 180/.

y 29.

^30.

(^

+ ,)J^+(a.-2/)V^-^(|^^^ x^ ^x
y
^x-\-y
y^

TO REDUCE SURDS OF DIFFERENT DEGREES TO EQUIVALENT SURDS OF THE SAME DEGREE


258. Ex.

Reduce V2, ^3, and -^h to equivalent surds of

the same degree.

By

237,

V2 = 2^ = 2t% = v^2^ ^ '^64.

^ = 33=3t\=^^3J = ^ = = = ^^P =
5?

^^8T.
^^/l25.-

5T2

We then have the


Express
their
the

following rule

surds with fractional exponents, reduce these to


express
the

lowest

common denominator, and

resulting

expressions with radical signs.

The relative magnitudes of surds may be determined by reducing them, ^necessary, to equivalent surds of the same degree. in the above example, \/125 is greater than \/8T, and v^Sl than f/ Thus,
I

*^64.
\

Then,

v^ is

greater than \^,

and

\%

than V2.

228

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
108

Kednce the following


^1.
v2.
3.

to equivalent surds of the


6.

same degree:

V2 V3
-v/2

and

-^7.

a/^,

i/hc,

and ^ca.

and Vl.

"^. V2^, "^36, and -^Sc.


8.

and and

-v/3.

a/2^, -^5/, and -^'O?.

\ 4.
5.

^4 V3

a/5.

9.

^M^
-yx y

and -x/^^^T.
and
\/a;

and V6.
is is is

10.

2/.

11.

Which

the greater,

12.
13.

Which
Which

the greater,

V6 V2

or

Vl4?
v^S ?

or

the greater, a/3 or a/7 ?

14.

Arrange in order of magnitude V2, Vl3, and V31.

\15. Arrange in order of magnitude v/4, a/6, and a/15.


Clfi,

Arrange in order of magnitude a/2, a/3, and a/IO,

MULTIPLICATION OF SURDS
259.
1.

Multiply

V6

by VlS.

By
2.

234, \/6

X VTB = VC'xTS

= V2x3x3x6 = \/32x2x5 =1 VlO.

Multiply a/2^ by a/4^^


( 258),

3^0
(2 a)^

Reducing to equivalent surds of the same degree

V2a

y/TcC^

(2 a)^

(4 a^)^

(4 a2)^

= v^(2^ x

v^(4 a2)2

= v^28 a8 X 24 a* = \/26 a6

2 a

= 2a\/2^.

We
sary,
I

then have the following rule:


together two or

To multiply

more

surds, reduce them, if neces-

tosimis of the same degree.

the expressions under the radical signs, JoT^^^igZy jtogether write the result under the common radical sign.

and

The

result should

be reduced to

its

simplest form.

SURDS
3.

229

Multiply
237,

V5

by

\/5.

By

VS = 5^ = 5^ = \/P.

Then,
4.

V5xv'5 = v'Pxv^ = v^ = 6^ = 5^ = \^=^^.

Multiply2V3

+ 3V2by3V3-V2.
+ 3V2
\/2

2\/3

3\/318

+ 9V6

-2V6-6
18

+ 7\/6-6 = 12 + 7\/6.
itself

To

multiply a surd of the second degree by


;

simply removes the

radical sign

thus, \/3

V3 = 3.
a;

5.

Multiply 3

VlT^ - Wx by VI + + 2V^.

+ a;)-4\/ x+^ + 6Vx + x2-8a; 8(1 + ) + 2 Va; + aj2 -8ic = 3-5ic + 2Va; +
3(l

a;2.

EXERCISE
Multiply the following
1.
:

109
,/./:/
10.

V5 by

V20.

V?byV||.
^/98 by a/343. a/63 by -v/lM.

V?.
3.

A/i92 by

VTx.

11.
12.

Vl5 by V27.

4. _.

Vi8 by V42. ,
.

13.

^5. Vl08 by V192. ll^V^^T^^M. ^ 3 :^15 \. ^72 by -v^Sl.


7. 8. 9.

V6^by-y2^. V6 by v^.
\/3 xy by -VTyz.

a/55 xy by a/66 2/2.

^\

16.

v/44byA/i2.
a/135 by ^^45.

a/35 by a/75.
a/84 by a/180.

17. 18.

V20by^.

230
V
19.

ALGEBRA
</5d' by ^/I25^.
.

23.
24.

</^,

-yjjz,

and

^^.

20.
21.

\/9by^27.

V20,'^/25, and \/5.

VS by -^?.

25.

^4, ^6, and

-^6.

22.

vx27. 6

V| by ^5^ _k26. + 3V2and4 + 5V2. 28. 4Va-3V6and7Va + 2V&. "^29. 2V5-8^/3and9V5-4V3.


30.

V15, -^^, and ^IT^:.

31.

5V2 4-6V6andl0V2-7V6. 2^9 + 9^7 and 8-^-3^49.

32.
33.

^34.
/ 35.

36.

37.
'.38.

4V^-V^ + 3\/^and4V^H-Vy-3V^. 3 Va + 2 + 4 Va - 1 and ^\/a + 2 + 5 Va^^. V2+V5+V7and V2-V5-V7. 4Vf - 3 VS and 2 Vf - 9V^. 3V3 + 2V6-4V8and3V3-2V6 + 4V8. ^^"^ - 5 V7 - VlO and 6 V5 + SVf + VlO.
8VT2 + 7V20-4V24and5V3-3\/5 + 2V6.

,39.

6V| + 8V| + llV|and3V|-4V|-5V|.


DIVISION OF

MONOMIAL SURDS

260.

By 234,

\/^ = VaxV6.
-Xiild

Whence,

= ^.
:

We

then have the following rule

To divide
surds of the

monomial same degree.


tivo

surds, reduce them, if necessary, to

the expression

Divide the expression under the radical sign in the dividend by under the radical sign in the divisor, and write the

result

under

the

common

radical sign.
its

The

result should be

reduced to

simplest form.

SURDS
1.

231

Divide
have,

7405 by
\/405

</5,

We
2.

^5
Divide

:^i^=.^8i

= </2r^ = sn.

v^ by V6.
same degree
</'2^

Reducing

to surds of the

( 258),

_(2^

V6
3.

6^

(2

X 3)^

v^2^^r3

^23x33

^SS

>/

36

Divide
have.

VlO by
VlO =

v'iO.
10^

We

10^

103

= ^(2

5)8.

Then,

:^=-;/2i>iA = ^ 23 X 5

vp = 5t = 5^ = V5.
110

^40

EXERCISE
Divide the following
1.
:

2.
7.

V90 by V5. V24 by Vl8. ^32 by \/2.


-^486 by </2.

3. 4.

70 by V63.

5. 6.

</3 by ^/192.

^144 by ^9.
16.

^48 by </U. Wab' by ^96 bd


a^

8.

\7. V3
18. 19.
1^20.

by V2a.
by

V9.
10.

V7

by v^49.

V27^
V|

^36^.

-v/42^ by -v/56^.
-^^686

by 7||.

11. 12.

by by

-^63.
-^"25^.

^H

by V|.

V25^

21.
22. 23.
24.

\ 13.
14.

\/12^^ by A/r^.
by by

VH 7M
1.

by V?|.

Vi:^ by V5|.
by

^. ^.
V405 n^x.

15.

^S-

Vl5na;^ by

INVOLUTION OF SURDS
261.

Eaise v^l2 to the third


12^ ( 243)

povs^er.

(v^)8 =(12^)8 =

= 12^=VT2 = 2VS.

232
2.

ALGEBRA
Eaise

V2 to
(

the fourth power.


\/2y

(2^)4

= 2^ = W^= Vi^.

Then, to raise a surd to any positive integral power,


required power

If possible, divide the index of the surd by the exponent of the ; otherwise, raise the expression under the radical

sign to the required power.

The rules of 97 and 98 should be used to find the value of any product which comes under them.
3.

Expand

V6 - VS)^.

By 97,

(V6-V3)2 = (V6)2_2\/6 X V3+(\/3)2 = 6 - 2 V32 X 2 + 3 = 9 - 6 V2.


(4

4.

Expand
98,

+ -v^S) (4 - -J/5).
</5)

By

(4+ v^)(4i^

=42- (^5)2=16- v^, by

the above rule.

^\^

EXERCISE
:

III

Find the values of the following


1.

"

(^2/.
(y/4.x + 3yf.

6.
7.

(5a/5)2.

vll.
12.

(Sa'V2E0Vy.^.
(4^/729).
(7

/2. (Vey.
3.

(v/^^=^)^

^8. (^72^^)^
9.

13.

+ 2V2)2.

4.

(</32y.

//,'

(y/M^f.
(v/5)^
"V18.

V14.
Vl5.

(4V5-5)l

v5.
16.
17.

(V2^i^y.

10.

(9V7-4Vll)2.

^/20.
'/

V19. (V5x + 2-V3x)\ (4Vi^ + 3V^^=3)(4Va-3Va^^).

(3V6 + 6V3)2. + SV'^^Tby. (4:V^r^ (6 + 6V2)(6-5V2).

21.
22.

(V2a; + 2/ + V2a;-2/)(V2a; + 2/-V2a;-y).

^'23.

25.

26.

+ 4V5a;-2)(5V3a; + 4-4V5-2). ^4 + 2V3x^4-2V3. '24. (^4 + ^9)(v'4--v/9). V3V5 + 2V7 X V3V5-2V7. Expand (2 V2 + V6 - V3)2, by the rule of 204.,
(5V3iB + 4

SURDS
EVOLUTION OF SURDS
262.
1.

233

Extract the cube root of y/27a^,

2.

Extract the

fifth root of

V6.

Then, to extract any root of a surd,


]

If possible, extract the '-equired root of the expression under the radical sign ; otherwise, multiply the index of the surd by the index of the required
root.
If the surd has a coefficient which is not a perfect power of the degree denoted by the index of the required root, it should be introduced under the radical sign ( 255) before applying the rule.

Thus,

v^(4V2) = ^(V32) =

\/2.

234
Ex.

ALGEBRA
Eeduce

- 3A
5

to

an equivalent fraction having a

rational denominator.
Multiplying both terms by y/9 a,

we have

5v^9^
\/3a^\/9a
\/27a8

</3a^

^a

EXERCISE

113

Reduce

each, of the following to


:

an equivalent fraction hav^

ing a rational denominator


1.

A.
V5-

3.

-^.
</6a'

5.

V25
_

V27
.

4.

1
V49a;

6.

^^^ 6aty_
VSa^?/^^

ft 8.

-T

Vl2^
264. Case
II.

V4a26c*
a binomial contain-

When

the

denominator

is

ing only surds of the second degree.


1.

Reduce

_ to an equivalent fraction

having

rational denominator.
Multiplying both terms by 5

V2, we

have
*

5+V2
2.

(6+V2)(5-V2)

25-2
^^

'

23

Reduce

^^ V 2Va 3Va 6

^^j^

equivalent fraction having

a rational denominator.
Multiplying both terms by 2\/a
3 Vg - 2Va 6

+ 3Va -

6,

2Va-3\/a-6

- 2V'^^^)(2Va + 3v^^I"6) (3 V^ (2Va - 3V^^I^)(2Va + 3Va^^)


6q

+ SVa Vo"^ - 6(a 4a-9(a-6)

5)

_ 6 & + SVa^ 96

ab

-5a

SURDS

235
:

We then have the following rule

Multiply both terms of the fraction by the denominator with the sign between its terms reversed.

EXERCISE

114

Keduce each of the following to an equivalent fraction having a rational denominator


:
"

^
2

V6 +
2
7

V^+Vy V^-V^

* 7^

3V5-V3 4V5 + 5V3


3^-V^^=3

V10-6V2
V10H-2V2

3V2

V^
m-\-Vn
10.

^g^

2V7H-3V3

2V7-3V3
13,

V9a2_2-3a V9a=^-2 + 3a

VVll + 3-VVll14.

236
Then
4

ALGEBRA
- \/3 - V7

^ 16 -(10 + 2\/2l) ^ 6 2\/21 ^ 3 V2l 6 + 4V3 12 + 8V3 4 + V3-V7 19 + 8\/3-7 4 V3, Multiplying both terms of the latter by 6
4 4

_ V3 _ V7

^ (3

- V2T) (6 - 4 V3)
3\/21

18

4.V3_V7 62-(4V3)2 - 6 V21 - 12\/3 4- 4 V63 - 9 + ^ - 12


also be solved

+ 6 V3 6

6\/7
'

The example may


fraction

by 4

- \/3 + V7,

or by 4

- >/3 - Vf,.
115

by multiplying both terms of the given

':^^

EXERCISE

Eeduce each of the following to an equivalent fraction having a rational denominator


:

1.

12
3.

2+V2 + V3
2
6

4
.

3+V5-V2*
The reduction

V5-V3-V2 V6+V3-3V2 V6-VB + 3V2'


denominator to an

of a fraction having an irrational

equivalent fraction having a rational denominator, when the denominator is the sum of a rational expression and a surd of the nth degree, or of two surds of the wth degree, will be found in 446.

is

266. The approximate value of a fraction whose denominator irrational may be conveniently found by reducing it to an

equivalent fraction with a rational denominator.

Ex.

Find the approximate value of


2 4-'v^

of decimals.

^ ~ ^^

to three places

_2+V2_2 +
4

1.414...

1.707

....

2-V2

(2-V2)(2H-\/2)

EXERCISE

116

Find the values of the following


1

to three places of decimals

4.

SURDS

237

4.

_A_.
23

^%,

V7-V2
V7 + V2 2V6 + V3 2V6-V3'

'

^-^^49
//5
f;
'

,7 *

4V5-5V3 4V5 + 5V3* 4 V7 + 7 V3


3V7-5V3*
(250)
rational

'

V5-3V2'

/^

PROPERTIES OF QUADRATIC SURDS

267.

quadratic surd cannot equal the


surd.

sum of a

expression and a quadratic

For,

if possible, let is

Va b-\- Vc,

where 6
surds.

a rational expression, and

Va

and

Vc

quadratic

Squaring both members, a


or,

Whence,

= b^-{-2 6 Vc + 2 6 Vc = a b^ a Wc Vc =
c.

c,

26

That is, a quadratic surd "equal to a rational expression. But this is impossible whence, Va cannot equal h -\- Vc.
;

268.

If

aH-V6 = c4-Vc?,
and

where a and

are rational ex-

pressions,

V6

and V<^ quadratic


a = c, and

surds, then

^b = ^/d.
ic
;

If

a does not equal

c,

let a

=c+

then, x

is

rational.

Substituting this value in the given equation,


c

+ + V6 = cH-Vc^,
ic

or

x-\-Vb=^/d.

But

this is impossible

Then, a

c,

by and therefore V&

267.

= V^.

269. If V a

expressions, then

+ -y/b = -y/x + Vy, where a, b, x, and y are rational Va V^ = Vic V^.


a -I-

Squaring both members of the given equation,

V5 = + 2y/xy + y.
a;

238

ALGEBRA

Whence, by
and
Subtracting,

268,

a^x + y, V6 = 2-\fxy. a V& = x 2^'xy + y.

Extracting the square root of both members,

V a V6

= Vie V^.

270. Square Root of a Binomial Surd.


principles may be used to find the square roots of certain expressions which are in the form of the sum of a rational expression and a quadratic surd.

The preceding

Ex.

Find the square root of 13

VlBO.

Assume,

SURDS
We
The
then separate 8 into two parts whose product
parts are 6
is 12.

239

and 2
-f

whence,
2

V8
2.

Vi8 = V6 + 2 Vl2 +

= V6 + V2.

Extract the square root of 22


3 \/32
into
;

- 3 V32.
=
2 \/72.
is 72.

We have,
The

= \/9

x 8 x 4

We then separate 22

two parts whose product


whence,
2\/72

parts are 18 and 4

V22-73V32 = V 18 -

= Vl8 - V4 = 3 V2 - 2.
117

Vh
V,.0
1.

^^
EXERCISE

Find the square roots of the following


15

+ 2V54.

7.

30-V500.
13-fVl68.
24

13.
14.

45-5V80.
34-fl2V8.
61

2. 3.

21-2V80.

8. 9.

53-2V52.
23

+ 2V140.

15. 16. 17.

+ 28V3.

;4.
>5.
6.

+ 6VI0.

10.
11. 12.

44-4V72.

53-V600.

38-10V13.
29 4-2V54.
19.

55- 20 V6.
55

60-5VI08.
54

+ 3V24.
20.

18.

+ 3Vi28.
^

4a-2V4a2--9.

4:(2x-y)

+ 2Vl5x'-12xy.
+3;K

Solution of Equations

having the

Unknown Numbers under

Radical Signs.

272.

1.

Solve the equation

Va^ 5 a; = 1.

Transposing

cc,

vx^
x^

=x = x^

1.

Squaring both members,


Transposing,

2 x

-\-

1.

2x =

6; whence, x

= 3.

(Substituting 3 for x in the given first member, and taking the positive value of the square root, the first member becomes

V 9^r5 -3 = 2-3 = -l;


which shows that the solution
oj

=3

is

correct.)

240

ALGEBRA
then have the following rule
:

We

Transpose the terms of the equation so that a surd term may stand alone in one member ; then raise both members to a power
of the same degree as the surd. If surd terms still remain, repeat the operation.

The equation should be simplified as ing the invohition.


2.

much

as possible before perform-

Solve the equation

Transposing
Squaring,

V2x

1,

V2a; l-h V2fljH-6 = 7. \/2a; + 6 = 7 \/2 x 1.


2a;

Transposing,
Squaring,

14

\/2x
2x

+ 6 = 49-14A/2a;-l+2x 1 = 42, or v2 x 1 = 3.
1

=9

whence, x

5.

3.

Solve the equation Va?


x

2 -yjx =
Vaj-2
2 x

Clearing of fractions,

2 v x^

1.

Transposing,
Squaring,

Vx"^ 2 x = 3 x. x^ 2 x = 9 6 x +

x^.

Transposing,
(If

4x

= 9,

and x

q = -. 4

we put X =

-,

the given equation becomes

If

we take

the positive value of each square root, the above

is

not a true

equation.

But a square root may be taken as either positive or negative

and

if

we

take the negative value of


of (1)

-v/

and the positive value of -J -

the

first

member

becomes

3 ^
-,

or

then the solution x

or 2, and the second 9 -

member becomes

is

correct.)

~2
4.

Solve the equation

V2 3a; + Vl + 4a; = V3 +

a;.

SURDS
Squaring both members,
2

241

3X

-i-

V 2 - 3 X Vl + 4x + l + 4a; = 3 + x.
2

Whence,
*

V2 -3a;Vl + 4x =
^/2^^^Tx^/TTTx = 0.
(2

or,

Squarmg,
Solving as in 126,

- 3x)(l +

4x) =

0.

2-3x = 0, orx = 2 -;
H-4x = 0,
EXERCISE
118

and

or x

-|.

Solve the following equations:

^1. V4a; +
:

2.
3.

l+5 = 0. -^7aj-8-2 = -6.


Vl6"^Tl-4aj = 3.
^8a^ + 36a;2-3 = 2ir.

V5.
6.
7.

V + V + 9 = -2.

V3-2-V3T=l.
Va;

+ 13- Va7-5 = 3.

v4.

8.

V5a;-19- V5a;+14=-3.

yo

Va;
v^

+4

J^ = V3-2a?. V3-2a;

10.

-= =

-:'

11.

Va; 5 4-Va;=

Vl2. V6a;-V6a;-ll

=
V6a;-ll
10

13.

V2s-V2s + 5 =
Vic 3

V27+5
-^cu^-r^-

4.-

14.

V^+~21 = 2 V^.
2Vl + 2a;-5
V
^

V 15.

3VTT2^ + 4_ VTT2^ + 6
6Vl4-2a;-l
-
17.

.c lb.

3Vaj4-4_3Va;4-5 1=

5V-2 5Va;-3

;=::

V2 a -a; + V2 a + _^ * V2 a-x-V2 a-\-x


a;
-

242
18.
ii'19.
ic

ALGEBRA

20.

V2n V n = 3Vn. - 4 + Va^ - 3 + 1 = 5. -y/x" + 7 y/x-2a+^x =


iK ic a;

1U^'^^.'4-

Vic

2ct
i

v21.
22.

23.
24.

+ + V + 2 a = V4 4- 5 a. Va-a;+V6-a; = V2a + 26. Va;4-v5-2a; = V5


Va;
ic
a;.

V4a;-3-V3a;-l=V7a;-4.
V4i)

25.
26.

- Vp - 8 = VOj? - 83. Va; 2 a Va; 6 a = 2 Va; 5 a.


4- 1

27. 28.

V(3a + V3aa; + a^=V^-V3a.

29.
'30.

V+V4a4-a;=V46 + 4a;. V2 aa; + & + V2 - 6 = 2 V2 aa; - 3 &. Va + V6 = Va + 6 2


a; a;
a;.

31.

32. 33.

+ 4& = V5aj + 5a + 4 6. V2a;-l+V3a; + 2 = V3a;-2-)-V2a^4-3.


V2a; + 5a + V3a;

V2a;

+ 5 + V3a5-2=V(5aj + 3+V24aj2_^15).
IMAGINARY NUMBERS
(X^U

-vmK

''^^^'^

273. It

is

number;

for

impossible to find an even root of a negative no number when raised to an even power can
( 96).
is

produce a negative result

An

Imaginary Number
;

number

as

2,

or

an indicated even root of a negative


3.

In contradistinction, rational and irrational numbers are called reed numbers.


274. An imaginary number of the form pure imaginary number, and an expression a + &V 1 a complex number.

248)

V a
of

is

called a

the

form

SURDS
275. Meaning of a Pure Imaginary Number.

243

as an expression such real ( 273), we define raised to the second power, the result is a ( 206). that, To find what meaning to attach to a pure imaginary number,
If
is

Va

Va

when

we assume

the above principle to hold

when

Va

is

imaginary.

raised to that, Thus, the second power, the result is 2 that is, (V 2)^ = 2. In like manner, (V 1)^ = 1 etc.
;

V 2

means an expression such


;

when

OPERATIONS WITH IMAGINARY NUMBERS


276.
Also,

By

275,

(V^'= (

5.

(1)
(2)

From

(V5V^2 = (V5)2(V^2^5(-l)=-5. = (V5 V^l (1) and (2), V^'

Whence,

V 5=V5V V
the imaginary unit;

1.

Then, every imaginary square root can he expressed as the 1., product of a real number by

1 is called

it is

usually represented

by

i,

277. Addition and Subtraction

of

Pure imaginary numbers may


the same
1.

Imaginary Numbers. be added and subtraxited in

manner

as surds.

Add
276,

V-4 and V^^36.


x/ir4+v^Z^=:2V^ + 6V=3=8'

By
2.

Subtract 3

- V-9

from 1

+ V- 16.

In adding or subtracting complex numbers, we assume that the rules for adding or subtracting real numbers may be applied without change.

Then,

+ V^^Tie _(3 _ ^179)= i + 4V^n: - 3 + 3a/^ = _2 + 7V^T.


EXERCISE
119

Simplify the following


1.

V^ +

V^^^25.

>

2.

v:r54-V-45.

244
3.

ALGEBRA

f^

""

4.

V^27-V-12. m i IL 6. V-64 + V-100 + V-121. V-(a; + l)'-V-ar^. 7. 2V-16-5V-49 + 3V-81.


...

\r''

^^^

.9. V^r24-V^=^4-V^^^.
10.

V-a'-2a-l-V-a2 + 2a-l.
Add Add
5

11. 12.
13.
14.

+ V^^^

to 3

+ \/"^^16.
1-V349.

J
,

/H

6-V^^

to

Subtract 2

Subtract

+ V^^ from 8-V^25. 4-V-81 from 7+V^==^,

278. Positive Integral Powers of

V 1.

By 275,
Then,

(V=^)^ = -l.

(V^ri)3 =

(V3T)2x VZTi

=(_i)xV3i = _v3ij
etc.

(V=^)^=(V^)^x(V:^)^ = (-i)x(-i) = i; = 1 xV^=V^:^; (V^riy = (V3T)4x

v^

Thu s,

the

first

and 1; and for higher powers these terms recur in the same order.
1,

1,

V 1,

four positive integral powers of

V 1

are

279. Multiplication

of

Imaginary Numbers.

two or more imaginary square roots can be obtained by aid of the principles of 276 and 278.
of
1.

The product

Multiply

V^^

by

V"^.

By 276, V^::2x\/::3

= x/2VZlx\/3\/3T

= V2V3(V:n:)2 = V6(-l) (278)=-V6.

^
''
245

SURDS
2.

'-%and

Multiply together

V-9, V-16,

V-25.

3.

Multiply 2

+ 5V^5

by

4-3V^^.

In multiplying complex numbers, we assume that the rules for multiplying real numbers may be applied without change.

2+5' 4-38

+ 20V- 5 _ 6V^l

15(-5)

8
4.

14

V- 5

75

83

+ UV^.

Expand

(V^^ + 2V^^)' by

the rule of

97.

2 =( + 4 V5 V^T X V3 V^^ + 4 ( V'^2 ( -v/ZTs + 2 \/^)2 = - 6 + 4vl5(\/^^)2 + 4(- 3) = - 5 - 4 VT5 - 12 = - 17 - 4Vl5.

V^

EXERCISE
Multiply the following
^1.

120

2.
3.

V-3 by V-5. V^^^ by -V^=^.


_ V-81aj2by -V-121x2.
_V^ri5
9.

5. 6.
7.

V-14
5

by

V-56.

-V^^^HT by -V^^45.

4.

by

V-6.

8.

3V^^-2V^
8V-"7-7V"=^

by

10. 11. 12. 13.

by

+ 4 V^^ by 2 - 3 V=^. 6 + V-3 by 7 + 4V^3. 9V^^ + 6V^. V^^-5V^=^.


-V^^^Tgi.

V^=^^ V^^^4F, and -V'=^^9^.

V^,

-V^^27, and
by

V-274-V-18

Si4.
15.
,

2V^^-V^6
V^=l6,

by V^:ri4 + 4V^^.
and V^^IOO.

16.

^ V^ V-3, -V-6,
V^=^, V=^64,

and

-V-10.

~~

246

ALGEBRA
the following by the rules of 97, 98:
20.

Expand
17.

(5

4-V^l

(3V-5-2V-2)2.

21.

(7+2V^(7-2V^.
(^/^^ + b){V^^-b).

19.

(4V^^ + 3V^)l
24.
25.

22.

(8V^=2

+ 3- :r5)(8AA=^-3V'=^). (3V^:^+V^^ + (3V^=^-V^^.


following by the rules of

Expand the
^26.
28.

205

(1-V^^.
Expand

27. (2 + V"=5). - V=^ - 2 V^S)^ by the rule of 204. (3 V^^

280. Division of Imaginary Numbers.


1.

Divide
276,

V-40
-5

By

V^^^^lO

V-5. V40 V^^ \/40 vsv^n V5


by

\/8

= 2\/2.

2.

Divide

Vl5 by

V^.
( 278)

\/l5

^ -VT5(-l) ^ -\/l5(V^

= - vs \/^n; = - \/^.

3.

Reduce

V3-V^:^

to

V3+V-2
real denominator.

an equivalent fraction having a

We

sign between

multiply both terms of the fraction by the denominator with the its terms reversed 2, multiplying both terms by VS
;

V3+V'32

(V3)2-(V^r2)2

_ (V3)2-2V3

V^+(^
6

2)2

3-(-2) 3-2\/ir6-2 _ l-2\/^r6 _


3

(97)

+2

SURDS
EXERCISE
Divide the following :
^1.
121

247

V^=35 by V^^.
by V^=r3. by
7.

4.
"5.

-V^Qxy

by ^2yz.

^. -V48
^3.

Vi80 by -V^^IO.

V=^

6. -Vi32 by -V^=^. -V-8. V343-V-63 by V - 288 - V300 by - V- 6.

each_of_ilie following to an equivalent fraction hava real denominator ing

Eeduce

9.

11.

1-V10.

3V-3-2V-6 3V-3+2V-6
2V:^ + 7V^3 4V^=^-3V^^
and a
6

3-V3+

12.

281. The complex numbers a


called Conjugate.

+ 6 V 1

V 1 are

We have
Also,

+ 6 V^^) + (a - 6 V^l) = 2 a. - 6 V^^) (a 4- & V^^) X (a


(a

= a^ Hence,
are real.
the

62<(

V'^)2 = a2 + 52 (

275).

sum and product of two

conjugate complex numbers

248

ALGEBRA

XIX.
282.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

A Quadratic Equation is an equation of the second degree with one or more unknown numbers. A Pure Quadratic Equation is a quadratic equation involving only the square of the unknown number as, 2 a^ = 5.
( 83),
;

An

Affected Quadratic Equation is a quadratic equation involvfirst

ing both the square and the

power of the unknown number


forms
c

2is,2x'-3x-5 = 0.
In
126,

we showed how

to solve quadratic equations of the

ax^

bx

= 0,

ax^

+ c = 0,

x^-\-ax

+ b = 0,

and ax^-{-bx +

= 0,

when

the

first

members could be

resolved into factors.

PURE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


283. Let
it

be required to solve the equation


052

=4

Taking the square root of each member, we have

x=2',
But the equations x = 2 and x= 2 are the same as x = 2 and x = 2, respectively, with all signs changed. We then get all the values of x by equating the positive square
root of the first
for the square root of a

number may be

either

or

( 208).

member

to

the square root of the second.

pure quadratic equation may be solved by reducing necessary, to the form x^ a, and then equating ic to the square root of a ( 283).
284.
if
it,

1.

Solve the equation 3 a^

+7=
12
a;2

+
28
x^

35.

Clearing of fractions,

+
.7

= =

5 x^

140.

Transposing, and uniting terms,

112, or x^

16.

Equating x to

the square root of 16, x

= 4.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
2.

249

Solve the equation 7

oc^

5=5
2

oc^

IS.
=
8,

Transposing, and uniting terms,

a;^

or

a;2

= _ 4,

Equating x to

db

the square root of

4,

a;

= V 4 = 2\/^
;

(276).

In this case, both values of x are imaginary ( 274) it is impossible to find a real value of x which will satisfy the given equation.

satisfy the given equation

In solving fractional quadratic equations, any solution which does not must be rejected. Thus, let it be required to solve the equation

x2-7
x^-\-x-2
x

+2 +

x-1
2)
(aj

Multiplying both members by (x

1), or x^

a;

2,

x^-7 = x-l-x-2,
The

or

a:2

= 4.
the only

Extracting square roots, x=2. solution oj = 2 does not satisfy by the given equation
is

solution

2.

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:

122

2a;2

+ 27 = 7a^-53.
3.

2.

A_15- = _?.
4a;2

3^

5(2x-3)+2aj(4a; + l)=12a;-7.
2(3a;-5)2
9

4.

+ 3(x+10)2 = 434.
^g

'

3
6.
9.

4:x

Ax

6-V5ar^-9 = 12.
(2
a; -j-

V?^^
aj a;

7) (5

a;

- 6)- 24 = (4 a;- 3) (7 + 5) -59.


1
14*

10

4^^

+
7

8f^-l ^
2

^j

3a a;-56

a; + 56 ^^ 3a + 106

250
Vil2.

ALGEBRA
*

7
13.

14

35

(x-{-a){x-\-b)-{-{x-a)(x-b)=x' + a^-{-bK

14.

3V^+1+V3a^ + 7 = 1.
lOa^-3
18
gc

15.

5x^-i-6 9
(A:

6a^-l 9x'-2
(A;

16.

+ 1) (k - 2)
4a;^

- 3) 2x^

- 1)
l.

(A;

+ 2)

(A;

+ 3) = - 52.

^17. 2a;V^^+3-2Wa;2 + 2 =
18

3a;^-4

+3

+ 12 ^-^
' '

19

'

+ 3a^-l ^ + 3 ^q ^--x2_^x-S^^ x-2 x+3 + l 2ar^-5* _ y^ = a(l + V3). 21. Va' + ax +.aj2 + Va^ - aa; + (^
a;^

a;^

2a;^-5a;2

a;^

22

_1
x

+3

x-5

^^-17

0^-2x^15

/\
>
{^

//''

i^^

^.
^^
/

AFFECTED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


285. First Method
of

^^

^^
/

V* By transposing the terms involving x to the first member, and all other terms to the second, and then dividing both members
by the coefficient of reduced to the form
x^,

Completing the Square.

any affected quadratic equation can be

x^-{-

px = q.

We
make
Ex.

then add to both members such an expression as will


the
first

member a
is

trinomial perfect square ( 111)


the square.

an

operation which

termed completing
a?

Solve the equation a^

+ 3 = 4.

trinomial is a perfect square when its first and third terms are perfect squares and positive, and its second term plus or minus twice the product of their square roots ( 111).

Then, the square root of the third term is equal to the second term divided by twice the square root of the first.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

261

to a^ -{-3x to

Hence, the square root of the expression which must be added make it a perfect square is 3 a) -^ 2 o^, or -|. to both members the square of f we have Adding
,

a^

+ 3x+ (1)2 = 4 + 1 = ^5-.


first

Equating the square root of the


root of the second (compare

283),

member to we have

the square

Transposing

f,

a;

= f + |or f J = lor 4.
:

We

then have the following rule


the equation to the

Reduce

form

op^

-{-px

q.
members
the square of

Complete the squai-e, by


one-half the coefficient of x.

adding

to both

Equate the square root of the first member to the square root of the second, and solve the linear equations thus formed.
286.
1.

Solve the equation 3


3,

aj^

8 x = 4.

Dividing by

a;2_^^_|,
x"^

which

is

in the

form

+px=:q.
4
of -,

Adding

to both

members the square

we have

\3y/
first

9
to

Equating the square root of the

member

the square root

Transposing

-|,

||

2or|.
term must

If the coefficient of x^ is negative, the sign of each

be changed.
2.

Solve the equation

9 a^ 21 = 10.
a;

Dividing by

9,

x2

^ = -^9
o

252

ALGEBRA

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
If the coefficient of o^
is

253
it

not a perfect square,

may be made

so

by multiplication.
2.

Solve the equation 8 ar'


2,

15 = 2.
a;

Multiplying each term by

16 x^

30 = 4.
a;

Adding

to both

members

the square of

2x4
16

16x^-30x +

(^y
15 4

225^ = 4 + ?^ = ^.
16
17 - 4

Extracting square roots, 4 x

- =
4

Then,

4a;

==
4

8 or

-1, and x =
2

2 or

-i.
4

If the coefficient of x^ is

negative, the sign of each term must be

changed.

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:

124

4a;2_7a; = -3.
9a^

8.
'

36 a;^

- 36 = 7.
or

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.
7.

+ 22a; = -8. 16a^-8a; = 35. 8a^-f-10a^ = 3. 3x2-8a; = 3.


18x2_5^^2.
25a;2

9.

\2x^-^x=^\.
49;i2

10.

11.

/12.
13. 14.

+ 49 7i4-10 = 0. 64 x^ + 15 = 64 12 = 23e-5e2.
a;.

28a;-32x2_3^0.
25a;

+ 15aj = 4.

= -50aj2-2.
form

288. Second Method of Completing the Square.

Every
a'y?

+ 6aj + c = 0,

affected quadratic equation can be reduced to the or a^ -\-hx c.

Multiplying both members by 4

a,

we have

4 0^7? + 4 ahx =

4 ac.

We complete the square by adding to both members the square


of

~-

( 287), or 6.

254
Then,
4a

ALGEBRA

V + 4 ahx +

Extracting square roots,


Transposing,

^ 52 _ 4 ^^^ 2ax-{-b = \b^ 4 ac. 2ax = b V&^ 4 ac.


52

Whence,

x
following rule

=
:

=^^

2a
6ic

We then have the


Reduce

the equation to the

form

ax^

-f-

c.

of ic^, and Multiply both members by four add to each the square of the coefficient of x in the given equation.
times the coefficient

The advantage

of this

method over the preceding

is

in

avoiding fractions in completing the square.*


1.

Solve the equation 2a^ 7ic Multiplying both members by 4 x 2, or

= 3.
8,

16a;2-56a:=-24.
Adding
to both

members
16x2

the square of
72 7

7,

- 56x +
-

=- 24 + 49 = 25.
= =
7
5.

Extracting square roots, 4 x

Then,

4x

12 or

2,

and x

= 3 or

i.

may

If the coefficient of x in the given equation is even, fractions be avoided, and the rule modified, as follows
:

Multiply both members by the coefficient of


the square
2.

x^,

and add

to

each

of half the

coefficient

of x in the given equatimi.

Solve the equation 15 a^^ _^ 28 a; = 32. Multiplying both members by 15, and adding to each the square
152x2

of 14,

15 (28 X)

+ +

142

480

196

676

Extracting square roots, 15x

14

= =

26.

Then,

15 x

=-

14

26

12 or

- 40,

and x

=6

or

- -
3

The method
is

of completing the square exemplified in the present section

called the

Hindoo Method.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
^ 1.
2.
:

255

125

x\7x=18.
3aj2-2x = 40.

9.

12x'-llx = -2.

10.

-3.
4.

4:x'-3x = 10.

11. 12.
13.
14.

6x'-13x = -6. 2r2-15r + 25 = 0.

4.x^-8x = 4.5.

5.

^.
7.

V8.

= 3. 9a^ + 18aj = -8. 9x2 + 4iK = 5. 7g2 + 20g = -12.


8a;2

4.2a;

15.

16.

+ 26x-\-7 = 0. 5a;2+ 48 = -32a;. 13x = 10a;2-3. 3 = 6a;2 + 17a;. 27i-9 -8a^ = 0.


15x'

289. Solution of Affected Quadratic Equations by Formula.


It follows

from

288 that,

if

ax^ -{-bx-{-G

= 0,
t^,^^^^

Sv^^w^^^
(1)

then

^^ -6V6--4 ac.
may be used
as a

This result

affected quadratic equation in the


1.

formula for the solution of any form ax^-{-bx-^c = 0.

0. 5 a? 18 Solve the equation 2 cc^ Here, .a = 2, 6 = 5, and c = 18 substituting


;

in (1),

_5i:V25 +
4
2,

144

^ -5 13 ^^
4
a;

P^

9 2

Solve the equation

5
=
3
;

a?^

+ 1 4 + 3 = 0.
14

Here, a

=
^

6,

=
14

14, c
J:

substituting in (1),

V196

60

-10

16 ^ -10
a^

1
^j.

3.

Solve the equation 110

a;^

_ 21 = 1.
then,

Here, a

= 110,
^

= - 21,
j-

21

V441
220

- 440

^ 21zbl ^ i.
220
10

or J-.
11*

Particular attention must be paid to the signs of the coefficients in

making the

substitution.

256

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
126

Solve the following by formula


1.

2.
3. 4.
5.

6.
7.

8. 40- 17a;-5a^ = 0. a;2_i2a;-f-32 = 0. 9- 36y + 36p = -5. a^ + 7a;-30 = 0. ^r'"" 2a;2-3a;-20 = 0. H^.^' 10. SOa;^ + l = -17a;. 3x'-x-4. = 0. t -/ ^11- -19a; = 8iK2_^6. 4a;2-5a;-21 = 0^ 3^-7 1^- 15 + 22 - 48 = 0. -^ 13. 15a^H-26a; = - 8. 20a;2 + a;-l = 0. .^. 9a,-2-18a; + 8 = 0. ^ ,, 14. 37a; = 6a^ + 6.
a;

ar^

EXERCISE

127

The following miscellaneous equations may be solved by either of the preceding methods, preference being given to the one best adapted to the
example under consideration. In solving any fractional equation, we reject any solution which does not satisfy the given equation. (Compare last example, 284.)
1.

^
6a;

13
9a;2

1
18*

4
5.

A4_l^ = _l.

^r

6.
7.

= (4a;-l)2-14. (3a; + 2)(2a;-3) = (2a; + 5)l a;(5.T + 22)+35


(x

+ 4)(2a;-l) + (2a;-l)(3a; + 2) = (3a; + 2)(4a;-l)-49.

x
9
12.
13.
14.
(?

2x
'

5 a;8

a;

+ 3 d + 4 ^3 6a;H-5 ^ 4a; + 4 j^ d-2 d 2 4a;-3~ a;-3 + l)(a; + 3) = 12 4-(a5 4-7)V2. V5a;2-3a;-41 = 3a;-7. 3a; 4-5a; _ ~ 4-5a; 3a; = 217. -4)3 -(a; + 3)3
*

(a;

5
6*

(a;

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
16.

257

17.

+ 11 =V3-fl + 2. V754-8- V5s-4 = 2.


V5a;
19.

18.

x2
aj

+S
0^

x + 4. x3

V8a^-35a;2+55a;-57
4

2x-Z.

^x-\
21
2a;

_^
4

'

22

'

28(3

+ 10)
1
a^

25

Saf-27
1

=0.
14

a;(2x-3)

+l
24.

3ir-2 ^17
2a;

3a;-2

+l
1

23.

x'-Sx
15

+4

a?

15

a;^

a;-2
5

7x
24(a; + 2)

a^-4

25.

2^4-3
26.

+ 3?;-4
.

8v2_i3^
6
v^

64

+ V - 12
r
l

1/ 1 3V4a:-l
2V3.T + 4

2J

\3a; +

3 8

27.

+ 3V3a; + 7 =

V3a; + 4

28.

2a^-4a;-3 ^ a^-4a; + 2
2x^-2x-\-3
x^-3x-\-2
.

29.
2

_4

3(x + 2)

+ 2-a;
.

30.

J^^+J^^ = ^, \x-\-5^ylx-^4t 2
V2 + 2V2a; + 5 = 2V6a; + 4. V8x4-7 = V4a; + 3 + V2a;H-2. V2a;2 + 7a;4-7 = 6-V2a^-9x-l. V6-5a; + V2-7x = Vl2 + 6a;.
x1 XZ x6
3.

31.
32.

33.
34.

(Compare Ex.
Q/j

1,

167.)

X2 x

x-\-2 x-\-S

4:

X = -1. x6

XV

258
g-

ALGEBRA
X X
38.

X\_y?-\-X
\.

x^

X x+2
a;

39

+4
X
first

x_ _ x^-\-2x~2 + 3~~x^-\-5x-{-6' X x5 x _q x5 X +4 X
fractions,

(First

combine the

two

and then the

last

two.)

290. Solution of Literal Affected Quadratic Equations.

For the solution of literal affected quadratic equations, the methods of 288 are usually most convenient.
1.

Solve the equation a^

-\-

ax bx ab
b)x =

= 0.
x^^

We may write the equation x^ ah. Multiplying both members by 4 times the coefficient of
4ic2

-{-(a
h)x

+ 4(a+ (a -

Adding

to both

members
4(a

the square of a
&)2

= ^ab. b,
=
=
4 a6

ic2

b)x

a2

2 a6
62.

b'^

Extracting square root,


Or,

2 x + (a

a2 + 2 a& + = (a + b). b)

2ic
*

= -(a-6)(a +

6).

Then,
or

2x=:-a + b + a + b = 2b, 2x = a + b-a-b = -2a.'


a;

Whence,
If several

6 or

-a.

terms contain the same power of x, the coefficient of that power should be enclosed in parentheses, as shown in Ex. 1.

thus,

The above equation can be solved more easily by the method by 108, the equation may be written
ix

of 126

Then,

+ a)(x-b)=0. x + a = 0,
6 = 0,

w
or x or
a;

= =
6.

a;

and

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Several equations in Exercise 128

259

may

be solved most easily by the

method
2.

of 126.

Solve the equation (m Multiplying both members by

1) y? 2 m^x = 4cm^.
w
l)a:
1,

and adding

to both the square

of m2,

(m - 1)%2 _

2 TYi^^m

+ w* = 4 7rfi{m - 1) + m* = m* 4 m^ + 4 m\

Extracting square root,

(m V)x m^ = (m^ 2m).


or

Then,

(w

l)x

= m^ {- m^ 2 m = 2m(TO 1) or =2m
or

m^

m^ -{ 2 m

2 m.

Whence,

^. m
1

In solving any fractional equation, not satisfy the given equation.

we

reject

any solution which does

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
:

128

X 1.
2.

/^,

= 1 m^. xP 2ax = 6a-\-9. b) X = ab. x^ (a


a^ 4-

2 mic

y 4.
^5.
,6.

oc^ -{

-}-

n. x^ m^nx mn^x = m^n^. 40 a. a^ 4 ao; 10 :^


nx -{- x =
-\ic

^
S.

6x'-\-^ax-15bx = 10ab.
amx^

anx bmx

-{-

bn

= 0.

>9. V^+^-V2^=-^^yil.
(a

/lO.

^'^

+ x)3 + (6 -a;)3 =( + &)'. = x-U. yi2. ^(a + 2b)x-2ab mIS. (a^-a-2)x^-(5a-l)x = -6.. (w p) = 0. y^4. 0^ (m p) + (m = -2a. ^15. (a + &)aj'+(3a-U6)aj /16. (ft4-c)ir^-(a + c)aj = 6-a.
ic

'

'^"^

'

7i)

260
Vic
Vic

ALGEBRA
^^j^7. 5^

/
18. 19.

Voj + a a + v2a! + 3a = V5a.

+ a + 2Vx + 6a

16 a

X
a

+6

a;

a^

20.

ahx
^
x-\-a

21.

\ c + x-\-o c = 2.

22
23.

^^ ^^
Sx-\-n
ci'cXl

+ a;)2

3a; + n ^ 10^ 2x Sn 3 _ ^y ^ 0.
62(|2^-L

,24.

a;'-!

4a6
Vma; + VCm

^^^

2a;

+ l ^ 2n + l

n) + m?i = 2 m. ^~^ ^ + ^ 3= a^ 5 g^ ^^-^ *i<^ ^ i>-o.^ CV^ V 27. 'rc + aa; (Xic^ a^ 4 g^ 3a; 2a _ 21 ^ + _ 1^ -/< V 28 3g 3a; + g 6a;2 7ga; 3g2 2 T <u\ 6 + c)aj = -a-264-c. + 2c)a;2_(2a + ^3j9. (g-&
26.
a; eta;
'

a;

30.

^ l^g

-^ + lt^ + i = a M-\-h

a;

0.

g-f

PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS

Iowing equations
Solve in the
first

occur in the study of physics.

six equations for the

number which appears

to the

second power.
^-

1.

St^\gt\

3.

F='^-

-^^^^
iJ

2.

E^^mvK

s=cm.

6.

= M.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
7.

261

Solve the following equation for


Solve the following equation for

g-,

= ttV-V^t-^-^
gt^.

8. 9.

t\

S=

Solve the following equation for


;

V=^2gs.
;

In problem 1 solve for g in problem 7 solve for I in in problem problem 2 solve for m in problem 4 solve for
10.
;

6 solve for

l.

PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE UNKNOWN NUMBER


291. In solving problems which involve quadratic equations, there will usually be two values of the unknown number only those values should be retained which satisfy the conditions of
;

the problem.
1.

A man

as the

watch cost

sold a watch for $21, and lost as many per cent dollars. Find the cost of the watch.
X x

Let

Then,

= number of dollars the the per cent of loss,

watch

cost.

and

X X -^, or
100
the conditions,

= number
100

of dollars lost.

By

-^^ 100

2\.

Solving,

= 30

or 70.
^ ;

Then, the cost of the watch was either $ 30 or $ 70 answers satisfies the conditions of the problem.
2.

for either of these

farmer bought some sheep for $ 72. If h^ had bought for the same money, they would have ddfet him f 1 How many did he buy ? apiece less.
6

more
Let

n n

= number bought.

Then,

72 = number of dollars paid for one,

and

72
^
"^

=
^

number

of dollars paid forg)ie

if

there

had been 6 more.

262

ALGEBRA
the conditions,
72 =

By

72

+6

h 1.

Solving,

18 or

24.

Only the positive value is admissible, for the negative value does not satisfy the conditions of the problem.
Therefore, the

number

of sheep

was

18.

words "6 more" had been " 1 $ apiece less" to "|1 apiece more," we changed to "6 fewer," and should have found the answer 24.
If, in the enunciation of the problem, the

3. If 3 times the square of the number of trees in an orchard be increased by 14, the result equals 23 times the number find the number.
;

Let

X
the conditions,

By

Sx^-\-14
a;

= number = 23x. =
7 or |.

of trees.

Solving,

Only the

first

value of x

is

admissible, for the fractional value does not


is 7.

satisfy the conditions of the problem.

Then, the number of trees

4. If the square of the number of dollars in a man's assets equals 5 times the number increased by 150, find the number.

Let

X
the conditions,
cc^

= number = =
5
aj

of dollars in his assets.

By

150.

Solving,

15 or

10.

This means that he has assets of $

15, or liabilities of

$ 10.

EXERCISE
1.
2.

129

What number added

to its reciprocal gives

2^?

Divide the number 24 into two parts such that twice the square of the greater shall exceed 5 times the square of the
less
3.

by

45.

Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of

their squares shall be 434.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
4.

263 and the


differ-

Find two numbers whose difference

is 7,

ence of their cubes 721.


5.

Find

the

first

five consecutive numbers such that the quotient of by the second, added to the quotient of the fifth by

the fourth, shall equal ^|.


6.

Find four consecutive numbers such that

if

the

sum

of

the squares of the second and fourth be divided b}^ the sum of the squares of the first and third, the quotient shall be i|.
7. The area of a certain square field exceeds that of another square field by 1008 square yards, and the perimeter of the greater exceeds one-half that of the smaller by 120 yards.

Find the side of each


8.

field.

train,

A fast train runs 8 miles an hour faster than a slow and takes 3 fewer hours to travel 288 miles. Find the
its

rates of the trains.


9. The perimeter of a rectangular field is 180 feet, and area 1800 square feet. Find its dimensions.
i^

10.

per cent as the goods cost dollars.


u-

merchant sold goods for $22.75, and lost as many What was the cost ?

merchant sold two pieces of cloth of different quality He received for the 105, the poorer containing 28 yards. finer as many dollars a yard as there were yards in the piece
11.

for

and 7 yards of the poorer sold for as much as 2 yards of the Find the value of each piece. finer.

12.

A
A

merchant sold goods for $


has five-fourths as
is

65.25,

and gained as many


the cost ?

per cent as the goods cost dollars.


13.

What was

much money as B. After giving equal to A's multiplied by a fraction whose numerator is 15, and whose denominator is the number of dolHow much had each at first ? lars A had at first.
$
6,

B's

money

A and B set out at the same time from places 247 miles and travel towards each other. A's rate is 9 miles an apart, hour; and B's rate in miles an hour is less by 3 than the number of hours at the end of which they meet. Find B's rate.
14.

264

ALGEBRA

15. man buys a certain number of shares of stock, paying for each as many dollars as he buys shares. After the price has advanced one-fifth as many dollars per share as he has shares, he sells, and gains $ 980. How many shares did

he buy
16.

The two
the

square of

digits of a number differ by 1; and if the number be added to the square of the given

number with
number.
17.

its digits

reversed, the

sum

is

585.

Find the

gives

persons.

112, in equal amounts, to a certain number of gives the same sum, in equal amounts, to 14 more

persons, and gives to each

$4

less

than A.

How much

does

give to each person ?


18.

The telegraph

intervals.

If the intervals

poles along a certain road are at equal between the poles were increased by
mile.

22

feet, there

would be 8 fewer in a

How many

are

there in a mile ?
19. A merchant bought a cask of wine for $ 48. Having lost 4 gallons by leakage, he sells the remainder at $ 2 a gallon above cost, and makes a profit of 25% on his entire outlay.

How many

gallons did the cask contain ?

20. The men in a regiment can be arranged in a column twice as long as it is wide. If their number were less by 224, they could be arranged in a hollow square 4 deep, having in each outer side of the square as many men as there were in

the length of the column.

Find the number of men.

21. The denominator of a fraction exceeds twice the numerator by 2, and the d,ifference between the fraction and its Find the fraction. reciprocal is ||.

walk 3 miles, intending to arrive at a After walking a mile, he was detained 10 minutes, and was in consequence obliged to walk the rest of the way a mile an hour faster. Find his original speed.
22.

A man

started to

certain time.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

265

23. A regiment, in solid square, has 24 fewer men in front than v/hen in a hollow square 6 deep. How many men are there in the regiment ?
24.
long.

The

rectangular field is surrounded by a fence 160 feet cost of this fence, at 96 cents a foot, was one-tenth
dollars as there are square feet in the area of the
field.

as

many

field.

Find the dimensions of the

25. A tank can be filled by one pipe in 4 hours less time than by another and if the pipes are open together li hours, the tank is filled. In how many hours can each pipe alone fill
;

it ?

Interpret the negative answer.

crew can row down stream 18 miles, and back again, Their rate up stream is IJ miles an hour less in 7^ hours. than the rate of the stream. Find the rate of the stream, and
26.

of the crew in
27.

still

water.

A man

rate of interest.

put $ 5000 into a savings-bank paying a certain At the end of a year, he withdrew $ 375, leav-

At the end of another year, the ing the remainder at interest. amount due him was $ 4968. Find the rate of interest.

A square garden has a square plot of grass at the censurrounded by a path 4 feet in width. The area of the garden outside the path exceeds by 768 square feet the area of the path and the side of the garden is less by 16 feet than Find the dimensions of the three times the side of the plot.
28.
tre,
;

garden.

merchant has a cask full of wine. He draws out 6 and fills the cask with water. Again he draws out 6 There are now 25 galgallons, and fills the cask with water. How many gallons does the lons of pure wine in the cask.
29.
gallons,

cask hold ?
30.

and

sell

a quantity of corn for


If

f 22,

selling 10

bushels more than B.


did,

had sold
;

as

many

bushels as

he would have received $ 8 while if B had sold as bushels as A did, he would have received f 15. How bushels did each sell, and at what price ?

many many

266
31.

ALGEBRA

employed to do a certain piece of work. and the second, who works 6 fewer If the second had worked all the time, and days, receives $ 27. the first 6 fewer days, they would have received equal amounts. How many days did each work, and at what wages ?
are

Two men

The

first

receives

$ 48

carriage-wheel, 15 feet in circumference, revolves in If it revolved in a time longer of seconds. one second, the carriage would travel 14400 fewer feet in by an hour. In how many seconds does it revolve ?
32.

a certain

number

PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
1.

When

a body falls from rest from any point above the

earth's surface, the distance, S, which it traverses in any ber of seconds, t, is found to be given by the equation

num-

which g represents the velocity which the body acquires The value of g is 32.15 feet, or 980 centiin one second.
in

meters.

stone fell from a balloon a mile high elapsed before it reached the earth ?
2.

how much time

If a body is

thrown downward with an


t

initial velocity, Vq,

then the space it passes over in by the equation

seconds

is

found to be given

S = Vot-^igf.

If the stone mentioned in Problem 1 had been thrown down from the balloon with a velocity of 40 feet per second, how many seconds would have elapsed before it reached the earth ?
3.

In the equation

= 7r\/-,

represents the time required

by a pendulum to make one vibration, I represents the length of the pendulum, and g is the same as in Problem 1. Find the length of a pendulum which beats seconds.
4.

If a

pendulum which beats seconds

is

found to be 99.3
g.

centimeters long, find from the above equation the value of

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
5.

267

In the equation

F = ~,

M and m represent the masses


F

of any two attracting bodies, as, for instance, the earth and the the moon, d represents the distance between these bodies, and
force with which they attract each other. If the moon had twice its present mass

and were twice as far

at present, how much greater or less would the force of the earth's attraction be upon it than at present ?

from the earth as

represents the energy of a \ mv^, and the velocity is v. the mass of which is moving body, the energies of two bodies, one of which has twice the Compare
6.

In the equation

E=

mass and twice the velocity of the


7.
iS,

other.
v,
^

When a bullet is
which
it

to

rises is given

shot upward with a velocity, by the equation

the height,

rise to the height of the

Find with what velocity a body must be thrown upward to Washington Monument {^Bb feet). Problem 1.) (See

268

ALGEBRA

XX.

EQUATIONS SOLVED LIKE QUADRATICS

292. Equations in the Quadratic Form.

An equation is said to be in the quadratic form when it is expressed in three terms, two of which contain the unknown number, and the exponent of the unknown number in one of
these terms is twice
its'

exponent in the other;


o^ -\-x^ -12 = 0;

as,

a;6-6a:^=16;

etc.

293. Equations in the quadratic form by the rules for quadratics.


1.

may be

readily solved

Solve the equation

a?^

6ic^ = 16.
+
9
3

Completing the square by the rule of 285,


x6

a;3

16

+
5.

25.

Extracting square roots,


'

a;^

Then,
Extracting cube
roots,

x^ = 3 5 = 8 or - 2. x = 2 or v^2.

There are

also

four imaginary roots, which

may

be found by the

method
2.

of 301.

Solve the equation 2x-\- 3 V^

= 27.

Since

Vx

is

the

same
8,

as x^, this

is

in the quadratic form.

Multiplying by

and adding
16
cc

3^ to

both members ( 288),

24\/^
4 Vx

+ +

9
3

Extracting square roots,

= 216 + = 15.
3

= 225.
=
-

Then,

4Vx = -

15

12 or

18.

Whence,
3.

Vx =

3 or

- -,
2

and x

9 or

Solve the equation 16 x~^

22 x'^ = 3.

EQUATIONS SOLVED LIKE QUADRATICS


Multiplying by 16, and adding
162 x~2
ll'-^

269

to both
11-2

members,
121

16 X 22 x~* 16 a; ^
11 _3

= 48 +

169.

Extracting scLuare roots,

11 ==

Then,

16 x~^

13

= 24 ~
(

or

i 13. - 2, and ~
i*

x~^

=-

or

Extracting cube roots,

x'^

^ ^
9
)

Raising to the fourth power, x-^


l
.

"
(9 j^

^^

ia*

(?)Url,and. (|)nrl6.
=

P solve an equation of the form x* a, first extract the root corresponding to the numerator of the fractional exponent, and afterwards

To

raise to the

power corresponding to the denominator must be given to algebraic signs see 96 and 209.
;

careful attention

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
:

130

3. 4.

0^^-100^*4-9
a;^+33oj^
^

= 0.

7.

5a;-^

= -32.

8.

+ 7a;-^ = -2. 4.-y/x' + 6 = 11^^^.


/

'

>~^^>^i:"

11. 12.

+ 2)(2x'-3)-lSa^=(x' + S){2x'-A). '^t"^u 10. 9(x-' + If = (x-^ - 4)2 + 11 X-' - 5. \ )i"\ )(" 6h-2 = lWTi. ,17. 32V^-33 = ^. + 244o;-^ = -243. vl8. 161 a^ + 5 = - 32
9.

{Sx'

^-r>:
'

ir

a;-3-

a;^^

13. 14. 15.

3x'-4.x'=W.
2s--35.- + 48 = 0.
27;'
-

19-

^-308
x'>

= 640.1

+ 46 = g.

16.

16a:-33a^-243 = 0.

' _^,^^

::^

+ V5 = V^ + Vft. V Va; Vft Va

270
21.

ALGEBRA

V6 + Vi + V4-Va; =
V3Va; +

12

y^22.

V4-V^ = V4Va;+5. l+Vv^_4

294.
to

An equation may sometimes be solved with, reference an expression, by regarding it as a single letter.
.

Solve the equation {x 3(a; 5)^ 5)^ Multiplying by 4, and adding 3^ to both members,
4(a;

= 40.
=
169.

5)3

\2{x

Extracting square roots,

+ 32 = 160 + 2(x 5)^ 3 = 13.


5)*
3

Then,

2(x

5)5

or

13

Whence,
Extracting cube roots,
Squaring,

(x
(cc

5)^
5)^

=8 =2
=4 =

or

= 16 - 5. VE.

or

10.

or v'25.

Whence,

9 or 5

+ v'25.
be solved by, the.

Certain equations of the fourth degree


rules for quadratics.
2.

may

Solve the equation x*

+ 12a^ + 34.a^- 12 x-S5==0.


+
36 x2)

The equation may be written


(x*

12 x3
(x2

- 2 x2 -

12 X

= 35.

Or,

Completing the square, (x2


Extracting square roots,

6 x)2

+ 6x)2-2(x2 + 6x)=35. - 2(x2 + 6 x) + 1 = 36. - 1 = 6. (x^ + 6 x)

Then, Completing the square,


Extracting square roots,

Then, x

=-3

4 or

= 1,

= 7 or - 5. 9 = 16 or i. x^ + Qx x + 3 = 4 or i 2. - 7, - 1, or - 5.
x2

6x

-\-

In solving equations like the above, the first step is to complete the square with reference to the x* and x^ terms by 287, the third term of the square is the square of the quotient obtained by dividing the x^ term by twice the square root of the x* term.
;

EQUATIONS SOLVED LIKE QUADRATICS


3.

271

Solve the equation


to both
(x2

oc^

6x-{- 5Vx^ 6 + 20 = 46.


a?

Adding 20

members,

6 X

20)

+ 5Vx2 - 6 X + 20 = 66. + ?^ =
4
-

Completing the square,


(a;2

6 X

+ 20)H-5Vx2-6x +

20

66

+ ^ = ^.
4 4
17

Extracting square roots,

Vx^ 6x +

20

+ =
2i

Then,
Squaring,
^

Vx^ - 6 x + 20 = 6 or - 11. x2 - 6 x + 20 = 36 or 121.


x^

Completing the square,


Extracting square roots,

6 x + 9 = 25 or 110. x S=5 or VUO.


x

Then,
In solving equations of the

8,

2,

or 3

vTIO.

above form, add such an expression to both members that the expression without the radical sign in the first member may be the same as that within, or some multiple of it.

4.

Solve the equation


/V.2

ar

- = - h xx'^ 3 2

Representing

x2

X
y

by

y,

the equation becomes

272

ALGEBRA

3.

x^-12a'3 + 14a.'24-132aj-135

= 0.

a^'-3
*

2a.-

aj2-3
+.1

2x ^ 17 '~
aj

4*

+ 3^5 + 1 = 10. 7. 3x^ + x + 5VSaf-{-x-{-6 = S0. - 1 + 6 a;V8 - 1 = - 8 a^. 8. 8 9. a5*-2aa.'3-17aV+18a3a; + 72a* = 0, AO. (7x-6)^-5(7x-6)i = -6,' d^ + 2 2d-5 ^35 jj 2 d-5 d^ + 2 6 + 7Va;2-4a) + ll = 4aj--23. ^2. ^. Vaj2-3a;-3 = a;2-3a;-23. 14. (2a;2_3^_l^^3_7(2a^_3aJ-l)t = 8. 3^a^-12aj-7^a^-12a.- = -2. yl5. ''^16. A;^-18A:3 + 109A;2-252A;-f-180 = 0. 17. 2a^ + 4a; + Va;2 + 2a;-3 = 9. - 1, 18. 7 (a^ - 28)-^ 4- 8 (a^ 2S)-^ = 19. (3 ^ + 15)-^ - 5 (3 ^ + 15)-^ = 24. 20. 9aj^ 12aj3-35a;2 + 26a; + 40 = 0. ^-5^ + 1 a^-2a; + 2 ^ 8 21 aj2-2a; + 2 a^^-Sa^ + l" 3* 22. 9(a; + a)^-2262(a; + a)* + 86* = 0.
6.

V5
a.-^

ic

a;^

'

a;2

23. a^ 24.

+ l+Vaj2-8a; + 37=8(a; + 12). 25 + l)-i - 15 + 1)~* = - 2.


(a;
(a;

25

^'a^^-3

3 2

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

273

XXI.

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


of Roots. !u^^(^,

295. Number

o-rvXyTIr* quadratic equation cmtnot have more than two different roots. Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the form

^TZwrr-

GI

A^rri^

'^

ti possible, let this

have three different


ar^^

roots,

rj, rg,

and

'

rg.

+ hr^ + c = 0, ari-{-hr,^-c = 0, and ari-\-hr^-\-c = 0. ri) + 5 (r, r^ = 0. Subtracting (2) from (1), a (rf a (r^ + r^) (r^ - rg) + b (rj - rg) = 0, Then, rg) (ar^ + a^s + 6) = 0. (ri or, Then, by 126, either rj r2=0, or ari+ar2+6=0. But ri r2 cannot equal 0, for, by hypothesis, rj and
Then, by
81,

(1)

(2)

(3)

rg

are

different.

Whence,

a7\

+ arg + 6 = 0.
(3)

(4)
(1),

In like manner, by subtracting


ar^

from

we have
(5)

+ ars + 6 = 0.
arga? 3=0, or rg r3=0.

Subtracting (5) from

(4),

But this

is

impossible, for, by hypothesis,

different; hence, a quadratic equation cannot two different roots.

and rg are ?'2 have more than

296.

Sum
?-i

of
rg

Roots and Product of Roots.

Let

and

denote the roots of ax^

+ 6aj + c = 0.

By 289, ^^^

-fe^Vi''-4ac ^^ ^^^
J
^

_&_ Vft2-4ac
^
(X

CI

274

ALGEBRA
values,
7\

Adding these

+ rg = - = 2a

Multiplying them together,

^
4a^

4a^

the

Hence, if a quadratic equation is i7i the form ax^ + 5ic -f- c = 0, sum of the roots equals minus the coefficient of x divided

"

coefficient of a^, and the product of the roots equals the independent term divided by the coeffi.cient of ccl t

by the

1.

Find by inspection the sum and product of the roots of

The sum

of the roots

is -,

and

their product

^^^^7,

or

6.
is

^^
|;

t*

2.

One

root of the equation 6a^4-31a;

= 35

find

the other.

The equation can be written 6 a:^ 4.


Then, the

31 x

+ 35 = 0.

sum

of the roots is

31

6
31
is

Hence, the other root

/
(

by

7\
),

or

31

7
}--,

2/'

2'

-I-

"We
"^

may

also find the other root

dividing the product of the roots,

^,by-I. 6 2

may find the values of certain other expressions which are symmetrical in the roots of the quadratic.
3.

We

If

ri

and

rg

are the roots of ax^

+ 6ic + c = 0,

find the value

of r^

+ r^r2-\-ro\
n^

We have,
But,

+ r^r^ + r^^ = (n + r^y - rir2.

n + ra =
rv'j^r,r,i-r,^

b
,

and

rirj

c =

Whence,

= ^^-^ = ^^^.

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


EXERCISE
132
:

275

Find by inspection the sum and product of the roots of


>

1.

a;2

>2.
3.

4.

/ 9.
,

10.

111.
If
of:
12.

5. 2x-Ux' = 7, = 0.'l.~ -- 6. 10 4-12 05-150^ = 0. J x'-hx-20 052-605 + 1 = 0.0 -! >7. 8o52-2 = -o5. - ^ = 0. 4052-05-5 = 0.4^ -^/ 8. 9mV4-21w;4)4-5n2 " ^ = 98 is 7 find the other. ^ = > One root of 4- 7 One root of 28 15 = is f find the other, s j^ One root of 5 - 17 4- 6 = is | find the other. ^^ \~V^ "V

4-8054-7=0. -^/

"^

05^

o;

05^

05

05^

05

't\

and
ck"--^

7*2

are the roots of

aoi?

+ hx-{-c = 0,
14.

find the values

a^
13.'i4-i-

Tlll,

1 + -1.

15.

r,

+ r/.

297. Formation

of Quadratic Equations.

By

aid of the principles of 296, a quadratic equation

may

be formed which shall have any required roots. For, let ri and r^ denote the roots of the equation
aa52

4-6o;4-c

= 0,

oro52

4-- + - = 0.
a a
rg,

(1)

Then, by

296,

= - rj

and -

= r^r^.

Substituting these values in (1),


05^

we have
r205

ri05

Or,

by

108,

(05

4- r^r^ = 0. - ri)(o5 - n) = 0.

Therefore, to form a quadratic equation which shall have

any required

roots.

Subtract each of the roots


resulting expressions equal

from

x,

and place

the

product of the

to zero.

Ex,

Form

the quadratic whose roots shall be 4 and

J.

276
By
the rule,
{x

ALGEBRA
4){x
-\--]

= 0. =
;

Multiplying by

4,

(x

4)(4a;

7)

or,

4x2

9a;

- 28 = 0.

EXERCISE

133
:

Form the
1.

quadratic equations whose roots shall be


3.

5,8.

2.

-4,
9.

3.

4.

-1, -f. 6, -L3.

5.
,

i,

-|.
0.

^7.
8.

-h-h
-i,j\.

6.

^,

a + 26,
3

a-25.

.11.

V 10.

m^...
^

71,

m+4
/^
,

71.

s.l2.

-4-5V3. Vm_+2Vn V^-2Vii


_4-|-5V3,
2
, '

/^

,^

FACTORING

298. Factoring of Quadratic Expressions.

quadratic expression

is

an expression of the form

aoc^

-^bx

c.

In 117, we showed how to factor certain expressions of this form by inspection; we will now derive a rule for factoring any
quadratic expression
;

we
a

have,

ax'-\-bx-hc

= afa^-h -\-^
\

aj
4:a^

|_

\2aJ

aJ

LV

2aJ

4:a'

2a^

2a
aa;^

J\

^ 2a
are

2a
by

J'

114.

But by

289, the roots of


_6_
,

+ 6a; + c =
b

vV-4ac
2a

2a

^^^

yJW-4.ac

2a

2a

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

277

Hence, to factor a quadratic expression, place it equal to zero, and solve the equation thus formed. Then the required factors are the coefficient of x^ in the given expression, x minus the first root, and x minus the second,
1.

Factor 6 0^2^ 7

^_ 3^
a;2

Solving the equation 6

= 0,

by

289,

^^
Then,

-7:fcV49T72 ^
12
6a;2

-7ll ^l
12

^^

3_

- 3 = efx
+

-^Vx + -^
+ 3).

=
2.

3(x-|)x2^x
4-

|U(3a:-l)C2x

Factor 4

13

a?

- 12 a^.
+
13 x

Solving the equation 4

12 x2

= 0,
13

by

289,

13

\/l69 + -24

192

19 ^ _ 1 -24 4

4
^j.

3*

Whence,

13x - 12x2

=- 12^x + ^Wx --\


=.(..l)x(-a)(.-|) = (l+4x)(4-3x).

3.

Factor 2ar'-3aJ2/-2/-7a;
2 x2

+ 42/ + 6.
+4^
4
_1_

We solve
By
289,

- x(3y + 7)-

2 ^2

_ 0.

^ 3y +

j:V(3y-h7)2

+ 16y2-32y-48
l)

^ 3y + 7zfcV25y2-H0y + i ^ 3y + 7(5y +
4

==8y8o, -2y + 6^^


4

4^2
4?/

^^^-y + 3.

Then,

2x2-3x?/-2i/2-7x +

+6

= 2[x-(2 +
2,

2)][x-^li^]
2/-3).

= (x-2?/-2)(2x +

278

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


Then,
q
x'^

279

-9 x-4: = 9

x'^

-9 x + lf\^---4:= /'Sx-'-V-(U4)

3-M)(8-M)
= (3cc4-l)(3x-4).

If the ct^ term is negative, the entire expression should be enclosed in parentheses preceded by a sign.

2.

Factor

3-12x-4:x'. _ 12 X - 4 = -(4 + 12 - 3) 3 = - (4 _^ 12 X + 9 - 9 - 3)
a;2 a:2
a;

a^2

= -[(2x + 3)2-l2] = (2x4-3 + VT2) x(-l)(2x + 3- VT2) = (2 V3 + 3 -f 2 x)(2\/3 - 3 - 2 x).


EXERCISE
Factor the following
1.
:

135

4a^-12a;-7.
9a^-21a; + 10.

7.

l-{-2x-x'.
16 x" - 16 x
-\-

2.

8.
9.

1.

3.

4.
5. 6.

+ x-12. 16aj2 + 40ic + 21. 9x' + 24.x-2. 42-f-20a; + 19.


ar^

6-5x-25a^,
AxF-j-9x-9.
36 25
a^

10.
11.

12.

a^

+ 72 + 29. - 10 - 11.
0^

a;

300.
surds.
1.

We

will

now take up
-\-

the forms

x'^

+
a^

ax^y^

2/^

or x^

the factoring of expressions of y*, when the factors involve

(Compare

115.)

Factor
a*

+ 2 a'b^ + 25 b\
_|.

2 a262

+ 25 64 = (a* + 10 a252 25 64) - 8 a2&2 = (a2+5 62)2_(a6V8)2

= (a2 + 5 62 + a6\/8)(a2 + 5 62 - ahVS) = (a2 + 2 a6\/2 + 5 62) (^2 _ 2 a6 V'2 + 5 62).

280
2.

ALGEBRA
Factor
iC*

+ 1.
= (X2+1)2-(XV2)2

= {x^-\-xV2 + l){x^-xV2 + l).


EXERCISE
136

this can be
1.

In each of the following obtain two sets of factors, when done without bringing in imaginary numbers
:

a;^-7a^ + 4.
a'-{-b\

4.

4.a*

2.

5. 6.

3.

9m^-llm2 + l.
of

+ 6 a" -\-9. 36a;^-92a;^ + 49. 25m^4-28mV + 16n^


whose
first

301. Solution

Equations by Factoring.
to solve equations

In

126,

we showed how

mem-

bers could be resolved by inspection into first degree factors,

and whose second members were

zero.
first

We

will

now take up equations whose

members can be

resolved into factors partly of the first and partly of the second, or entirely of the second degree.
1.

Solve the equation


first

ic^

+ 1 = 0.
(x
-\-

Factoring the

member,

1) (x^

-^ I)

= 0.

Then,

ic+l=0,
jc
;

and
2:

x2

- +1=

whence, by

289,

= -l; -4 1 1 ^1 ^ x=
ora;

V- 3

Solve the equation x^-\-l


2, 300, x^
-\-

= 0.
+
1) (x^

.By Ex.

+ l={x^ +
1

a;\/2

- xV2 + 1).

Solving x^

xV2
^

-{-

= 0,
2

we have
^

_ -V2V2~^^ _ -V2 V^^


2

Solving

a;2

iCv/2

= 0, we have
j:\/2"34
2
\/2

\/2

V^^
2

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


of

281

The above examples illustrate the important principle that the degree an equation indicates the number of its roots thus, an equation of the
; ;
;

of the fourth degree, four roots third degree has three roots etc. The roots are not necessarily unequal ; thus, the equation x^ 2 x+l

may be

written

(a;

1)

(aj

1)

0,

and

its

two roots are

and

1.

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
"^l.
y/2.
)/Z.
:

137

5a:3-3ar'-9a; =

0.

11.
12.

a?^

- 6a.-2 + 1 = 0.

(a;-|-4)(2a;2_^5aj-h25)=0.

x^-ox' + l^zO.

(9x2-4)(llar^+8-4)=0.

13.
14.

64^^-125 = 0.
o^*

4.
5.

a;*-llaV-12a* = 0.

6.
1/7.

(^.
9.

10.

= 0. a;^-f 2a;2 + 2a; + 4 = 0. ^-1 = 0. a^*4-8aj = 0. 5a^-4a.2 + 60a.-48 = 0. 27a^ + 8a3 = 0.


a;^-81
20.
21.

15.
16.

17.
18.

'

- 10 + 9 = 0. - 20 + 16 = 0. 9a?^ + 5a;2 + 4 = 0. a;6_729 = 0. a;-256 = 0. a^^4-2a; + 4 ^4


a;^ a;^
a.-^

a^-2ic-4

x"

^x^-x^-\-^
Va;^4-l

Qi.

+ V9a;4-x = 2a5-l.
+ 6a? + c =
are

302. Discussion

of General Equation.

By

289, the roots of aa^

2a

2a

We
of a,
I.

will

now
c.

discuss these results for all possible real values

b,

and

6^

4 ac

positive.

In this
IT.

case, Vi

and

rg

are real and unequal.

b^-4.ac=:0.
case, r^

In this

and

7-2

are

7'eal

and

equal.

III.

6^

4 ac
rj

negative.

In this case,
IV.
6

and

^2

are imaginary ( 273).

^^v

^'*-^V>'^-<mL.

= 0.
case, the equation takes the

In this

form
;

ax^ -^c
If

= 0;

whence,

a;

= -v

a and

are of unlike sign, the roots are real, equal in absosign.

lute value,

and unlike in
c

If a

and

are of like sign, both roots are imaginary.

V.

= 0.
case, the equation takes the

In this

form

^
a

"

^^ H^V
^
*^

aa^4-6x

= 0;

whence,
real,

a;

or
zero.

Hence, the roots are both


VI.
6

one being

^^

= 0,

and

= 0. = 0.
'^

In this case, the equation takes the form ax^ Hence, both roots equal zero.

^^

'^

The
6^

4 ac is,
Ex.

roots are both rational, or both irrational, according as or is not, a perfect square.

Determine by inspection the nature of the roots of


& = - 5, 4^ac is positive, the roots are h^ 4iac is a perfect square, both
;

Here a =2,
Since h^

2a^_5c-18 = 0. c = - 18 and 62 _ 4 ac = 25 +
real

144

169.

and unequal.

Since

roots are rational.

EXERCISE

138

Determine by inspection the nature of the roots of the


following
1.
:

2.
3.

4.

5.

- 19 + 125 = 0. -^ (v^ 7. 5a^-4a; = 0. ^^'tS -^ 9a^ + 6a;-l = 0. "7^ 4a^-28a;^-4^tfe^^^'^^A8. 24 + 9 = 0. 12a^-19aj4-4 = 0. >^^. 16 _ 39 ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 25a;2-4 = 0. 30 ^xL..^O.
6a^

+ 17:-f 5 = 0. 6a^ + =V:''

/61

6.

a^

a;

a;^ _f_

^^

<

a;^

>,

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

283

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS WITH ONE UNKNOWN NUMBER


303. The graph of a quadratic expression, with one unknown number, x, may be found by putting y equal to the expression, and finding the graph of the resulting equation as in 181.
1.

Find the graph of

a^

- 2 - 3.
a;

Put y

= ic2 -

a;

3.

If

a;

0,

284

ALGEBRA

The latter expression has its 1 when X being then equal

negative value of greatest absolute value 25


to

8
(

Then, the lowest point has the co-ordinates

t?
')]

304.

The
of

principle of 188 holds for the graph of the first

member

any quadratic equation, with one unknown number. 3 ( 303) intersects the axis the graph of a^ 2 x Thus, XX' at points whose abscissas are 3 and 1, and the equation

ic^

2cc 3 =

has the roots 3 and 3 intersects Again, the graph of 2 x^-{-x

1.

XX'

at the point

whose abscissa is 1, and between the points whose abscissas are 1 and 2 and the equation 2 ic^ + a? 3 = has one root 1 and 2. equal to 1, and one between
;

EXERCISE

139

Find the graph of the first member of each of the following equations, and verify the principle of 188 in the results
:

1.

x2-5a; + 4

= 0.

5.

4.x'-{-Tx

= 0.

2.
3.

x^-\-x-6 = 0.

6.
7.

2a^-lla;-6 = 0.
6x^ + 50^-6

4.

+ 70^ + 10 = 0. 3o^-4a; = 0.
0^2

= 0.

8.

8o^-14o;-15 = 0.
Equations hav-

305. Graphs

of the First

Members

of Quadratic

ing Equal or Imaginary Roots.


1.

Consider the equation

o^

4 + 4 = 0.
oj

We may
Then, by

write the equation 126, the roots are 2 and

2)(x 2)=:0. (cc


2.

To
y
If
If

find the graph of the first


2)2.

member, put
y
y

= (xx x

= 0, = l,

y
is

= =

4.
l.

If
If

x x

= 2, = S,

= 0. = 1]

etc.

The graph

the curve

ABC, which

extends

to an indefinitely great distance


tive

from XX'.

Since (x 2)2 cannot be negative for any value of x, y cannot be negaand the graph is tangent to XX'.
;

THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


It is evident

285

from

unknown number, has equal


is

this that, if a quadratic equation, with one roots, the graph of its first member

tangent to XX'.
2.

Consider the equation

ic^

+ + 2=0.
a;

Solving,

- 1 V- 7
graph of the
first

To
y

find the

member, put

+ X + 2. Ifx = 0,y = 2. If X = 1, y = 4.
x2

ltx=-l,y = 2.
If

=-

2,

=4

etc.

to

The graph is the curve ABC, which extends an indefinitely great distance from XX'.

We

have,

x2

+
]

=
(x^

+ ^^ - ^ + 2 = (x + ^V + ^.
x,

Since

(x
V

2/

+4

cannot be zero or negative for any value of

cannot be zero or negative, and the graph does not intersect XX'.
It is evident

from this

that, if a quadratic equation,

with one
its first

unknown number, has imaginary roots, the graph of member does not intersect XX'.
EXERCISE
Find the graphs of the
first

140

members
:

of the following,

and

in each case verify the above principles


1.

x'-6x-\-9 = 0.
aj2

3.

4:x'-\-4:X-^l=zO.

2.

3a;

+ = 0.
4

4.

2x^-4lx + 5 = 0.

286

ALGEBRA

XXII.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


of the double signs

306.
If

On

the use

and

two or more equations involve double

signs, it will be
;

understood that the equations can be read in two ways first) reading all the 2qyper signs together; second, reading all the
lower signs together. Thus, the equations x
aj

= 2,

= + 2,

2/=-f3,

= 3, can be = -2, = -3. ora^


y
2/

read either

Also,

the equations

x=2, y=:f

3,

can be read either

x
307.

= -{-2,y = -3,orx = -2,y = -{-S.


(

Two

equations of the second degree


will generally produce,

83) with two

unknown numbers

by elimination, an

equation of the fourth degree with one


Consider, for example, the equations

unknown number.

'X^-^y

=a.

(1)
(2)

\x-\-f = b.

From

(1),

x^; y=a

substituting in (2),

x-\-a^

2 ax^

-\-x'^

h-,

an equation of the fourth degree in x. The methods already given are, therefore, not sufficient for the solution of every system of simultaneous quadratic equations, with two unknown numbers. In certain cases, however, the solution may be effected.
308. Case
I.

When

each equation
ax^

is

in the form

+ hy^ =

c.

In this case, either


subtraction.

x"'

or y^ can be eliminated

by addition

or

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


.

287

1.

^ . Solve the equations


-.

i
1

f3a^'+
3
^ 2/2

4/ = 76. ^^ = 4. 11
^ ic^

288

ALGEBRA
3x'-2xy = 24..
4.x'-5xy =
4/^2+
9A;2
'

(llx'-6y^ = S4:.
1

4.6,

ar^

+ lo = 204.
2/'

= 13.
'

(2x'-xy-Sy'=:0.
1

4.

iSh^-27k^ = 6.
(5xy-\-y'=-75. [xy-3y' = -95.

'

'

+ Sy^ = 27. (2x' + Sf-\-x = 67. I a^-2/ = 17.


x^-{-xy

Ux'-y^ = Sa' + 10ab + 3h\


309. Case. II.

When

one equation

is

of the second degree,

and

the other of the first.

unknown numbers

solved by finding one of the from the first degree equation, and substituting this value in the other equation.

Equations of this kind

may be

in terras of the other

x^

Ex, Solve the equations

= 6 y. x+2y = 7'.
xy
x, ox y

(1) (2)
-

From

(2),

2y =

'^-^^^

(3)

Substituting in (1),

2x^-x{ '^-^^^ \ =
4:x'^

6
(

1=^
)

Clearing of fractions,
Solving,

7x-\-x'^

= 42 6x, or x = S or
.

x^- a; =42.

Substituting

in

(3),

= ^-^
2

or

^ = 2 or ^.
2
. '

10

The

solution isa;

3, v , y

2:or, a;=
5

y ^

10
-

Certain examples where one equation is of the third degree and the other of/the first may be solved by the method of Case II.

yy
^

EXERCISE
:

142

1Solve the following equations

/^

{^^3f = Z7.
lie 2?/ =9.

'

p+
1

2/

ic?/

= _4. = 45.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

289

= 97. ic = 5. xy -\-2 y~ = S. 0? 3 + = 10.


0^

0^2/

4-

2/'
?/

[2^
3
10.

3^
2

2.

12a;
,.
f

32/

a;

?/

Vx
x^

-\-

=7.
-\-y'^

xy=a^-{-a 2. l3a; + 4:2/ = 7a4-2.


r a;

xy
x

= 124.
=8.
12
^

y
X
x

a;

+y

_ 40
21

2y-\-Sx=:-l.

2e-3^ = 5. = 344. ar*^,


7/3

^
13.

L = ??

2t

3p 24* 4j9-^=-2.

a;

-2/ =8.

a;

= a + 2 5.
?/

2x-3y = -l.
14.
!

a;2,

32
310. Case III.

15

When

the given equations are symmetrical

with respect to x and y ; that is, without changhig the equation.

when x

arid

y can be interchanged

Equations of this kind may be solved by combining them in such a way as to obtain the values oi x-\-y and x y.
1.

Solve the equations


x^

x^y = 2. 15. xy =
4.

(1) (2)

Squaring (1), Multiplying (2) by 4


Subtracting,

x^

Extracting square roots,

= - 60. 4 xy 2xy + y- = 64. x y = S.


2

+ 2xy + y^=

(3)

Adding

(1)

and

(3),

Whence,
Subtracting (3) from (1),

= 2 8 = 10 or - 6. = 5 or 3. x 2 y = 2 =F 8 = - 6 or 10.
a;
?/

Whence,

=r

3 or
3,

5.

The

solution

is

cc

5,

=S;

or,

5.

290
In subtracting

ALGEBRA

8 from
2,

we have

8, in

accordance with the notato

tion explained in 306.

ever

In operating with double signs, -H should be changed to


.

is

changed

T and T
,

to

when, ;

the symmetrical

(The above equations may also be solved by the method method is shorter and neater.)
^2

of

Case II

but

2.

Solve the equations


2,

Multiply (2) by

= 50. xy = -7. 2xy =- 14.


7/2

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Add

(1)

and

(3),

x^

Subtract (3) from (1),

x^

+ 2xy + -2xy

-\-

Add

(4)

and

(5),

= S6, y^ = 6i, =6 2
y^
a;

Whence,
Subtract (5) from (4),

a;

2y
2^

=Q. or x - y =8. - 6 8. 8, or 1, 1, or 7. = 7, = 6 T 8, or - 6 T 8.
or x'+ y

(5)

Whence,

= 1,
=
1,

7,

7,

or

1.

The

solution

is

ic^

7,

2/

= q= 1

or,

=T

7.

Certain examples in which one equation is of the third degree, and the other of the first or second, may be solved by the method of Case III.
3.

Solve the equations

(a^-f
i
,

=56.

(1)

Divide (1) by (2),

x-y = 2.
= ^. Sxy = 24, or xy = 8. (2), x^ + 2 xy + y^ = 36, or x + y = 6. 23c = 26 = 8 or -4. = 4 or 2. 2y = 6-2 = 4or-S. (6), y = 2 or 4. x = 4, y = 2 or, x = 2, y = i.
x"^

(3)
(4) (5) (6)

Squaring (3)

2 xy

-^

y"^

Subtract (4) from

Add

(2) (3)

and
and

(5),
(6),

Add

Whence,
Subtract (3) from

cc

Whence,

The
(If

'

solution

is

we

interchange x and y in equation (1),


y'^

it

becomes
y^

x^

56, or

x^

56,

which

is

not the same as (1).

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


;

291

Thus, the equation (1) is not symmetrical with respect to x and y but method of Case III may often be used when either or both of the given equations are symmetrical, except with respect to the signs of the terms.)
the

We may

advantageously use the method of Case III to solve

certain equations which are not symmetrical with respect to x and y\ as, for example, the equations
cc

-2

2/

= - 4.

EXERCISE

143
:

Solve the following equations by the symmetrical method


a;2

+ / = 29.
=-3.
10.

x'-xy-^y^ = a^ +

3b'\

X +2/
2.

3.

x y = W. xy = -2^. = 130. g2 4.^2 -s =-8. g

11.

4.

xy
5.

= 12. = 7.

m:
I

x-^y = 2a. = 280. a^ + [a^_a;2/ + / = 28. a^ + + = 7. .x^ xy-{-y'^ = V^. = 407. ^3 +


2/^
a;2/

2/2

71^

-\-n=ll.

a^-2/3^35^
ix^-\-xy-\-y^
ar^-2/3
6.

a^

= 26. -V =2. y x-\-y = 2n 1. 7. n 2. xy = n^ x^ y^ = 63. xy 8 1 x-y = S.


\

Xx

-\-

-\-

16.

+ 92/' = 50. a;-3?/ = 0. xy = 16. 2 + = 14. 36a^4-64/ = 85. 6 + 8 = 11. = 189. 0)3-8 -2y =9.
a;
2/ a; 2/

2/^

a;

When each equation is of the second degree, 311. Case IV. and homogeneous; that is, ichen each term involving the uyiknown numbers is of the second degree with respect to them ( 65).

292
Certain equations of (See Exs.
of Case
I
tliis

ALGEBRA
form
308,

may
and

be solved by the method of Case


310.)

or Case III.

1,

2,

The method

IV should be used only when

the example cannot

be solved by Cases

or III.

Ex.

Solve the equations

{x'-2xp =5.
I

(1)

x2

+ / = 29.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


Placing y

293

12 X

= 0,
ic2

y=-12x;
4-

substituting in (1),

24 x2

5,

or x^

= -
5

Then,

x=

-i-,
V5

and

?/

= - 12 = =F -
a:

V6
EXERCISE
144

Solve the following equations:

2.

5.

+ 3x?/ = -5. l2a;?/-/ = -24. 5a^-y^ = 9. [xy-3y^ = -90. (x' + xy + y' = 19. 2x' + xy =-2. Aa^_xy-y^ = -16. Sxy + y^ = 2S.
^

a;2

'

= -41. = 5S. [x''-5xy + Sy^ 2x'-\-7 xy -{-4.y' = 2. [Sx' + Sxy -4.y' = -72.
raj2_2a^2/_42/2
(

Ua^-2xy -y' =^-16.


I

,.

10.

5x'-7xy = -36. Sx^- a;2/-40/ = 30.

[5x'-3xy-72y' = SS.
of

312. Special Methods for the Solution


tions of Higher Degree.

Simultaneous Equa-

No

come under the cases


experience.
1.

general rules can be given for examples which do not just considered; various artifices are

employed, familiarity with which can only be gained by


[

Solve the equations


3,

i
[

xy xy^ = 6.
^

^-f = 19. ^
3
cc2y

(1)
/n

{^)
18.
l.

Multiply (2) by

= xy'^

(3)

Subtract (3) from (1), x^-Sx'^y

Z xy^

-y^ =

Extracting cube roots,

Dividing (2) by (4),


Solving equations (4)

xy

= 1. = 6.
we
find x

(4)^

(5)

and

= 2;

or,

=-

(5)

by

the method of 310,

S,

2,

=-B.

294
^
2.
r.
1 ,
.

ALGEBRA
(
i
[

Solve the equations

af-{-y^

= 9xy. = 6. x-\-y
9(^2

= u + V and y = u v, - vy = 9(w + v) (u - v), or 2 m3 + 6 uv^ = (u + vy + (w v) = Q, 2 u = 6, or w = 3. and (u + v) {u


Putting X
-\-

- ^2)

(i)

Putting w

3 in (1),

54

18

Whence,
Therefore,

and

The

solution

is

= 4,

x= u = =2 y
2/
;

i(

= 9(9 _ -yS). = 1, or = 1+ v = Sl=4:or2', v=:3=Fl=2 or 4.


??2

^2

-w

or,

2,

i.

artifice of substituting + v and w v for cc and ?/ is advantageous any case where the given equations are symmetrical ( 310) with See also Ex. 4. respect to x and y.

The

in

'

3.

Solve the equations


2,
x"^

\
[

xy = 6.

(2)
(3)

Multiplying (2) by

Add
Or,

(1)

and

(3),

-^

= 12. + 2y = S5. 2xy + y^ = S5. (^x + yy-{-2(x-hy)


2xy
-\-

2 x

Completing the square, (x

Then,
,

(x

+ ?/)

+ ?/)2 + 2(ic + ?/)+ 1 =36. + 1 = 6 and x + = 5 or - 7.


;

?/

(4)

Squaring (4) Multiplying (2) by


Subtracting,

x2
4,

a;^/

?/2

= 25
=24.

or 49.

4xy

x^-2xy + y^=l
and

or 25.

Whence,

Adding

(4)

(5),

Whence,
Subtracting (5) from (4),

Whence,

x-y = l or 5. (5) 2 x = 5 1, or - 7 5. x = 3, 2, -1, or -6. 2 = 5 T 1, or - 7 T 5. = 2, 3, -6, or -1.


2/

2/

The solution is.x=3, yz=2; x=2, ?/=3; x=-l, y=-6', or x=-6, = ~l.
4.

Solve the equations

[x -fy

= 1.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


Putting x

295

= u-v, (u + vy -\-(u- vy = 97, =u+v


and y

or 2 m*
2z<

12

wV + 2 = 97,
tj*

(1)

and

") = !, (?t + v) + (w

= 1,

or u

Substituting value of u in (1), --\-Sv^ o

+ 2v^ = 97.
^^^
^,

Solving

this,

^,2

= 25
4

^j.

_31
4

= i^
2
2,

or

V-31

Then,

a;

+ v = -l|,

or

-^^ ^ =
3,

-3, or

and,

y-u-. = -\T\or-\^
solution
is
a;

^ = _

3, 2,

or

The
y

= 2,

?/

31

1-

81

y = 2; x^ - 1 + V^sT

296

ALGEBRA
14.

llx^ xy y'^ = 45.

ar

12.

xy

2/

X
a;4-2/

15.

2xy + ^y'' = ^l.

= 35.
. ^
16.
I

13.

3x-22/=-13.

"(
18.

x + y = S{a-b),

+ 2y 3a;-2^
3a;

+ 22/ 20* 82/' + 3a^ = 29.


3a;
.

3a;-2y ^41

'y~^'x~~^'
*

=6a
19.

xy
.x-\-y

= 5 axy.

'3af-\-3y^
27.

= 10xy.

^ + 4 = -l^'' ar
20.
y^

+ xy = 3
1+1=1. 6
ic
2/

^y + y^x = 42.
28.

^
62

+ = - a.
-

21.

22.

23.

r
25.

+ 9^2 _^4e = 9. = 2. ei + 2 a^ + 2/3^2a^. + 24a. + xy^ = 2a^ 8a. V2x V2a^-9 = Sy-\-6. I 17/ = aj2-5. Sa^xy xz = 5x-2y = l. 4:X-\-Sz = 5. x^y 4- xy^ = 56. + = -l.
^
a;^^/ 4:,

30.

LX
2y^

-fgs-3s2 = 27.

g^_4gs + 3s2 = 72.

y^-\-4:Xy~3y = 4:2.

xy + 5y = 10,
i-2/

16 a^y- 104 a;?/ = -105.

3,.{
a;4-f-a;y
j32.*

= -2.

+ = 481. x^-xy + y^ = 3T,


2/4

33.

'9a^-13ajy-3a;=-123.
a^2/+4 2/2+2 2/=125.

a;

2/

* Divide the

first

equation by the second

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


34.

297

39.

xy-(x-y) = -9.
xy (x y)
(x^-\-y^

= 20.

35.

| + xy + 4 y^
or

= 44.
40.

l^i = -12.
xy
y^

= xy-l-l. = x^y' + l, [x' + y^


ra;^
I

41.

36.

37

2i^-^y^-z^ = 4:S. x 3y + z = 17. 3z = 13. x-{-y x'-xy + y' = -^j. I ^-2/ = tV


(x

42.

OCpy

+ = 211. x + y = l. X = 6, ^ = -12.
2/^

11
01?

1
y^

^ a'-\-a^h^+h\
a^W
a^h^

38

I (x

+ y)-{-xy + yy + x^f = 61.


=11.

43.
.

xy

cc^

xy

y^

PROBLEMS
1.

IN

PHYSICS

From
g.

the equations

v = gt

and

\ gf, find V in terms


TT EG=

of

S and
2.

From

the equations
t.

(7

V =

and

find

in

terms of C, B, and
3.

find

From the equations E = FS, F = ma, S = \ af, ^ in terms of m and v.

and v

= af,

313. Problems involving Simultaneous Equations of Higher


Degree.

In solving problems which involve simultaneous equations


of higher degree, only those solutions should be retained which satisfy the conditions of the problem. (Compare 176.)

EXERCISE

^r^^
146

1. The difference of the squares of two numbers is 56, and the difference of the numbers is |- their sum. Find the numbers.

2.

The sum

product of their squares

of the squares of two numbers is 61, Find the numbers. is 900.

and the

298
3. is 21,

ALGEBRA
The product
of the

sum

of

and the product

of their difference

two numbers by the smaller by the greater is 4.


is

Find the numbers.


}

4.

The sum

of the cubes of

two numbers

224

and

if

the

product of the numbers be subtracted from the Find the numbers. squares, the remainder is 28.
5.

sum

of their

Two numbers

reverse order.

the

sum

are expressed by the same two digits in of the numbers equals the square of of the digits, and the difference of the numbers equals

The sum

5 times the square of the smaller digit.

Find the numbers.

6. The square of the sum of two numbers exceeds their product by 84 and the sum of the numbers, plus the square root of their product, equals 14. Find the numbers.
;

7.

The

difference of the cubes of

two numbers

is

342

and

the product of the numbers be multiplied by their difference, the result is 42. Find the numbers.
if 8. Had there been party at a hotel spent a certain sum. 5 more, and each had spent 50 cents less, the bill would have been $24.75. Had there been 3 fewer, and each had spent 50 cents more, the bill would have been $9.75. How many

were there, and what did each spend


9.

interest of $700, for a certain number of If the time were 4 years less, years, at a certain rate, is $ 182. and the rate li% more, the interest would be $ 133. Find the

The simple

time and the


10.

rate.

If the digits of a number of two figures be inverted, the quotient of this number by the given number is If, and their product 1008. Find the number.
11.

The square

of the smaller of

two numbers, added


;

to twice

their product, gives 7 times the smaller number and the square of the greater exceeds the product of the numbers by 6 times

the smaller number.


12.

Find the numbers.


piece of cloth,

A rectangular

when

wet, shrinks one-sixth

and one-twelfth in its width. If the area is diminished by 12| square feet, and the length of the four sides by 6J^ feet, find the original dimensions.
in its length,

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


13.

299
rates,

and

travel

from

to Q, 14 miles, at

uniform

taking one-third of an hour longer than A. to perform the On the return, each travels one mile an hour faster, journey.

and

B now

takes one-fourth of an hour longer than A.

Find

their rates of travelling.


14.

A and B

minutes.

and

B winning by two speed by two miles an hour, diminishes his by the same amount, and A wins by two
run a race of two miles,
inct'eases his

now

minutes.
15.

Find their original

rates.

A man ascends

the last half of a mountain at a rate one-

half mile an hour less than his rate during the first half, and On the descent, his rate is one reaches the top in 3J hours.

mile an hour greater than during the

first

half of the ascent,

and he accomplishes it in 2i hours. Find the distance to the top, and his rate during the first half of the ascent.
16.

The square

of the second digit of a

number

of three

The digits exceeds twice the sum of the first and third by 3. sum of the first and second digits exceeds 4 times the third by 1 and if 495 be subtracted from the number, the digits will be
;

inverted.
17.

Find the number.

ship has provisions for 36 days. If the crew were 16 and the daily ration one-half pound less, the provisions greater, would last 30 days if the crew were 2 fewer, and the daily Find the ration one pound greater, they would last 24 days. number of men, and the daily ration.
;

lends f 2100 in two amounts, at different rates of and the two sums produce equal returns. If the first interest, portion had been loaned at the second rate, it would have produced $48; and if the second portion had been loaned at the first rate, it would have produced $ 27. Find the rates.
18. 19. A can do a piece of work in 2 hours less time than B and together they can do the work in l^- hours less time than A alone. How long does each alone take to do the work ?
;

A man

300

ALGEBRA

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO UNKNOWN NUMBERS


314.
1.

Consider the equation

x^-{-y'^

= 25.

This means that, for any point on the graph, the square of the abscissa,
plus the square of the ordinate, equals 25. But the square of the abscissa of any point,

plus the square of the ordinate, equals the square of the distance of the point from the
for the distance is the hypotenuse of a right triangle, whose other two sides are the
origin
;

abscissa

and ordinate.

of Then, the square of the distance from any point on the graph is 25 or, the distance of any point on the graph is 5. from Thus, the graph is a circle of radius 5, having
;

its

centre at 0.
^j

(The graph of any equation of the form


2.

a;^

y2

is

circle.)

Consider the equation


?/2

2/^

= 4 + 4.
a?

IfrK=^0,
If If

= 1, x = -\,
X

?/2

= 4, = 8,
=Q.

or

?/=2.

{A, B)
(O,

ov y

2 V2.

D)

(E)
etc.

The graph extends

indefinitely to the right of

YT.
If X is negative, and 1, i/2 is negative, and therefore y imaginary ; then, no part of the graph lies to the left of E.

<
2^.

of the

(The graph of Ex. 2 form y'^ = ax or

is

y^

parabola ; as also ax -{- b.

is

the graph of any equation

The graphs
3.

of 303

and 305 are parabolas.)


a;^

Consider the equation

+ 4 = 4.
?/^

In this case, it is convenient to first locate the points where the graph intersects the axes.
If
2/

= 0,

x2

= 4,

or

a;

= 2.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


- 2, y'^ is negative, and y imaginary If X has any value >2, or no part of the graph lies to the right of A, or left of A'. - 1, x^ is negative, and x imaginary If y has any value 1, or no part of the graph lies above B^ or below B'.

301
;

< <

then,

>

then,

of the 4.

(The graph of Ex. 3 form ax^ -}- by^ =

is

an

ellipse ; as also is the

graph of any equation

c.)
oc^

Consider the equation

2y- = l.

Here, x2
If

- 1 = 2 ^^

or y^

= ^^^

2/2=0, or y=0. {A, A') X has any value between 1 and 1, y^ is negative, and y imaginary. Then, no part of the graph lies between A and A'.

x=l,

If

li

x=2, y^=l,

or y

= 'yM^

(B,C,B',C')
each of which extends

The graph has two branches,


to

BAC and B'A'C,


from 0.
is

an

indefinitely great distance

of the

(The graph of Ex. 4 is a hyperbola ; as also form ax^ by'^ = c, or xy a.)

the graph of any equation

EXERCISE
Plot the graphs of the following
1.

147
:

xy

= -Q.

3. 4.

:^-{-y^
2/2

=L
of

5.

4aj24.9/=36.

2.

x'^^^y.

= 5a;-l.

6.

4a;2_^2^_4
of

315. Graphical Representation


Quadratic Equations.
1.
r

Solutions

Simultaneous

Consider the equations


of
?/2

= 4:X. {3x y = o.
y^

The graph The graph

of 3 x

= 4 x is the parabola A OB. = 5 is the straight line AB,


?/

intersecting the parabola at the points


respectively. To find the co-ordinates of

and

J5,

A and
;

B,

we proceed x-

as in 184

that
is

is,

we

solve the given equations.

The

solution

= 1,

=2

or,

= -, y=
^

( 309).

302
It

ALGEBRA
may be
verified in the figure that these are the co-ordinates of

A and

B, respectively.

Hence, if any two graphs intersect, the co-ordinates of any point of intersection form a solution of the set of equations represented
by the graphs.
2.

Consider the equations


(a^
[

The graph of is the circle y'^ AD, whose centre is at 0, and radius VlT. The graph of xy = 4 is a hyperbola,
having
its

+ f = 17. xy = =n x^ +
4:.

branches in the angles


respectively,

XOY
Y'.

and intersecting the circle at the points A and B in angle XO F, and at the points C and D in angle X'

and X'OT,

The
ic

solution of the given equations


?/

is (

310),

= 4,
may

= !; x=l,

i/

= 4;

cc

1,

?/=

4;

and

ic

= 4, y = l.

It

be verified in the figure that these are the co-ordinates of A, B,


respectively.

C,

and D,

EXERCISE

148

Find the graphs of the following sets of equations, and in each case verify the principle of 315
:

ra;2 4-42/2 = 4. x y 1.

9a^-f/=148.

2a;2-f.5/^53.

xy=S.
ic2

3aj2_42/2=-24.
r

X^-Ay=-7.

[ 2

4.

ic -1-3

=4. 2/

+ = 29. xy = 10.
2/2

x'

+ f==is. 92/ = 6.

316.

1.
r

Consider the equations

= 4. = -5. [2x + 3y
0^2-1-42/^

(1) (2)
ellipse

The graph of x^+4:y'^=4: is the AB. The graph of 2x + Sy = 6


straight line

is

the

CD.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


To
solve the given equations,

303

we

have, from (2), x

3y-5

Substituting in (1),

9 y^

30 y

25

+4
?/

?/2

= 4.
?/

Then,

25

^/^

+ 30 y +

= 0,

or (5

3)(5

+
?/

3)
is

This equation has equal roots; the only value of

= 0. q 5

and x =
is

O --'

The
to
it.

line

has but one point in

common

with the

ellipse,

and

tangent

Then, if

the equation obtained by eliminating


roots, the

known numbers has equal


2.

graphs are tangent

one of the unto each other.

Consider the equations


r

- = - 9. x-2y = ~2.
a;2
2/2

(1)

The graph
having
its

of 9

a;^

1/2

=9

is

a hyperbola,
re-

branches above and below XX',


of

spectively.

The graph

2y =

'l

is

the straight line

AB. To
a;

= 2?/ -2
Then,

solve the given equations, in (1).

we

substitute

9(4

y2_

?/

or

35 ^2

72 ^

+ 4)-?/2 = -9, + 45 = 0.

This equation has imaginary roots, which shows that the line does not
intersect the hyperbola.

In general, if

the equation obtained by eliminating one


roots, the

of the

unk7iown numbers has imaginary

graphs do not

intersect.

Exercise

i49

Find the graphs of the following sets of equations, and in each case verify the principles of 316
:

p^-f-

2/2

= 4.
3
I

^^-.^ =

9.

y
2.

l5a;-4.'?/ = -9.

x+

2y = -2.

'

l2i/2-3a: = 5.

304

ALGEBRA

XXIII.

VARIABLES AND LIMITS

317. A variable mimher, or simply a variable, is a number which may assume, under the conditions imposed upon it, an
indefinitely great number of different values. constant is a number which remains unchanged throughout the same discussion.

318.

limit of

a variable

is

ence between which and the variable

a constant number, the differmay be made less than

any assigned number, however small.

towards Suppose, for example, that a point moves from under the condition that it shall move, during successive
first
-f

equal intervals of time,

from A to C, half-way between ^ L__L__f A and 5 then to D, half-way between C and B then to E, half-way between D and B and so on indefinitely. In this case, the distance between the moving point and B can be made less than any assigned number, however small. Hence, the distance from A to the moving point is a variable which approaches the constant value AB as a limit. Again, the distance from the moving point to 5 is a variable which approaches the limit 0.
;

319. Interpretation

of -

Consider the series of fractions -,

3' .3' .03' .003

Here each denominator

after the first is one-tenth of the

preceding denominator. It is evident that, by sufficiently continuing the series, the denominator may be made less than any assigned number,

however small, and the value of the fraction greater than any assigned number, however great.

VARIABLES AND LIMITS


In other words,

305

If the numerator of a fraction remains constant, while the denominator approaches the limit 0, the value of the fraction
increases without
It is
liinit.
:

customary to express this principle as follows

a
The symbol
simply stands for that which

oo

is

called Infinity

it

is

greater than any number, however great, and has no fixed value,

320. Interpretation of

GO

Consider the series of fractions


3' 30' 300' 3000'

Here each denominator

after the first is ten times the pre-

ceding denominator. It is evident that, by sufficiently continuing the series, the denominator may be made greater than any assigned number,

however

great,

and the value of the fraction

less

than any

assigned number, however small.

In other words.
If the numerator of a fraction remains constant, while the denominator increases without limit, the value of the fraction
approaches the limit
It is
0.
:

customary to express this principle as follows


-^

= 0.

321.

No

literal

meaning can be attached to such results as


a -

= 00,

or

a - = 0;
p,

00

for there can be


definite

no such thing as division unless the divisor

is

number.

must be interpreted as indicated in 319 and


pare

If such forms occur in mathematical investigations, they 320. (Com420.)

306

ALGEBRA
THE PROBLEM OF THE COURIERS

322.

The following

discussion will further illustrate the

form

-, besides furnishing an interpretation of the form


of the Couriers.

The Problem

couriers, A and B, are travelling along the same road in. and n miles an hour, the same direction, RR', at the rates of If at any time, say 12 o'clock, is at P, and B respectively.

Two

a miles beyond him at Q, after how many hours, and many miles beyond P, are they together ?
is

how

B
I

P
J

Q 1

RI

Let

and

meet x hours

after 12 o'clock,

and y miles

beyond P.

They
Since

will then

meet y a miles beyond Q. travels mx miles, and B nx miles, in x hours, we


y = mx, a = nx. \y
f

^^^

Solving these equations,

we
,

obtain

mn

and y =

7i

We will now discuss these results under different hypotheses. 1. m>n.


In this case, the values of x and y are positive. This means that the couriers meet at some time after 12, at some point to the right of P.

This agrees with the hypothesis made for if m is greater than w, A is travelling faster than B and he must overtake
; ;

him

at

some point beyond

their positions at 12 o'clock.


2.

m <n.
12, at

In this case, the values of x and y are negative. This means that the couriers met at some time before some point to the left of P. (Compare 16.)

VARIABLES AND LIMITS


;

307

is less than This agrees with the hypothesis made for if A is travelling more slowly than B and they mnst have been together before 12 o'clock, and before they could have advanced as far as P.
71,
;

3.

a=

0,

and

m>n

or

m<n.

and y = 0. In this case, x = This means that the travellers are together at 12 o'clock, at
the point P.

This agrees with the hypothesis made for if a = 0, and m and n are unequal, the couriers are together at 12 o'clock, and are travelling at unequal rates and they could not have been together before 12, and will not be together afterwards.
; ;

4.

m=

71,

and a not equal to

0.

In this case, the values of x and.?/ take the forms - and

respectively. It n approaches the limit 0, the values of x and y increase without limit ( 319) hence, if 7i, no fixed values can be

m=

assigned to x

and

y,

and the problem

is

impossible.
indicates that the giveri

In this

case, the result in the

form -

problem is impossible. This agrees with the hypothesis made for if m n, and a is not zero, the couriers are a miles apart at 12 o'clock, and are
;

travelling at the same rate and never will be together.


5.

and they never could have been, and a =

m = n,

0.

In

this case, the values of x

and ^ take the form y

If a = 0, and m = n, the couriers are together at 12 o'clock, and travelling at the same rate. Hence, they always have been, and always will be, together.

In this
for

case, the

number

of solutions

is

indefinitely great

any value of x whatever, together with the corresponding


y, will satisfy

value of

the given conditions.

In this

case, the result in the


is

form -

indicates that the

number

of solutions

indejinitely great.

808

ALGEBRA

XXIV. INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS


323. It was shown, in 163, that a single equation involving two or more unknown numbers is satisfied by an indefinitely great number of sets of values of these numbers. If, however, the unknown numbers are required to satisfy other conditions, the number of solutions may be finite.

We shall consider in the present chapter the solution of indeterminate linear equations, in which the unknown numbers
are restricted to positive integral values.

324. Solution of Indeterminate Linear Equations in Positive


Integers.
1.

Solve 7 cc 4- 5
5,

2/

= 118
23

in positive integers.

Dividing by

the smaller of the two coefficients,

+ ^+y =

+ |;

or,

^J^=2^-x-y.
x and y must be positive
inte-

Since, 2 x
gers,

by the conditions
3

of the problem,

must be an

5
this integer

integer.

Let

be represented by p.

Then,
Dividing (l) by
Since x and
JO ^^-

^^~^ =
5
2,

p,

or2x-3 = 5p.
2
i?

(1)

-1 -i=

+|

or,

-1-2p= ^-^.
integer
;

are integers, x
integer.

1 2j3isan

and therefore

4- 1

must be an
this integer

Let

be represented by

q.

Then,
Substituting in (1),

^-^ = q,
2x

or

p = 2q -1.
5.

-3=

10 ^

Whence,

x-hq-\.

(2)

INDETERMINATE EQUATIoSiS
Substituting this value in the given equation,

309

35 g

5y

118

or,

25

7 g.

(3)

Equations (2) and (3) form the general solution in integers of the
given equation.

By

shall obtain sets of integral values of

giving to q the value zero, or any positive or negative integer, we x and y which satisfy the given
zero, or

equation.

any negative integer, x will be negative. any positive integer >3, y will be negative. Hence, the only positive integral values of x and y which given equation are those obtained from the values 1, 2, 3 of g.
If

is

If

is

satisfy the

That
2.

is,

a;

4,

18

9,

11

and x

14, y

= 4.

Solve 5 x
5,

7 = 11
?/

in least positive integers.

Dividing by

the coefficient of smaller absolute value,

^_j,_2j?^2+l;or, ;-j,-2 = 2lJll. 5 5 5


O
7/

Then,

^
I

must be an

integer.

Let ?J^-^
5

=p
2,

or,

?/

5;).

Dividing by

i/+- = 2p+^;
integer.

or,

y-2j) = ^-=

Then, Let

"~

must be an
1

^~ =

or,

p=

g-

1.

Then,

y^ 5;>-1 ^ 10g +

5-l

^^^_^^_

Then, from the given equation, x

^
"}"

=7^ +
;

5.

The
3.

solution in least positive integers is

when ^-=0

that

is,

a;=5, y =2.

In

dollars, half-dollars,

equal to
Let

the sum of $15 be paid with and dimes, the number of dimes being the number of dollars and half-dollars together ?
X

how many ways can

= number = number

of dollars,
half-dollars,

y = number of

and

of dimes.

310
By
,
^.
.

ALGEBRA
the conditions,

riOx+5?/+0=15O,
1
I

x^y =
?/

z.

(1)

Adding,
or,

11 x + 6 +^= l\x + Qy =
6,

150
150.
25.

2r,

(2)

Dividing by
5 X

++
6
;

2/

Then,

must be an
6

integer

or,

x must be a multiple of
6 j9,

6.

Let
Substitute in (2), Substitute in (1),
66;)

X =

where p
ij

is

an

integer.

The only
Then,
20 dimes
;

positive integral the number of ways


or,

= 150, or = 2b-\\p. z = Qp + 2b -lip = 2b solutions are when j? = 1 or 2.


+
6
?/

bp.

is

two

either 6 dollars, 14 half-dollars,

and

12 dollars, 3 half-dollars, and 15 dimes.

EXERCISE

150
:

Solve the following in positive integers


1.

2.
V

3. 4.
5.

6.

+ 52/ = 29. 7a; + 22/ = 39. 6a; + 292/ = 274. 4ic4-3l2/ = 473. 42 + 11 = 664. 10a.- + 72/ = 297.
3a;
a; 2/

7.

8.

'

^^

+ 92/ = 15L 8 + 71 = 1933. 8aj-ll2/ + 2^ = 10. 2a;-92/ + = -8. r3a^-32/H-7;3 = 101. U + 22/-32 = 5.
23a;
cc
2/
f

2;

.'c

Solve the following in least positive integers


11.
^il2.

13.
"^

6a;-72/ = 4. 5a;-8?/ = 17. 14a;-52/ = 64.

14.
15.

Sx-^ly = 10.

16.

- 13 = 115. 15 a;-38 = -47.


30
a;
?/

2/

In how many different ways can f 1.65 be paid with quarter-dollars and dimes ?
17.
18. In how many different ways can 41 shillings be paid with half-crowns, worth 2\ shillings each, and two-shilling

pieces ?

INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS
J
19.

311
7,

Find two fractions whose denominators are 5 and

respectively, whose numerators are the smallest possible positive integers, and whose difference is ^l.
20.

In how many different ways can ^7.15 be paid with

fifty-cent,

twice the

number

twenty-five cent, and twenty-cent pieces, so that of fifty-cent pieces, plus twice the number of

twenty-cent pieces, shall exceed the number of twenty-five cent pieces by 31 ?

farmer purchased a certain number of pigs, sheep, and f 138. The pigs cost f 4 each, the sheep $ 7 each, and the calves $9 each; and the whole number of animals purchased was 23. How many of each did he buy ?
21.

calves for

22.

In

how many ways can f 10.00 be paid with

twenty-five

cent, twenty-cent, and five-cent pieces, so that 3 times the number of twenty-five cent pieces, plus 15 times the number of

twenty-cent pieces, shall exceed the number of five-cent pieces by 33 ?

312

ALGEBRA

XXV. RATIO AND PROPORTION


RATIO
325. The Ratio of one number a to another number &
quotient of a divided by
b.

is

the

Thus, the ratio of a to 6


In the ratio a:h, a
If
is

is

it is

also expressed

h.

called the first term, or antecedent,

and

b the second term, or consequent.

a and

b are positive
if

numbers, and

a>b, is

is

called a ratio

of greater inequality;
inequality.

is

<b,

it

called a ratio of less

326.
each of

A ratio of greater inequality


its

iriequality is increased,

is decreased, and one of less by adding the same positive number to

terms.

Let a and b be positive numbers, a being number.


Since

> b, and x a positive


(

a>b,
to both

ax> bx.
members
( 192),

195)

Adding ab
ab

ax >ab-\-

bx, or a(b
-\-

+ x)> b(a 4- x).


we have
(195)

Dividing both members by b{b

x),

^>^^. b b +x
In like manner,
if

is

< 6,
'

< ^^^^.
b-i-x

PROPORTION
327.
ratios.

Proportion

is

an equation whose members are equal

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Thus,
ii

313

a:b and

d are equal

ratios,

a:o
is

= c:d,

or b

= -.
d

a proportion.
328. In the proportion a:b

b the second, c the thirds

= c:d, a is called the and d the fourth.

Jirst term,

and third terms of a proportion are called the anteand the second and fourth terms the co7iseqiients. cedents, The first and fourth terms are called the extremes, and the second and third terms the means.
first

The

called the

329. If the means of a proportion are equal, either mean is Mean Proportional between the first and last terms,
is

and the last term and second terms.

called the Third Proportional to the first

Thus, in the proportion a 6 = 6 c, 6 is the mean proportional between a and c, and c is the third proportional to a and b. The Fourth Proportional to three numbers is the fourth term of a proportion whose first three terms are the three numbers taken in their order.
:

Thus, in the proportion a:b


tional to a,
b,

= c:d,

is

the fourth propor-

and

c.

330.

which each consequent

Continued Proportion is a series of equal ratios, in is the same as the next antecedent j as,

a:b

= b:c = c:d = d:e.

PROPERTIES OF PROPORTIONS
331. In any proportion, the product of the extremes product of the means.
is

equal to

the

Let the proportion be

a:b

= c:d.

Then by

327,

a_c

Clearing of fractions,

b~d ad = be.

314
332.

ALGEBRA
From
a
the equation ad
be = ,
.

= be = ad,

deb
b

( 331),

we

obtain
.

= ad

and a

-,

be =

That

is,

any proportion,

either extx^rne_eguals^thej^T^

of the means dividedb^Jh^]jr_extrmMj^QMd^itJ^

tM^^duc^ofthejtxtrejims-dm^
331.) If the product of ttvo numbers be product of two others, one pair may be made the extremes, and the other pair the means, of a proportion.

333.

(Converse of

equal

to the

Let
T^
-!
1

ad =
7

bc:

ad
1:7 bd

Dividing by

bd,

he = i^'

^^"

hd

a c = ;^7 b d

Whence, by [327j
In like manner, we

a:b = c:d.

may

prove that
a:
c:

= b: d, d = a:b,
c

etc.

nation

334. In any proportion, the terms are in proportion by Alterthat is, the means can be interchanged.
;

Let the proportion be

Then by 331,
Whence, by
changed.

333,
it

= c d. ad = be. a:c = b:d.


:

In like manner,

may

be proved that the extremes can be inter-

^;'\^^^'

sion

335. In any proportion, the terms are in projoortion by Inverthat is, th,e second term is to the first as the fourth term is
;

to the thirds

Let the proportion be


Then, by 331,

a:b

= c: d.

ad=bc.

Whence, by

333,

b:a = d:c.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


It

315

as the extremes,

follows from 335 that, in any proportion, the and the extremes as the means.

means can be written

336.

The mean proportional between two numbers


of their product.

is

equal

to

the square root

Let the proportion be

a:b

b:c.
b

Then by

331,

b" = ac,

and

= Vac.

337. In ajiy proportion, the terms are in proportion by Composition; that is, the sum of the first two terms is to the first
term as the

sum of the

last

two terms

is to the

third term.

Let the proportion he

a:b

Then,

= c: d. ad = be.
or a(c

Adding each member


ac
-\-

of the equation to ac,


-{-

ad

= ac
a

be,

-f-

d)
c.

= c(a

-|-

b).

Then by

333,

a+

b
b

a
:

= c-{-d:
=c+
d
:

We may
that

also prove

d.

338. In any proportion, the terms are in proportion by Division; is, the difference of the first two terms is to the first term as
of the
last tivo

the difference

terms
:

is to the third
:

term.

Let the proportion be

Then,
Subtracting each

= c d. ad = be.
b

member

of the equation

from

ac,

Then,

ac ad = ac be, or a(c d) = c(a b). a b a = c die.


:

We may
339.

also prove

=c

d.

I7i

any iwoportion,
;

the terms are in proportion by


is,

Com-

position and Division


to their difference

that

the

sum of

the first tivo terms is

as the

sum of
a 6
:

the last two terms is to their

difference.

Let the proportion be

=c d
:

316

ALGEBRA

Then by

337,

^^^
a

= --^.
c

(1) ^ ^

And by

338,

^^^ = ^^^^^
a
a
-\-b
(2),

c
c-\-

(2) ^

Dividing

(1)

by

Whence,

ab cd a-\-b: a b = c-{-d:c d.

340. In any propoHion, if the first two terms be multiplied by any number, as also the last two, the resulting numbers will be in
proportion.

Let the proportion be

b
;

=d

then,

^ = ^. mb
nd

or w may be unity that is, the terms of either ratio (Either multiplied without multiplying the terms of the other. )

may be

any proportion, if the first and third terms be multiplied by any number, as also the second and fourth terms, the proportion. resulting numbers will be
341.
I7i

Let the proportion be


(Either w or n may be unity. )

=d

then,

T^^^T^,
nb

nd

342. In any number of proportions, the products of the corresponding terms are in proportion.

Let the proportions be ^ ^

= -,
d'

and - = ^.

Multiplying,

^x^ = ^xf, or^^ = f. b dh f d h bf


may
be proved for any number

In like manner, the theorem


of proportions.

343. In any proportion, like powers or like roots of the terms are in proportion.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Let the proportion be

317

-=-

then,

=_

T T1 In like manner,

Va = VC Vh ^d
ratios,
all the

344. In a series of equal


sequent as the
consequents.

any antecedent
is to the

is to its con-

sum of

antecedents

sum of

all the

Let

a:b = c:d = e:f


ad =
bc,

Then by 331,
and
Also,

af=he.
ah
a{h-{-d-\-f)

= ha.
= h{a + c-\-e).
= a + c + e:& + d+/.
may
(333)
be proved for any number

Adding,
Whence,*

a:&

In like manner, the theorem


of equal ratios.

345. If three numbers are in continued proportion, the


to the third

first is

as the square of the first

is to the

square of the second.

Let the proportion be

a: b

=b
b

c; or

- = -b
c

Then,

X^ = !5x2, or5 = '.


b
c

b^

346. If four numbers are in continued proportion, the


to the

first is

fourth as the cube of the first

is to the

cube of the second.


or

Let the proportion be

a: b

=b

= c: d;

= = bed
b^

-.

Then,

^x^x^ = ^X^X^, b c d b b b

or^ d

= ^.

818
347. Examples.
1.

ALGEBRA
x:y =
mean

It

(x-}-zy: (y
y.

-{-

zy, prove z the

proportional

between x and

From

the given proportion,

by

331,

Or
Transposing,

x'^y

= x(y + zy. + 2 xyz + yz^ = +2 + xy^ = xz"^ yz^. x'^y


y(x

^)2

a;^/^

ic?/;s

x^i^.

Dividing hy x
Therefore, z
is

y,

xy

= 0^.

the

mean

proportional between x and y ( 336).

The theorem

of 339 saves

work

in the solution of a certain

class of fractional equations.


^.

Solve the equation ^

^^1 = ?^:=^. 2a;-3 2b-\-a


we have by composition and
:

Regarding

this as a proportion,

division,

= -2a
6
3.

or

=
S

whence, x

=
a

Prove that

if

- = t, then b d

Let 6

=-=
d

x,

whence,
yir^2

6x

then,
3.2

^2

^2

_ 52 _ 3 ^(5
a^

52^2

_ 52 _ 3 52a; _
3 ^5

x'^

_1 -3X d^
:

c2_^
d^
c;^

C2

_ 3c
d

c2

- ^2 - 3 c(^

d^^

Then,

62

a2

c^

c2 - 3 C(Z.

EXERCISE
1.

151

Find the mean proportional between 18 and

32.
first,

2. Find the third term of a proportion whose and fourth terms are 24, 32, and 20, respectively.

second,

3. 4.

Find the third proportional to J^ and ^.


Find the mean proportional between 1^^ and
24|^.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


5.

319
1-f.

Find the fourth proportional to

4|,

5f and
,

6.
7.

Find the third proportional

to a^

+8

and a +

2.

Find the mean proportional between


x5

x-\-3
:

Solve the following equations


'

3g;-8 ^ 2a;-5 3a; + 4~2ic + 7'

^q

'

x' -{-2x-S a;2_2a;_3


a^'

^ 3x + 2
3a;-2
^

i^I = I^l
4a;-7

11.

'

5a-3*
a;

+ V3a^-l ^ a^-V2TT a^-V3a;-l a^+V2a; + l


2/

12.

_a6 a+& a^ _ b^-\-y x If y x-{-a^


a;4-?/

13.

Find two numbers

in the ratio

4 to

3,

such that the

dif-

ference of their squares shall be 112.


14. Find two numbers such that, if 9 be added to the first, and 7 subtracted from the second, they will be in the ratio 9:2; while if 9 be subtracted from the first, and 7 added to the second,

they will be in the ratio 9 11.


:

15.

Find two numbers


c,

in the ratio

h,

such that,
:

if

each be

increased by
16.
is \7.^

they shall be in the ratio

n.

in continued proportion whose sum such that the quotient of the first by the second shall

Find three numbers

be|.
17.
6,

What number must


c,

and

be added to each of the numbers a, so that the resulting numbers shall be in continued

proportion ?
18. Find a number such that, if it be subtracted from each term of the ratio 8 5, the result is ^-Q- of what it Avould have been if the same number had been added to each term.
:

320
19.

ALGEBRA
The second

of two numbers is the mean proportional beThe third number exceeds the sum of the other two. tween the other two by 20 and the sum of the first and third exceeds
;

three times the second by 4.


20.

Find the numbers.


c,

If

8a 56:7

46 = 86 5c: 7 6 4
6.

prove

the

third proportional to a and


21. 22.

If
li

ma

qb = mc -\-nd:pc qd, prove a:b = c:d. y^ V/ prove y the mean x-{-y:y -]-z = Vxr
-{-

nb pa
:

z^,

proportional between x and

z.

23. Given (2 a'~{-2ab)x-}-(a^-{-2b^)y=(a^-b')x-\-(2a''-\-b^)y, find the ratio of x to y.

24.

If 4 silver coins

and 11 copper coins are worth as much

as 2 gold coins, and 5 silver coins and 19 copper coins as much as 3 gold coins, find the ratio of the value of a gold coin, and the value of a silver coin, to the value of a copper coin.
TO If

a c - = -, prove
6

25. 26.

3a4-46:3a-46 = 3c + 4d:3c-4d
a''-5ab:2ab-\-^b^ = c'-5cd:2cd + 7d^
a'

27.
28.

+ 6ab':a'b-Sb'=c' + 6cd':c'd-8d^
A

of two vessels contains a mixture of wine and mixture consisting of equal measures from the two vessels is composed of wine and water in the ratio 3:4; another mixture consisting of 2 measures from the first and 3 measures

Each

water.

from the second, is composed of wine and water in the Find the ratio of wine to water in each vessel. 3.
:

ratio

VARIATION

321

J^XXVI. VARIATION
348. One variable number ( 317) is said to vary directly as another when the ratio of any two values of the first equals
the ratio of the corresponding values of the second.
It is

usual to omit the


varies as another.
if

word "directly," and simply say that one


receives a fixed

number

Thus,

workman

number

of dollars per
will be to the

diem, the number of dollars received in number received in n days as is to n.

m days

Then, the ratio of any two numbers of dollars received equals the ratio of the corresponding numbers of days worked. Hence, the number of dollars which the workman receives
varies as the

number

of days during

which he works.
a ccb
is

349. The symbol


" a varies as 6."

is

read

^^

varies as^' ; thus,

read

is said to vary inversely as another varies directly as the reciprocal of the second. Thus, the number of hours in which a railway train will traverse a fixed route varies inversely as the speed; if the

350. One variable number


the
first

when

speed be doubled, the train will traverse


the

its

route in one-half

number

of hours.
is

351. One variable number

said to vary as

two others jointly

when

varies directly as their product. Thus, the number of dollars received by a workman in a certain number of days varies jointly as the number which he
it

receives in one day,

and the number of days during which he

works.

352. One variable number is said to vary directly as a second and inversely as a third, when it varies jointly as the second and the reciprocal of the third.

322

ALGEBRA

of matter,

Thus, the attraction of a body varies directly as the amount and inversely as the square of the distance.
353. If XQC
y,

then

x equals y multiplied by a constant number.

Let
X and

x'
y,

and y' denote a fixed pair of corresponding values of and x and y any other pair.
'

By J

the deiinition of 348, -

= -7;
y"

01. '

= ,y.
y'^

y
x'
,

Denoting the constant ratio

by m, we have

x = my.
354. It follows from 350, 351, 352, and 353 that
1. 2.
3.
:

If X varies inversely as

y,

x=
z,

x = myz.
Zj

If X varies jointly as y and If X varies

directly as y and inversely as

x=

my

355. If XQcy, and


xccy, By 353, And if yocz,
ii

yt^nz,

then xc^z.

x = my.

(1)

Substituting in

(1),

Whence, by

353,
is constant,

356. If xccy when z


then xccyz when both y

and xccz when y


z,

is

constant,

and

z vary.

Let

y'

and

z'

be the values of y and

respectively,

when x

has the value


to

x'.

Let y be changed from y' to y", z remaining constantly equal z', and let x be changed in consequence from a;' to X.

Then by 348,

^=-^.

(1)

Now

let z

equal to y'\

and

be changed from z' to z", y remaining constantly let x be changed in consequence from to oj".

VARIATION
Then,

323

|=i
(2),

(2)

Multiplying (1) by

^=y 15.
X
z

(3)

Now
z

if

from z' to z", x from y'z' to 2/"2!".

both changes are made, that is, y from y' to 2/" and is changed from a;' to x'\ and yz is changed

Then by

(3),

the ratio of any two values of x equals the

ratio of the corresponding values of yz] and,

by

348, xccyz.

The following is an illustration of the above theorem It is known, by Geometry, that the area of a triangle varies as the base when the altitude is constant, and as the altitude when the base is constant hence, when both base and altitude vary, the area varies as
:

their product.

357. Problems.
variation into an equation
1.

Problems in variation are readily solved by converting the by aid of 353 or 354.
If
cc

varies inversely as y,

and equals 9 when y

= S,

find

the value of x
If

when y =
y,

lS.

X varies inversely as

x
9

= =8
18,
,

( 354).

Putting X

=9
;

and

?/

= 8,
if

or

m = 72.

Then,
2.

a;

=
y

and,

a;

= = 4.
18

Given that the area of a triangle varies jointly as its base what will be the base of a triangle whose altitude is 12, equivalent to the sum of two triangles whose bases are 10 and 6, and altitudes 3 and 9, respectively ?
and
altitude,

any

Let B, H, and A denote the base, altitude, and area, respectively, of triangle, and B' the base of the required triangle.
Since

A varies jointly m

as

and H,

Therefore, the area of the first triangle area of the second is x 6 x 9, or 54 m.

A = niBH ( 354). is m x 10 x 3, or
is

30 m, and the

Then, the area of the required triangle

30

w+

54 m, or 84 m.

324

ALGEBRA
is

But, the area of the required triangle


Therefore,
12

also

y.

B' x

12.

mB' =

84:m, or B'

=7.

EXERCISE
1. li yccx, and x equals 6 value of y when x equals 8 ?

152

when y

equals 54, what

is

the

2. is

If

X varies inversely as

y,

the value of y
3.

when

ic

=f?

and equals f when y


z

= %, what

If

?/

cc z^,

and equals 40 when

= 10, what is =

the value of

y in terms of
4.

z^ ?

and

2/

= |,
If

If z varies jointly as x and y, and equals -| what is the value of z when a; | and y
a?

when

a;

= ^?

5.

varies directly as y
2;

when y = 27 and z = 32?


6.

= 64, what
a;

and inversely as
is

z,

the value of x

when

and equals -^-^ = 9 and 2/

If
a;

a;'^

X 2/^

and

=4

when

2/

= 4,

what

is

when
7.

the value of y

|-

?
is

If 5

value of X

a; + 8cc6yl, and aj=6 when 2/= 3, what when y = 7?

the

8. The surface of a cube varies as the square of its edge. If the surface of a cube whose edge is -J feet is -^-^- square feet, what will be the edge of a cube whose surface is square feet ?

^^

9.

If 5

men

in 6 days earn
;

$ 57,

how many days

will

it

take

4 men to earn $ 76

being given that the amount earned varies jointly as the number of men, and the number of days
it

durjng which they work.


10. The volume of a sphere varies jointly as its diameter and surface. If the volume of a sphere whose diameter is a, and surface b, is c, what is the diameter of a sphere whose surface is p and volume q ?
11.

The

distance fallen by a body from rest varies as the

square of the time during which it falls. If it falls 579 feet in 6 seconds, how long will it take to fall 402^2 ^^* ^

'

VARIATIOlSr
12.

325

and formed into three If the diameters of two

circular plate of lead, 17 inches in diameter, is melted circular plates of the same thickness.
of the plates are 8

and 9 inches respec-

tively, find the diameter of the other; it being given that the area of a circle varies as the square of its diameter.

If y equals the sum of two numbers which vary directly and inversely as x, respectively, and ?/ equals 53 when X equals 3, and ^-^- when x equals 2, what is the value of y when x equals J ?
13.

as 0?

If X equals the sum of two numbers, one of which varies 45 when directly as y'^ and the other inversely as z^, and a? 2 and 2! and z and a; 40 when y find the value l, y==l 3,
14.

of y

when

a;

= = 37

= and 2 = 1.

15.
is

If y equals the

constant,

tively,

sum of three numbers, the first of which and the second and third vary as x^ and a?, respecand ?/ = 50 when = 2, 30 when x = 2, and 110

when
16.

a;

= 3,

find the expression for y in terms of x.

The volume

of a circular coin varies jointly as its thick-

ness and the square of the radius of its face. Two coins whose thicknesses are 5 and 7 units, and radii of faces 60 and 30
units, respectively, are melted and formed into 100 coins, each 3 units thick. Find the radius of the face of the new coin.
17.
its

The weight
if solid.

of a spherical shell, 2 inches thick, is \^ of

Find its diameter, it being given that the weight volume of a sphere varies as the cube of its diameter.

PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS
1. When the force which stretches a spring, a straight wire, any elastic body is varied, it is found that the displacement produced in the body is always directly proportional to the force which acts upon it; i.e., if d-^ and dg represent any two displacements, and /^ and /g respectively the forces which produce them, then the algebraic statement of the above law is

or

^^k

(1)

326

ALGEBRA
pounds stretches a given wire .01 inch, how 20 pounds stretch the same w^ire ?

If a force of 2

much

will a force of

2. If the same force is applied to two wires of the same length and material, but of different diameters, D^ and Dg, then the displacements d^ and d^ are found to be inversely propor-

tional to the squares of the diameters,

i.e.,

If a weight of 100 kilograms stretches a wire

.5

millimeter

in diameter through 1 millimeter, how much elongation will the same weight produce in a wire 1.5 millimeters in diameter ?
3. If the same force is applied to two wires of the same diameter and material, but of different lengths, li and l^, then it is

found that

=
7'-

(3)

Prom (1), (2), and (3) and 356, it follows that diameters, and forces are all different,

when lengths,

^ = = X - X ^^'
^2

(4)

J2

^2

J-^\

If a force of 1

pound

will stretch
.5
is

an iron wire which

is

200 centimeters long and


1 millimeter,

what force
?

millimeter in diameter through required to stretch an iron wire

150 centimeters long and 1.25 millimeters in diameter through


.5

millimeter
4.

When
is

the temperature of a gas

is

constant, its

is

found

to be inversely proportional to the pressure to

volume which

the gas

subjected,

i.e.,

algebraically stated,

Yi = ?^.
At the bottom

(5)

of a lake 30 meters deep, where the pressure 4000 grams per square centimeter, a bubble of air has a volume of 1 cubic centimeter as it escapes from a diver's suit. To what volume will it have expanded when it reaches the surface where the atmospheric pressure is about 1000 grams per square
is

centimeter ?

VARIATION
5.

327

The

electrical resistance of a wire varies directly as its

length and inversely as its area. If a copper wire 1 centimeter in diameter has a resistance of 1 unit per mile, how many units
of resistance will a copper wire have which is and 3 millimeters in diameter?
6.

500 feet long

The

as the square of the distance


is

illumination from a source of light varies inversely from the source. book which

now 10

inches from the source

is

moved 15 inches

farther

away.
7.

How much
The period

will the light received be reduced ?

of vibration of a

pendulum

is

found to vary

directly as the square root of its length. If a pendulum 1 meter long ticks seconds, what will be the period of vibration of a

pendulum 30 centimeters long ?


8.

The

force with

side of its surface is

which the earth pulls on any body outfound to vary inversely as the square of
center.

the distance from

its

If the surface of the earth is

4000 miles from the center, what would a pound weight weigh 15,000 miles from the earth ?
9.

The number

of vibrations

made per second by


is

a guitar

string of given diameter and material


to its length

inversely proportional

and directly proportional to the square root of If a string 3 feet long, the force with which it is stretched.
stretched with a force of 20 pounds, vibrates 400 times per second, find the number of vibrations made by a string 1 foot
long, stretched

by a force

of

40 pounds.

GRAPHS IN PHYSICS
1.

Graphical representation of a direct proportion.


a

When
his

man
The
d

is

running at a constant speed, the distance


algebraic
directly proportional expression of this relation
is

which he travels in a given time


speed.
or

to
is

^ = -S
a^
2

= ms.

(See

353.)

328

ALGEBRA
if

plot successive values of the distance, d, which correspond to various speeds, s, in precisely the same manner in which we plotted successive

Now,

we

values of x and

in 181, we 2/ obtain as the graphical picture of the relation between s and d a

straight line passing through the


origin.

(See Fig.
is

1.)

This

the graj^h

of any direct

Fig.

1.

proportion.
2.

Graphical representation of an inverse proportion.

of gas occupies when the varies has been found to be subjected inversely proportional to the pressure under which the gas stands; we have seen that the algebraic statement of this

The volume which a given body


it is

pressure to which

relation

is

If

we

F2 -^1 successive values of plot

-^

= ~'
Fand

P in the manner indishown


in Fig. 2.

cated in

181,

we obtain a graph

of the form

the graphical representation of any inverse proportion ; the curve


is

This

is

called
3.

an

equilateral hyperbola.

The path traversed by a falling

body projected horizontally.

When a body is thrown horizontally from the top of a tower, if it were not for gravity, it would move on in a
horizontal direction indefinitely, traversing exactly the same distance in
"

each succeeding second. Hence, if represents the velocity

r=i,

of projection, the horizontal distance, H, which it would traverse in any

V=2,
v=F=4,

number

of seconds,

t,

by the equation

H=

would be given
Vt.

VARIATION

329

On account of gravity, however, the body is pulled downward, and traverses in this direction in any number of seconds a distance which is given by the equation S ^gt^. To find the actual path taken by the body, we have only to

and S, in the manner in plot successive values of the successive values of x and y, in 181. plotted

which we
is

Thus, at the end of 1 second the vertical distance Si


given hj Si
S,

= -g xl^ = -g-,
at the

at the

end of 2 seconds we have

= lgx2' = ^g',
2^
2

end of 3 seconds, Ss = -g x3^

'-

g;

at the

end of 4 seconds,

/S^

|?x4^
at

f,

etc.

On

the other hand, at the end

of 1 second

we have Hi=V',

the end of 2 seconds, ITg 2 F; at the end of 3 seconds, ^3 3 F; 4 at the end of 4 seconds, ^4

= = F

If,

values of

now, we plot these successive and S, we obtain the

graph shown
This
is
is

in Fig. 3.
it

the path of the body;


( 314, Ex. 2.)

a parabola.
4.

Graph of

relation between the

Fig.

3.

temperature and pressure existing within an air-tight boiler containing only water and water vapor.
of graphs in physics is to express a relation which found by experiment to exist between two quantities, which cannot be represented by any simple algebraic equation.
is

One use

For example, when the temperature of an which contains only water and water vapor is
sure within the boiler increases also
;

air-tight boiler
raised, the pres-

thus we find by direct

experiment that when the temperature of the boiler is 0 centigrade, the pressure which the vapor exerts will support a

column of mercury

4.6 millimeters high.

330

ALGEBRA
the temperature
9.1
is

When
rises to

millimeters;
etc.

at 30 the

raised to 10, the mercury column column is 31.5 milli-

meters long,

To obtain a simple and compact

picture of the relation

between temperature and pressure, we plot a succession of


temperatures, e.g. 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, in the manner in which

we

X in

plotted successive values of 181, and then plot the

corresponding values of pressure obtained by experiment in the manner in which we plotted


the
2/'s

in 181

we

obtain the

graph shown

in Fig. 4.

From

this

graph we can find

at once the pressure which will exist within the boiler at any

temperature.

For example,
tigrade,

if we wish to know the we observe where the vertical

pressure at 75 cen-

through 75

cuts

line which passes the curve and then run a horizontal line

from

This point

this point to the point of intersection with the line OP. is found to be at 288 hence the pressure within
;

the boiler at 75 centigrade

is

288 millimeters.

PROGRESSIONS

331

XXVII.

PROGRESSIONS

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION
358. An Arithmetic Progression is a series of terms in which each term, after the first, is obtained by adding to the preceding term a constant

number

called the
is

Common

Difference.

Thus,

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11,

an arithmetic progression in
2^

which the common difference

is

Again, 12, 9, 6, 3, 0, 3, is an arithmetic progression in which the common difference is 3.

An

Arithmetic Progression

is

also called

an Arithmetic Senes.

359.

Given

member of

the first term, a, the common difference, d, terms, n, to find the last term, I.
is a,

and

the

The progression

a-{-d, a-\-2 d,

a+3

c?,

observe that the coefficient of d in any term than the number of the term.

We

is less

by 1

Then, in the nth term the

coefficient of

d will be n

1.
(I)

That
360.
terms,

is,

= a-\-{n-l)d.
I,

Given

the first term, a, the last tenn,

and

the

number of

7i,

to find the

sum of

the tei-ms, S.

S = a + {a-^d)^{a+2d)-\-'" + il-d)-{-L
Writing the terms in reverse order,

S = l+{l-d) + {l-2d) +

'"

+ {a + d)^a.

Adding these equations term by term,

2^=(a + + (a-f-0 + ( + 0+- + ( + + ( + 0Therefore, 2S^n(a + l), and S = '^{a-\-T). (II)


361. Substituting in (II) the value of
,S
I

from

(I),

we have

|[2a

+ (n-l)d].

332
362. Ex.
Ill

ALGEBRA
the progression ^,5, 2, term and the sum.
a
? (^

1, 4,

.,

to

27

terms, find the last


Here,
Substitute in (I),

Substitute in (II),

= 8, = 5 - 8 = - 3, w = 27. = 8 + (27 - 1)(^ 3) = 8 - 78 = ^ = ?Z (8 - 70) = 27 (- 31) = - 837.

70.

The common
from
tlie

difference may be found by subtracting the second, or any term from the next following term.

first

term

EXERCISE

153

In each of the following, find the


1.

last

term and the sum

4, 9, 14,
3.

...

to 14 terms.

2.
...

9, 2,

-5,

...

to 16 terms.

- 51, - 45, - 39,


-|,

to 15 terms.

4.
5. I, i,

--y-,

-3,

...

to 13 terms.
6.

i,
7.

to 18 terms.

|, f|, fj,

to 17 terms.

8-

9.

- -igS - fl, - 1, - A? - i - Mj 3 a + 46, 8a + 26,


^J=^, 3
'

...

to 27 terms.
to 52 terms.

13a, ...to 10 terms.

10.

^-,

6'

' ^^2/,

...to 9 terms.

363. The
term,

first term,

common

difference,

and sum of

the terms,

are

number of terms, last called the elements of the

progression. If any three of the five elements of an arithmetic progression are given, the other two may be found by substituting the

known

values in the fundamental formulae (I) and (II), and solving the resulting equations.
1.

Given a

= |,

n = 20,

/iS

=f

find d

and

I.

Substituting the given values in (II),

^^lof-5+zV or-l::.-^+Z; 3 6 3 3 V y
'

then, '

= ^--l =
3

^-.

PROGRESSIONS
values of a, w, and 3 in (I), 2

333
5 = -+

Substituting

tlie

19d.

Whence,
2.

'

19 d

= - + ^ = ^5^,
2 3

and

c?

=i.
6

Given d = -3,

= -39,
39

/S'

= -264;
- 1)(- 3),
in (II)
,

find a
or a

and
3w

n.
42.

Substituting in (I),
Substituting
tlie

=
I,

a
S,

(w

=
_

(1)

values of
39), or

and a

- 264 =
,,

(3

- 42 n

- 528 = 3 n^ _ 81
704

n, or n^

27 w

176

= 0.

Whence,
'

= 27 \/729
2

=!^ = 27 i 5 = . 16

or 11. or
11.

Substituting in (1), a

=
w

48

16

42 or 33
;

42
9,

=6
w

- 9.

The The
If

solution

is

6,

or,

=
:

significance of the

two answers

is

as follows
3, 0,

=6
=

and n

= 16,
ri

the progression

is 6,

3,

6,

9,

12,

-15, -18, -21, -24, -27, -30, -33, -36, -39.


If

9 and

11, the progression is

-9, -12, -15, -18, -21, -24, -27, -30, -33, -36, -39.
In each of these the sum
3:
is

264.

Given a=^, d
Z

= ^^y ^ = |
= +
I
(71

find

and

n.

Substituting in (I),

1)

(
I

^)

^.
''

(1)

Substituting the values of a, S, and

in (II),

=i(h^)'
Whence,
^

''

-^-9--36=o.
_3^
of terms in a

-'="('-12^)'
^^ 2 2

^ 9 ^ VsTTlii ^ 9^15 ^ ,,

The value w

3 must be rejected, for the

number

progression must be a positive integer.


Substituting

w=12

in (1),

5-12
I

12

12
all

negative or fractional value of n must be rejected, together with other values dependent on it.

334

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
154

1.

Given d
Given

2. 3. 4. 5.

Given

Given
Given
Given
Given Given Given Given

6.
7.

8.

9.

10.
11.

Given
Given

12. 13.
14.
15.

Given
Given Given

= S, = 115, = 15; find a and S. = 14, S = -616; find a and d = ~6, a = - 69, n = 16, = 36 find d and S. = -2500; find d and a =8, m = 25, -y-, /S = 78 find d and = a=f = ^^, n = 13, /S = ^J^; find a and d = ^|^^; find n and a = f, d = y%, a = f, = ^, ^ = f; fi^<i ^ ^.nd = ^, n = 55, = 165; find a and = ^-, n = 24, /S = 241; find a and d. = \^ d = |, /S = -^f^; find a and n. = -^; find d and a = -f, = -fi y> ^ = ^1, = ||- find d and a= = yf, = 3%, = find a and n. and a = --V-> d = l, S = -^-; find
^

71

71

I.

>S'

?.

71.

>S'

Z.

>S.

cZ

>S'

I.

>S'

n.

/S"

?.

c?

/S'

^^^^-;

71

Z.

364.

From
Given
is

(I)

and

(II), general

examples
Ex.

like the

above

may
^iS
;

formulce for the solution of be readily derived.

a, d,

and

derive the formula for n.


l)c?],

By

361, 2

S=n[2a + in-

or dn^

(2 a

d)n

2S.
;

a quadratic in n, and may be solved by the method of 288 multiplying by 4 d, and adding (2 a d)^ to both members,

This

4 dH"^

4 d(2 a

d)n

(2 a

dy^

= 8 dS +

(2 a

dy.

Extracting square roots,

2dn + 2a

d= V8 dS +
d)\.

(2 a

d)^.

Whence,

-2a VSdS + {2a ^ ^d


2d

EXERCISE
1.

155
d.

Given

a,

I,

and n

derive the formula for

PROGRESSIONS
2.
3.

335
for

Given
Given

a, n, d, n,

and S; derive the formulae


and

d and

I.

S
I
;

derive the f ormulie for a and

I.

4.
5.

Given Given Given


Given

a, d,
d,
I,

and and and


and and

derive the formulae for n and S. derive the formulae for a and S.

I,

ti

6.
7.

n,

/S ^S
/S'

derive the formulae for a and


;

d.

a, d,
a,
I,

derive the formula for

I.

8. 9.

Given
Given

derive the formulae for d and n. derive the formulae for a and n.

d,

I,

and

aS;

365.

Arithmetic Means.
define inserting arithmetic means between two given 2 b, as finding an arithmetic progression of

We

numbers, a and
terms, whose

m+

first

and

last

terms are a and

b.

Ex.

Insert 5 arithmetic
find
;

means between 3 and


7

5.
=
3,

We = 5

substituting

an arithmetic progression of w = 7, a = 3, and ? =

terms, in which a
5 in (I),

and

-6 = S-\-6d,
The progression
is 3,

or d

= -^o

So
|,

^,

-1,

-I

-^, So

-5.

366. Let X denote the arithmetic

mean between a and

b.

Then,

x a = b~x,ov2x = a-\-b.
'

Whence,
That
is,

= ^-^.
2
one-

^^e arithmetic

mean between two numbers equMs


EXERCISE
156

half their sum.

1.

Insert 7 arithmetic Insert 6 arithmetic Insert 9 arithmetic

means between 4 and


means between

10.

2. 3.

means between

f and ^-. J and 6.

336
4.
5. 6.

ALGEBRA
Insert 8 arithmetic
Insert 5 arithmetic

means between

and

-^.

means between f and


and

i. |
find

How many
^^,

arithmetic means are inserted between

and
7.

when
two.

the

sum

of the second

last is

f?
b,

If
first

m arithmetic

means are inserted between a and

the

Find the arithmetic mean between


8.
\^-

and

- i^.

9.

(3

m + nf and

(m - 3 nf.

367. Problems.
1.

The
359,

fifteenth

term

sixth term of an arithmetic progression Find the first term. is -^3^-.


the sixth term
is

is f,

and the

By

(?,

and the

fifteenth

term a

+ Hd.

a+
Then by
the conditions,
]

5. =
|,

Subtracting (1) from (2),


Substituting in (1),
2. Find four numbers in arithmetic progression such that the product of the first and fourth shall be 45, and the product of the second and third 77.

Let the numbers be x

3y, x

y,

-\-y,

and x-\-Sy.

PROGRESSIONS
EXERCISE
1.

337

157
is

The

fifth

term of an arithmetic progression


|-.

^, and

the thirteenth term


2.

Find the twenty-second term.


all

Find the sum of


999.

the odd integers, beginning with 1

and ending with


3.

How many positive


What
The
is

integers of three digits are multiples


?

of 7 ?
4.

their

sum

first

sum

of the sixth

term of an arithmetic progression is 1, and the and tenth terms is 37. Find the second and

third terms.
5.
is |,

The first term of an arithmetic progression of 11 terms and the seventh term 3. Find the sum of the terms.
In an arithmetic progression, the sum of the first and Find the is two-ninths the sum of all the terms.
of terms.

6.

last

terms

number
7.

The seventh term of an arithmetic progression is 37, and the sum of the first 17 terms 799. Find the sum of the
first

13 terms.

8.

Find

five

numbers

the

sum
9.

of the

first,

in arithmetic progression such that fourth, and fifth is 14, and the quotient of

the second by the fourth

^.
?

How many
when
their

arithmetic

means

are inserted between

and

I,

sum

is

^-j--

10. If the constant difference of an arithmetic progression equals twice the first term, the quotient of the sum of the terms by the first term equals the square of the number of terms.

11.
is

to the
first

The sum of the first 10 terms of an arithmetic progression sum of the first 5 terms as 13 to 4. Find the ratio of
term to the common difference.

the

Find four numbers in arithmetic progression such that of the first and second shall be 1, and the product of the second and fourth 24.
12.

the

sum

338
13.
is

ALGEBRA
The last terra of an arithmetic progression The sum of the odd-numbered terms
is

of 10 terms
is

29.

to

the
first

sum

of the even-numbered terms as 14

to 17.

Find the

term and the common difference.


14. The sum of five numbers in arithmetic progression and the sum of their squares is 135. Find the numbers. 15.
is 25,

A man travels ^^ miles. He


How many

travels 10 miles the first

day, and increases his speed one-half mile in each succeeding

day.
16.

days does the journey require

of 9 terms, in
17.

Find the sum of the terms of an arithmetic progression which 17 is the middle term.

Find three numbers in arithmetic progression, such that

the square of the first added to the product of the other two gives 16, and the square of the second added to the product of the other two gives 14.
18. If a person saves $ 120 each year, and puts this sum at simple interest at 3|% at the end of each year, to how much will his property amount at the end of 18 years ?

19.

traveller
first

7 miles the

and so on. and travels 16J miles an hour.


first starts

out from a certain place, and goes hour, 7^ the second hour, 8 the third hour, After he has been gone 5 hours, another sets out,
sets

How many

hours after the

are the travellers together ?

A There are 12 equidistant balls in a straight line. starts from a position in line with the balls, and beyond person them, his distance from the first ball being the same as the distance between the balls, and picks them up in succession, He finds that he returning with each to his original position. has walked 780 feet. Find the distance between the balls.
20.

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
368. A Geometric Progression is a series of terms in which each term, after the first, is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant number called the Ratio.

PROGRESSIONS
Thus,
the ratio
2, 6, 18, 54,
is 3.
-J-,

339

162,

is

a geometric progression in which

9, 3, 1, 1,

is

a geometric progression in which the ratio

,-^

3, 6,

the ratio

is

12, 24, 48, 2.

is

a geometric progression in which


called a Geometric Series.

Geometric Progression

is also

369. Given the first term, a, the ratio, terms, n, to find the last term, L

r,

and

the

number of

The progression

is a, ar, ar^, ai^, .

observe that the exponent of r in any term than the number of the term.

We

is less

by 1

Then, in the nth term the exponent of r will be n

1.
(I)

That
370.
find the

is,

= a?-"-\
I,

Given

the first term, a, the last term,

and

the ratio,

r, to

sum of the

terms, S.
-\

S = a + ar + ar"^
rS = ar-{-

f-

ar""'^

+ r"-2 + ar^-K + ar'^-^ +


or
ar"".

(1)

Multiplying each term by


ar^
-\-

r,
--

ai^

-\-

-\-

ar""-^

(2)
.

Subtracting (1) from

(2),

r8-S = ar^-a,
rl^ar\

/S

= ^^J~^

But by

(I),

369,

Therefore,

^ = r?J=i^.
T 1

(II)

The first term, ratio, number of terms, last term, are called the elements of the progression.
371. Examples.
1. In the progression term and the sum.

and sum of the terms,

3, J,

-J,

to 7 terms, find the last

Here, a

^,

= -,

1.

340

ALGEBRA
I

Substituting in (I),

=
^(|)'=|

^J__3
2186

o , ,xTx Substituting in (II),


. .

3 8=

lxi_3 243
^
3~

= 729

729

~3

~3

^=^
1093

may be found by dividing the second term by the any term by the next preceding term.
The
ratio

first,

or

2.

last

In the progression term and the sum.

2,
3,

6,

18,

to 8 terms, find the

Here, a

= 2,
Z

= S;

therefore,

= _ 2(- 3)7 zz - 2 X (- 2187) = 4374. - 3 X 4374 -(-2) - 13122 + 2 000^ = =^2^^^=


,,

-3-1

~~ri
158

EXERCISE
Find the
1. 2.
3.

last
..

term and the sum of the following


to 10 terms.
6.
7. 8.

1,

2,

4,

f, f,

i,

-^,

to 7 terms.

-6,
3,

-9,-225'-, to 7 terms.
75,

-4, -3, -|,


f,

to 5 terms.

15,

to 5 terms.

-VS
...

to 8 terms.

4.
5.

-5, -20, -80, ...to 6 terms. 1 i, 1, ... to 9 terms.

9. 2, |, 2%,

to 6 terms.
to 8 terms.

10. f,

|,

...

372. If any three of the five elements of a geometric progression are given, the other two may be found by substituting the given values in the fundamental formulae (I) and (II), and
solving the resulting equations. But in certain cases the operation involves the solution of an

equation of a degree higher than the second and in others the unknown number appears as an exponent, the solution of which
;

form of equation can usually only be

effected

by the aid

of

logarithms ( 437). In all such cases in the present chapter, the equations be solved by inspection.

may

PROGRESSIONS
1.

341
and S.

Given a

= 2,
32

= 5, = 32^
l
;

find r

Substituting the given values in (I),

we have

2 r*

v^hence, r*

16, or r

2.

Substituting in (II),
If

r=
r

2,

^y

^ ^(

'^^)

-(1

^) ==

64

+ 2=-

62.

If

= -2, ^^ (-2)(-32)-(-2) ^64 + 2^_^3^

-2-1
;

-3

The

solution

is

2,

/S'

=-

62

or, r

= -2, S = -22.
as follows
:

The
If

interpretation of the
2,

two answers
is is

is

r=

the progression the progression

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, whose sum

is is

62. 22.

If

r= 2,

2,

4,

8,

16,

32, whose sum


ti

2.

Given a

= S,

= -^, 8 = ^^^-^-,

find

and

?.

Substituting in (II),

^ _^ ~3~
=
7 ^

-lz-3
=

^.
_6560 "
729

Whence Whence,

9-^560. +^"
729
r,

'

'

__ J_,
729

Substituting the values of a,

and
'
'

in (I) ,

_X = 3f-lV-Sor,
729
V

3/

f-lV-^=-^. 2187 V 3;
for the solution of

Whence, by inspection, w 1 = 7, or n = S. From (I) and (II) general formulae may be derived
cases like the above.

If the given elements are n, I, and S, equations for a and r found, but there are no definite formulce for their values. The same is the case when the given elements are a, w, and S.

may

be

The general formulae


in 437.

for n involve logarithms

these cases are discussed

EXERCISE
1.

159

Given
Given

2.

= 3, = S,l = 2187 find a and S. find a and r = 4, n = 5, S = 410


r
7i
;

I.

342
3.

ALGEBRA

4.
5. 6.
7.

8. 9.

10.
11.

= -f4; find rand Given a = 3, r=^, = y|^ find n and 8. Given r = -2, = 10, iS = -i-y-^; find a and L = 7, = |f find r and S. Given a = f = -i = --2g*^, = -fff; find r and w. Given a Givena = f, r = |, >S = mf; find/andw. = - ^Q^^ find a and Given = - 768, r = 4, Given a = |, = 1458, >^= ^^^ find r and w.
Z

Givena = 6,n = 6,

/S.

71

/i

/S'

>S'

ti.

Given Given
Given

a, r,
a,
r,
I,

and and and and

/S;

derive the formula for


derive the formula for derive the formula for

I.

12. 13.
14.

S
/S

r.

I,

a.

Given

r, n,

derive the formulae for a and S.

15.
16.

Given
Given

r,

n,

and
and

>S';

derive the formulae for a and


derive the formulae for r and

I.

a, n,

/iS.

373.

Sum

of a Geometric Progression to Infinity.

The

limit ( 318) to

which the sum of the terms of a

decreas-

ing geometric progression approaches, when the number of terms is indefinitely increased, is called the sum of the series
to infinity.

Formula

(II), 370,

may
^

be written

a rl
1r

It is evident that, by sufficiently continuing a decreasing geometric progression, the absolute value of the last term may be made less than any assigned number, however small. Hence, when the number of terms is indefinitely increased,
I,

and therefore

rl,

approaches the limit

0.

Then, the fraction

^~^ 1 r

approaches the limit

PROGRESSIONS
Therefore, the
infinity is

343

sum of a decreasing geometric progression to given by the formula


/S

= -^. 1 r
series 4,

(Ill)

Ex.

Find the sum of the

|,

^-^ to infinity.

Here,

4,

3
r

Substituting in (III) ,

S=

-^ = 5
1+1

EXERCISE
Find the sum
1-

160
:

to infinity of the following


5.
6.

6,2,1,....

hU,U,--^,^\,-^^,

2.

12,-3,1,....

'^lll... 4 _25 55 _
374.

7_3_15_
60
...

10

To find
is

the value

of a repeating decimal.

a case of finding the sum of a decreasing geometric series to infinity, and may be solved by formula (III).

This

Ex.

Find the value of .85151


.85151
...

....

We have,
The terms
in

=
r

.8

.051

.00051

....

after the first constitute a decreasing geometric progression,


.051,

which a

and

=
S

.01.

Substituting in (III),

.051
.01

.051
.99

51

17

990
8
17
1

330
,

Then, the value of the given decimal ^

is

or

281

10

330

330

EXERCISE
Find the values
1.

161

of the following
3. 4.

.7272

....

.91777

....

5.

.23135135
.587474
....

2.

.629629

....

.75959

....

6.

344
375. Geometric Means.

ALGEBRA

We
a and whose

define inserting geometric means between two numbers, 2 terms, b, as finding a geometric progression of first and last terms are a and b.

m+

Ex. Insert 5 geometric means between 2 and

^-f f

We find a geometric = 128 substituting n =

progression of 7
7,

2,

and

=
I

terms, in which a 128

= 2,
'
'

and

729

2v

in (I),

l|
Theresultis2,

= 2^;whence^ =
8
9'

^,and.
64
243'

4, '3

16

32
81'

128.

27

729
b.

376. Let X denote the geometric

mean between a and

Then,

= -,
X

or

cc^

= ab.

Whence,
That
is,

x = Va&.
the geometric

mean

between two numbers

is

equal

to

the square root

of their product.

EXERCISE
1.

162

Insert 4 geometric

2. 3. 4.
5.

Insert 5 geometric means between


Insert 4 geometric

means between } and 24. 3 and 2187.

means between -^ and 320. Insert 6 geometric means between f and y^e^.
Insert 7 geometric Insert 3 geometric
If

means between

48

and

^^.
b,

6.
7.

are the last

means between X^- and ^-^. geometric means are inserted between a and two means ?
:

what

Find the geometric mean between


8.

-U and

^8

-V-.

9.
l.

^^^ xy-f

and

^^^.
xy

10.

a2-4aH-4 and 4a2 + 4a +

PROGRESSIONS
377. Problem.

345

sum

Find 3 numbers in geometric progression such that their shall be 14, and the sum of their squares 84.
a, ar,

Let the numbers be represented by


f

and

ar^.
14,

a
a2

ar

ar"-

(1)

Then, by the conditions, ^


'

'

<
I

-V2 4-

a-2ri =:

84.

(2) (3)

Divide (2) by (1),


Subtract (3) from (1),

a-ar +

ar^

= 6.

(4)

or

2.

346
7.

ALGEBRA
The sum
is

progression
ratio.

to the

of the first four terms of a decreasing geometric sum to infinity as 16 to 25. Find the

man who saved every year four-thirds as much as in 8. the preceding year, had in four years saved $ 3500. Howmuch did he save the first year ?
9.

The

difference between

two numbers

is 16, 2.

arithmetic

mean exceeds
six

their geometric

mean by

and their Find the

numbers.
10.

Find

sum
11.

of the first

numbers in geometric progression such that the and fourth shall be 9, and of the third and

sixth 36.
digits of a progression, and their

The

number of three figures are in geometric sum is 7. If 297 be added to the numFind the number.

ber, the digits will be reversed.


12.

There are three numbers in geometric progression whose ^. If the first be multiplied by f, the second by |, and the third by ^^, the resulting numbers will be in arithmetic What are the numbers ? progression.

sum

is

HARMONIC PROGRESSION
Harmonic Progression is a series of terms whose form an arithmetic progression. is a harmonic Thus, 1, progression, because the ^, J, i, reciprocals of the terms, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, , form an arithmetic
378.
reciprocals
"I",

progression.

Harmonic Progression

is

also called a

Harmonic

Series.

379.

tible of solution,

Any problem in harmonic progression, which is suscepmay be solved by taking the reciprocals of the

terms, and applying the formulae of the arithmetic progression. There is, however, no general method for finding the sum of
the terms of

a harmonic

series.
2, |, |,

Ex.
term.

In the progression

to

36 terms, find the

last

PROGRESSIONS
Taking the reciprocals
of the terms,
1

347
the arithmetic progression

we have
"
n

3
2'

5
2'

2'

Here,

= -,
Z

l,

S6.

Substituting in (I), 359,

= 1 + (36 -

1)

Then,

is

the last term of the given harmonic series.

380. Harmonic Means.

We
and
first
b,

define inserting harmonic means between two numbers, a as finding a harmonic progression of 2 terms, whose

m+

and

last

terms are a and

b.

Ex. Insert 5 harmonic means between 2 and

3.
3

We

have to insert 5 arithmetic means between - and


2

Substituting a

= ^, = --,
Z

7i

= 7,

in (I), 359,

-l = l + 6d, -- = 6cZ,
3

'

or

cZ

= -A.
36

Then the arithmetic

series is

-, 2'

36

-,

12
is

-
3

18'

36'

Therefore, the required harmonic series


2, '

^, 13'

?, 2'

12, '

-18,

'

-^, 7'

-3.

381. Let X denote the harmonic mean between a and

b.

Then, X

is

the arithmetic

mean between - and


a

b
'

Then, by

366,

1= X

^
2

^, and 2ab
164
:

a-\-b

^.

EXERCISE
Find the
last

terms of the following


1.

I, -V-, -5

to 19 terms.

348
2.
3-

ALGEBRA

-h -h -A. -to 46 terms. -h -h - 6^ to 33 terms.

45.

rr^^V^TT. tollterms.
f, y8^, I, .--to

28 terms.

6.
7.

Insert 7 harmonic

means between

Insert 8 harmonic
Insert 6 harmonic

means between
means between
:

8.

4 and i|. | and |. i and ^.

Find the harmonic mean between


9.

^ |and-i. ^

10.

^^and^^^'. a-b a' + b'

11.

Find the next to the


b,

last

term of the harmonic progresinserted between a and

sion a,
12.
is

to n terms.

If

m harmonic means are


mean
?

b,

what

the third
13.

The

eleventh term
14.

sixth term of a harmonic progression Find the fourteenth term. f

is J,

and the

harmonic mean ^-.

The geometric mean between two numbers Find the numbers.

is 4,

and the

taken, the first is to the third as the first

382. If any three consecutive terms of a harmonic series be minus the second is to the

second minus the third.

Let the terms be

a, b,

and

c; then, since -, -,

and - are

in

arithmetic progression,

1111 = ---,
b b

or

b-c
be

a-b
ab

-^ Multiplying both members by


b

we have

a_a^

PROGRESSIONS

349

denote the arithmetic, geometric, and 383. Let A, G, and harmonic means, respectively, between a and b. Then, by 366, 376, and 381,

A=
But, '

^,
2

^ = V^, and^=^^

a+d

^X^
AxH=G\
the geometric
is,

a-j-b

= a6=(V^)l
^

Whence,
That

or

G = ^Ax

H.
is also the

mean between two numbers

geometric

mean

betiveen their arithmetic arid

harmonic means.

350

ALGEBRA

XXVIII.

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM

POSITIVE INTEGRAL EXPONENT


384.

Series is a succession of terms.

Finite Series is one

An Infinite Series is
or cube of

having a limited number of terms. one having an unlimited number of terms.

385. In 97 and 205 we gave rules for finding the square

any binomial.
is

The Binomial Theorem


power
of a binomial

a formula by means of which any


series.

may

be expanded into a

386. Proof of the Binomial Theorem for a Positive Integral Exponent.

The following

are obtained by actual multiplication

(a

+ x)3 = a^ (a xy = a^
-j-

-f-

-\- 4:

+ 3 aa^ + a^x + 6 aV + 4 cta^ -f x*


a^oj
0^3
.

etc.

In these
1.

results,

we observe

the following laws

The number

of terms is greater

by 1 than the exponent

of the binomial.
2. The exponent of a in the first term is t^e same as the exponent of the binomial, and decreases by 1 in each succeed-

ing term.
3.

The exponent
The

of x in the second term

is 1,

and increases
coefficient of

by 1
4.

in each succeeding term.


coefficient of the first
is

term

is 1,

and the

the exponent of the binomial. y 5. If the coefficient of any term be multiplied by the exponent of a in that term, and the result divided by the exponent of X in the term increased by 1, the qdotient will be the
coefficient of the

the second term

next following term.

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


387. If the laws of

351

386 be assumed to hold for the expann is any positive integer, the exponent 1, in the i^ n, in the second term n term n 2, in the fourth term n S, etc. third The exponent of x in the second term is 1, in the third term 2, in the fourth term 3, etc. The coefficient of the first term is 1 of the second term n.
sion of (a xy, where of a in the first term

1, Multiplying the coefficient of the second term, n, by .n the exponent of a in that term, and dividing the result by
the exponent of x in the term increased by
'^v*'~
)

1, or 2,

we have

1.2
(A
point

as the coefficient
is

of the third term

and so

on.

often used for the sign

thus, 1

2 signifies

1x2.)

Then, (a

+ xf =

a'^

^ aa^^.^a? +

^
^^

~^\ a^'^x"

Multiplying both members of (1) by a


(a

+ x,

we have

a.')"+^

1
'^

'

a-x+

7ia"-V+

^(^--') a--2a^+...;
,

Collecting the terms which contain like powers of a and

we
(a

have,

+ a?)"+^ = a"+i + (n + 1) a"a; + r^(^~^)


[n{n-l){n-2) 1-2.3 L

4.
^~|

a"-

V
..^

^ n(n-l) 1.2

~\

= a"+i + (^ 4- 1) oC'x -h n
[

["^^^
-1

+ 1] "~'aj2

^ 1.2 ^(^_l)n^^ 3

352

ALGEBRA

Then, (a

+ xy+^ = a"+i + (n + 1) a'^x + n T^^-tl


J.

= ?+> + ( + !) a-a; + (^ + '^)^ a"-V


_^ (

+ l)n(n-l) ^.,^^,.._
X

(2)

It will be observed that this result is in accordance with

which proves that, if the laws hold for any 386 power oi a-\-x whose exponent is a positive integer, they also hold for a power whose exponent is greater by 1. But the laws have been shown to hold for (a + xY, and hence they also hold for (a + xy and since they hold for (a -h xy, they also hold for (a + xy and so on.
the laws of
;
;

Therefore, the laws hold wfien the exponent


integer, and equation
(1) is

is any positive for every positive integral proved

value of

n.

Equation
[2, [3,

(1) is called the

Binomial Theorem.
etc., it is

In place of the denominators 1-2, 1.2-3,


etc.

usual to write

The symbol [w, read "factorial-n," numbers from 1 to n, inclusive.

signifies the

product of the natural

The method
Induction.

of proof exemplified in 387

is

known

as Mathematical

A more
386 is

complete form of the proof of 387, in which the fifth law of proved for any two consecutive terms, will be found in 447.

388. Putting a

=1

in equation (1), 387,

we have

|_2

[8

it is

389. In expanding expressions by the Binomial Theorem, convenient to obtain the exponents and coefficients of the
386.

terms by aid of the laws of

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


1.

353

Expand

(a

+ xy.
a in the
first

The exponent
succeeding term.

of

term

is 5,

and decreases by

1 in

each
each

The exponent
succeeding term.

of x in the second

term

is 1,

and increases by

1 in

term is 1 of the second, 5. the coefficient of the second term, by 4, the exponent of a in that term, and dividing the result by the exponent of x increased by and so on. 1, or 2, we have 10 as the coefficient of the third term
coefficient of the first
5,
;

The

Multiplying

Then,
It will

{a + xY = a^-{-^ a*x +

10

a^-x^

10

a'^x^

+ 5 ax* + x^.

be observed that the coefficients of terms equally distant from the ends of the expansion are equal this law will be proved in 391.
;

Thus the

coefficients of the latter half of


first half.

an expansion may be written

out from the

If the second

term of the binomial

is

negative, it should

be enclosed, negative sign and all, in parentheses before applying the laws in reducing, care must be taken to apply the principles of 96.
;

2.

Expand

(1

- xf.
(_a;)4^,l^.l*. (-x)2

(l-X)6=[l+(-x)P

= 16^6.15.

+ 20

1^

(-x)^

+ 15.12. (-x)4 + 6.1. (-ic)5 + (-x)6 = 1 - 6 x + 15 x2 - 20 ic3 + 15 X* - 6 x5 +


a;6.

If the first

term of the binomial

is

an arithmetical number,
;

it is

con-

venient to write the exponents at first without reduction should afterwards be reduced to its simplest form.

the result

If either

term of the binomial has a

coefficient or

exponent

other than unity, it should be enclosed in parentheses before applying the laws.
3.

Expand (3m^-Vny. - ^ny = [ (3 7n2) + ( _ (3 w2

n^) ]*

(3

= 81

u^) + 6(3 wi2)2(_ n^y + 4(3 m2) ( - n}y + ( - ii^y m8 - 108 mHi^ + 54 m%^ - 12 m^n'-\- nJ.

m^y + 4(3 m2)3(_

354

ALGEBRA
trinomial
if

may

Theorem,
of 204
4.
(a;2

two of

be raised to any power by the Binomial its terms be enclosed in parentheses, and
;

regarded as a single term


is

but for second powers, the method

shorter.

Expand {x^-2x-2y. - 2 X - 2)4 = [(x2 - 2 X ) + ( - 2) ]4 = (a:2 - 2 xY + 4(^2 - 2 xy{-2) + Q{x^ - 2 x)\-2Y + 4(a:2 - 2 x) ( - 2)3 + (- 2)* = x8 - 8 x7 + 24 xs - 32 x5 4- 16 x*
-8(x6-6x5 + 12x*-8x3) + 24(x4 - 4 x3 + 4 x2) - 32(x2 - 2 x) +
16

= x8-8x7+16x6 + 16x5-56x*-32x3 4-64x2 + 64x+16.


EXERCISE
165

Expand
1.

the following
13^
14.

2.
3.

+ xy. (n + iy
{a

(a;t

+ 3)^

21.

{i-^l
^30^^
^

^ (l-x'f.

(1-2//.

_'
15.

4.

(a-xy.
(0^2/ + ^T. (x + 2yy.

(Va
'

^Y.

^22.
^^
24.

^Y
2 a;V

5.
6.

(3a-^

+ Vay^

16-

(-^^

+ 4-"^y.
^^V

fsVa^-^X
[</x-^J. /2m_2 j^Y n 3
wi/

'
8. 9.

(3a^-63y.
(a^^

V
18.

25.

ar^'^)'.

fm-^
^

+ !!-\.
^^

^^

10.

(2a;2-^2/3).

11. 12.

(a

+ ^).
28.

19.

(5a.--^ny.
^^
'

^ /^- _
[

(a-2 4-</^)6.

20.

^V
S-s/bV

'

(2x^-\-y-^y.
29.
(a

(a

-by.
32.

+ 1)1.
(.^^^x-Sy.

30.
31.

(x^

+ x-\-iy.

(a^_3a;-l)^
(3a^2_|_^_2)4^

34 (l-a; + 0^2)1
35,

(2-x-^x'y.

33.

w
THE BINOMIAJ. THEOREM
390.

355

To find

the rth or general

term in the expansion of (a + xy.


in the expansion of

The following laws hold for any term (a+xy, in equation (1), 387
:

1.

The exponent

of x is less

by 1 than the number of the

term,
2.

3.

The exponent of a is n minus the exponent of x. The last factor of the numerator is greater by 1 than the
a.

exponent of
4.

The

last factor of the

denominator

is

the same as the

exponent of a?. Therefore in the rth term, the exponent of x will be r The exponent of a will be n (r 1), or n r -\-l. The last factor of the numerator will be n r -{- 2. The last factor of the denominator will be r 1.
Hence, the rth term

1.

^ n(n - 1)

(71

- 2)

...

(n

- r + 2)

n-r+i^r-i '

1.2.3... (r-1)

/^n ^^

In finding any term of an expansion, it is convenient to obtain the coefficient and exponents of the terms by the above laws.

Ex. Find the 8th term of (3 a^

b-y\ - 6-i)ii = [(3 a^) + (- 6-i)]ii. We have, (3 J In this case, w = 11, r = 8. The exponent of ( b~^) is 8 1, or 7. The exponent of (3 a^) is 11 7, or 4.
The The
first

factor of the numerator

is 11,
is 7.

and the

last factor 4

1,

or

5.

last factor of the

denominator

Then, the 8th term

= 11

10

5
^ ^3
^ ^ ^i^4^_

1.2.3.4.5.6.7
a2)
(

^.1^7 ^

= 330(81
If the

&-7)
is

=_

26730
it

a^ft-T.

second term of the binomial


all,

negative,

should be enclosed,

sign

and
it

in parentheses before applying the laws.

If either

unity,

term of the binomial has a coefficient or exponent other than should be enclosed in parentheses before applying the laws.

356

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
166

Find the
1.

4th term of (a
6th term of (n

-f-

xy.
9.

2.

3. 4. 5.

5th term of 7th term of


8th term of

+ 1)". - by. (a - a^. (1

10th term of

-^m^-

10.

6th term of

(x'

- 4 y^)"".

6.
7.

5th term 9th term

+ fY^of (a^ + 2 x~iy of (x^^ - x'^y^


(x'
(

11.

Tthtermof

/'m'^

Y".

12.

4th term of (m-'


9th term of fa'

- 5 mny\
\^^

8.

10th term of
14.

^+ b

13.

4-yW

8th term of

15.

Middle term of

(3a+2
391. Multiplying both terms of the coefficient, in (1), 390, r + 1, by the product of the natural numbers from 1 to n inclusive, the coefficient of the rth term becomes

n(n-l)'-'{n-r-\-2)-(n-r-hl)-"2'l r-1 xl'2..- (n-r + 1)


I

[n

r+1

Since the

number

of terms in the expansion is

term from the end

is

the (n

r-{- 2)th
4-

Then, to find the coefficient put in the above formula n r

n + 1, the rth from the beginning. of the ?*th term from the end, we
2 for
r.

Then, the coefficient of the rth term from the end


'
'

is

yt
I

r+21

\n

(n r-\-2)-\-l
of (a of

'

QJ

n
|

r+1

r
|

Hence, in

the expansion the ends

+ xy,

the coefficients

of terms

equidistant from

the expansion are equal.

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS

367

XXIX. UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS


392. Infinite Series
or by Evolution.
(

384)

may

be developed by Division,

Let

it

be required, for example, to divide 1 by 1

a;.

1-x
X x

x^
(1)

Then,
Again,

1-x

= l4- + + a^4----.
ar^

let it

be required to find the square root of 1


1

a;.

a;

^2

8^

+
X

a^

+ .-f

Then,
It

V^^:^ = l +
first

|-| +
series, in (1) and (2), for every value of x \ thus,
so.

y?

(2)

should be observed that the

values of the
large

members

do not give the if x is a very

number, they evidently do not do

EXERCISE

167
:

Expand each
3

of the following to four terms

+ 4a;
l-5ar^

3.

4a;
5.

H-2a;
4

2j^^x-^ 2 + 4a;-5a;^

Vl+6a;.

6.

l_5a;_2a;2

VI

-2a;.

358
7.
8.

ALGEBKA
9.

Vl + a.
Vl - 5 a.

10.

+ + / V9aM^.
Va^
i2/

H12.

Va^^

+ l.
63.

-^a-3

CONVERGENCY AND DIVERGENCY OF SERIES


of the first

be Convergent when the sum terms approaches a fixed finite number as a limit n is indefinitely increased. ( 318), when An infinite series is said to be Divergent when the sum of the 393.
intinite series is said to
7i

An

first n terms can be made numerically greater than any assigned number, however great, by taking n sufficiently great.

394. Consider, for example, the infinite series


1
I.

+ + a^-f-a^H
aj

.Suppose

X Xi,

The sum

of the first

where x^ is numerically n terms is now

< 1.

a^i

+ ^1^ + - + xr' = V=^ X


Xi

( 103).

If n be indefinitely increased, x^" decreases indefinitely in absolute value, and approaches the limit 0.

Then the
That
is,

fraction
1

approaches the limit

x^

number

of the first n terms approaches a fixed finite as a limit, when n is indefinitely increased.

the

sum

Hence, the series

is

convergent

when x

is

numerically

< 1.

II. Suppose a; = 1. In this case, each term of the series is equal to 1, and the sum of the first n terms is equal to n; and this sum can be made to exceed any assigned number, however great, by taking

sufficiently great.

Hence, the
III.

series is dive7'gent

when x = l.

Suppose x = l. In this case, the series takes the form 1 1-f-l l4-.'., and the sum of the first n terms is either 1 or according as n is

odd or even.

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Hence, the series
is

359

neither convergent nor divergent


is

when

An
IV.

infinite series

which

neither convergent nor divergent

is called

an

Oscillating Series.
Xi,

Suppose X =
of the
1

The sum

first

where x^ is numerically n terms is now

> 1.
103).

+ ^1 +

a^i'

+ - + X,--' = ^1^ ( 1
iCi

By taking n
cally exceed

sufficiently great,

X-^

-L

can be made to numeri-

any assigned number, however great. the series is divergent when x is numerically Hence,

> 1.

395. Consider the infinite series


l-^x-{-x^-\-x^-\
,

developed by the fraction

( 392).
( 394).
-\
,

Let

x= .1,
series

in

The

now

which case the series is convergent takes the form 1 -|- .1 + .01 + .001
is

while

the value of the fraction

.y

or

In this case, however great the number of terms taken, their sum will never exactly equal ^-. But the sum approaches this value as a limit for the series is a decreasing geometric progression, whose first term is 1, and
;

ratio .1

and, by

373, its

sum

to infinity is
JL

-, or
.J.

Thus, if an infinite series is convergent, the greater the number of terms taken, the more nearly does their sum approach to the value of the expression from which the series was
developed.
let

Again,

x=

10, in

which case the

series is divergent.

The

series

now

takes the form 1


is

while the value of the fraction

1-10

+ 10 + 100 + 1000 + , - or -
,

360

ALGEBRA

more does

In this case the greater the number of terms taken, the their sum diverge from the value ^.

Thus, if an infinite series is divergent, the greater the number of terms taken, the more does their sum diverge from the value of the expression from which the series was developed.
It follows

from the above that an

infinite series

cannot be

used for the purposes of demonstration, if it

is divergent.

THE THEOREM OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS


396.
series is

An

important method for expanding expressions into based on the following theorem
:

A Bx Cx^ + D^ H If series A' + B'x + C'x^ + D'a? + when


the series
-f-\

is

always equal

to the

makes both

series convergent, the


is,

x has any value which , coefficients of like powers of x in

the series will be equal ; that

A=A',

B = B', CO,

etc.

For the equation

A-^-Bx^-Co? + D:x?+"'=A'-\-B^x+Ox' + D^o?^'"


is satisfied

(1)

when x has any

value which makes both

members

convergent.

But both members are convergent when x = 0;


of all the terms of the infinite series a -h
is
0. equal to a when the equation (1) Then,
a;
Z^a? -f-

for the

sum

ca;^

-f da^ H

= 0. is satisfied when = 0, we have A = A'. Putting Subtracting A from the first member of the equation, and its
a;

equal A' from the second member,

we

obtain
(2)

Bx-j-Cx'-{-Daf-\-'"=B'x-^C'x'-\-D'a^+":
Dividing each term by
x,

B-{-Cx + Dx'+''-=:B'
This equation also
is satisfied

+ C'x-hD'x'+'".
;

(3)

makes both members convergent

B = B'.

when x has any value which and putting a; = 0, we have

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS

361

In like manner, we may prove C= C\ D = D', etc. The proof of 396 is open to objection iu one respect. We know that (2) has the same roots as (1), including the root 0; but when we divide by x, all that we know about the resulting equation is
that
it

Thus,

has the same roots as (2) we do not know that

is

except the root 0. a root of (3) , though

we assume

it

in

proving that

B = B'.
of the

A
will

more rigorous proof


be found in
450.

Theorem

of

Undetermined

Coefficients

397.

The theorem

of

396 holds when either or both of the

given series are

finite.

EXPANSION OF FRACTIONS
398.
1.

Expand

_ 3ip2 _- ^ 2a; + 3ir 1


2
A-\-

in ascending

powers of

x.

Assume
where A,
J5,

Azi3j^.JZ^= 3 x2 1 - 2 X

Bx + Cx^ + Dx^ + Ex^ +


of x.

.-.,

(1)

C,

i),

E,

are

numbers independent

Clearing of fractions, and collecting the terms in the second


involving like powers of x,

member

we have

2-'6x'^-x^

= A+ B\x+

C x2+ D x^+ E

X*

....

-1a\ -2B + SA
is
18

-20
+ 3^

-2D
+ 30
2 A)x.

(2)

A vertical line,
Thus,

called a 6ar,

often used in place of parentheses.

+ B\x -2a\

equivalent to (J5

The second member of (1) must express the value of the fraction for every value of x which makes the series convergent (395); and therefore equation (2) is satisfied when x has any value which makes the
second
equal

member
that
is,

convergent.

Then, by
;

397, the coefficients of like

powers of x in

(2)

must be

A= B-2A=

2.

0;

OT, or, or,


or,

0-25 + 3^ = -3;
2)_20+35=-l; E-2D + SC= 0;

B = 2A =4. 0=2J5-3^-3=-l. D = 2C-SB-1=-15. E = 2D-ZC =-27;

etc.

862

ALGEBRA
we have
-~ x^

Substituting these values in (1),


2

3a:2

x8

l-2x + 3x2
The
result

+ 4x

Ibx^

-21 X*^

may

be verified by division.
of the fraction only for such values of x

as

The series expresses the value make it convergent ( 395)


.

and denominator contain only even powers the operation may be abridged by assuming a series containing only the even powers of a;. 2 4- 4 a^ - X* we should assume Thus, if the fraction were 1 3 ar -f 5 c'*
If the numerator
X,

of


-}_

it

equal to

^ + BxF + Cx' + Dx^

^a^

....

of

In like manner, if the numerator contains only odd powers X, and the denominator only even powers, we should assulne
x.

a series containing only the odd powers of


If every
series

term of the numerator contains

x,

we may assume

commencing with the lowest power

of x in the numerator.

If every term of the denominator contains x, we determine by actual division what power of x will occur in the first term
of the expansion,

commencing with

and then assume the fraction equal to a series this power of x, the exponents of x in the succeeding terms increasing by unity as before.
2.

Expand
1

O
Xi


Xj
'

in ascending
is

powers of

x.

Dividing

by 3 cc^, the quotient

-2

we then assume,

3a;2_a;8

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Substituting in (3)
,

363

3x2
;

T
that

"9~

27

81

243

1, is, the coefficient of x^ equals twice the coefficient of the preceding term, minus three times the coefficient of the

In Ex.

E= 2D S C

next but one preceding.


It
is

coefficient of x^ is 2

evident that this law holds for the succeeding terms x (- 27)- 3 x (- 15), or - 9.

thus, the

may be found more


method
required.
of 398

After the law of coefficients has been found in any expansion, the terms and for this reason the easily than by long division
;

is

to

be preferred when a large number of terms


that each coefficient
is

is

The law

for Ex. 2

is

one-third the preceding.

EXERCISE

168

Expand each
powers
3
1.

of the following to five terms in ascending

of x:

+ 2aj

2-x + Sa^

2.

3.

5.

364
Equating
coefficients of like

ALGEBRA
powers of
;

oj,

A'^=

or,

^=

1.

2^5 = B^-\-2AC=

1; or,

^=_J_=_1.
2A
2i

0;

or,

G=-

= A
2

--
8

2AD + 2BC=
C'^-\-2AE-Y2BD=

0:

or,

i)=_:^=-i-. A 16

0:

or,

^ = -.^i^^^ = -A.
A
128'
x3
6a:*

etc.

Substituting these values in (1),

we have
x2

VI - X =
The
result

X
2

16

128

may

be verified by Evolution.
of

The series expresses the value make it convergent.

Vl

a;

only for such values of x as

EXERCISE

169
five

Expand each of the following to powers of x:


1.

terms in ascending

Vl + 2a;.

3.

-^/l-^x + x".
-y/l

5.

^1 + Qx.
-s/l-x-2^,

2.

VI -3a;.

4.

+ x-x".

6.

PARTIAL FRACTIONS
400. If the denominator of a fraction can be resolved into
factors, each of the first degree in x,

and the numerator

is

of a

lower degree than the denominator, the Theorem of Undetermined Coefficients enables us to express the given fraction as

sum of two or more partial fractions^ whose denominators are factors of the given denominator, and whose numerators are independent of x.
the

401. Case
1.

I.

No factors
-^-J^^

of the denominator equal.

Separate ^

(3a;-l)(5a; + 2)

into partial fractions. ^

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
^^"""^
where
-4

365
^^^

(3x-l)(6x +

2)

=3^3T + 6^Ti'
= ^(5 + 2) + jB(3 x-V). = (5 ^ + 3 ^)a; + 2 ^ - ^.
a;

and

5 are numbers independent of x.


19 x

Clearing of fractions,
Or,

+ +

1
1

19
of (1)

a:

(2)

The second member


for every value of x.

must express the value

of the given fraction

Hence, equation (2) is satisfied by every value of x ; and by 397, the coefBcients of like powers of x in the two members are equal.

That

is,

and
Solving these equations,
Substituting in ^ ^ , (1),

5 = 19, 2A- B = l. we obtain A 2 and B Z.


5 J.
4-

(3x-l)(5x + 2)
verified

^\^,'t

^,

= ^-^ + p-^'
3a;-l
bx-\-2
of the partial

The

result

may be

by finding the sum

fractions.

2.

Separate
factors

2ic

^-iar

a^

into partial fractions.

The

oi2x-x'^-x^
^

are

x,l-x, and

x ( 116).

Assume then

+/ 2a;-x2-x3
we have

=^4.-^- + ^-. \-x 2 + x X

Clearing of fractions,

+ 4=^(l-x)(2 + x) + 5x(2 + x)+ OxCl-x).


x, is satisfied

This equation, being satisfied by every value of Putting X = 0, we have 4 = 2^, or J. = 2.


Again, the equation
Putting X
is satisfied

when x = 0.

when x =
or

1.

5 = o The equation is also satisfied when x = 2. - Putting X = 2, we have 2 = 6 C, or O =


=
1,

we have

= 35,

_1
5
1

Then,

2x-x2-x8

_^^ = x^l-x^2^..2^ + _L + + x3(l-x)


?

(2+x)

366
To

ALGEBRA
find the value of A, in Ex. 2,

we

the coefficients of

manner

to

B and C equal to zero ; find the values of B and C.


J.,

give to x such a value as will make and we proceed in a similar

This method of finding in Ex. 1.

B, and

is

usually shorter than that used

EXERCISE

170
:

Separate the following into partial fractions


.

27a;-6

a^-48
a^-16a;

5 ax'^-2
o^
-{-

a^x-^

a^

9a^_4
23a:
6aj2

3 ax"

4.

a'x

6aj-ll + 25 4 6a^ + 13aj + 6 + 5a; 12 + 17a;-2a^ g 6 - 8 a^) (1 + 3 a;).(9


-(a;

10-9a; 5a^-14a; + 8

+ 14a;-2a^

(a^-5 a;)(x2-4)

402. Case

II.

All the factors of the denominator equal.

Let

it

be required to separate

fractions.

\^~ ^
)

into partial

Substituting

y-^3

for x, the fraction

becomes
5
^

(y4-3)^-ll(y + 3)4-26

f
Replacing
?/

^ y^-5y + 2 ^1 f y
2

y^

f'

by

a;

3,
1

the result takes the form

x-Z

ix-3f'^ (x-^Y

This shows that the given fraction can be expressed as the sum of three partial fractions, whose numerators are independent of x, and whose denominators are the powers of a? 3
beginning with the
first

and ending with the

third.

Similar considerations hold with respect to any example under Case II; the number of partial fractions in any case

being the same as the number of equal factors in the denominator of the given fraction.

Ex.

Separate ^

^^

^^,o

(3a;

+ 5)2

into partial fractions. ^

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS

367

In accordance with the above principle, we assume the given fraction equal to the sum of two partial fractions, whose denominators are the powers of 3 x + 5 beginning with the first and ending with the second.

That

Qx +
is,

b
5)'-^

(3 X

a;

(3 x

5)2

Clearing of fractions,

6x +

= ^(3x4- 5) + 5. = ZAx + bA^ B.


of x,

Equating

coefficients of like

powers

3^ = 6,
and

5^+^ =
A=2
5
5)2

5.

Solving these equations,

and
2 3X

B = b.
5 5
(3 X

Whence,

6x +
(3 X

5)2

EXERCISE

171

Separate the following into partial fractions


1

24

a;

+2
'

nx'-^-l
'

^x'-\-12x+^
2

{1

x-1 + ^xf

.
'

16a;^-19
'

{4:x-3f'
'

2a;^-lla;H-3

6x'-\-12x-10
'

a^-2x'-7x
'

(x-4:y
y

(3-\-2xy
'

(x-^iy

2a^-13x'-{-24:X-15 (x--2y

'

lS_x5^^27^
(2
the

+ 3 )*

403. Case III.

Some of the factors of


;

denominator equal.

Ex.

Separate

a;2

^^- into partial fractions.

x{x-{-

ly
methods of Cases
I

II

The method in Case we assume,

III is a combination of the

and

a;

4.

_^
X x

B
+
1

x(x
Clearing of fractions,
x2

l)2

(x

G + l)2*

-4X+

= A{x + 1)2 -f Bx{x + 1) + Cx = (^ + 5)x2 +(2A + B-\-C)<c +

A.

368
Equating
coeflBcients of like

ALGEBRA
powers of
x,

A+B=h
and
Solving these equations,

A = S,

^ = 3. B = 2,
2

and
8
(X

C = S.
1)2
:

Whence,

x'^-^x + 3_S X X{X +1)2

X-\-l

The following general

rule for Case III will be found convenient


==
(a:

A fraction of the form


equal to

^
X
-{-

+-^+...+ x + m + x + b
;

+ a) (x + &)..- (x + m)''..

should be assumed

^-^ + + w)2
{x

...+

^
(x

+ my

Single factors like x + a and x + & having single partial fractions corresponding, arranged as in Case I and repeated factors like (x + having r partial fractions corresponding, arranged as in Case II.

my

EXERCISE

172

Separate the following into partial fractions


'
'

x(x-h3y
9

a^(x

+ iy

3a^

7a^

24a;-16

^ ^

a^(aj-4)
3.

-4a^ + 29 a^-36 aj-9 x{x-l)(x-3y


7_13a;_4a;2
(8 r^-2 a?-3)(2x + l)

Ux'-5Sx-4:
(3a;

+ 2)(2a;-3)2

than, that

404. If the degree of the numerator is equal to, or greater of the denominator, the preceding methods are

inapplicable.

In such a case,
until a remainder

we
is

divide the numerator by the denominator

obtained which

is

of a lower degree than

the denominator.

Ex.

Separate

partial fractions.

into an integral expression

and

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Dividing x^

369
and the
re-

mainder

3 x^ 1 by x^ x, 2 X 1 we then have
;

the quotient

is

x 2,

X2

We

can nov^ separate


:

X ~
X''^

X''^

~
X
into partial fractions

by the method

of Case I

the result

1
is

Substituting in (1),

f^

=x-

x-1

Another vv^ay to solve the above example is to combine the methods of 398 and 401, and assume the given fraction equal to

^+

j5

^+ X ^ 1 X
173

EXERCISE

Separate each of the following into an integral expression

and two or more


1.

partial fractions

+ l) 2a^4-14a;' + 3Qa;H-25
(a;-2)(3a;
(x-{-sy
5

a^(x-l)
.
' '

c^-2 x'-5x^-5x-S
x'(x-{-iy

2x^-Sa^-{-2x*-5x^-\-12x'-x-^4:
aj^(c 4)

405. If the denominator of a fraction can be resolved into


factors partly of the first and partly of the second, or all of the second degree, in x, and the nurnerator is of a lower degree

than the denominator, the Theorem of Undetermined Coefficients enables us to express the given fraction as the sum of

two or more

partial fractions, whose denominators are factors of the given denominator, and whose numerators are independent of X in the case of fractions corresponding to factors in the case of of the first degree, and of the form Ax

+B

fractions corresponding to factors of the second degree.

370

ALGEBRA

The only exceptions occur when the factors of the denominator are of the second degree and all equal.

Ex. Separate
The

- into partial fractions.

factors of the denominator are

and

a;^

x+

1.

Assume then

-J^ =
1

^ + _?_CL.
1)

(1)

Clearing of fractions,
Or,

= J.(x2 _ ^ +
B)x'^

+ {Bx +

C) (x

1).

i=(^A +

+ {-A +
x,

B-\-C)x-\-A-\-C.

Equating coefficients of like powers of

A + B = 0, -A + B + G = 0,
and
Solving these equations,
Substituting in (1),
a;3

A-\-C=\.
1 ^ = -, B =

andC'
^

=2
3
1)

^
3(a;

+1

1)

~^ -x+ 3(a;2
174
:

EXERCISE

Separate the following into partial fractions


*
*

x^-l
2

27aj3
a^

+8

10

- 11

a.-^

4a^- 5a;^ + 6a; + 3

a^
*

+ 3a;-5

'

3-8a;-4a^
aj^

(4x + 5)(a;2-3)*

+ Sa^^ + e'

REVERSION OF SERIES
406. To revert a given series y = a-\- bx^ + ca?" + ' is to express a; as a series proceeding in ascending powers of y.

Ex.

Revert the series


x

?/

2a>'

3a;^ + 4aj^ 5a;*-f-'.

Assume

= Ay + By^ + Cy^ + Dy^ +

(1)

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
Substituting in this the given value of
y,

371

+ 5(4
That

ic2

4-

a;4

12 x3

16

a:*

..

.)

4-C(8x3-36x4+. ..)+Z)(l6a;*+. ..)+


is,

x=2Ax-SA
+ 45

x2+

4^

372

ALGEBKA

XXX. THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS
407. It was proved in
(a

387 that,

if

ti

is

a positive integer,

+ xy = a" + na--'x + ^^!'~^) a"-V 1 Z

n(yi-l)(n-2) ^_3^

1.2-3

If n is a negative integer, or a positive or negative fraction, the series in tlie second member is infinite for no one of the
;

expressions

ti

1,

n 2,

etc.,
-\-

can equal zero

in this case, the

series gives the value of (a

tive

a rigorous proof of the is too difficult for pupils in preparatory schools, the author has thought best to omit it any one desiring a rigorous algebraic proof of

As

xy, provided it is convergent. Binomial Theorem for Fractional and Nega-

Exponents

the theorem, will find

it

in the author's

Advanced Course

in Algebra, 576.

408. Examples.
the exponent

In expanding expressions by the Binomial Theorem when is fractional or negative, the exponents and coefficients of the terms may be found by the laws of 386, which hold for all values of the exponent.
1.

Expand

(a

-f-

xy

to five terms.
first

The exponent
succeeding term.

of a in the

term

2
is -,

and decreases by

1 in

each

The exponent
succeeding term.

of x in the second

term

is 1,

and increases by

1 in

each

The

coefficient of the first

term

is 1

of the second term,

the exponent Multiplying -, the coefficient of the second term, by o o of a in that term, and dividing the product by the exponent of x increased

i^
;

by

1,

or 2,

we have
(a ^

as the coefficient of the third term

and

so on.

Then,

+ x)^ = J + -a~^x- -a'^x^ + a"^ x* - -^ a~"^ x* 4^


3 9

81

'

243

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


2.

373

Expand

(1

+ 2 xT^)-^ to five terms.


in parentheses,

Enclosing 2 x~^

we have

(1+2 x~^)-2 = =

[1

1-2

+ (2 x~^)]-2 - 2 1-3 (2 x~^) + 3 1-* (2 x"^)2 - 4 1-6 (2 x'^y + 5 1-6 (2 x'^y


. .

= 1 - 4 a;"^ +
By
make use
3.

12 x-i

32 x~^

80 x-^

....

writing the exponents of 1, in expanding [1 of the fifth law of 386.

(2x~2)]-2^

we can

Expand

</a-^

to four terms.

-3x^
in parentheses,

Enclosing a"!
^

3,

and

3x^

we have

1-^ =[(-!)+(- 3 xbr^


+ |(a-ir^(-3xb2

^a-i-3x*

(a-i-3x*)*

(a-^)"*-|(a-T*(-3xb

If

(a-^r^(-

3 a:b^+...

= a^ +

a^x^

+ 2 ah^ + ^ a'^x +
EXERCISE
176

....

Expand each
1.

of the following to five terms

(a-i-xy.
(1

11. -^[(a-2-66^cy].

2.

+ x)-^

rj

VI -X (aU2 6)l

1
^2.

(0.-^-22/^)^
13,
(^E!

3.

(1

- xf^.

8.

- 4 a^^)-l (a
x-^^3y

+ 1\-^,

4.

V^^:^.

^
14.

(m^-3n-^)-^.

5._J_,. +
(a
a;)^

lO.fm-3
V

+ Vr.
4/

^ 15.(-i=-^P) V5Va*

374

ALGEBRA

409. The formula for the rth term of (a for fractional or negative values of n, since

+ xy
it

390) holds

was derived from

an expansion which holds for

all

values of the exponent.

Ex. Find the 7th term of (a


Enclosing

- 3 x''^)'^.
we
liave

3 x~^ in parentheses,

(a

3 x~^y-^

[a

+ (_
or 19 o

3 x"^) ]~3,

The exponent The exponent The


first

of

(-

3 x ^)
1

is 7

of a is

6,

or

'
is

1,

6.

factor of the numerator

and the

last factor

+
^

1,

or or--.

The

last factor of the

denominator

is 6.

Hence, the 7th term

_ 1 _ _ Z _ 1^ _ 13 _
' .
' . ' . * . '

16

1.2.3.4.5.6
^

-_i_9 (-3^
'

^)'

38

EXERCISE
Find the
1.
:

177

6th term of (a

^
2.

5th term of

+ x)l - o)~^. (a
, 1

^' 6.
7.

^^h term of (a

x)-^

11th term of

V(m + nY/ - 2 b'^)-\

7th term of (a-^

3.

7th term of (1

4.

8th term of
9.

(1

+ x)-l - xy.

8.

8th term of
(a^

+ y-^y

10th term of
6th term of

10.
.

(.t-' + y^yK - 2 b-^K (a^

11.

5th term of (m
9th term of

+ 3 rr^)^.
^

12.

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


13.

375

llthtermof

"^

fa-v^6^

^ ^

14.

10th term of (x~^


of Roots.

- 4 /)l

410. Extraction

The Binomial Theorem may sometimes be used to find the approximate root of a number which is not a perfect power of
the same degree as the index of the root.

Ex. Find \/25 approximately to


The
nearest perfect cube to 25
is 27.

five places of decimals.

We

have \/25

= v'27^^ =
i

[(S^)

+ (-

2)]^
2)2

= (33)i + (33)-t ( +

- 1 (3^)-t ( 2)

^(3^)"^(-2)-...
4
32

^g
3

2
.

40
35

81

38
fifth

place,

Expressing each fraction approximately to the nearest we have


^/2E

decimal

.07407

.00183

.00008

= 2.92402.

We then have the


the nearest perfect

following rule

Separate the given number into two parts, the first of which is power of the same degree as the required root,
the result

and expand

by the Binomial Theorem.


first is
;

If the ratio of

the second term of the binomial to the

a small

proper fraction, the terms of the expansion diminish rapidly but if this ratio is but little less than 1, it requires a great many terms to insure any
degree of accuracy.

EXERCISE

178

Find the approximate values of the following


of decimals
1.
:

to five places

Vrr.

2.

V51.

3.

-s/m.

4.

^n.

5.

</U.

6.

a/35.

376

ALGEBRA

XXXI. LOGARITHMS
411. The

Common System.

Every positive arithmetical number or approximately, as a power of 10.


Thus, 100

may

be expressed, exactly

= 102

13

= 10i"3 -

etc.
is

When
its

thus expressed, the corresponding exponent Logarithm to the Base 10.


is

called

Thus, 2

which

is the logarithm of 100 to the base 10; a relation written logio 1^^ 2. 2, or simply log 100 Logarithms of numbers to the base 10 are called Common

Logarithms, and, collectively, form the Common System. They are the only ones used for numerical computations.

412. Any positive number, except unity, may be taken as the base of a system of logarithms thus, if a' m, where a are positive numbers, then x m. and log
;

negative

number

is

not considered as having a logarithm.

413.

By 238 and

239,

LOGARITHMS
414. It is evident from a number greater than 1

is

377

413 that the common logarithm of positive, and the logarithm of a

number between

and 1 negative.

415. If a number is not an exact power of 10, its common logarithm can only be expressed approximately the integral part of the logarithm is called the characteristic, and the decimal
;

part the mantissa.

For example,

log 13

= 1.1139.
and the mantissa
.1139.

Here, the characteristic

is 1,

negative logarithm is always expressed with a positive mantissa, which is done by adding and subtracting 10. Thus, the negative logarithm 2.5863 is written 7.4137 10.

In this case, 7 10 is the characteristic. The negative logarithm 7.4137 10 is sometimes


it

written 3.4137
is

the

negative sign over the characteristic showing that

alone

negative, the

mantissa being always positive.

For reasons which will appear, only the mantissa of the is given in a table of logarithms of numbers; the characteristic must be found by aid of the rules of 416 and 417.
logarithm

416. It

is

evident from

413 that the logarithm of a

number between
1

and

10 and

10 100

is

equal to equal to 1 equal to 2

is
is

+ a decimal + a decimal
-f-

100 and 1000

a decimal

etc.

with one place to the

Therefore, the characteristic of the logarithm of a number left of the decimal point is with two
;

places to the left of the decimal point is 1 to the left of the decimal point is 2 etc.
;

with

three places

Hence,
than 1
point.
is

the characteristic

1 less

of the logarithm of a number greater than the number of places to the left of the decimal

For example, the characteristic of log 906328.51

is 5.

378

ALGEBRA

417. In like manner, the loorarithm of a number between


1 and
.1 .1 is

.01

and and

.01 is

.001

is

equal to 9 -f- a decimal equal to 8 -f a decimal a decimal equal to 7

10 10 10

etc.

Therefore, the characteristic of the logarithm of a decimal with no ciphers between its decimal point and first significant 10 after the mantissa of a decimal with figure is 9, with one cipher between its point and first significant figure is 8,
;

with 10 after the mantissa; of a decimal with tv:o ciphers between its point and first significant figure is 7, with 10
after the mantissa
;

etc.

Hence,
less

to

than

1, suhti^act the

find the characteristic of the logarithm of a number number of ciphers between the decimal

point and first significant figure mantissa.

from

9,

writing

10

after the

For example, the characteristic of log .007023 written after the mantissa.

is 7,

with

10

PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS
418. In any system, the logarithm of 1
is 0.

For by

238, a

=1

whence, by

412, log 1

= 0.

419. In any system, the logarithm of the base


For, a^

is 1.

= a',

whence, log^ a =

1.

420. In any system 'vjhose base

is

of

is

cc.
a

greater than 1, the loganthm

For

if

is

greater than

1,

a"* =
<x>.

=1=
a
CO

( 320).

Whence, by 412, No literal meaning can


it

logaO =
:

be attached to such a result as loga

co

must be interpreted
If,

as follows

in

any system whose base


0, its

the limit
value.

logarithm

is

is greater than unity, a number approaches negative, and increases indefinitely in absolute

(Compare

321.)

LOGARITHMS
421. In any system, the logarithm of a product
the
is

379
equal
to

sum of the logarithms of Assume the equations


a'

its

factors.

=m

^"

a^=:n

whence, by

412, [
2/

^'

= J^^ log,n.

Multiplying the assumed equations,


a''

a^

= mn,

or

a''+^

= mn.

Whence,

log^

mn = x-\-y=

log

m + loga n.
be proved for the product

In like manner, the theorem


of three or

may

more

factors.

By

aid of

be found

when the logarithms

421, the logarithm of a composite number of its factors are known.

may

Ex. Given log 2


log 72

= .3010,
= log (2 = log2 +

and log 3

= .4771

find log 72.

X 2 X 2 X 3 X 3)
log2

+
X

log2

=3

X Iog2

+ log3 + log3 log3 = .9030 + .9542 =


179

1.8572.

EXERCISE
Given
log 2
1.

= .3010,

log 3
4.
5.

= .4771,

log 5
7.

= .6990,
log 567.
log 1225.
log 1372.

log

7= .8451,
10. 11.

find:

log 15.
log 98.

log 125. log 315.


log 392.

log 1875. log 2646. log 24696.

2. 3.

8.

log 84.

6.

9.

12.

422.
the

I7i

any system,
the

logarithm of denominator.

the logarithm of a fraction is equal to numerator minus the logarithm of the


'

Assume the equations


a*

=m ay = n

1
}
;

(x = logjn,
\

whence,

l2/

= logn.

380

ALGEBRA

Dividing the assumed equations,

=
a^

or

a*^= -
n

Whence,

log z=x

y = log^m logn.
;

Ex. Given log 2


log 5

= .3010
2

find log 5.

= log = log

10

- log 2 = 1 - .3010 = .6990.


180

EXERCISE
Given log 2
1.

= .3010,
4.
5.

log 3

= .4771,
7. 8.

log 7

= .8451,

find

logY-.
log V^.
log 111.

log 245.

log If. log 375.

10.

log
log

-\o^.

2.
.3.

log85f.
log 175.

11.
12.

46f

6.

9.

logff

log 2^^.

is

423. In any system, the logarithm of any power of a number equal to the logarithm of the number multiplied by the exponent
the

of

power.
;

the equation =* = m whence, x = log^ m. Raising both members of the assumed equation to the j9th

Assume
'

a^ == m^

whence, log mP=px=p log m.

is

424. In any system, the logarithm of any root of a number equal to the logarithm of the number divided by the index of

the root.

For, log

Vm = log,(mO = 1 -loga^^
;

423).

425.
1.

Examples.
find log

Given log 2 = .3010


log 2^

2l

=I

X log 2

=3

X .3010

.5017.

To

and. divide the result

multiply a logarithm by a fraction, multiply by the denominator.

first

by the numerator,

LOGARITHMS
2.

381

Given log 3

= .4771

find log ^'3.

log^^log_3^ ,4771 8 8
3.

^.0596.

Given log 2 = .3010, log 3


421, log

= .4771,
- log 3

find log (2^

3^).

By

(2I X 3?)

= log 2^ + log 3^ =log 2

.1003

.5964

.0967.

EXERCISE
Given log 2

181

382

ALGEBRA
aid of this relation,
is

By

if

the logarithm of a number

to

a certain base a

known, its logarithm to any other base b be found by dividing by the logarithm of h to the base a. may
427.

To prove

the relation

logjaxlog6
Putting

= l.

m = a in the
log,

result of 426,

a=

1^ = -^
log, 5

log, 6

(419).

Whence,

log,

log,6

= 1.
of the logarithms of
equal.

428. In the common system,

the mantissce

numbers having

the

same sequence of figures are

Suppose, for example, that log 3.053

= .4847.
-f-

Then, log 305.3

log

= log(100 x 3.053) = log 100 log 3.053 = 2 + .4847 = 2.4847; .03053 = log (.01 X 3.053) = log .01 + log 3.053 = 8 -10 + 4847 = 8.4847- 10; etc.
.

It is evident

from the above

that, if a

number be multiplied

by any integral power of 10, producing another number with the same sequence of figures, the mantissas of
or divided
their logarithms will be equal. For this reason, only mantissse are given, in a table of Common Logarithms for to find the logarithm of any number, we
;

have only to find the mantissa corresponding to its sequence of figures, and then prefix the characteristic in accordance with the rules of 416 and 417. This property of logarithms only holds for the common system, and constitutes its superiority over other systems for
numerical computation.
429. Ex.

Given log 2=.3010, log 3 = .4771


log 432

find log .00432.

We

have

= log

(2*

3^) = 4 log 2 + 3 log 3 = 2.0323.

LOGARITHMS
Then, by
428,

383
is

the mantissa of the result

.6353.

Whence, by

417, log .00432

= 7.6353 - 10.
182

EXERCISE
Given log 2
1.

= .3010,

log 3
6.
7. 8. 9.

= .4771,

log 7

= .8451,
11.

find

log 2.7.

log .00000686.

log 337.5.

2.
3.

log 14.7. log .56. log .0162.

Iog.0bl25.
log 5^70.
log .0000588.
,

12.
13. 14. 15.

log 3.888. log


(4.5).

4.
5.

log -s/SA.

log 22.5.

10.

log .000864.

log (24.3)1

USE OF THE TABLE


430. The table (pages 384 and 385) gives the mantissae of the logarithms of all integers from 100 to 1000, calculated to four places of decimals. 431.

To find
in the

the logarithm

of a number of three figures.

column headed " Ko." for the first two significant figures of the given number. Then the required mantissa will be found in the corresponding horizontal line, in the vertical column headed by the third figure of the number.

Look

Finally, prefix the characteristic rules of 416 and 417.

in accordance with the

For example,

= 2.2253 - 10 log .344 = 9.5366


log 168
;

etc.

For a number consisting of one column headed may be used.


Thus,

or

two

significant figures, the

be required to find log 83 and log 9. By 428, log 83 has the same mantissa as log 830, and log 9 the same mantissa as log 900.
let it

Hence,

log 83

= 1.9191,

and log 9

= 0.9542.

384

ALGEBRA

No.

LOGARITHMS
No.

385

386

ALGEBRA

432. To Jind the logarithm of a number of more than three


figures.
1.

Eequired the logarithm of 327.6.


find

We

from the

table,

log 327

That

is,

log328 an increase of one unit in the number produces an increase of

= 2.5145, = 2.5159.

.0014 in the logarithm. Then an increase of .6 of a unit in the nuHteer will increase the

logarithm by

.6

.0014, or .0008 to the nearesfiourth decimal place.

Whence,
less

log 327.6

= 2.5145 +

.0008

= 2.5153.

In finding the logarithm of a number, the difference between the next and next greater mantissas is called the tabular diff'^Hnce ; thus, in Ex. 1, the tabular difference is .0014.

The subtraction may be performed mentally.


*4

The following

rule

is

derived from the above

Find from the table the mantissa of figures, and the tabular difference.

the first three significant

Midtiply the latter by the remaining figures of a decimal point before them.

the

number, with

Add

the result to the

mantissa of the

first three figures,

and

prefix the

proper

characteristic.

In finding the correction to the nearest units' figure, the decimal portion should be omitted, provided that if it is .5, or greater than .5, the units' figure is increased by 1 ; thus, 13.26 would be taken as 13, 30.5 as
31,

and 22.803

as 23.

2.

Find the logarithm of .021508.

Mantissa 215

.3324

Tab.

diff.

= =

21
.08

2
.3326

Correction
10.

1.68

= 2,

nearly.

The

result

is

8.3326

EXERCISE

183

Find the logarithms of the following:


1.

64.

2.

3.7

3.

982.

4.

.798.

LOGARITHMS
5. 6.
7.

387
13.
14.

1079.
.6757.

9.

.00005023.
.0002625.
31.393.

7.3165.
.019608.

10.

.09496.
4.288.

11.

15.
16.

810.39.

8.

12.
the

48387.

.0025446.

433.
1.

number corresponding to a logarithm. Required the number whose logarithm is 1.6571.


To find
in the table the mantissa 6571.
line, in

Find
first

In the corresponding

two

figures of the required

the column headed " No.," we find 45, the number, and at the head of the column we
there must be two places to the left of the
g^
is

find 4, the third figure. Since the characteristic

is 1,
^

decimal point ( 416). Hence, the number corresponding to 1.6571


2.

45.4.

Required the number who^ k)garithm We find in the table the mantis^ 3927 and 39^5.

is

2.3934.

The numbers corresponding to the logarithms 2.3927 and 2.3945 are 247 and 248, respectively. That is, an increase of .0018 in the mantissa produces an increase of
one unit in the number corresponding. Then, an increase of .0007 in the mantissa will increase the number by
7 of a unit,

or

.4,

18

nearly.
is

Hence, the

number corresponding
rule
is

247

.4,

or 247.4.

The following
Find from

derived from the above

the table the next less mantissa, the three figures

correspondiiig, and the tabular difference. Subtract the next less from the given mantissa,

and divide

the

remainder by

the tabular difference.

Aymex
The
I.

the quotient to the first three figures

of the number, and


and 417

point off the result.


rules for pointing off are the reverse of those of 416
is
:

10 7/"

not written after the mantissa, add


to the left

1 to

the characteristic,

giving the

of the decimal point. II. if 10 is written after the mantissa, subtract the positive part of the characteristic from 9, giving the number of ciphers to he placed between
the decimal point

number of places

and first

significant figure.

388
3.

ALGEBRA
Find the number whose logarithm
Next
less
.

is

8.5265

10.

5265 mant. = 5263 figures corresponding, 336. Tab. diff. 13)2.00(15 = .2, nearly.
;

13
70

By the above rule, there will be one cipher to be placed between the decimal point and first significant figure the result is .03362.
;

The
place
;

correction can usually be depended upon to only one 4ecimal the division should be carried to two places to determine the last

figure accurately.

EXERCISE
Find the numbers corresponding
1.

184
to the following
11.
12.
:

0.8189.

-.6.
7.

8.7954-10.

1.3019.

2.
3. 4. 5.

7.6064-10.
1.8767.

6.5993-10.

4.2527-10.
2.0159.

8.
9.

9.9437-10.
0.7781.

13.
14.

2.6760.

3.7264-10.
4.4929.

3.9826.

10.

5.4571-10.

15.

APPLICATIONS
434. The approximate value of a number in which the operations indicated involve only multiplication, division, involution, or evolution

may be

conveniently found by logarithms.

utility of the process consists in the fact that addition takes the place of multiplication, subtraction of division, multiplication of involution, and division of evolution.
1.

The

Find the value of .0631 x 7.208 X


421,

.51272.

By

log (.0631

x 7.208 x .51272)

=
^

log .0631

log 7.208

+ log .51272.

log
-log

.06.31=

8.8000-10

log .51272=

7.208= 0.8578 9.7099-10

Adding,

log of result

Number corresponding

to 9.3677

= 19.3677 - 20 = 9.3677 - 10 - 10 = .2332.

(See Note

1.)

LOGARITHMS

389

Note 1. If the sum is a negative logarithm, it should be written in such a form that the negative portion of the characteristic may be 10.
Thus, 19.3677

- 20

is

written 9.3677

10.

(In computations with four-place logarithms, the result cannot usually

be depended upon to more tha.n four significant figures.) "


2.

Find the value of

536.8

7984

By .

422,

log

= log 336.8 - log 7984.

log 336.8

log 7984

= 12.5273 -10 = 3.9022


8.6251-10
.04218.

Subtracting,

log of results

(See Note 2.)

Number corresponding =

Note 2. To subtract a greater logarithm from a less, or a negative logarithm from a positive, increase the characteristic of the minuend by 10 after the mantissa to compensate. 10, writing to subtract 3.9022 from 2.5273, write the minuend in the form Thus,
12.5273
3.

10

subtracting 3.9022 from this, the result

is

8.6251

- 10.

Find the value of


423,

(.07396)^.

By

log (.07396)5

= =

log .07396.

log .07396

8.8690

10

44.3450

50
10

=
4.

4.3450

= log .000002213.

Find the value of V.035063.


424,

By

log

v^. 035063

=~
o

log .035063.

log .035063

= 8.5449 -10
(See Note 3.)
log .3274.

3 )28.5449-30
9.5150

-10 =

Note 3. To divide a negative logarithm, write it in such a form that the negative portion of the characteristic may be exactly divisible by the 10 as the quotient. divisor, with
Thus, to divide 8.5449 10 by 3, we write the logarithm in the form 28.5449 - 30 dividing this by 3, the quotient is 9.5150 - 10.
;

390

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
185

negative number has no common logarithm ( 412); if such numbers occur in computation, they may be treated as if they were positive, and the sign of the result determined irrespective of the logarithmic work.

Thus, in Ex. 3 of the following

set, to find

the value of

we

find the value of 95.86

3.3918,

and put a

(- 95.86) x 3.3918 sign before the result.


:

Find by logarithms the values of the following


1.

4.253x7.104.
6823.2

4.
5. 6.

54.029

x (-

.0081487).

2. 3.

.1634.

.040764

.12896.

(- 95.86) X
5978
9.762'

3.3918.
12.

(-285.46) x (- .00070682).
20. 21.

.000007913
.00082375

7.

(-.000216)^.

V7.
^3.

21.658
8.

13.

(88.08)1

22.

45057*
.06405
9.

14.
15.

(.09437)^
(3.625)^

23.
24.

.002037'
16.
10.

^lo.
v':2005.
-v'^osse^.

-38.19
*

(-.4623)^

25. 26.
27.

.10792
11.

17.
18.

loot
(.09)1

670.43
-^5382.3*

^.00015027.

19.

(85.7)1

28.

^V- .0040628.

435. Arithmetical Complement.


Arithmetical Complement of the logarithm of a number, or, briefly, the Cologarithm of the number, is the logarithm of the reciprocal of that number.

The

Thus,

colog 409

= log = log 1 - log 409. - 10 (See Ex. 2, log 1 = 10. = 2.6117 log 409
409= 7.3883-10.

^
1

434.)

.-.

colog

Again,

colog .067

= log

.067

log 1

- log .067.

LOGARITHMS

391

. .

= = colog .067

-10 log 1=10. 8.8261-10 .067 log


1.1739.
the cologarithm of a number 10. logarithm from 10

It follows

from the above that


its

may

he

found by subtracting

of the logarithm

The cologarithm may be found by subtracting the last significant figure from 10 and each of the others from 9,-10 being

written after the result in the case of a positive logarithm.

Ex.

Find the value

of

.51384
8.708

.0946
^

log

8.708 X .0946

^1^^

log f 51384 X 8.708 V


.

.0946^

= log .51384 +
=
log .51384 colog 8.708 colog .0946
log .51384

log

-^ +

log

.0946

colog 8.708

colog .0946.

= 9.7109 -10 = 9.0601 -10 = 1.0241


9.7951

10

= log .6239.

It is evident from the above example that, to find the logarithm of a fraction whose terms are the products of factors, we add together the logarithms of the factors of the numerator and
,

the cologarithms

of the factors of the denonfiinator.


above fraction
:

The value

of the

may

be found without using cologa-

rithms, by the following formula


log ^

i^l^^ 8.709 X. 0946

= log .51384 ""

log (8.709 ^^

x .0946) ^
log .0946).

=
The advantage
computation
is

log .51384

- (log 8.709 +

in the use of cologarithms is that the written exhibited in a more compact form.

work

of

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
436.
1.

Find the value of

?^.
3^

392

ALGEBRA
log

2^5 = ^X^
3^

log 2

log \/5

=:log2
log

+ Mog5 + o

15
+
10

colog 3^

( 435)

^colog3. o

2=
=

.3010 .2330

log

5=
=

.6990;

-^3=
10
;

colog 3

9.5229

x -

9.6024

1364

log 1.369.

2.

Find the value of \7^^^^5^. V 7.962


log

^103296 ^ 7.962

i,g ^

:03296 7.962

^ ^^^^^
10

b ^

log .03290 log 7.962

= 8.5180 = 0.9010
9.2057

)27.6170-30

The

result

is

-10 =

log. 1606.

.1606.

EXERCISE
Find by logarithms the values
J

186
:

of the following

2078.5

X .05834 .3583x346

(-.076917) x 26.3
.5478

x (-3120.7)*

(-6.08) X. 1304
4.046

.
'

.8102

x(- 6.225)
x (17.976)'

.0031095*

(-

.0721)

5.

LOGARITHMS
19.

893

(-

143.59)" x(.00532)^
.

^^

(.0462)^
'

20.

^ 40.954 X. 0002098
1-

758.27
^

x V:2296'

21.

(3075.6)*

OA 24.

^- 7.92 X (.18 07)^ ^.


-^^^^
-27.931
-\/:836

(.016432)^.

22

-^2818 X

^5Ul
</-

25^
'

a/61021
26.

X (.03023)^
-^.00263.
(.7301)^

.067268 x a/-.4175

x
x

2^

.0005616 x
(6.73)^

V42 iS

gg

485.7

x -^1000

(.03194)^

(9.127)

(.7095)^

EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS
437.

An

Exponential Equation

is

an equation in which the

unknown number occurs as an exponent. To solve an equation of this form, take the logarithms of both members the result will be an equation which can be solved by
;

ordinary algebraic methods.


1.

Given 31^ = 23

find the value of x.


of both
;

Taking the logarithms


log (31^)

members,
a:

= log 23
log 31

or

log 31

log 23 ( 423).

Then,

^^I2g23^ 0617^9,3
1.4914
.2^

2.

Solve the equation

= 3.
.2

Taking the logarithms of both members, x log


Then,
x

log

3.

i^^ill^=-^771_^_ -.699 9.3010-10


log. 2

if

equation of the form w" = b may be solved by inspection b can be expressed as an exact power of ^.

An

3.

Solve the equation 16^


inspection, 4 x

= 128.
and

We may
Then, by

write the equation (2*)*

= 2^ or 7 = -
a;

2**

= 2^.

394
were 16* (If the equation
\^

ALGEBRA
= -^, we
128

could write

it

(2*)

= =2-^;
2'

then

4x would

equal

7,

and

-9
187
:

EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

395

XXXII.

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE BY DIVISION


439. We will now show how to find the H. C. F. of two polynomials which cannot be readily factored by inspection.

The

rule in Arithmetic for the

H.

C. F. of

two numbers

is

Divide the greater number by the

less.

a remainder, divide the divisor by tinue thus to make the remainder the divisor, and divisor the dividend, until there is no remainder. The last divisor is the H. C. F. required. If
there be

it;

and

con-

the preceding

Thus,

let it

be required to find the H. C. F. of 169 and 546.

169)546(3 507
39)169(4 156
13)39(3

39
Then, 13
is

the H. C. F. required.

440. AVe will now prove that a rule similar to that of holds for the H. C. F. of two algebraic expressions.

439

Let

A and B be two polynomials,

arranged according to the


first

descending powers of some common letter. Let the exponent of this letter in the
equal
to,

term of

be

or greater than, its exponent in the first term of B. is contained in times, with a remainder Suppose that

Ap

C; that
that

C is

contained in

B q times,
shown

with a remainder

Z);

and

D is contained in C r times, with no remainder. To prove that D is the H. C. F. of A and B.


The
operation of division
is

as follows.

396

ALGEBRA
B)A{p

pB
~~C)B(q

D)C{r

rD

We

will first prove that Z) is a


is

common

factor of

A and

B,

Since the minuend

equal to the

subtrahend plus the


(1) (2)

remainder

( 34),

A=pB + G,
B=qC-hD, C = rl). value of C in (2), we

and
Substituting the

obtain
(3)

B=qrD-\-D = B(qr + 1).


Substituting the values of

B and C in (1), we have A=pD(qr-^l) + rD = D(pqr+p^r).


and
(4), Z> is

(4)

From

(3)

will next prove that a factor of D.

We

common factor of A and B. every common factor of A and

B is

Let

F be

any common factor of

A = mF,
From

A and B and B = nF.


we have

and

let

the operation of division,

C=A-pB, D = B-qC. and Substituting the values of A and B in (7= mF pyiF.


Substituting the values of

(5) (6)
(5),

we have

B and C in (6), we have pnF) = F{n qm jiqu). D = nF q{mF


-{-

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
Whence, i^is a
factor of
Z>.

397

Then, since every common factor of A and i5 is a factor of />, and since D is itself a common factor of A and B, it follows that D is the highest common factor of A and B.

then have the following rule for the H. C. F. of two polynomials, A and B, arranged according to the descending

We

powers of some common letter, the exponent of that letter in first term of A being equal to, or greater than, its exponent in the first term of B
the
:

by B. If there he a remainder, divide the divisor by it; and continue thus to make the remainder the divisor, and the preceding divisor

Divide

the dividend, until there is

The
It is

last divisor is the

no remainder. H. C. F. required.

some common

important to keep the work throughout in descending powers of letter and each division should be continued until the
;

exponent of this letter in the first term of the remainder exponent in the first term of the divisor.

is less

than

its

Note
which
is
;

1.

If the

not a
for
it

common

terms of one of the expressions have a common factor factor of the terms of the other, it may be re-

moved

In like manner,

can evidently form no part of the highest common factor. we may divide any remainder by a factor which is not

a factor of the preceding divisor,


1.

Find the H.

C. F. of

6ic2-2oa;
6
ic2

+ 14

and 6

o^

7 x^

- 25 + 18.
a;

- 25 X +

14)6 a;3 6 x3

_ 7 x^ - 25 x + 18(x + 3 - 25 x-^ + 14 X 18 x2 - 39 X 18 x2 - 75 X + 42 36 X - 24
divide this remainder

In accordance with Note

1,

we

by

12, giving

*~

'

3x-2)6x2-25x + 14(2x-7
6x2- 4x -21x

- 21 X +
Then,
3 x - 2
is

14

the H. C. F. required.

398 Note
2.
If

ALGEBRA
the
first

term of the dividend, or of any remainder, is not term of the divisor, it may be made so by multiplying the dividend or remainder by any term which is not a factor of the
divisible

by the

first

divisor.

2.

Find the H.
^a?

C. F. of

+ o?h-2 ab'

and 4

a^ft

a'b'

- aW +

h\
h

We

the second (Note 1),

remove the factor a from the first expression and the factor and find the H. C. F. of
3 a2

from

a&

_2

&2

and 4
a^,

a^

+2

a^h

ab^

b^

Since 4 a^
3 (Note 2).

is

not divisible by 3
4 a3

we multiply
ab'^

the second expression


b'^

by

+ 2 a% -

Sa^

+ ab-2 62)12
12

d-'

ff3

+ Q d^b - 3 a&2 ^ 3 _ 8 a62 4, 4 d^j)


2 a26

63(4 a

5 ah^

3 63
this

Since 2

a%

is

not divisible by 3

d^^

we multiply
3 63

remainder by

3 (Note 2).

2a26+ 562+
3 a2

+ a6 _ 2 62)6 a25 +

15

;,2

+
+

Qd^b+ 2ab^13 a62

9 63(2 6 4 63 13 63

We

divide this remainder by 13 62 (Note 1), giving a

6.

6)3 ^2 3 a2

a6 - 2 62(3 a - 2 + 3 a6 -2a6 - 2 a6 - 2 62

Then, a

6 is the H. C. F. required.
If the first

Note
Note

3.

term of any remainder

is

negative, the sign of

each term of the remainder


4.
If the

may

be changed.

be seen by inspection, remove


expressions
;

given expressions have a common factor which can it, and find the H. C. F. of the resulting

the result, multiplied by the

common

factor, will be the

H.

C. F. of the given expressions.

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
3.

399

Find the H.
2x'

C. F. of

+ 3x'-6x'-^2x
2 x3

and

6x^-^6af-2x^-x.
we
find the

Removing the common

factor x (Note 4),


cc

H. C. F. of

3 x2

-6 +2

and 6x^-{- bx^

-2x~l.

2x^

+ Sx^-6x + 2)6x^-\-5x^- 2x-l(3 6 x3 + 9 ic2 - 18 X + 6

- 4 x2 +
The
each of
first
its

16 X

-7

term of this remainder being negative, we change the sign of


3).

terms (Note

2x3+3x24x2

6x+2
2
12
7

-16x + 7)4x3+ 6x24 x3 - 16 x2 +


22x2-

x+
X

4(x
4
2

19

x+

44x2- 38 x+ 8(11 44x2- 176X + 77


69 )138

2x-

1)4x24 x2

2X - 14x - 14x +

X- 69 2x- 1 16 x+ 7(2x-7
7

The

last divisor is 2
is

given expressions (In the above solution,


to

make

its first

22 x2

19 X

we multiply 2 x^ + 3 x2 6 x + 2 by 2 in order term divisible by 4 x2 and we multiply the remainder 4 by 2 to make its first term divisible by 4 x2.)
;

x(2 x

1 multiplying 1).
;

this

by

x,

the H. C. F. of the

EXERCISE
Find the H.

189
:

C. F. of the following

1.

2a^-{-a-6,

4a2-8a + 3.

2. 3.

9a^-Ux-S. x'-6x-27, a^-2x'-Sx + 21.


6x^-17
x-\-10,

400
4.
5.

ALGEBRA
Qx^-x-2, Sx^-Ux'-x-^-e. 2'ia'-22ab-7b% 32a^-12ah-5b\

6.
7.

+ S x^y -\-13 xy^ -^ 3 f, 24.^-Ux'y-\-13xy''-15 y^ 4a^ + 4a^-3a;, 6x^ -\-lla^- x^-6x.


16
a^

8.

4a;2^-15a:/-f-92/', S x'
6 a^

-IS x'^y

-\-

25 xhf

-12 xf.

9.

10. 11.
12. 13.

+ 5 a^ - 6 a^ - 3 a^ + 2 a2, 9 a^ 4- 18 a^+ 5 a'- 8 a -4. 3 a^ - 13 a'b + 3 a'b'- + 4 a&^ 9 a^b + 12 a^^^ _ g a^^ _ 5 b\
4a^+ 9 -9, 4cc4 + 10r''-7aj2 + 9. 6a^-7a3-5a2 + 5a_3, s a' -6 a^- 5a' -9.
05

14. 15.

- 9 nx' + 2 6 + 23 n^x ^2n'x?-\3nx?^2x\ a3 + 9a2 4_l3a_l5^ ^5 + 9 + 22 a^ + 9 a2-9 a. 27m% m^ + 4 m^ 25 m^ + 12 ml m^


Ti^

4.

n^o;
71^

ar"^,

(1^

16.

9a'-h30a'b-21a'b'-\-12ab%
16
a^ft

+ 60

a'b''

17.

4a^-lla;?/-202/2, 2

aj^

- 20 aft^ _ le 54 - 4 ar^ - 17 a.^ +

a:?/^

+ 12

2/'.

18.
19.

4:a'-\-Sa'-15a^-}-2a'-4.a,

4a^-12a3+9a2-3a + 2.

3a^-8a^ + 16a;-8, 3x*-5aj3 + 5a;2-lla; + 6.

20.

21. 22. 23.

+ 3xy% -^ - 2 a?/. + 7 a;y + 5 2a;* + 5a^ + 4a.^ + 7a; + 6, 2 aj^-5 + ll a;2-9aj + 9. 6aj^ + a^ + 3a^-6a;-4, 12 + 8 ar5-3 aj^-lO a;-4. - 5x' + 5a^-\-a^-^7 x-3. 3a^-Sx'-5x + 6, a^
3xPy^-2xy-7oi^y'-{-7xy
3
x^y'
ar^^/'

0^2/"

aj^

a;4

readily factored by inspection,

441. The H. C. F. of three expressions, which cannot be may be found as follows


:

Let A, B, and C be the expressions. Let G be the H. C. F. of A and B then, every common factor of G and C is a common factor of A, B, and C.
;

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

401

But since every common factor of two expressions exactly divides their H. C. F., every common factor of A, B, and C is also a common factor of G and C.

Whence, the H. C. F. of and C.

and

is

the H. C. F. of A, B,

Hence, to find the H. C.F. of three expressions, find the H. C.F. of two of them, and then of this result and the third expression.

We

proceed in a similar manner to find the H. C. F. of any


of expressions.

number

Ex. Find the H. C. F. of


a;3_7a;

+ 6,
of

x'
a:3
x-2

+ Zx'-lQx-^l^,

and x-5

a;2

+ 7 a;-3.

The H. C. F. The H. C. F.

of

_ 7 X + 6 and ic3 + 3 x2 - 16 X + 12 is x^ - 3 x + 2. - 3 X + 2 and x^ - 5 x'^ + 7 x - 3 is x - 1.


EXERCISE
190

Find the H.
1.

C. F. of the following
9a;2
62,

6a;2-5a;-25,

+ 27x + 20,

12

a^^

^ 11 - 15.
a;

2. 3.

20a2+23a6-7

28^2-43 a6 + 9

6^ 24

aH 14 a6-5 61

5a^-3Sa~U,

5a-^-13a- + 14a+8,
10
x"

5aM-27a2+20a+4.

4.

Saf-Gxy-SBy^,

-27 xhj -xy' + 15 f,


xy'-

6^-13x'y5.

13

20 y^

x^^4:x'-llx-\-30, x'-{-2x'-5x-6,

x'-x^-ll x-15.

6.

a3-8a2 + 20a-16,
a3

a^'-hS

a^-4.a -12,

_ 6 a2 + 11 a - 6.
6a'^

7.

3a

+ 17a26 + 18a62_85^

+ a^^- 19 aft- + 6 6^

Sa^-\-6a:'b-2Sab--6b^
8.

3a^-ar^-38a;-24, 3
3ar^

a^ + 5 x2_58 ^_ 40^ + 26a;2 + 61a; + 30.

442.

We

will

now show how

to find the

L.C.M. of two

expressions which cannot be readily factored by inspection.

402
Let Let

ALGEBRA

A and B be any two expressions. F be their H. C. F., and M their L. C. M: Suppose that A = aF, and B = bF.

Then,
Since
factors
;

A%B = abF\
F is the
is,

(1)

H. C. F. of A and B, a and whence, the L. C. M. of aF and bF

b
is

have no common
abF.

That

M=abF.

Multiplying each of these equals by F, we have

From
That

(1)

and

(2),

FxM=abF\ AxB = FxM.


is

(2)

(Ax.
equal
to the

4, 9)

is, the

product of two expressions

product

of their H. C. F. and L. C. M. Therefore, to find the L. C. M. of two expressions. Divide their product by their highest common factor ;
Divide one of the expressio7is by their highest

or.

common

factor^

and multiply

the quotient by the other expressio7i.

Ex. Find the L. C. M. of

60^2-17
6a;2_i7x+

a^

+ 12

and 12x2-4a;-21.
a:
a;

12)12 a;2- 4 12 x^ - 84

-21(2

+ 24 - 45 15)30 X

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
2.
3.

403

6x'~31xy + lSy',
4a;2

9 x' -\-15xy

-Uf.

+ l3a; + 3,
6x-9,

4a^-23a;-6.
6x^ +

4.
5.
6.
7.

Sx' +

7xP-7x-6.
rt^ ii^a?

8. 9.

3 a^ - 8 a'b + 4 ab% a% - 11 a^W -f 22 aft^ - 8 h\ 6 + *i^^ 11 ncc^ 6 a^, 6 5 8 na;^ + 3 - 10 - 8 2ic* + 7ic^ + 7a;2H-2a?, 2 x^ + Q^a^-^-x'-ll x + lO, 3a;^ + 5ar^-5a;2-5a; + 2.
w'^
a:' a;^
a?.

ic^.

4a^2-lla;-3, 8

a;4_^6

a^-

11

a^-23a^-5.
a;^^^ _|_ -(^2
a;?/-''

10.

2x4-arV-4a?y^-3a;2/^

8 a^^ - 10

- 10 ?/^
n^.

11.

6m^ 17 m^?i 7mn^-f 4


2ar'4-5a;4-2ar^

71^,

12m^ IS

mhi-\- 21 myi^ 6

12.
13.

+ 3a^,

a;6

a'-2a^-2a^-{-Ta-6,
from

+ 8a;^- 2a;* + a^- 6a;l d" -4.a^ + 0" + 1 a-2.


two expressions are prime is their L. C. M.
to

It follows

442 that,

if

each other

( 128), their

product

443. The L. C. M. of three expressions


follows
:

may

be found as

Let A, B, and C be the expressions. Let be the L. C. M. of A and B then every common multiple of Jf and (7 is a common multiple of A, B, and G.

But

since every

common

multiple of two expressions

is ex-

actly divisible by their L. G. M., every common multiple of A, is also a common multiple of and C. B, and of A, B, and C. Hence, expressions, find the L. C. M. two of them, and then of this residt and the third expression. of proceed in a similar manner to find the L. C. M. of any

Then, the L. C.
to

M.

of

M and C

is

the L. C.

M.

find the L. C.

M. of three

We

number

of expressions.

EXERCISE
Find the L.
1.

192
:

C.

M.

of the following

3a^-4a;-4, 3x2-7a; + 2,

a^^

_ ^q

a;

-f 8.

404
2.
3.

ALGEBRA
2a'-j-3a'-9a%
4.a' -\-13
cv"

-{-3 a",

Q a^

-\-

13

a'

- 15 a.

3n2-ll?i-4, 4n2-22n + 24, 6n'-\-lln + 3.


4a^ + 4a2-43a + 20, 4.a^-{-20 d' + 13a-12, 4a3 + 12a2-31a-60.

4.

5.

2a^-5x-\-3, 4a^-4

aj2

+ 3aj-9,

4a^-13aj + 6.

444.

We

will

now show how

to reduce a fraction to its low-

est terms,

when

the numerator and denominator cannot be

readily factored by inspection. By 127, the H. C. F. of two expressions is their common factor of highest degree, having the numerical coefficient of
greatest absolute value in its term of highest degree.

We

then have the following rule


^ ^ - ^
2
a-2

Divide both numerator arid denominator by


Ex. Reduce
^ + 7 -6 -a-3

their

H.

C. F.

^^ ^^^ ^^^^g^ ^^^^^^^

By
2
a-2

the rule of

-a-3

to be 2 a

Dividing
Dividing

we find the H. C. F. of 6 a^ - 11 a^ + 7 a - 6 and - 3. 6 a^ -11 a"^ + 7 a -Q by 2 a - 3, the quotient is Za^-a +2. 2 a^ a 3 by 2 a 3, the quotient is a + 1.
440,

Then,

6a3-lla2 +

7a_6 2a^-a-3
EXERCISE

Sa^-a + 2 a+ 1
193

Reduce each
1.

of the f ollowins: to its lowest terms

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

405

PROOF OF
445.
I.

(1), 235,

FOR ALL VALUES OF m AND


-,
qr

Let

m=^
p

and n =
ps

where p,

q, r,

and

are posi-

re integers.

^r

We

have,
a'--

a^

a*

= a'' x a' = Va^* x Vo^'"


(

237)
^

now proved that (1), 235, holds are any positive integers or positive fractions.
II.

= Va^" X We have
Let
is

234)

= Va^^+'''

56)

=a

'"

237)

= a' when m
/i

and n

m be

a positive integer or fraction

where g

a positive integer or fraction less


or 445,
I,

and let than m.


;

= q,

By

^Q>,

a*"-'

a'

= a"'-*+ =

a"*.

Whence,
That
is,

a^-^=
or

=
a'
a"*"*^.

a*"

a"' ( 240).

a~'

and let n = III. Let m be a positive integer or fraction where g is a positive integer or fraction greater than m.
;

q,

By
IV.

240,

a'"

x a-^=

^ = ^

445, II)

= a*""'.

Let

m = p and n = q, where p and g are positive intea"'?

gers or fractions.

Then, a"^ x Then,


a"*

( 56,

or 445, I)

= a"^-'.

a"

fractional, values of

= "*+" for all m and n.

positive or negative, integral or


,

446. We will now show how to reduce a fraction whose denominator is irrational to an equivalent fraction having a rational denominator, when the denominator is the sum of a rational expression and a surd of the nth degree, or of two
surds of the
?ith

degree.

406
Reduce
2

ALGEBRA
-^r

1.

to

+ ^3
2

an equivalent

fraction
,

having ^

rational denominator.

We

have,

+ v^
+
b^)

8^

+
+

3^
b^ ( 102).
.

Now,
Then,
will
if

(a

b) (a2

ab

a^

we multiply both terms by 8^


rational
;

8^

3^

3^, the

denominator

become
1

thus,

_
ai
(8^

8^

8^

33

+ 3^
3^)

(8^)2

- 8^
8

33

+ 3^

gi

3^) (8^

-8^. 33 +
11

+3

^ 4-2v/3 + v^9
2.

Reduce

to

an equivalent fraction haviner a

rational denominator.

We

have.

Now,
Then,
if

(a

b) (a3

+ a% +

a&2

h^)

= a^-h^

( 103).

we multiply both terms by


7!

7I

5?

4-

7^
;

5I

5I,

the denominator will become rational


1

thus,
4.
.

71

7I

5?

7?
5?

5I

+
.

5I 6^

7i

_ 5^
.

(7^
5

6^) (7^

7^

7^"

+
2

6^)

_ \^ + v^72

7-6

+ VT^ + \/p ^ v^343 + \/245 + \/l75 + Vm> ~

The .method of 446 can be applied to cases where the denominator is in the form Va + V&, or Va ^h.
3.

Reduce

to an

equivalent fraction having a

rational denominator.

The

lowest

common

multiple of the indices 3

and 2

is 6.

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
We have,
Now,
Then,
if

407

= = -z 7* + VB ^22 + ^53 (22)i + (53)i - a*& + a^'^ - a^b^ + a - &&) = a^- b^. (a + 6) (a^
-z
y/2
^

we

multiply both terms by

- (22)f (53)^ + (22)l(53)t - (22)1(53)1 + (22)i(53)t -(53)t, (22)t


the denominator will
1

become

rational

thus,
.

2t

- 2t

5t

- 2t

5t
t

+ 2^-

52

- 5^ - 52

(22)

i +(53)5

(22)1

+ (53)

_2

2t - 2

>

2t

5t

+ 10 - 2^ 5 22 + 53
.

5t

+ 2^

52

5^

_ ~ 2v/22-2\/22T53 + 10-5-^'2^T53 + 25\/2-25\/5


4

125

_ 10 + 2v^i-2v^500-5\/2000 + 25v^2-25\/5
129

EXERCISE

194

Eeduce each of the following to an equivalent fraction having a rational denominator


:

^
1.
.

3.

-1-.
m-Ajn

'

5.

i^a-^-i/b

Va-^b
6.

-J.
2-^4

4.

-J^ </'S + </4:

V3W2.
V3 + V2

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR POSITIVE INTEGRAL EXPONENTS


447. In the proof of 387, we only considered the terms of the expansion of (a + xy+^, in equation (2).
first

four

To make the proof complete, we must show that the fifth law of 386 holds for any two consecutive terms, in equation (2).
Let P, Q, and
ing
a'*~'"a;'',

denote the coefficients of the terms involva'*~''~^ic'"+\ and a""''~V+^, respectively, in the second

member

of (1), 386.

408
Thus, (a
a*"

ALGEBRA
-\

+ xj' = + na^'-'^x + Par-'xr + Qa'*-'- V+i + i2a"-'-V+2 + Multiplying both members hj a + x, we have = a'^+i + 7ia''x h Qa''-'x'-+'^ + i2a"-'-V+2 + (a + xy^^ h + Qa""*- V+2 + + a''x-\ = a**+i + (^ + !)";+.. + (P+ Q)a"-'-a5'-+^+(Q+i2)a"-'-V+2+
-\

....

(3)

...

Pa''-''a;''+^

. . .

....

(4)

Since the fifth law of


to the second

386

member
r

of (3),

assumed we have
is

to hold

with respect

+1
r4-2
r

+2
^-r r + 2

Therefore,

Q + i?

P+Q
Whence,
But n r
cient
is is

Q(r + 1) nr

QQ/i

+^ + l) nr

nr Q^Ji:=(p^Qyr + 2
the exponent of a in that term of (4) whose coeffiand r 2 is the exponent of x increased by 1.

P+Q,

Therefore, the fifth law holds with respect to any twp consecutive terms in equation (2), 387. /X^

THE THEOREM OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS


of

448. Before giving the more rigorous proof of the Theorem Undetermined Coefficients, we will prove two theorems in

regard to infinite series. First, if the infinite series

a
is

+ 6ic + c^ + dic^ +
finite

convergent for some

value of

cc,

it infinite

for this value

of X ( 393),

and therefore

finite

when

a;

Hence, the

series is convergent

when

a;

= 0. = 0.

miscp:llaneous topics
449. Second,
if

409

the infinite series

ax
is

-{-

ba^

-\- ca:^ -{-

convergent for some


For, ax
-{- boiy^ -\-

finite

value of

x, it

equals

when

a;

= 0.
and

cx^

-\-

hence a

+ 6a? + ca^ H-\-

this value of x, is finite for this value of x.


is

finite for

Then, a
x(a-{-bx

bx -^

cx"^ -\- --

is finite
-\-

when

a;

and therefore

cx^

),

or

ax

ba^

cx^^'-i-

equals

when

a;=0.

450. Proof

of the

Theorem of Undetermined

Coefficients ( 396).

The equation

A + Bx-\-Cx'-\-Da^-\is satisfied

= A' + B'x +

C'x'

+ D'a^ + .-

(1)

convergent
( 448),

when x has any value which makes both members and since both members are convergent when x = the equation is satisfied when x = 0.
;

Putting

a;

= 0,

we have by

449,

Bx +

Cx"

-{-

Dx^

...

= 0,

and B'x

+ C'a^ + D'x^ +
and
its

...

= 0.

Whence,

A = A'.
(1),

Subtracting A from the first member of from the second member, we have

equal A^

Bx-\-Cx'

+ Dx^+
x,

...

= B'x H- C'x^ + D'x^ + = B'


C'x

....

Dividing each term by

B+

Cx

-\-

Da^

"

-{-

+ D'af +

-.

(2)

The members

of this equation are finite for the

same values
same

of X as the given series ( 449). Then, they are convergent, and therefore equal, for the values of x as the given series.

Then the equation (2) is Putting x = 0, we have

satisfied

when x

= 0.
etc.

B = B'.
may prove C = C,

Proceeding in this way, we

410

ALGEBRA

XXXIII.

THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS FOR


Law
for Addition.

ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION


451. The Commutative
If a loses

man

f 2,

gains f 8, then loses $ 3, then gains $ 6, and finally the effect on his property will be the same in what-

ever order the transactions occur.

Then, with the notation of

3, -f

$ 6, and

16,

2, will

the result of adding + $ 8, be the same in whatever order

the transactions occur.

+ 8, 3,
This
is

Then, omitting reference to the unit, the result of adding +6, and 2 will be the same in whatever order the
the Commutative
set

numbers are taken.

Law

for Addition,

which

is

The sum of any


order they

may

of ^lumbers will be the same in whatever be added.

452. The Associative

Law

for Addition.

The result
But
6-f c

of adding 6

+ c to a is expressed a+(b-\- c),


Law for
Addition

which
and

equals (b-\-c)-\-ahy the Commutative


(b-{-c)-\-a equals 6

( 451).
;

+ c + a,

by the

definition of 3

+ a equals
to

a-\-b-\-c,hj the Commutative


.

Law for

Addition.

Whence,
Then,
This

a-{-(b

+ c) =a-\-b-]-c.
set

add

the

sum of a

of numbers, we add the num-

bers separately.
is

the Associative

Law
Law

for Addition.

453. The Commutative


77ie

for Multiplication.
will be the

product of a

set

of numbers

same

in whatever

order they

may

be multiplied.

the sign of the product of any number of terms is indejjendent of their order hence, it is sufficient to prove the commutative law for arithmetical numbers.

By

55,

LAWS FOR ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION


Let there and h rows.
AVe
be, in the figure,

411

a stars in each row,

may

find the entire

number

of stars
a,

multiplying the number in each row,

by by the

in a row :):*## .. ***=<=


(^
=>^

=*

* *

number

'

'

We

of rows, h. Thus, the entire number of stars is a x 6. may also find the entire number of stars

'

ing the

number
a.

in each vertical column,

h,

by multiplyby the number of

columns,

Thus, the entire


Therefore,

number
a

of stars

is

&

a.

xb = b x

a.

This proves the law for the product of two positive integers.
Again,
let
c,

d, e,

and/
;

be any positive integers.


for,

Then, - x

to

multiply two fractions, we

multiply the numerators together for the numerator of the product, and the denominators together for its denominator.

Then, - x d
'

=
f
S 6 =

since the commutative law for multi-

fxd'
two positive
integers.

plication holds for the product of


C Hence, - x
(i

C -;

which proves the commutative law


fractions.

for the product of

two positive

454. Thes Associative

Law

for Multiplication.
set

To midtiply by the product of a the numbers of the set separately.

of iiumbers, we mxdtiply by

This law was assumed to hold in 56 and 57.

a by be is expressed a x (be), which by the Commutative Law for Multiplication. But by the definition of 5, (be) x a equals bca, which, equals abc by the Commutative Law for Multiplication.
result of multiplying

The

equals (be)

a,

Whence,

(be)

= abc.

This proves the law for the product of three numbers.

412

ALGEBRA
for Multiplication

The Commutative and Associative Laws

may be

proved for the product of any number of arithmetical numbers. (See the author's Advanced Course in Algebra, 18 and 19.)

455. The Distributive

Law

for Multiplication.

The law

is

expressed

We
I.

will

now prove

( 40). this result for all values of a,

(a + b)c = ac-\-bG

b,

and

c.

Let a and b have any values, and

let c

be a positive

integer.

Then, (a

+ &)c = (a + 5) + (a + 6) + = (a + a -f to c terms) + (6

to c terms
6

-f-

to c terms)

(by the Commutative and Associative

Laws

for Addition),

= ac-{- be.
II.

Let a and b have any values, and

let c

=
-^

where

and

are positive integers.

Since the product of the quotient and divisor equals the


dividend,
^

Then,

(a

+ b) x ^x f= (a-^-b)
J

= ae-\-be,
J

by

I.

Whence,

(a

+ b)XjXf=ax-xf-\-bx-xf.
J
8, 9),

Dividing each term by / (Ax.

we have

=
(a-{-b)Xj
Thus, the result
positive fraction.
III.
is

ax^-hbXj'
c is

proved when

a positive integer or a

Let a and

have any values, and

let c

= g, where g is
and
.

a positive integer or fraction.

By

54,

(a

+ b)(-g) = -(a-\- b)g== - (ag + bg), by I = -ag-bg = a{-g)-^b(-g).

II,

tive, integral or fractional,

Thus, the distributive law is proved for all positive or negavalues of a, b, and c.

ADDITIONAL METHODS IN FACTORING

413

XXXIV. ADDITIONAL METHODS IN

FACTORING
456. The Remainder Theorem.

Let

it

be required to divide px^


px^ pm?
-\-

-\-

qx

-\-

hj x

apx

qx-\-r

px
i

{ap

+ q)

(ap H- q)x

(ap

+ q)x pa? qa
pa^
-\-

qa-{-r, Remainder.

We
is

observe that the final remainder,

pa^

-\-

qa-\-

r,

the same as the dividend with a substituted in place of x

this exemplifies the following

law

If any polynomial, involving x, be divided by x remainder of the division equals the result obtained by tuting a for X in the given polynomial.

a,

the

substi-

This

is

called The

Remainder Theorem.

To prove

the theorem, let


px"*

qoif-'^

\-rx-{-s

be any polynomial involving x. Let the division of the polynomial by a; a be carried on until a remainder is obtained which does not contain x.

Let

denote the quotient, and

B the

remainder.

Since the dividend equals the product of the quotient and divisor, plus the remainder, we have

Q(x

a)-\-R = px"" 4- qx'"''^


a,

-\

\-rx

s.

Putting X equal to

in the above equation,


\-ra-\-s.

we

have,

R = pa"* + ga"-^ H

414

ALGEBRA

457. The Factor Theorem.


If any polynomial, involving x, becomes zero when x a as a factor. eqnal to a, the polynomial has x For, by 456, if the polynomial is divided by x
is

put
the

a,

remainder

is zero.

458. Examples.
1.

Find whether

a;

is

a factor oi a^

5 x^

-\-

S.

Substituting 2 for x, the expression x^

or

6x^

-j-

S becomes

23-5.22 +

8,

-4.
by x

Then, by and x
;

456, if x^

5x^

S be divided

2,

the remainder

is

is

not a factor.

2.

Find whether

m
Putting

m + n is a factor of 4 m^n + 2 m^n^ 5 mn^ 2


-f-

li^.

(1)

m=

w, the expression

becomes

w*

+
w

w-^

2 w*

5 n*

2 w*, or

0.

Then, by mainder is
3.

456,
;

if

the expression (1) be divided by


is

-\-

n, the re-

and

m+

a factor.

Prove that a

is

a factor of

(a-\-b-\-c) (ab
Putting a

+ 6c + ca) - (a + 6) (6 + c) (c + a).
+
c)hc
is

0,

the expression becomes


(h

b{b

c)c, or 0.

Then, by
4.

456, a

0, or a,

a factor of the expression.

Factor
positive

a^-3x^-Ux-S.
and negative
integral factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, 8,

The

1,

2,

4,

and

8.

the numbers in their order of absolute magnitude. X = 1, the expression becomes 13 14 8. If X = 1, the expression becomes 1 3 + 14 8. If X = 2, the expression becomes 8 12 28 8. If X = 2, the expression becomes 8 12 + 28 8, or 0. This shows that x + 2 is a factor. 5 x 4. Dividing the expression by x + 2, the quotient is x^
It is best to try

If

Then,

x^

3 x^

14 x

= (x +

2) (x^

- 5x -

4).

ADDITIONAL METHODS IN FACTORING


EXERCISE
Factor the following
1.
:

416

195

a^

+ 1.

2.

x'-Sl.
8. 9,

3.

a;-64.

4.
5.
6.
7.

a^-{-4.x'-\-7x-12.

ir-18a5 + 8.
x^

a.-^_a^3^g^2_^14^_pe,
a.'3-a;2_iia;_io.

-Bx^'-Sx + AS.

10.
11.

x" -{-Sx"
ar^

+ 13a^ -13x-4:.

ar^-9a^ + 15a;

+ 9.

+ 6x^-05-30.

Find, without actual division,

12.

Whether

a;

-3
4-

is

a factor of

x'-G x' -{-ISx- 12.

:/>-^

o 13. Whether
14.

a;

is is

a factor of
a factor of

Whether x + 1

x^ + 7 x^ 6. x^ 4:X^-\-2a^ 2x 9.

-zlS.

Whether

a;

is is

a factor of x{y a factor of


?/

+ zf +y(z +
yf +
-\-

a^)'

+ z{x +

2/)'-

16.
17.

Whether a
Whether
ic

a\b-cf+h\c-af+c\a-bf.

18.

Whether

m+

is

a factor of {x

7i

is

a factor of

m{m

zy + (2 aj)^ 2 Tif n(2 m nf.


(2/
-{-

459.

We will
I.

now

give formal proofs of the statements of

104.

Proof of
Then, by

If h be substituted for

457,

a in a" 6" has a 6 a"

?;",

the result

is 6"

6",

or 0.

as a factor.

Proof of

II.
is

for a in a^'b"; the result If h be substituted since 7t is even, b'^b'', or 0. or, 6 as a factor. 6" has a Then, by 457, a"

(6)" 6'*;

Proof of III. If -6 be substituted for a in a''+6^the result &" + 6", or 0. or, since n is odd, a"* + 6" has a + 6 as a factor. Then,

is

(-6)"4-&";

416
Proof of lY.

ALGEBRA

6 or -f be substituted for ( 6)" + 6" or 6" 4- 6", respectively.


If
Z>

a in a"

+ If,

the results are

is even, neither of these is zero. 6 nor a 6 is a factor of a" neither a Then,

Since n

+ 6".

SYMMETRY
460. An expression containing two or more letters is said to be symmetrical with respect to them, when any two of thepi can be interchanged without altering the value of the expression.

+ ca is symmetrical with respect to the letters and c for if a and b be interchanged, the expression bea, 5, comes ba + ac i- cb, which is equal to ab -\-bc-\- ca.
Thus, ah-{-hc
;

And,

in like

manner, the expression


c,

is

not altered in value

if

we

interchange b and

or c

and

a,

461. Cyclo-symmetry.

An expression containing n letters a, b, c, -", m, n, is said to be cyclo-symmetrical with respect to them when, if a be replaced by ^, 6 by c, --, m by n, and n by a, the value of the expression
is

not changed.

is called a cyclical interchange of letters. the expression a^b -\- b^c -f c-a is cyclo-symmetrical with Thus, respect to the letters a, b, and c for if a be replaced by b, b by c, and c by a, the expression becomes b^c + c'^a -f a^b, which is equal
;

The above

to a^b

-\-

bh -{- c^a.
;

for

is not symmetrical with respect to a, 6, and c a and h be interchanged, the expression becomes b'^a + aH -f c^ft, which is not equal to a% + ft'^c + <^a.

The above expression


if

462. It follows from 460 and 461 that, if two expressions are symmetrical or cyclo-symmetrical, the results obtained by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing them are, respectively,

symmetrical or cyclo-symmetrical.

ADDITIONAL METHODS IN FACTORING


463. Applications.

417

The principle of braic operations.


1.

symmetry

is

often useful in abridging alge-

Expand
(a

(a

+ b-^cy.
+ cy =
{a

We have,

c)(a

+ c)(a +

b -^ c).
,

c ( 460) and a, 6, of the third degree. There are three possible types of terms of the third degree in a, &, c ; terms like a^, terms like a%, and terms like abc.
is

This expression

symmetrical with respect to

and

It is evident that a^
c^

has the coefficient

and

so,

by symmetry,

b^

and

have the

coefficient 1.

The
tors

a^b terms

may

be obtained by multiplying the a's in any two fac-

by the

b in the

Then, it is have b'^ttj b^c, c^b, c^a, and a-c. Let m denote the coefficient of abc. Then, (a

remaining factor. evident that a'-b has the coefficient 3

and

so,

by symmetry,

+
-{-

6
b^

= a^
of a, 6,

+ c)^ + c^

-{-

To determine m, we
and
c.

S(a-b + b'^a + b'^c + c^b + d^a + a'^c) + mabc. observe that the above equation holds for all values

We may therefore let a=b=: c = l. Then, 27 = 3 + 18 + m and m = 6.


;

Whence, (a

=
2.

a^

+ b + c)^ + 63 -f c3 + 3(a25 + 6% +
(x

b^c

c'^b

c^a

aH) + 6

abc.

Expand

y zy + (y z xy
is

-\-

(z

x yy.
and
z,

This expression

symmetrical with respect to

x, y,

and

of the

second degree.

The
terms

possible types of terms of the second degree in x, y,


cc^,

and z are and


so,

like

and terms

like xy.

It is evident, by the rule of 204, that x^ has the by symmetry, have y"^ and s^. Let m denote the coefficient of xy.

coefficient 3

Then,

(x-

zy^-h (y

= 3(^2
Then, 3

- xy +(z - x - yy + 1/2 + 02) 4. ^(^xy -^yz-{- zx). z

To determine m, put x =

y = z = l. = 9 + 3?ri, or m = -2. _ _ ?/)2 Whence, (x y 5;)2 + (y a;)2 = 3(x^+y^-hz^)-2(xy-hyz + zx).


_[.

(5;

a;

418
3.

ALGEBRA
Expand
(a-\-b-hcy+(a

+ b-cy+(b-^c-ay + {c-\-a- by.


a, &,

The expression
third degree.

is

symmetrical with respect to

and

c,

and

of the

The

possible types of terms are terms like a^, terms like a^b,

and terms

like abc.
It is evident, by proceeding as in Ex. 1, that a^ has the coefficient l_j-l_l_l_l, or2; and so, by symmetry, have 6^ and c^. Again, proceeding as in Ex. 1, it is evident that a^b has the coefficient 3

in the first term, 3 in the second, 3 in the third,

and

3 in the fourth.

Then, a^b has the coefficient

3+3 + 3-3,

+ (& + c -

or 6; and so by

symmetry

have b^a, b% c'^b, c'^a, and a^c. Let m denote the coefficient of abc.
Then,

+ (c + a - 6)3 = 2(a3 + 63 + c3) + e{a% + 6% + b'^c + c'^b + c^a + a^c) + mabc. To determine m, let a = b = c = 1. Then, 27 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 6 + 36 + w, or w = - 12. Then, (a + 6 + c)^ + (a + 6 - c)^ + (6 + c - ay + (c + a - by = 2(a3 + 63 _^ c3) + 6(a^b + b^a + b-^c + c^b + c^a + a^c) - 12 a&c.
(a + & + c)3 + (a + &
c)3

a)^

EXERCISE

196

1. In the expansion of an expression which is symmetrical with respect to a, b, and c, what are the possible types of terms of the fourth degree ? of the fifth degree ?

If one term of an expression b respect to a, b, and c is (2 a


2.

which

is

c)(2 b c a),

symmetrical with

what are

the others?
3. Is the expression a(b cy -\-b(c metrical with respect to a, b, and c ? 4. Is the expression metrical with respect to
(ay^

ay -\-c{a by

sym-

y^y + (y^ z^y + (2^ x^^


y,

sym-

x,

and

z ?

Expand
5.

the following
(a

by the symmetrical method


6.

+ b + cy,

(a

+ b + c + ay.

ADDITIONAL METHODS IN FACTORING


7.

419

8. 9.

10.

+ y-zf+{y^z-xy+{z-{-x- yf. - 3 6 - 4 c)2 + (2 & - 3 c - 4 a)2 + (2 c - 3 a - 4 hf. (2 a - 6 - c)3 + (5 - c - a)3 + (c - a - 6)^. (a H- 6 + c)3 -f (a {a + h-{-c-df-\-{h + c-\-d-ay + {G + d + a-hY c)l -\-{d-[-a-\-h
(x

11.
12.

(aH-6
{x

+ c + d)l

13. 14.

+ y -z){y-^z-x){z + x-y). b). (a + 6 + c)(a + b c)(b -\-g- a)(c -\-a (x' + y^ + z^-{-2xy + 2yz + 2zxy.
of

464. Factoring

Symmetrical Expressions.
is

The method

of 457

advantageous in factoring symmet-

rical expressions ( 460, 461).


1.

Factor

a(b

+ cy + b(c + af + c(a + by - a\b + c) - ^^^ + ) - c^a + b).

is symmetrical with respect to a, &, and c. Being of the third degree, the only literal factors which it can have are three of the type a three of the type a+6; ora + & + c, and a factor of the second degree. Putting a = 0j the expression becomes

The expression

6c2

c62

&2c

c26,

or

0.

Then, by

The
tor;

and, by symmetry, b and c are factors. 457, a is a factor expression, being of the third degree, can have no other literal fac;

but it may have a numerical factor. Let the given expression = mahc. To determine m, let a = b = c = l. 4

Then,

+4+

4-2-2-2 = m,
= 6 abc.

or

w = 6.

Whence, the given expression


2.

/
z.

Factor

x^

-{-

y^

-\-

z^

S xyz.
-\-

The expression is symmetrical with respect to x, y, and The only literal factors which it can have are three
three of the type x-{- y\ oi x
y
-^ z,

x and a factor of the second degree.


of the type

420
It is

ALGEBRA
evident that neither x^ y, nor ^ is a factor. y, the expression becomes

Putting X equal to

-y^ +
which
is

y^

z^

+ x%
'S

not

0.
;

Then, x -{- y is not a factor ( 457) and, by symmetry, neither y nor z + X is a factor. y z, the expression becomes Putting X equal to

-\-

(-

- zY + y^ + z^ - 3(- y - z)yz = -y^ - Sy^z-S yz^ - z^ +

y^

-\-

z^

y'^z

yz'^

= 0.

Therefore, x + y + z is a factor. The other factor may be obtained by division, or by the following

process

It is of the
y,

second degree
of the

and

z, it

must be

and as form
;

it is

symmetrical with respect to

x,

m(x2
It is evident that

+ + w = 1, as
?/2

^2)

_f.

,^(-^2/

yz-\- zx).

this is the

only value which will give the

terms

aj^,

y^,

and

z^ in the

given expression.

Then,
x3

- 3 xyz={x^y ^ z) [x2 j^ + let x = \, y = \, z = Q. To determine = 2(2 + w), or 1=2 + w, or 2 Then,


+
1/3

^3

y-i

z'^ j^.

n {xy

yz

zx)"].

?i,

=-

1.

Whence,
a;3

y3

^3

rj^y^
(^x

z) (x^

-\. y'^ -\-

z^

xy

yz

zx).

3.

Factor ah{a
is

h)

-\-

he {h

c)

-\-

ca(G

a).
a, 6,

The expression

It is evident that neither a, &,

cyclo-sym metrical ( 461) with respect to nor c is a factor.

and

c.

The expression becomes


Then, a
factors.

when a
;

6 is a factor

is replaced by b. and, by symmetry, b

and

a are

The expression can have no other literal


cal one.

factor, but

may have a numeria).

Let the given expression


let

= m(a =
2, &

h)(b

c)(c
c

= 0. To determine w, a 1, 2 = 2 w, and m = 1. Then, c) (c Then, the given expression = (a b)(b =


and

a).

ADDITIONAL METHODS IN FACTORINa


EXERCISE
Factor the following
:

421

197

2.

(ab-^bc-{-ca)(a-{-b+c)-a\b+c)-b%c-\-a)-c\a-{-b).
x'(y

3
4. 5.
6.
7.

+ z)+y\z + x)-\-z\x-\-y)-\-2xyz. a(b + cy + b(c 4- af + c(a + 6)^-4 abc.


a\b-c)-^b\c-a)-\-c\a-b).
(a;
2/

8. 9.

+ + ^^) -(^ + y)(y + ^){^ + ^)+ + ab{a + 6) + 6c(6 + c) -f ca{c + a) + 2 a6c. (a;-|-2/ + 2)3_a^_2/3_^ {x + y-{-z){xy-\-yz-\-zx)-xyz.
2)(a;2/
2/2=

11.

a\b

- c) + 68(c - a) + c3(a - 6).

422

ALGEBRA

XXXV. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION


465. In

387 we gave an example of Mathematical Induc-

tion, in proving the Binomial Theorem for a Positive Integral Exponent in the present chapter, we will give other illustra;

tions of the method.

466.
sally.

We

will

now prove

that the laws of

103 hold univer-

We

will first prove,

by Mathematical Induction, that they


is

hold for

a-b

where n

any positive
^

integer.
is

Assu-me the laws to hold for


.
.

^
,

where n

any positive

integer-

Then,

^^-^ = a-i -f a^-'b 4- a'^-'b' +"'-]- b^-\ ab


a

(1)

a b

^ a^(a b) -h b(a'' 6") ab

= a" + 6(a"-i a^'-^b -h a^'-^b^ H = a" a"-^5 -f a^ -2^2 _^ ^_


-!-f...

h 6""^),

by

(1),

_j_

This result

is

in accordance

with the laws of

103.

the laws hold for the quotient of the difference of two like powers of a and b divided hj a b, they also hold for

Hence,

if

the quotient of the difference of the next higher powers of a and b divided hy a b.
^

r,5

But we know that they hold


f-i&

7^5

for

b
for

and therefore thev


7j6
,

7i6
;

hold for
:

a-b'
.

and since they hold ^

,y6

a-b'

they hold for ^

a'-b' and ab

so on.

MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Hence, the laws hold for
integer.

423

where n

is

any positive

Putting

for b in (1),

we have

a--(-b)
If
71

is

even,

(-by =

6^ and

(-

6)"-^

= - 6""^
&-\
(2)

^"~^"
Whence,
a-\-b
If n is odd,

= a"~i - a---'6 + a^-^ft^


6% and

{~by = a^-^

(-

&)"-i

= + b^'K + b--\
(3)

Whence, ^il+^ =
a-\-b

- a^-'b + a^'-'b'

Equations 103.
467.

(2)

and

(3) are in

accordance with the laws of

We

will

now prove

that the law of

204 holds for the

square of a polynomial of

any number

of terms.

Assume

terms, where

the law to hold for the square of a polynomial of that is, is any positive integer

(a-i-b

+ c-i

\-l-\-my

= a^-^b"-^
Then,
(a
-{-

"-{-m^ + 2a(b
=.=

+ c-]

hm)
(1)

_l_26(c+--+m)
b
-\-

-{-

--

-\-

+ 4-2Zm. m + yif

= (a + 6-hc+-'-+m)2
-{-2(a-\-b-\-c-\

hm> + n2,
+ n^ hm + w)

y^y.

97^

= a^ + b- + c^-\

\-m^

+ 2a(6 + cH
-\-2b(c-\

\-m-{-n)-\

\-2mn, by

(1).

This result

is

in accordance with the

law of

204.

424
Hence,
if

ALGEBRA
the law holds for the square of a polynomial of m it also holds for the

is any positive integer, terms, where 1 terms. square of a polynomial of

m+

But we know that the law holds for the square of a polynomial of three terms, and therefore it holds for the square of a polynomial of four terms and since it holds for the square of
;

a polynomial of four terms, it also holds for the square of a polynomial of five terms and so on.
;

Hence, the law holds for the square of any polynomial.


468.
that the

As another sum of the

illustration of the
first

method, we will prove

n terms

of the arithmetic progression,


2c?,
^

a,

+ d,

a+

is

given by the formula na

+ ^^^^~ ~
'

d.
is

(Compare

361.)

The sum

of the first

two terms
d.

2a-f d, which can be

written in the form

2a +

Assume
terms.

Then, the formula holds for the sum of the first two terms. that the formula holds for the sum of the first ?i
'~
is,

That

the

sum

of the first

n terms =na-\-

'

d.

Now

the {n -f l)th term of the progression is a -h nd. Whence, the sum of the first {n 1) terms equals

y^a

+ ''(''~^) d + a + nc^=(n + l)a + ^(n-l+2)

= (4-l) +
This result
is

^^^<J.
of the first

in accordance with the formula.

Hence,
it

if

the formula holds for the

sum

n terms,

also holds for the

sum

of the first

+1

terms.

But we know that the formula holds for the sum of the first two terms, and hence it holds for the sum of the first three terms; and since it holds for the sum of the first three terms, it also holds for the sum of the first four terms; and so on.

MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Hence, the formula holds for the sum of the where n is any positive integer.
first

425
n terms,

EXERCISE
1.

198

Prove that the sum of the


is n^.

first

n terms of the

series 1, 3,

5,

2.
9,
...

Prove that the sum of the

first

n terms of the

series 3, 6,

+ ^). is^^^(^
first

Prove that the sum of the n IS n+1 1.2' 2.3' 3-4'


3.
.

111
4.

n terms of the

series

first

Prove, by mathematical induction, that the sum of the n terms of the geometric progression,
a, ar, ar^y
..,

is

given by the formula


5.

~ S = ^^^" ^^ r1
first
.

( 370).

Prove that the sum of the


...

n terms

of the series

2^^

42^

6^
6.

is

2<^ + l)(2n + l)

Prove that the sum of the

first

n terms of the

series

1^,

426

ALGEBRA

XXXVI. EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS


469. Two equations, each involving one or more unknown numbers, are said to be Equivalent when every solution of the first is a solution of the second, and every solution of the second a solution of the first.

470. To solve an equation involving one unknown number, Xy we transform it into a series of equations, which lead finally to
the value of
x.

assumed, in passing from any equation to any other, in this series, that every solution of the first was a solution of the second, and every solution of the second a solution of the
first;

We have

so that

first to find

it was legitimate to use the second in place of the the value of the unknown number.

That

is,

we have assumed

that the two equations were equiva-

lent ( 469). will now prove

We

some theorems in regard to equivalent

equations.

471. If the same expression he added to both members of equation, the resulting equation will be equivalent to the first.

an

Let

A=B
unknown numbers.

(1)

be an equation involving one or more

To prove the equation


where

A + C=B-^C,

(2)

any expression, equivalent to (1). solution of (1), when substituted for the bers, makes identically equal to ( 79). It then makes -f C identically equal to J5

G is

Any

unknown num(7 (

84, 1).

Then

it is

a solution of

(2).

Again, any solution of

(2),

when

substituted for the

unknown

numbers, makes A-\- C

identically equal to

B+

C.

EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
It

427

then makes
it is

identically equal to
(1).

( 84, 2).

Then
The

a solution of

Therefore, (1) and (2) are equivalent.


principle of 84,
1, is

a special case of the above.

472. The demonstration of

471 also proves that

If

the

same expression

be subtracted

from
this.

both

members of an

equation, the resulting equation will be equivalent to the first.

The

principle of 84, 2,

is

a special case of

473. If the members of an equation be multiplied by the same


expression, tvhich
is

not zero,

and does not

involve the

unknown

numbers, the

resultirig

equation will be equivalent to the first.

Let

A=B
unknown numbers.

(1)

be an equation involving one or more

To prove the equation


where

AxC=BxC,

(2)

is

not zero, and does not involve the

unknown num-

bers, makes A identically equal to B. It then makes ^ X O identically equal

bers, equivalent to (1). Any solution of (1), when substituted for the

unknown num( 84, 3).

to

BxO

Then

it is

a solution of

(2).

Again, any solution of (2), when substituted for the numbers, makes ^4x0 identically equal to By. C. It then makes identically equal to B ( 84, 4).

unknown

Then

it is

a solution of

(1).

Therefore, (1) and (2) are equivalent.

The reason why


The

the principle of 84,

the above does not hold for the multiplier zero 4, does not hold when the divisor is zero.
is

is,

that

principle of 84, 3,

a special case of the above.

474. If the members of an equation be multiplied by an expression which involves the unknown numbers, the resulting equation is, in general, not equivalent to the first.
Consider, for example, the equation
a;

+ 2 = 3 4.
a;

(1)

428

ALGEBRA
equation

Now the
which
a;

(x-\-2)(x-l)
is

= (3x-^)(x-l),

(2)

1, is

satisfied

obtained from (1) by multiplying both members by by the value x = l, which does not satisfy (1).

Then (1) and (2) are not equivalent. Thus it is never allowable to multiply both members of an integral equation by an expression which involves the unknown numbers for in this way additional solutions are introduced.
;

475. If the members of an equation he divided by the same


pression, which is not zero,

ex-

and does not

involve the

unknown

numbers, the resulting equation will be equivalent

to the first.

Let

A=B
unknown numbers.

(1)

be an equation involving one or more

To prove
where

the equation

A=B
77

77;

(2)

is

not zero, and does not involve the

unknown num-

bers, equivalent to (1). Any solution of (1), when substituted for the bers,

unknown num-

A identically equal to B. A B It then makes identically equal to


makes

( 84, 4).

Then

it is

a solution of

(2).

Again, any solution of

numbers, makes
It

A
G

(2),

when

substituted for the

unknown

identically equal to

B
G

then makes
it is

A identically equal
(1).

to B.

Then
The

a solution of

Therefore, (1) and (2) are equivalent.


principle of 84, 4,
is

a special case of the above.

476. If the members of an equation be divided by an expression which involves the unknown numbers, the resulting equation is, in general, not equivalent to the first.

EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
Consider, for example, the equation

429

Also the

+ 2)(x-l) = (Sx-4.)(x-l). 2 = 3 4, equation


(x
cc -fa;

(1)

(2)

which

is

Now
Then

equation (1)
(2).

obtained from (1) by dividing both members by is satisfied by the value x l, which does

x 1.

not satisfy
(1)

and (2) are not equivalent. from this that it is never allowable to divide both members of an integral equation by an expression which involves the unknown numbers for in this way solutions are lost.
It follows
;

(Compare

158.)

477. If both members of a fractional equation be multiplied by

L.C.M. of the given denoyninators, the resulting equation in general, equivalent to the first.
the

is,

Let

all

them be added, using

the terms be transposed to the first member, and let for a common denominator the L. C. M.

of the given denominators. The equation will then be in the

form
(1)

1
We
which
will

= 0.

now prove

the equation

^ = 0,
A
mon

(2)

is obtained by multiplying (1) by the L. C. M. of the and B have no comgiven denominators, equivalent to (1), if

factor.

Any
bers,

solution of (1),

when

substituted for the

unknown num-

makes

identically equal to 0.

Then, it must make A identically equal to 0. Then, it is a solution of (2). Again, any solution of (2), when substituted for the unknown numbers, makes A identically equal to 0.

430
Since

ALGEBRA

A and B
is

have no common

factor,

B cannot

be

when

this solution

substituted for the


(2),

unknown numbers.
substituted for the

Then, any solution of


numbers, makes

when

unknown
(1).

identically equal to 0,

and
if

is

a solution of

Therefore, (1) and (2) are equivalent,

and

have no

common
If

factor.

and

have a

common

factor, (1)

and

(2) are not equivalent

consider, for example, the equations

"

^-^^ = x2-l
is
;

0,

and X

0.

equation^ satisfy the first equation

The second

satisfied

by the value x

1,

which does not

then, the equations are not equivalent.

478. A fractional equation may be cleared of fractions by multiplying both members by any common multiple of the denominators; but in this way additional solutions are introduced, and the resulting equation is not equivalent to the Consider, for example, the equation
first.

x^

= 2.
1

If L. C.
If,

we
M.

of

solve by multiplying both members a;2 1 and a; -2. 1, we find x

by af1, the
(ic^

however,

we multiply both members by

l)(x 1),

we have
o^-a^-\-x'-x
The The

= 2x^-2x^-2x + 2,
may
x
be solved as in
-\-

or

x^-{-x-2

= 0.

latter equation

126.

factors oi x"

Solving the equation .t a? Solving the equation .t This gives the additional value x=l', and this does not satisfy the given equation.

2 are x-{-2 and x 1. + 2 = 0, x= 2. 1 = 0, = 1.


it is

evident that

479. If both members of an equatmi be raised

to the

same

positive integral power, the resulting equation ivill have all the solutions of the given equation, and, in general, additional ones.

EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
Consider, for example, the equation x

431

= 3.

Squaring both members, we have


x''

= 9,

or x'--9

= 0,

or (x

+ 3){x-3) = 0.
3,

The
root

3. We will now
Let

latter equation

has the root

and, in addition, the

consider the general case.

A=B
we have

(1)

be an equation involving one or more unknown numbers. Raising both members to the nth power, n being a positive
integer,

A^ = B-,
first

or

A--B'' = d.

(2)

Factoring the

number

( 121),
...

(A - J5)(^"-i

+ A^-'B +

Now, equation

(3) is satisfied

when

+ B"^-') = 0. A=B.
(1).

(3)

Whence, equation (2) has all the solutions of But (3) is also satisfied when

so that (2) has also the solutions of this last equation, which,

in general, do not satisfy (1).

EQUIVALENT SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS


480.

Two

unknown numbers,

systems of equations, involving two or more are said to be equivalent when every solu-

tion of the first system is a solution of the second, and every solution of the second a solution of the first.

^^^
system of equations

lizt
unknown numbers,
the

are equations involving two or more

mA -\-nB = 0,
where

A=0,
to zero,
is

and n are any numbers, and n not equal


to the first system.

equivalent

432

ALGEBRA

the

For any solution of the first system, when substituted for unknown numbers, makes ^ = and B=0. It then makes ^ = and niA + nB = 0.

Then, it is a solution of the second system. Again, any solution of the second system, = and for the unknown numbers, makes

when

substituted

mA + nB = 0.

It therefore

Since
system.

it

makes nB = 0, or JB = 0. makes A = and ^ = 0, it is a

solution of the first

Hence, the systems are equivalent.


Either

A similar result holds for a system w or w may be negative.

of

any number

of equations.

482. If either equation, in a system of two, be solved for one of the unknown numbers, and the value found be substituted for
this

unknown number

in the other equation, the resulting system

will be equivalent to the first.

Let

1^ = ^' I (7 = A
y.

(1)
(2)

be equations involving two unknown numbers, x and Let be the value of x obtained by solving (1).

Let X in (2).

F=0

be the equation obtained by substituting

for

To prove

the system of equations

'x=^E,

'

(3)
(4)

\f=G,

equivalent to the first system. Any solution of the first system satisfies (3), for (3) is only a form of (1).
Also, the values of x and y which form the solution make x equal and hence satisfy the equation obtained by putfor X in (2). ting

and

E E

Then, any solution of the first system satisfies (4). Again, any solution of the second system satisfies (1) is only a form of (3).

(1), for

EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS

433

Also, the values of x and y which form the solution make x and equal and hence satisfy the equation obtained by putin (4). X for ting

Then, any solution of the second system Hence, the systems are equivalent.

satisfies (2).

involving any

similar result holds for a system of any number of unknown numbers.

number

of equations,

483.
to

We will now apply the principles of 481 and 482 show that the solutions of Ex. 1, 168, and the examples of 169 and 170 are equivalent to the given equations.

Ex.

1, 168.

By
and

481, the given system is equivalent to the system (1) (5), or to the system (1) and (6).

and (6) is equivalent to the system equivalent to the system (6) and (8). (7), (6) Then, the given system is equivalent to the system (6) and (8).

By

482, the system (1)

and

which

is

Ex.,

169.

By
and

482, the given system is equivalent to the system (3) (4), or to the system (3) and (5).

By

482, the system (3)

and

(5) is

equivalent to (5) and

(6).

Ex., 170.

The given system

Now

is equivalent to (3) and (4). values of x and y which satisfy (3) and (4) also any

satisfy (3)

and

(5).

Then, the given system


(5), or to (3)

is

equivalent to the system (3) and


(6) is equivalent to (6)

and

(6).

By*

482, the system (3)

and

and

(7).

484. The principles of 471, 472, 473, 475, 477, 479, 480,

and 481 hold for equations of any degree.

434

ALGEBRA

XXXVII. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF

IMAGINARY NUMBERS
485. Let be any point in the straight line XX'.

suppose any positive real number, -|- a, to be represented by the distance from I \ to ^, a units to the right of ^' ^ ^ "^ A' -a Ofa A ia OX.

We may

^
.

>.

a, may

Then, with the notation of 16, any negative real number, be represented by the distance from to ^', a units
in OX'.

to the left of

the same as (+ a) x ( 1), it follows from 485 that the product of + a by 1 is represented by turning the line OA which represents the number + , through two right angles, in a direction opposite to the motion of the hands

486. Since

a is

of a clock.

Then, in the product of any real number by 1, we may regard 1 as an operator which turns the line which represents the first factor through two right angles, in a direction opposite to the motion of the hands of a clock.
487. Graphical Representation of the Imaginary Unit
i

( 276).

By

the definition of

275,

-1=

l
?',

Then, since one multiplication by followed by another multiplication by

^ ^ai
\i

i,

turns the line which represents the first factor through two right angles, in a direc-

x-i
"'

hands of a clock, we may regard multiplication by i as turning the line through one right angle, in the same direction.
tion opposite to the

OH-O'

Thus,

let

XX' and FF'

be straight lines intersecting at

right angles at 0.

REPRESENTATION OF IMAGINARY NUMBERS 435


is a a be represented by the line OA, where in OX, + ai may be represented by the right of is a units above, and B' a OB, and ai by OB', where units below, 0, in YY'.

Then,

if

niiits to

i by 0(7', where Also, -f i may be represented by OC, and one unit below, 0, in YY'. is one unit above, and

488. Graphical Representation

of

Complex Numbers.

We

will

now show how

to represent the
inter-

complex number

a + bi. Let XX' and YY' be straight lines


secting at right angles at 0.
of 0, if

Let a be represented by OA, to the right a is positive, to the left if a is Let


bi

negative.

be represented by OB, above


line

if 6 is positive,

below

if b is

negative.

Draw

AC equal
line

XX'

as

OB, and

and parallel to OB, on the same side of OC.

Then, OC is considered as representing the result of adding bito a; that is, OC represents the complex number a + bi.
The
figure represents the case in

which both a and


will

b are positive.

As another
Lay
off

illustration,

we

show how
in

complex number
OX', and

54i
left of

to represent the

YY', Draw line AC below XX', equal and parallel to OB, and line OC.
in

OA 5 units to the OB 4 units below

-5

Then, OC represents 5 4i. The complex number a + bi, if a is

positive
;

and Y' represented by a line between and OX'. positive, by a line between

OX

and b negative, will be and if a is negative and b

EXERCISE

199
:

Represent the following graphically


1.

3i.

2.

-6i.

3.

1.

4.

-l + 2i.

436
5.

ALGEBRA
2-5i.
6.

-5-3i.
of Addition.

7.

-7 + 4i.

489. Graphical Representation

a,

now show how to represent the result of adding b to where a and b are any two real, pure imaginary, or complex numbers.
Let the line a be represented by OA, and

We will

the line b by OB. Draw the line

AC

OB, on the same side of line 00.

equal and parallel to OA as OB, and the

Then, 00 is considered as representing the result of adding b to a; that is, 00 represents a-\-b. The method of 488 is a special case of the above. If a and b are both real, B will fall in OA, or in AO produced
through 0.
will be true if a and 6 are both pure imaginary. one of the numbers, a and 6, is real, and the other pure imaginary, the lines OA and OB will be perpendicular.
If

The same

As another

illustration,

we

graphically the

sum

of

the

show how to represent complex numbers 2 5 i and


will
is

The complex number 2 5i sented by the line OA, between


OY'.

-4 + 3i.

repre-

OX
is

and

The complex number


OX'.

-}-

if

repre-

sented by the line OB, between

OY

and

Draw

the line

BO
00

OA, on the same


Then, the line

side of

equal and parallel to OB as OA, and the line OC.

represents the result of adding

-j-

to2-5i.
490. Graphical Representation
of Subtraction.

Let a and b be any two

real,

pure imaginary, or complex

numbers.

REPRESENTATION OF IMAGINARY NUMBERS


Let a be represented by OA, and h by OB] and complete the parallelogram
represents the result of the number represented by OB to adding the number represented by OC.

437

OBAC, By 489, OA

That
a;

is,

if h

be added to the number


is

represented by 0(7, the


hence, a

equal to represented by the line OC.


is

sum

EXERCISE 200
Represent the following graphically
1.
:

The sum

of

2.
3.

The sum The sum


The sum

of of
of

4.
5.

4 and 3 5 bi and 1 + 6 2 + 4 and 5 - 3 -6 + 2i and -4-7i


i
i.
i.
i

i.

ond expression from the

Represent graphically the result of subtracting the secfirst, in each of the above examples.

438

ALGEBRA

XXXVIII. INDETERMINATE
491. In

FORMS
not

322,

we found

that the form - indicated an exis

pression which could have any value whatever ; but this always the case.
^
.

Consider, for example, the fraction


If x

X
or

ax

= a,

the fraction takes the form -.

jSTow

x^-a' ^ (x-\-a)(x-a) x^ ax x(x a)


a.

^ x-^a
cc

'

which

last expression is equal to the given fraction,

provided

x does not equal

The

fraction ^__^ approaches the limit ^L+_^

or 2,

when

x approaches the limit a. This limit we call the value of the given fraction ivhen x = a. Then, the value of the given fraction when a; = a is 2. for the given In any similar case, we cancel the factor which equals value of X, and find the limit approached by the result when x approaches
the given value as a limit.

EXERCISE
Find the values
1.

201
:

of the following
3.

^^^^^^whenx==2a.
2a^-5ar^

~
/'
4.
yi

^\

when
.

o^

= - 4.
.

'

J^TS^

when . = a 0.
i,

4:X^-4:X-S

g^,_^,^^,, x^-8 x' + 16


6.

when x = f.

^!:rMl^whenx = 2.
x'-Tx + e

INDETERMINATE FORMS
492. Other Indeterminate Forms.

439

Expressions taking the forms ^,

oo,

or oo

co, for

certain

values of the letters involved, are also indeterminate.


1.

Find the value of

(a^-\-8)(l

+ -^\
x^

when x = -2.
2 ( 319).

This expression takes the form

oo,

when x =

Now,

(a;3

8) (l

+ -^] = x^-h8 +

+ +2

= x^-i-S-{-x^ -2x + 4 = x^ + x^-2x+l2.


The latter expression approaches the Hmit 8 + 4 + 4 + 12, or when X approaches the limit 2. This limit we call the value of the expression when x = 2 then, value of the expression when x = 2, is 12. In any similar case, we simplify as much as possible before finding
;

12,

the
the

limit.

2.

Find the value of

-^
1

X
oo

?^
OCT

when x

= l.
319).
1

The expression takes


Now,

the form

oo,

when x
1

=
x

1 (

2x

1-x

1-^2

+ x-2a: l-x2

l-a:2

+x
the

The
limit
1.

latter expression

approaches the limit ^

when x approaches

Then, the value of the expression when x

1, is

is

493. Another example in which the result the following


:

is

indeterminate

Ex. Find the limit approached by the fraction X


is indefinitely

"^

^ when
^

increased.

Both numerator and denominator increase

indefinitely in absolute value

when X

is

indefinitely increased.
1

Dividing each term of the fraction by x

4--^ 2 T -

-5x

X
2
^

440
The
X
is

ALGEBRA
latter expression

approaches the limit

2 2 - ( 320), or -,
-f-

~"

when

indefinitely increased.

'^

fraction

In any similar case, we divide both numerator and denominator of the by the highest power of x.

EXERCISE 202
Find the limits approached by the following when x
definitely increased:
J
is in-

4:-^5x-Sx^
7-x-\-4:X^'

2a;
'

3 2

+l - 2*
:

a^-2a;-4
*

a,-2

+5

a;

-h 3*

Find the values of the following


1
4.

12

r x-2 af-S

when x

= 2.
whena;

5.

(2a^-5a;-3)/'2-f-^')

= 3.

HORNER'S SYNTHETIC DIVISION

441

XXXIX. HORNER'S SYNTHETIC DIVISION


494. Division by Detached
Coefficients.

In finding the quotient of two expressions which are arranged according to the same order of powers of some common letter, the operation may be abridged by writing only the numerical coefficients of the terms.
If the term involving

any power

is

wanting,

it

may be

sup-

plied with the

coefficient 0.
aj^-f5 a^

Ex. Divide 6 x^+2 a^-9


6

+ 18 x-^0

by ^o^^x'-Q,.

+ 2-9+ + 5 + 18-30 34-l_t_0-6 + 2 + 0-12 2+0-3+5 -9 + 12 _9- 3 + + 18 15 + 5 15 + 5+ 30 Then the quotient is 2 o^ 3 + 5.


6
ic

495. Horner's Synthetic Division.

Let it be required to divide 6 2a^ + a;-3.


6ic^_

x^

ic^

3 a^ + 10 12
.a?

by

a^-3a^ +
6a;2

10a;-12|

2a^ + a;-3

-4ar^ +

-4a^-2a^+ Qx
8a;2+

Ax

The dividend equals (2x^ + x'6) times the quotient. Then, we can find the quotient by subtracting from the dividend + x times the quotient, and 3 times the quotient, and dividing the result by 2 x^.

442
Or,

ALGEBRA
we can
find
it

quotient, and by2a^.

+3

by adding to the dividend x times the times the quotient, and dividing the result
:

We may

arrange the work as follows

2a^

HORNER'S SYNTHETIC DIVISION


496.

443

We
:

will

now

give some additional examples of the

method
1.

Divide

12

ar^

-11 x2 4-20 a;- 9 by


12
a:3

3 x2-2a;-f-4.

3x-2

+ 2;c -4
4X

- 11 x2 + 20 X + 8x2-- 2 X -16x + 1, quo. 2 X

9 4
5,

Rem.

We

write the divisor in the left-hand column, with the sign of each

term after the

first changed. Dividing 12 x^ by 3 x^ gives 4 x for the first term of the quotient. We multiply + 2 x by 4 x and put the product, 8 x^, in the second
;

column

and multiply

4 by 4 x, and put the product,

16 x, in the

third column.

We
result

add the terms by 3 x^, giving


multiply
;

in the second column, giving 3 x^, and divide the 1 as the second term of the quotient.

We
column

+2x

by

and multiply

1 and put the product, 2 x, in the third 4 by 1, and put the product, + 4, in the

fourth column.
in the third and fourth columns, the sum is 2 x 5. Then, the quotient is 4 x 1, and the remainder 2 x 5. It is advantageous to use detached coefficients ( 494) in the synthetic method the work of Ex. 1 would then stand as follows

Adding the terms

12

+2

-4
4-1,
2.

+2-5

Divide

a+2a^&-14a362_|_i5^^4_555 ^^ a''-^ah-\-h\

444
The work

ALGEBRA
of Ex. 2 will appear as follows with detached coefficients
1

+3 -1

14-2-14 + + 15 _15 + 3 + 15
1

- 1-5 + 5+0-5,

+5

EXERCISE 203
Divide the following by synthetic division
1.
:

2. 3.

12a^-7(x^-23x-S hj 4.x'-5x-3, 4.a'-9a'-{-30a-25 hj 2a' + 3a-5.


2a'-a^b-\-Sab^-5b^ by 2a^-3ab + 5bK
4 m^n*
+ n^ +-

4.
5. 6.

16 m^ by 2 mn^

+-

4 m^ + 7i*.

6a^-13x'-20x'-\-55a^-Ux-19 by 2a^-7a; + 6.
Sx^-4:x'y-Sxy-lSxy^-\-21y'
by
4:a:^

2x^y-{-6xy^ 7y^.
by

7.
8.

37a'-\-50

+ a'-70ahj

2a' + 5-\-a^-6a.

2w'-ab-2ac-eb'+llbc-4.c'

2a + 36-4c.

PERMUTATIONS

ANJD

COMBINATIONS

445

XL.

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

497. The different orders in which things can be arranged


are called their Permutations.

Thus, the permutations of the letters

time, are aby ac, ba, be, ca, cb; three at a time, are abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba.

a, b, c, taken two at a and their permutations, taken

which can be formed from them without regard in which they are placed.
time, are ap,

498. The Combinations of things are the different collections to the order

Thus, the combinations of the letters a, b, c, taken two at a be, ca; for though ab and ba are different permu-

tations, they

form the same combination.

499. To find the number of permutations of n different things taken two at a time.

Consider the n letters a, b, c, . In making any particular permutation of two letters, the first letter may be any one of the n; that is, the first place can be filled in n different ways. After the first place has been filled, the second place can be filled with any one of the remaining n 1 letters.

Then, the whole number of permutations of the two at a time is n(n 1).

letters

taken

We

will

now

consider the general case.


different things

500.

takeri r at

To find the number of permutations of n a time.

Consider the n letters a, b, c, . In making any particular permutation of r letters, the first letter may be any one of the n. After the first place has been filled, the second place can be filled with any one of the remaining n 1 letters.

446

ALGEBRA
filled,

filled in

After the second place has been n 2 different ways.

the third place can be

Continuing in this way, the

?*th

place can be filled in


different ways.
letters

n (r l),
r

or

n r-\-l

Sit

Then, the whole, number of permutations of the a time is given by the formula
P,

taken

= n(7i - l)(n - 2)

...

(n

- r + 1).

(1)
is

The number

of permutations of

n different things taken r at a time

usually denoted by the symbol nPr-

501.

.If all

the letters are taken, r .P.

= n,

and

(1)

becomes
(2)

= n(n-l)(n-2)...3.2.1=:[n.

Hence, the number of permutations of n different things taken n at a time equals the product of the natural numbers from 1 to n
inclusive.

(See note, page 352.)

502. To find the taken r at a time.

number of combinations of n

different things

The number
a time
is

of permutations of

n different things taken

r at

^ ^^^

_ i) (^ _ 2)

...

(^

_ r -f 1)

( 500).

But, by

501, each combination of r different things

may

permutations. Hence, the number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time equals the number of permutations divided by [r.
\r

have

That

is,

^a,^

n(n~l){n-2)...{n-r + \)
\r

^g^

The number

of combinations of

different things taken r at a time is

usually denoted by the symbol nCr-

503. Multiplying both terms of the fraction (3) by the product of the natural numbers from

Iton r

inclusive,

we have
Ijj:
.

n ^ n{n-l)'" (n - r + 1) "
'

- r) {n

...

^
\r

[rxl.2...(n-r)
which
is

\n-r

another form of the result.

PERxMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS


504.
at

447

The number of combinations of n different things taken r a time equals the number of combinations taken n r at a time.

For, for every selection of r things out of n, r things. tion oin

we

leave a selec-

The theorem may


result of 503.

also

be proved by substituting n

r for

r,

in the

505. Examples.
1.

How many
=

changes can be rung v^ith 10

bells,

taking 7 at

a time ?
Putting w
10, r

= 7, in (1), 500, 10P7 = 10. 9. 8. 7. 6.

5. 4

604800.

2.

How many

different combinations can be

formed with 16

letters,

taking 12 at a time ?

By 504, the number of combinations of 16 different things, taken 12 at a time, equals the number of combinations of 16 different things, taken 4 at a time.
Putting w

16, r

= 4,

in (3), 502,

r _ 16-15.14.13 -'^'^"^*- 1.2.3.4 _.,Qo^


3. How many different words, each consisting of 4 consonants and 2 vowels, can be formed from 8 consonants and 4 vowels ?

The number

of combinations of the 8 consonants,

taken 4 at a time,

is

^llli^,or70. 1.2.3.4
The number
of combinations of the 4 vowels, taken 2 at a time,
is

^,or6. 1.2'
Any
one of the 70 sets of consonants
;

may

be associated with any one

of the 6 sets of vowels

hence, there are in all 70 x 6, or 420 sets, each containing 4 consonants and 2 vowels. But each set of 6 letters may have [6, or 720 different permutations
( 501).

Therefore, the whole

number

of different

words

is

420 X 720, or 302400.

448

ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 204

1.

How many

different permutations can be


?

formed

with.

14

letters,
2.

taken 6 at a time

In how many different orders can the triangle be written, taken all together ?
3.

letters in the

word

How many

combinations can be formed with 15 things,


?

taken 5 at a time
4.

12 persons.
5.

certain play has 5 parts, to be taken by a company of In how many different ways can they be assigned ?

How many

combinations can be formed with 17 things,


?

taken 11 at a time

6. How many different numbers, of 6 different figures each, can be formed from the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, if each number begins with 1, and ends with 9 ?
7. How many even numbers, of 5 different figures each, can be formed from the digits 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ? 8. How many different words, of 8 different letters each, can be formed from the letters in the word ploughed, if the third letter is o, the fourth u, and the seventh e ?

9. How many different committees, of 8 persons each, can be formed from a corporation of 14 persons ? In how many will any particular individual be found ?

10.
line.

How many different quadrilaterals can


?

There are 11 points in a plane, no 3 in the same straight be formed, having

4 of the points for vertices


11.

a pack of 52 cards, 6 cards each can be dealt ?


12.
is

From

how many
of 48 men.
in

different

hands of

and

are in a

company
6,

If the of

divided into equal squads of and B be in the same squad ?


13.

how many

company them will A

How many

different words, each

and

1 vowel, can be

having 5 consonants formed from 13 consonants and 4 vowels ?

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS


14.

449

of 10 soldiers and 15 sailors, how many different can be formed, each consisting of 3 soldiers and 3 parties

Out

sailors ?

In how 15. A man has 22 friends, of whom 14 are males. many ways can he invite 16 guests from them, so that 10 may
be males ?
16. From 3 sergeants, 8 corporals, and 16 privates, how many different parties can be formed, each consisting of 1 sergeant,

2 corporals, and 5 privates


17.

Out of 3 capitals, 6 consonants, and 4 vowels, how many words of 6 letters each can be formed, each beginning with a capital, and having 3 consonants and 2 vowels ?
different
18.

How many

formed from 8

How many if 19. How many

words of 8 letters each can be 4 of the letters cannot be separated ? these 4 can only be in one order ?
different
letters, if

different numbers, of 7 figures each, can be


7, 8, 9, if

formed from the digits 1, 2,"~^ 4, 5, 6, fourth, and last digits are odd numbers ?

the

first,

506. To find the number of permutations of n things which are not all different, taken all together.

Let there be n
c's,

letters, of which p are a's, q are 6's, and r are the rest being all different. Let denote the number of permutations of these letters

taken

all

together.

Suppose that, in any particular permutation of the 7i letters, the p a's were replaced by p new letters, differing from each other and also from the remaining letters.
Then, by simply altering the order of these

letters

among

themselves, without changing the positions of any of the other letters, we could from the original permutation form [p different permutations ( 501). If this were done in the case of each of the

N original

per[p.

mutations, the whole

number

of permutations

would be A^x

450
Again,
q
if

ALGEBRA
in

new

letters,

any one of the latter the q 6's were replaced by differing from each other and from the remain-

ing letters, then by altering the order of these q letters among themselves, we could from the original permutation form [g and if this were done in the case of different permutations
;

each of the
tations

Nx[p_

permutations, the whole number of permu-

would be Nx\jp_X\qIn like manner, if in each of the latter the r c's were replaced by r new letters, differing from each other and from the remaining letters, and these r letters were permuted among themselves, the whole number of permutations would be
-ZVx[p x[g x[r.

We now
letters.

have the original n

letters replaced

by n

different

But the number of permutations


n
Sit
St,

of

n different things taken

time

is

[n ( 501).

Therefore,

^xlp x Ig

x|r

= |n;

or,

N=

\n
,

\-^

[p\g\r

Any
Ex.

other case can be treated in a similar manner.

How many
e's,

permutations can be formed from the


all
1
t.

let-

ters in the

word Tennessee, taken


2 w's, 2
s's,

together ?

Here there are 4

and
9,

Putting in the above formula w


[9

= 4,

= 2,

= 2, we

have

5.6.7.8.9 =
2-2

3780.

[4[2[2

EXERCISE 205
1.

In

how many

different orders can the letters of the


?

word

denomination be written
2.

also alike; in
3.

There are 4 white billiard balls exactly alike, and 3 red balls, how many different orders can they be arranged?
letters of the

In how many different orders can the independence be written ?

word

PEKMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS


4.

451
7 flags, of

How many

different signals can be

made with

which 2 are blue, 3 red, and 2 white,


signal ?
5.

if all

are hoisted for each

How many
In

different

numbers of 8

digits can be

formed

from the
6.

digits 4, 4, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1 ?

how many
and

different

ways can 2 dimes, 3

4 halves, that each

5 dollars be distributed

among 14

quarters, persons, so

may

receive a coin?

To find for what value of r the number of combinations ofn different things taken r at a time is greatest. By 502, the number of combinations of n different things^
507.

taken r at a time,

is

^_

n{n

l)
1

'"

(yi

2 -3

r + 2)(7i r + 1) l)r {r

/-in

Also, the number of combinations of n different things, taken at a time, is

,(,,_!) n\^IO -L;

KI -L) ...[^_(^-l) \_I0 1.2.3... (r-1)

-u

X -r l]
I

'

J^; -- yv, T ^/ n(n-l)...(n-r + 2) 1.2.3... (r-1)


ivy^iv

/2') ^^

The expression
sion (2)
/o\

n-\-l ^ 1. r The latter expression decreases as r increases. If, then, we find the values of (1) corresponding to the val-

by

r-\-l
r

r,

(1) is
,

obtained by multiplying the expres-

or

ues

1, 2,

3, ..,

of

the results will continually increase so

long as
I.

IS

> 1.
;

Suppose n even

and

let

= 2 m,
r

where

is

a positive

integer.

Then,
If r If r

!^=I+1
r r

becomes

lUL^l+l.

= m,

^~^"^

becomes

^
m
,

and

is

>1.
is

= m + 1,

^t_
r

becomes

m+1

and

< 1.

452
Then, ^Cr will have
II.

ALGEBRA
its

greatest value
let

when

r=m -'
m
is

Suppose n odd

and

= 2 m 4- 1,
r

where

a posi-

tive integer.

Then, ^!^^11 becomes


T

2^r2.
^
m
,

If r

= m, = m + 1, = m + 2,
(7^

~
r

"*"

becomes
^

and

is

>1.
1.

If r

^^

~
r

"'"'''

becomes

^ "^
m-fl
,

and equals
is

If r

^"^-^^'^^ becomes -^?-, and


r

m+2

< 1.
r equals

Then,
or

will
is,

have

its

greatest value

when

m+1
Then,

that

^^-=^ or

^^^ + 1.
greatest value

(7,.

will

have

its

when

r equals

~1
^

or

n4-l
T^
;

the results being the same in these two cases.

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC SERIES

453

XLI.

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC


SERIES

508. The Theorem of Limits.

If two expressions, containing the same variable ( 317), are equal for every value of the variable, and each approaches a limit ( 318), the limits are equal.

Let Let

A and B be two expressions containing the same variable. A and B be equal for every value of the variable, and
A'=B\

approach the limits A' and B\ respectively.

To prove
Let
Then,

A^A = m,2iX\diB'B = n.

and n are variables which can be made less than any assigned fixed number, however small ( 318). Then, either m n is a variable which can be made less than any assigned fixed number, however small, or else m n = 0.

But

m - n = A'- A - (B'- B)
==A'-A-B'-^B=:A'-B'',

for,

by hypothesis,
is

and

are equal for every value of the

variable.

But A' B'


variable.

not a variable

and hence
its

mn
A'B',

is

not a
or

Then,

mn

is

0;

and hence

equal,

is

0,

A'=B'.

THE EXPONENTIAL SERIES


509.

We have

for all values of

n and

x,

-n.i)-

454

ALGEBRA

Expanding both members by the Binomial Theorem,


n
-,
,

\_

\2

rv^

[3

n^

nxCnx
[2

1)

1
n"

n
I

nx(nx

l)(nx 2) ^

.^.

We may

write equation (1) in the form

which holds however great n may be. Now let n be indefinitely increased.
Then, the limit of each of the terms
Hence, the limiting value of the
first

2
( 320).

n n

-, -, etc., is

member

of (2) is

['+'+tt-}
and the limiting value of the second member
is

By
that

the

Theorem

of Limits ( 508), these limits are equal

is.

Denoting the

series in brackets

by

e,

we

obtain

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC SERIES


510.

455

Putting

mx

for x, in (3), 509,

we have
(4)

e'

= l + mx +
e"

Let

m = logg a.

^
e"*="

^+....

Then, by 412,

= a,
we

and

= a*.

Substituting in (4),
a^

obtain
.

= 1 + (log, a)x + (log, ay^-h (log. af^ +


is

(5)

This result

called the Exponential Series.

is

511. The system of logarithms which has e for its base called the Napierian System, from Napier, the inventor of

logarithms.

Napierian logarithms are also called Natural Logarithms. The approximate value of e may be readily calculated from
the series of

509.

and

will be

found to equal 2.7182818

....

THE LOGARITHMIC SERIES


512.

To expand

log, (1

+ x)

in asceyiding

Substituting in
(1

(5),

510, l-\-x for a,


?/

powers of and y for x,


in

x.

a^)^

= 1 + [log, (1 + a;)] + terms


first

y^, y^, etc.

Expandiiig the

member by the Binomial Theorem,

= 1 4- [log, (1 + a;)] + terms


2/

in

y^,

f,

etc.

(6)

This equation holds for every value of y which makes both members convergent; and, by the Theorem of Undetermined'
Coefficients ( 396), the coefficients of y in the

two

series are

equal.

456

ALGEBRA
is,

That

x-^x^ + ^^a^-^lx'-\-... = \og,(l^x),


[Z [^

[4

Or,

log,(l
is

a.)

a;-|

+ |-J +

|-....

(7)

This result

called the Logarithmic Series,

CALCULATION OF LOGARITHMS
513. The equation Napierian Logarithms,
ber
(7),
if

is

512, can be used to calculate so taken that the second mem-

is convergent; but unless x is small, it requires the sum of a great many terms to insure any degree of accuracy. will now derive a more convenient series for the calcula-

We

tion of Napierian Logarithms.

514. Putting

for x, in (7), 512,

we have
.

logJl-x) 6eK J

= -x----~-^-x----2
3

(8) ^^

Subtracting (8) from

(7),

we

obtain

logXl

+ a.)-log.(l-x) = 2x + ?|! + ?|!+....


log.l|

Or (422),

=
^

2(x

Let

a:

=m n m + -;
ri

then ~ = x
l-\-x 1

+J+J+ ...). mn m-\-n 2m m = 2n = m n -^ n m+n


!

(9)

Substituting these values in


1

(9),

we

obtain
1

log,n

m=2 m o
422,

Hl

1
I

M nV
1 /

m nY

m-\- n
7)Z

S\m-\-nJ

5\m-^nJ
;

But by

log, = log, m log, n

whence,
1
,

logem = log,n

mn +2 m n +
'

m nV

f'm

n\^

^\m-\-n)

5\m-\-nJ

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC SERIES


required, for example, to calculate Napierian logarithm of 2 to six places of decimals.
it

457
the

515. Let

be

Putting

m=2
log.2

and n

=l

in the result of 514, 1


.

we have

= log,l + 2
=

my

S+3 3;+5

1/1 3'

+
}

Or

since log,l
log,

(418),

= 2(.3333333 + .0123457 + .0008230 + .0000653 + .0000056 + .0000005 + = 2 X .3465734 = .6931468 = .693147,


correct to six places of decimals. Having found log, 2, we may calculate loge3 and n 2 in the result of 514.

by putting

m=3
.

Proceeding in this way, we shall find log, 10


516.
given
its

= 2.302585

To

calculate the

common
e in

logarithm of a number, having

Napieriayi logarithm.

Putting 6
'^"^

= 10

and a =

the result of
^"^-"^

426,

5^ = 2 X
logio

= ''^^^^^ ^ >^''"= .301030.


of

Thus,

= .4342945

.693147

The multiplier by .which logarithms


derived

any system are

from Napierian logarithms


is

is

called the modulus of

that system. Thus, .4342945

the modulus of the

common

system.

Conversely, to find the Napierian logarithm of a number when its common logarithm is given, we may either divide the

common

logarithm by the modulus .4342945, or multiply 2.302585, the reciprocal of .4342945.

it

by

EXERCISE 206
find the Napierian logarithm of each of the following to four significant figures
:

Using the table of common logarithms,


1.

10000.

2.

.001.

3.

9.93.

'

458
4.
7.

ALGEBRA
5.

243.6.

.04568.

6.

.56734.

What
What

is is

the characteristic of logs ~58 ?

8. 9.

the characteristic of log7 500?

If log 3

10.

If

= .4771, log8 = .9031,

how many

digits are there in

3^''

how many

digits are there in 8^^?

INDEX
Addition, of fractions, 109.
of imaginary numbers, 243. of monomials, 18.
of polynomials, 21. of positive and negative

Definitions

Continued
Factor, 74.

Coefficient, 17.

Combinations, 445.

num-

bers, 12. of similar terms, 19.

Common Common Common

Logarithm, 376.
Multiple, 100.

of surds, 226.

Complex Fraction, 121. Complex Number, 242.


Convergent Series, 358. Cyclo-symmetric Expreaeion, 416. Degree of Equation, 52. Degree of Expression, 41. Divergent Series, 358.
Division, 42.

Affected quadratic equations, 250. Any power, of a monomial, 63. of a fraction, 186. Any root, of a fraction, 192. of a monomial, 190. Approximate square root of an
arithmetical number, 201. Associative Law, for addition, 410.
for multiplication, 411.

Equation,

2.

Calculation of Logarithms, 456.

Clearing of fractions, 53.

Equation in Quadratic Form, 268. """^ Equation of Condition, 51. Equivalent Equations, 146. Equivalent Systems of Equations,
431.

Commutative Law,

for addition, 410. for multiplication, 410. Completing square, first method, 250.

second method, 253. Cube, of -a binomial, 188.

Exponent, 7. Exponential Equation, 393. Exponential Series, 455.


Factor, 17.
Fraction, 103. Fractional Exponent, 213.

Cube

root, of ber, 206.

an arithmetical num-

of a polynomial, 202.

Definitions:

Geometric Means, 344. Geometric Progression, 338.


Graph, 175. Harmonic Means, 347.
-

Abscissa, 173.

Absolute Value, 12. Affected Quadratic Equation, 248. Algebraic Expression, 9. Arithmetic Means, 335. Arithmetic Progression, 331. Arithmetical Complement, 390.

Harmonic Progression, 346. Homogeneous Terms, 41.


Identical Equation, 51. Imaginary Number, 242.

Inconsistent Equations, 147.

Axiom,

2.

Independent Equations,

146.

Binomial, 21.
Characteristic, 377.

Indeterminate Equations, 146. Index of Root, 190.

459

460
Definitions

INDEX

Continued

Inequality, 180.
Infinite series, 350. Infinity, 305.

Division, 441.

by detached

coefficients,

of fractions, 118. of imaginary numbers, 246. of

Integral Equation, 51. Irrational Number, 222.

monomials,

43.

Limit, 304.

of polynomials by monomials, 45. of polynomials by polynomials, 46.

Linear Equation, 52. Literal Equation, 132.


Mantissa, 377.

of surds, 230.

Elimination, by addition or subtraction, 147.

Monomial,

17.

Napierian Logarithm, 455. Negative Exponent, 214. Negative Number, 12. Negative Term, 17. Numerical Equation, 51.
Ordinate, 173. Perfect Cube, 88. Perfect Square, 76.

by comparison, by substitution,

150.
149.

Evolution of surds, 233. Expansion, of fractions into


361.

series,

of surds into series, 363.

Permutations, 445. Polynomial, 21,


Positive

Exponential equations, 393. Extraction of roots by the Binomial Theorem, 375. Factor Theorem, 414.
Factoring,
75, 76.

of

expressions

whose
factor,

Number, 12. Positive Term, 17.


Proportion, 312.

terms have a

common

Pure Quadratic Equation,


Quadratic Equation, 248. Quadratic Expression, 276. Quadratic Surd, 222. Rational and Integral, 40. Rational Number, 222.

248.

of quadratic expressions, 276. of symmetrical expressions, 419. of the difference of

two perfect

squares, 79. of the difference of

any two equal

odd powers,
of the

89.

sum

or difference of two

Rectangular Co-ordinates, 173. Root of Equation, 52.


Series, 350.

perfect cubes, 88. of the type x* + ax'^y'^


of the type of the type
x'^

ax

Similar Surds, 226. Similar Terms, 18.

ax"^

-\-

+ y^, 81, 279. + 6, 82, 276. hx + c, 85, 276.

Simultaneous Equations, 147.' Subtraction, 18. Surd, 222.

of trinomial perfect squares, 77. Formation of quadratic equations, 275.

General term of
sion, 355.

binomial expan-

Symmetrical Expression, 416.


Trinomial, 21. Variable, 304.

Graphical representation, of addition of

Zero Exponent, 213.


Discussion of general quadratic equation, 281.

of

complex numbers, 436. complex numbers, 435.

of imaginary unit, 434. of roots of equations, 179, 284. of solutions of simultaneous linear

Distributive
tion, 412.

Law, for

multiplica-

equations, 176.

INDEX
of solutions of simultaneous quadratic equations, 301. of monomials, 33. of

461

polynomials
34.

by

monomials,

Graph, of

first

member

of a quad-

ratic equation having equal or imaginary roots, 284.

of polynomials of positive
14.

by polynomials, 35. and negative numbers,

of

inconsistent linear

equations

with two
177.

unknown numbers,

of surds, 228. Parentheses, insertion of, 30.

of indeterminate linear equations

removal

of, 28.

with
178.

two unknown numbers, two un-

of a linear equation with known numbers, 174.

Partial fractions, 364. Permutations of things not all different taken all together, 449.

Physical Problems, 141, 260, 266,


297, 325. of the Couriers, 306. Product, of the sum and difference

of a linear expression involving one unknown number, 178.

Problem
of

of a quadratic equation involving two unknown numbers, 300. of a quadratic expression involving one unknown number, 283.

of

two numbers, 66. two binomials having same


for

first

Graphs in Physics,
Highest

327.

Common

Factor, of expres-

term, 67. Proof, of a"* X a" = "+", values of and w, 405.

all

sions which can be readily fac-

tored by inspection, 98. by long division, 395.

Theorem, for a positive integral exponent, 350. Quadratic surds, 237.


of Binomial

Indeterminate form-, 438.

Indeterminate
CO

- 00

forms,

co

Reduction, of fractions to integral or mixed expressions, 106. of fractions to their lowest com-

439.

mon
when

denominator, 107.

Interpretation, of solutions, 171.


of the of the

of fractions to their lowest terms

form
^,

304.
305.

the numerator and denominator can be readily fac-

form-, CO

'

Introduction of the coefficient of a surd under the radical sign, 225.


Involution of surds, 231. Logarithm of a number to any base,
394.

tored by inspection, 104. of fractions to their lowest terms when the numerator and de-

be readily factored by inspection, 404. of fractions with irrational de-

nominator cannot

Lowest

Common

Multiple,

of

exof

nominators to equivalent fractions with rational denominators, 233.

pressions which can be readily factored by inspection, 100.

by long division, 401. Meaning of a pure imaginary number, 243. Multiplication, of fractions, 115. of imaginary numbers, 244.

fractions with irrational denominators to equivalent fractions with rational denominators, when the denominators

are

in

the

forms
or

Vft,

V~a

Vh,

7a

Vfe, 405.

462

INDEX
of literal linear equations, 132. of quadratic equations by formula, 255.

Reduction, of mixed expressions to


degrees to equivalent surds of the same degree, 227. of surds to their simplest forms,
222.
fractions, 114. of surds of different

Square, of a binomial, 64. of a polynomial, 186. Square root, of an arithmetical

number,
413.

197.

Remainder Theorem,

Repeating decimals, 343. Reversion of series, 370.


Solution, of equations 94, 280.

of a binomial surd, 238. of a polynomial, 193. factoring,

by

Subtraction, of fractions, 109. of imaginary numbers, 243.


of monomials, 24. of polynomials, 26.

of equations having the unknow^n numbers under radical signs,

239.
of equations involving 134. of

Sum
decimals,

of surds, 226. of a geometric progression to infinity, 342.

Sum and
equations,
equations,

product of roots of quad-

fractional
127.

linear linear

ratic equations, 273. Theorem of Limits, 453.

of
54.

integral

Theorem

of

Undetermined

Coeffi-

cients (Rigorous), 409.

of literal affected quadratic equations, 258.

Transposing terms, 53. Use of Table of Logarithms, 383.

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