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Computational biology and bioinformatics are multidisciplinary fields. genetics.wustl. analyze. development.html Image Source: http://ccb. there needs to be methods to manage large amountsof data. physics. as evidenced by multiple definitions available over the web.louisville. behavioral or health data. Others have offered various opinions into these definitions as well: or application of computational tools and approachesfor expanding the use of biological.Introduction to Bioinformatics Lecture 1: Overview of Bioinformatics and Molecular BiologyWhat is Bioinformatics? Defining the terms bioinformatics and computational biology is not necessarily aneasy task. or visualize such data. as the areas have grown.In this respect. All matters concerned with biologicaldatabases are considered including (but in no means limitedto) statistics. biochemestry. what does it all mean? That’s where bioinformatics steps in. a greater confusion into these twoterms has prevailed. while for others. The goal of these two fields is as follows: • Bioinformatics: Typically refers to the field concerned with the collectionand storage of biological information.Bioinformatics can lead to important discoveries as well as help companies save time andmoney in the long run. Bioinformatics = Hot Field Smart Money: #1 among next hot jobs http://smartmoney. involvingresearchers from different areas of specialty.kwing. In addition. I'll throw my two cents For some. including those to acquire. Various advancesin molecular biology techniques (such as genome sequencing and microarrays) has led toa large amount of data that needs to be analyzed.businessweek. there isa great distinction. my understanding of bioinformatics and computational biologyfollows the NIH definitions listed below: Bioinformatics: Research. A recentgoogle search for "definition of bioinformatics" returned over 43. Computational Biology: The development and application of data-analytical and theoreticalmethods. organize. archive. and social systems. Now that we are close to having thehuman genome finished. molecular biology and mathematics. medical. based on what my experience hasbeen to the consensus use of these two terms.000 results! Inthe past few years. mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological. computer science. One of the biggest reasons for bioinformatics being a hot field is the old supplyand demand . the terms bioinformatics and computationalbiology have become completely interchangeable terms.htm So why is bioinformatics a hot field? One answer to this question is that it is tied to thehuman genome project which has generated a lot of popular interest. • Computational biology: Refers to the aspect of developing algorithmsand statistical models necessary to analyze biological data through the aidof computers.cfm?story=working-june02 Business Week: Among 50 Masters of Innovation http://www.

html )In order to be a good computational biologist. there are 22 pairs of autosomes. including plants and animals.which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane.Contained within the nucleus are one or several long double stranded DNA moleculesorganized as chromosomes. For humans.htm There are two types of organisms: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. is a chain of small molecules called nucleotides. such as bacteria and baker’s yeast are composed of only asingle cell (i. Image source: http://avery. or bases: adenosine (A). where all of the genetic information for the organism is stored. cytosine (C). Humans have about 320 different cell biology_intro. There just are too few people adequately trained in both biology andcomputer science to solve the problems that biologists need to have solved. let’s make surethe basics are covered. each having a different type of function or structural property. it is important to understand theterminology and basic processes behind the biological problems. Often these cells are too smallto be seen with the naked eye. Inaddition. Eukaryotes (or as BruceRoe from the University of Oklahoma calls them the “You and I” Karyotes) representmost of the organisms which we can see. lysosomes. they are multicellular).rutgers. Each cell is in itself a complex system enclosed in amembrane. Inside the nucleus are thechromosomes. eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles with various functions.or.html DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the basis for the building blocks encoding theinformation of life. Cells Every organism is made up of tiny structures called Many interesting problems arise out of sequence But first. Karyotype showing the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. ribosomes. called a polynucleotide or oligomer .html Image source: www.ebi.including centrioles. Structure of an animal cell. A single stranded DNA molecule. There are four differentnucleotides. the human body is composed of around 60trillion cells. For Image source: www. as well as one pair of sex chromosomes. One copy of each pair is inherited from each parent.biotec. Prokaryotes (such as bacteria) are smaller than eukaryotic cells and have simpler structure. Some whatGenome. There are two different types of biologicalsequences studied in this class: DNA/RNA and amino acids. guanine (G) . etc. they are unicellular).Prokaryotes are single cellular organisms (but not all single-celled organisms are prokaryotes!)So what is the difference between the two types of cells? A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus. Other organisms are made up of many differentcells (i. please read:http://www. Introduction to Molecular Biology (For a good overview of this topic.

The bases can be separated into two different types: purines (A and G) and pyrimidines(C and T). the following is a polynucleotide: 5’ G → T → A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ DNA can be either single-stranded or double stranded. This name is derivedfrom the fact that the directionality of this second strand runs in the opposite direction asthe first. The general convention is to label the codingstrand from 5’ to 3’ (left to right). and the fact that the bases in the second strand are complementary to the bases inthe first.Stringing together a simple alphabet of four characters together we can get enoughinformation to create a complex organism! Different nucleotides can be strung together to form a polynucleotide. Complementary bases are determined by which pairs of nucleotides can form bonds between them. meaningthat each polynucleotide sequence will have a directionality. A binds to T. The ends of the polynucleotide are marked either 3’ or 5’.the second strand is referred to as the reverse complement strand. For the polynucleotide given above. The difference between purines and pyrimidines is in the base structure. In the case of DNA. For instance. and C binds to G. the double-stranded polynucleotide is as follows: 5’ G → T → . the ends of the polynucleotide are different. However. When DNA is double-stranded.and thymine (T).

A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3’C ← A ← T ← T ← T ← C ← A ← G ← G ← G ← C ← A ← A ← T ← C ← G5’ .

com/econ_nutsugah> Emmanuel Con-Nutsugah <http://www. However. and can also be part of ahybrid helix where one strand is an RNA strand and the other is a DNA strand. In> <> to leave a comment.genecrc. RNA is important in of 232 Leave a Comment Comment must not be empty.Image source: www. instead of thymine (T). Submit Characters: 400 < > <http://www.scribd.scribd.scribd. DNA double helix structure . an alternative base uracil (U) is found inRNA. which iscalled the major groove and a smaller one.scribd. known as the minor> Uwizeye Herou <http://www.htm Note that in this image. thereare roughly 10. You must be logged in <> <> shantiabrookie <http://www.5 base pairs in one complete turn of the> very nice reply03 / 12 / 2012 <http://www. there appear to be two types of grooves: A larger one.scribd. This spring represents the 50 th anniversary of the discovery of the doublehelix structure of DNA by Watson. RNA isgenerally found as a single stranded molecule that may form a secondary structure or tertiary structures due to the complementary bases between parts of the same strand.scribd. RNA can be found as double-stranded or> nice book reply06 / 09 / 2011 .Two complementary polynucleotide chains form a stable structure known as the DNAdouble> nice reply03 / 20 / 2012 <http://www.scribd. RNA Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is similar to DNA in the fact that it is constructed fromnucleotides. Crick and lc/> thnx bt i can seem to download this file reply01 / 14 / 2012 <http://www.RNA folding will be discussed in detail during a later class> Santosh Divya <http://www.> Minesh Jethva <http://www.scribd.scribd. </static/help?type=private> <http://www./ Rating: (55 Ratings) Upload Date: 03/25/2007 Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial Tags: bioinformatics <> Uploaded by pablasarabjot <http://www.540 Reads/ Info and Rating Category: /> <>> <> <> to leave a> bioinformatics <http://www..scribd. You must be logged in <> <> Thank you very much!! reply05 / 23 / 2011 <> naveenbt <http://www. Submit Characters: .com/tag/bioinformatics?l=1> Science-Biology <http://www. complete notes on Bioinformatics this is a pdf document with complete notes on bioinformatics for> Rajesh Kumar Sahu <http://www.scribd.<> Show More Comment must not be> (fewer <#>) Flag document for inapproriate content This is a private> Science-Biology <> bio informatics reply05 / 24 / 2010 <> Marmi Nancy Wei <> this is very usefull thanks a lot reply12 / 24 / 2009 <http://www.scribd.scribd.scribd.scribd.scribd. Download or Print /> thanx for share reply03 / 11 / 2011 <http://www.

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