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or visualize such data. archive. medical. while for others. • Computational biology: Refers to the aspect of developing algorithmsand statistical models necessary to analyze biological data through the aidof The goal of these two fields is as follows: • Bioinformatics: Typically refers to the field concerned with the collectionand storage of biological information. including (but in no means limitedto) statistics. mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological. behavioral or health data. physics.In this Bioinformatics = Hot Field Smart Money: #1 among next hot jobs http://smartmoney. I'll throw my two cents in. development. molecular biology and mathematics. Others have offered various opinions into these definitions as well:http://kbrin. as evidenced by multiple definitions available over the web. Computational Biology: The development and application of data-analytical and theoreticalmethods. In addition. there needs to be methods to manage large amountsof data. what does it all mean? That’s where bioinformatics steps in. there isa great distinction.000 results! Inthe past few years.louisville. behavioral. the terms bioinformatics and computationalbiology have become completely interchangeable terms. A recentgoogle search for "definition of bioinformatics" returned over 43. One of the biggest reasons for bioinformatics being a hot field is the old supplyand demand . For some. as the areas have grown. or application of computational tools and approachesfor expanding the use of based on what my experience hasbeen to the consensus use of these two terms.Computational biology and bioinformatics are multidisciplinary fields. including those to acquire.htm So why is bioinformatics a hot field? One answer to this question is that it is tied to thehuman genome project which has generated a lot of popular interest. a greater confusion into these twoterms has prevailed.businessweek.cfm?story=working-june02 Business Week: Among 50 Masters of Innovation http://www. genetics. involvingresearchers from different areas of specialty.Introduction to Bioinformatics Lecture 1: Overview of Bioinformatics and Molecular BiologyWhat is Bioinformatics? Defining the terms bioinformatics and computational biology is not necessarily aneasy can lead to important discoveries as well as help companies save time andmoney in the long run. my understanding of bioinformatics and computational biologyfollows the NIH definitions listed below: Bioinformatics: Research.html Image Source: http://ccb. Various advancesin molecular biology techniques (such as genome sequencing and microarrays) has led toa large amount of data that needs to be analyzed. Now that we are close to having thehuman genome finished. organize.kwing. and social systems. computer science. All matters concerned with biologicaldatabases are considered bioinformatics. biochemestry.

e. Prokaryotes (such as bacteria) are smaller than eukaryotic cells and have simpler structure.adage. There are four differentnucleotides. One copy of each pair is inherited from each whatGenome. the human body is composed of around 60trillion cells. Often these cells are too smallto be seen with the naked or bases: adenosine (A).Contained within the nucleus are one or several long double stranded DNA moleculesorganized as chromosomes. Other organisms are made up of many differentcells (i. let’s make surethe basics are covered. Some organisms.html Image source: www. eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles with various functions. it is important to understand theterminology and basic processes behind the biological problems.ebi. ribosomes. they are unicellular). lysosomes. as well as one pair of sex chromosomes. Karyotype showing the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. please read:http://www. For instance. There just are too few people adequately trained in both biology andcomputer science to solve the problems that biologists need to have Humans have about 320 different cell biology_intro. Structure of an animal cell. mitochondria. etc. Image source: including plants and animals. Many interesting problems arise out of sequence analysis. There are two different types of biologicalsequences studied in this class: DNA/RNA and amino acids.including centrioles.ebi. Introduction to Molecular Biology (For a good overview of this topic.htm There are two types of organisms: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. they are multicellular).or. is a chain of small molecules called Cells Every organism is made up of tiny structures called cells. Eukaryotes (or as BruceRoe from the University of Oklahoma calls them the “You and I” Karyotes) representmost of the organisms which we can see. Inaddition. there are 22 pairs of autosomes. called a polynucleotide or oligomer .html DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the basis for the building blocks encoding theinformation of life. But first.biotec.e. where all of the genetic information for the organism is stored. A single stranded DNA molecule. cytosine (C). For humans.Prokaryotes are single cellular organisms (but not all single-celled organisms are prokaryotes!)So what is the difference between the two types of cells? A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus.which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane. each having a different type of function or structural property. guanine (G) . such as bacteria and baker’s yeast are composed of only asingle cell (i. Each cell is in itself a complex system enclosed in amembrane. Inside the nucleus are thechromosomes. Image source: http://avery.html )In order to be a good computational biologist.

When DNA is double-stranded. This name is derivedfrom the fact that the directionality of this second strand runs in the opposite direction asthe first. the double-stranded polynucleotide is as follows: 5’ G → T → .and thymine (T). The general convention is to label the codingstrand from 5’ to 3’ (left to right). For instance. A binds to T. Complementary bases are determined by which pairs of nucleotides can form bonds between them. However. meaningthat each polynucleotide sequence will have a directionality.Stringing together a simple alphabet of four characters together we can get enoughinformation to create a complex organism! Different nucleotides can be strung together to form a polynucleotide. For the polynucleotide given above. The difference between purines and pyrimidines is in the base structure. In the case of DNA.the second strand is referred to as the reverse complement strand. and the fact that the bases in the second strand are complementary to the bases inthe first. the following is a polynucleotide: 5’ G → T → A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ DNA can be either single-stranded or double stranded. and C binds to G. The ends of the polynucleotide are marked either 3’ or 5’.The bases can be separated into two different types: purines (A and G) and pyrimidines(C and T). the ends of the polynucleotide are different.

A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3’C ← A ← T ← T ← T ← C ← A ← G ← G ← G ← C ← A ← A ← T ← C ← G5’ .

com/santosh_divya_1> nice reply03 / 20 / 2012 <http://www.genecrc. RNA isgenerally found as a single stranded molecule that may form a secondary structure or tertiary structures due to the complementary bases between parts of the same strand.scribd. Crick and Franklin. You must be logged in <> nice book reply06 / 09 / 2011 .Image source:> thnx bt i can seem to download this file reply01 / 14 / 2012 <> <> Santosh Divya <> shantiabrookie <http://www.htm Note that in this image.Two complementary polynucleotide chains form a stable structure known as the DNAdouble helix.scribd.scribd.scribd. DNA double helix structure> Uwizeye Herou <http://www. RNA is important in of 232 Leave a Comment Comment must not be empty.> to leave a comment. RNA Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is similar to DNA in the fact that it is constructed fromnucleotides. Submit Characters: 400 <http://www.scribd. which iscalled the major groove and a smaller one. an alternative base uracil (U) is found inRNA. instead of thymine (T).com/events/2017032187?user_id=133485705-santosh-divya> <http://www. thereare roughly> Emmanuel Con-Nutsugah <http://www. there appear to be two types of grooves: A larger one. RNA can be found as double-stranded or single-stranded. In addition. and can also be part of ahybrid helix where one strand is an RNA strand and the other is a DNA strand.5 base pairs in one complete turn of the helix.scribd. known as the minor> very nice reply03 / 12 / 2012 < > <http://www.scribd. This spring represents the 50 th anniversary of the discovery of the doublehelix structure of DNA by lc/lc2b.RNA folding will be discussed in detail during a later class period.

com/rajesh_sahu_1> Rajesh Kumar Sahu <> <http://www.scribd.scribd.scribd.scribd. Download or Print /54. </static/help?type=private> <> to leave a> Science-Biology <http://www.scribd.540 Reads/ Info and Rating Category: /> Minesh Jethva <> thanx for share reply03 / 11 / 2011 <> Thank you very much!! reply05 / 23 / 2011 <> Show More Comment must not be> Marmi Nancy Wei <> naveenbt <> Science-Biology <> (fewer <#>) Flag document for inapproriate content This is a private> <> <> Uploaded by pablasarabjot <> .scribd. Submit Characters: .scribd./ Rating: (55 Ratings) Upload Date: 03/25/2007 Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial Tags: bioinformatics <http://www. complete notes on Bioinformatics this is a pdf document with complete notes on bioinformatics for students. You must be logged in <http://www.scribd.<> this is very usefull thanks a lot reply12 / 24 / 2009 <> bio informatics reply05 / 24 / 2010 <> bioinformatics <> <http://www.

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