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kwing. All matters concerned with biologicaldatabases are considered bioinformatics.htm So why is bioinformatics a hot field? One answer to this question is that it is tied to thehuman genome project which has generated a lot of popular interest. development. molecular biology and For some.Introduction to Bioinformatics Lecture 1: Overview of Bioinformatics and Molecular BiologyWhat is Bioinformatics? Defining the terms bioinformatics and computational biology is not necessarily aneasy task. what does it all mean? That’s where bioinformatics steps in. based on what my experience hasbeen to the consensus use of these two terms. including those to acquire. as evidenced by multiple definitions available over the web.html Image Source: http://ccb. while for others.In this respect.Bioinformatics can lead to important discoveries as well as help companies save time andmoney in the long run. One of the biggest reasons for bioinformatics being a hot field is the old supplyand demand . Others have offered various opinions into these definitions as well:http://kbrin. computer Bioinformatics = Hot Field Smart Money: #1 among next hot jobs http://smartmoney. Computational Biology: The development and application of data-analytical and theoreticalmethods. as the areas have grown. including (but in no means limitedto) statistics. organize. and social systems. mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological. involvingresearchers from different areas of specialty. medical. A recentgoogle search for "definition of bioinformatics" returned over 43. there needs to be methods to manage large amountsof data. I'll throw my two cents in.Computational biology and bioinformatics are multidisciplinary fields.cfm?story=working-june02 Business Week: Among 50 Masters of Innovation http://www. archive. Now that we are close to having thehuman genome finished. my understanding of bioinformatics and computational biologyfollows the NIH definitions listed below: Bioinformatics: Research. there isa great distinction. or application of computational tools and approachesfor expanding the use of biological. or visualize such a greater confusion into these twoterms has prevailed. • Computational biology: Refers to the aspect of developing algorithmsand statistical models necessary to analyze biological data through the aidof In addition. behavioral. Various advancesin molecular biology techniques (such as genome sequencing and microarrays) has led toa large amount of data that needs to be analyzed. genetics.000 results! Inthe past few years. the terms bioinformatics and computationalbiology have become completely interchangeable terms. The goal of these two fields is as follows: • Bioinformatics: Typically refers to the field concerned with the collectionand storage of biological information.louisville. behavioral or health data.businessweek. physics. analyze.

please read: it is important to understand theterminology and basic processes behind the biological problems.which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane. Structure of an animal cell. Some organisms. There are four differentnucleotides.htm There are two types of organisms: eukaryotes and prokaryotes.html )In order to be a good computational biologist. For instance. Each cell is in itself a complex system enclosed in amembrane. Karyotype showing the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. cytosine (C). lysosomes.ebi. Cells Every organism is made up of tiny structures called cells. the human body is composed of around 60trillion cells.html Image source: www. where all of the genetic information for the organism is stored.biotec.or. such as bacteria and baker’s yeast are composed of only asingle cell (i.ebi. let’s make surethe basics are covered. Image source: www. Prokaryotes (such as bacteria) are smaller than eukaryotic cells and have simpler structure. ribosomes. Inside the nucleus are thechromosomes. or bases: adenosine (A).ac. they are multicellular). Introduction to Molecular Biology (For a good overview of this topic.html DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the basis for the building blocks encoding theinformation of life. called a polynucleotide or oligomer . Humans have about 320 different cell A single stranded DNA molecule. Eukaryotes (or as BruceRoe from the University of Oklahoma calls them the “You and I” Karyotes) representmost of the organisms which we can see. etc. each having a different type of function or structural property. Inaddition. For humans. guanine (G) . Other organisms are made up of many differentcells (i. there are 22 pairs of autosomes. as well as one pair of sex chromosomes. eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles with various But first.e.e.including centrioles. One copy of each pair is inherited from each parent.Contained within the nucleus are one or several long double stranded DNA moleculesorganized as chromosomes.adage. is a chain of small molecules called whatGenome. they are unicellular). There just are too few people adequately trained in both biology andcomputer science to solve the problems that biologists need to have solved. including plants and animals. mitochondria. There are two different types of biologicalsequences studied in this class: DNA/RNA and amino acids.rutgers. Many interesting problems arise out of sequence biology_intro. Often these cells are too smallto be seen with the naked eye. Image source: http://avery.Prokaryotes are single cellular organisms (but not all single-celled organisms are prokaryotes!)So what is the difference between the two types of cells? A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus.

For instance. the double-stranded polynucleotide is as follows: 5’ G → T → .The bases can be separated into two different types: purines (A and G) and pyrimidines(C and T). Complementary bases are determined by which pairs of nucleotides can form bonds between them.Stringing together a simple alphabet of four characters together we can get enoughinformation to create a complex organism! Different nucleotides can be strung together to form a polynucleotide. When DNA is double-stranded. However. The difference between purines and pyrimidines is in the base structure. The ends of the polynucleotide are marked either 3’ or 5’. the ends of the polynucleotide are different. This name is derivedfrom the fact that the directionality of this second strand runs in the opposite direction asthe first.and thymine (T). and the fact that the bases in the second strand are complementary to the bases inthe first. meaningthat each polynucleotide sequence will have a directionality. The general convention is to label the codingstrand from 5’ to 3’ (left to right). In the case of DNA. and C binds to G. the following is a polynucleotide: 5’ G → T → A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ DNA can be either single-stranded or double stranded. A binds to T. For the polynucleotide given above.the second strand is referred to as the reverse complement strand.

A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3’C ← A ← T ← T ← T ← C ← A ← G ← G ← G ← C ← A ← A ← T ← C ← G5’ .

scribd.scribd. You must be logged in <http://www. RNA can be found as double-stranded or> nice reply03 / 20 / 2012 <http://www.genecrc. Crick and Franklin. Submit Characters: 400 <> Uwizeye Herou <http://www. DNA double helix structure .5 base pairs in one complete turn of the helix. RNA isgenerally found as a single stranded molecule that may form a secondary structure or tertiary structures due to the complementary bases between parts of the same> nice book reply06 / 09 / 2011 . there appear to be two types of grooves: A larger> <http://www. In addition. and can also be part of ahybrid helix where one strand is an RNA strand and the other is a DNA strand. This spring represents the 50 th anniversary of the discovery of the doublehelix structure of DNA by Watson.Two complementary polynucleotide chains form a stable structure known as the DNAdouble helix.Image source: www. RNA is important in of 232 Leave a Comment Comment must not be empty. known as the minor > <> <http://www. which iscalled the major groove and a smaller one. an alternative base uracil (U) is found inRNA. thereare roughly> to leave a comment.scribd.htm Note that in this lc/> shantiabrookie <http://www.scribd.scribd.scribd. RNA Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is similar to DNA in the fact that it is constructed fromnucleotides.scribd.> Santosh Divya <http://www.scribd. instead of thymine (T).com/econ_nutsugah> thnx bt i can seem to download this file reply01 / 14 / 2012 <http://www.RNA folding will be discussed in detail during a later class> Emmanuel Con-Nutsugah <> very nice reply03 / 12 / 2012 <http://www.

You must be logged in <> naveenbt <> (fewer <#>) Flag document for inapproriate content This is a private document.scribd. </static/help?type=private> <> Thank you very much!! reply05 / 23 / 2011 <> Uploaded by pablasarabjot <http://www. Submit Characters:> Show More Comment must not be> this is very usefull thanks a lot reply12 / 24 / 2009 <> bioinformatics <> <> Marmi Nancy Wei <> Rajesh Kumar Sahu <> Science-Biology <> thanx for share reply03 / 11 / 2011 <> Science-Biology <http://www./ Rating: (55 Ratings) Upload Date: 03/25/2007 Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial Tags: bioinformatics <> bio informatics reply05 / 24 / 2010 <> to leave a comment.<> .com/jminesh> Minesh Jethva <http://www. complete notes on Bioinformatics this is a pdf document with complete notes on bioinformatics for students.scribd. Download or Print /54.540 Reads/ Info and Rating Category: /> <> <> <http://www.

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