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In this respect. behavioral or health data.htm So why is bioinformatics a hot field? One answer to this question is that it is tied to thehuman genome project which has generated a lot of popular interest. analyze. Others have offered various opinions into these definitions as well:http://kbrin. medical. genetics. behavioral. physics. Computational Biology: The development and application of data-analytical and theoreticalmethods.Bioinformatics can lead to important discoveries as well as help companies save time andmoney in the long organize. there isa great distinction. a greater confusion into these twoterms has prevailed.Computational biology and bioinformatics are multidisciplinary fields.wustl. based on what my experience hasbeen to the consensus use of these two Bioinformatics = Hot Field Smart Money: #1 among next hot jobs http://smartmoney.businessweek. my understanding of bioinformatics and computational biologyfollows the NIH definitions listed below: Bioinformatics: Research. archive.html Image Source: http://ccb. or visualize such data. including those to acquire. while for others. involvingresearchers from different areas of specialty. The goal of these two fields is as follows: • Bioinformatics: Typically refers to the field concerned with the collectionand storage of biological information. I'll throw my two cents in. For some. development. Now that we are close to having thehuman genome finished. computer science. All matters concerned with biologicaldatabases are considered bioinformatics. biochemestry. or application of computational tools and approachesfor expanding the use of biological. One of the biggest reasons for bioinformatics being a hot field is the old supplyand demand . • Computational biology: Refers to the aspect of developing algorithmsand statistical models necessary to analyze biological data through the aidof computers. what does it all mean? That’s where bioinformatics steps in.louisville. A recentgoogle search for "definition of bioinformatics" returned over 43.kwing. Various advancesin molecular biology techniques (such as genome sequencing and microarrays) has led toa large amount of data that needs to be and social systems.cfm?story=working-june02 Business Week: Among 50 Masters of Innovation http://www.Introduction to Bioinformatics Lecture 1: Overview of Bioinformatics and Molecular BiologyWhat is Bioinformatics? Defining the terms bioinformatics and computational biology is not necessarily aneasy task. as the areas have the terms bioinformatics and computationalbiology have become completely interchangeable terms. molecular biology and mathematics. mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of In addition. including (but in no means limitedto) statistics. there needs to be methods to manage large amountsof data. as evidenced by multiple definitions available over the web.000 results! Inthe past few years.

biotec. There are two different types of biologicalsequences studied in this class: DNA/RNA and amino acids. Humans have about 320 different cell types. mitochondria. Often these cells are too smallto be seen with the naked eye. Many interesting problems arise out of sequence whatGenome.Contained within the nucleus are one or several long double stranded DNA moleculesorganized as chromosomes. Some organisms.including centrioles. there are 22 pairs of autosomes. eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles with various functions. let’s make surethe basics are covered. There are four differentnucleotides.ebi.e. A single stranded DNA molecule. Karyotype showing the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. as well as one pair of sex chromosomes. Prokaryotes (such as bacteria) are smaller than eukaryotic cells and have simpler structure. or bases: adenosine (A).html DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the basis for the building blocks encoding theinformation of life. each having a different type of function or structural Introduction to Molecular Biology (For a good overview of this topic.html Image source: www. it is important to understand theterminology and basic processes behind the biological problems. One copy of each pair is inherited from each biology_intro. For humans.html )In order to be a good computational biologist. Other organisms are made up of many differentcells (i. Each cell is in itself a complex system enclosed in amembrane.which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane. Inaddition.e. Inside the nucleus are thechromosomes. guanine (G) .ac. ribosomes. But first. they are unicellular). the human body is composed of around 60trillion cells. Image source: http://avery.htm There are two types of organisms: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. cytosine (C).Prokaryotes are single cellular organisms (but not all single-celled organisms are prokaryotes!)So what is the difference between the two types of cells? A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus. There just are too few people adequately trained in both biology andcomputer science to solve the problems that biologists need to have solved. is a chain of small molecules called nucleotides. called a polynucleotide or oligomer . Cells Every organism is made up of tiny structures called cells. they are multicellular). such as bacteria and baker’s yeast are composed of only asingle cell (i. Structure of an animal cell.rutgers.or. For instance.ebi. where all of the genetic information for the organism is stored. please read: including plants and animals. lysosomes. Image source: www. Eukaryotes (or as BruceRoe from the University of Oklahoma calls them the “You and I” Karyotes) representmost of the organisms which we can see.

In the case of DNA.the second strand is referred to as the reverse complement strand. However.The bases can be separated into two different types: purines (A and G) and pyrimidines(C and T). the following is a polynucleotide: 5’ G → T → A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ DNA can be either single-stranded or double stranded. the ends of the polynucleotide are different. A binds to T.and thymine (T). When DNA is double-stranded. This name is derivedfrom the fact that the directionality of this second strand runs in the opposite direction asthe first. The general convention is to label the codingstrand from 5’ to 3’ (left to right). and the fact that the bases in the second strand are complementary to the bases inthe first. The ends of the polynucleotide are marked either 3’ or 5’. For instance. and C binds to G. Complementary bases are determined by which pairs of nucleotides can form bonds between them.Stringing together a simple alphabet of four characters together we can get enoughinformation to create a complex organism! Different nucleotides can be strung together to form a polynucleotide. the double-stranded polynucleotide is as follows: 5’ G → T → . meaningthat each polynucleotide sequence will have a directionality. For the polynucleotide given above. The difference between purines and pyrimidines is in the base structure.

A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3’C ← A ← T ← T ← T ← C ← A ← G ← G ← G ← C ← A ← A ← T ← C ← G5’ .

scribd. RNA can be found as double-stranded or single-stranded.5 base pairs in one complete turn of the helix.scribd.scribd.scribd. RNA isgenerally found as a single stranded molecule that may form a secondary structure or tertiary structures due to the complementary bases between parts of the same strand.htm Note that in this image. You must be logged in <> nice book reply06 / 09 / 2011 .com/events/2017032187?user_id=133485705-santosh-divya> <> nice reply03 / 20 / 2012 <> Uwizeye Herou <http://www. This spring represents the 50 th anniversary of the discovery of the doublehelix structure of DNA by Watson.scribd. RNA is important in of 232 Leave a Comment Comment must not be > <http://www.scribd. which iscalled the major groove and a smaller> shantiabrookie <> to leave a comment.> <http://www.scribd. instead of thymine (T).RNA folding will be discussed in detail during a later class period. and can also be part of ahybrid helix where one strand is an RNA strand and the other is a DNA strand. known as the minor> very nice reply03 / 12 / 2012 < lc/lc2b.scribd. Crick and> Santosh Divya <http://www. an alternative base uracil (U) is found> thnx bt i can seem to download this file reply01 / 14 / 2012 <http://www.Image source: www.scribd.Two complementary polynucleotide chains form a stable structure known as the DNAdouble helix. In addition. DNA double helix structure . Submit Characters: 400 <http://www. thereare roughly 10. there appear to be two types of grooves: A larger one.scribd.scribd. RNA Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is similar to DNA in the fact that it is constructed> Emmanuel Con-Nutsugah <http://www.

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