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Computational biology and bioinformatics are multidisciplinary fields. • Computational biology: Refers to the aspect of developing algorithmsand statistical models necessary to analyze biological data through the aidof computers. involvingresearchers from different areas of specialty.In this respect. organize. Various advancesin molecular biology techniques (such as genome sequencing and microarrays) has led toa large amount of data that needs to be analyzed. as the areas have grown. In addition. mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological. including those to acquire. including (but in no means limitedto) statistics. All matters concerned with biologicaldatabases are considered bioinformatics.html Image Source: http://ccb.Bioinformatics can lead to important discoveries as well as help companies save time andmoney in the long run. behavioral or health to Bioinformatics Lecture 1: Overview of Bioinformatics and Molecular BiologyWhat is Bioinformatics? Defining the terms bioinformatics and computational biology is not necessarily aneasy task. A recentgoogle search for "definition of bioinformatics" returned over 43. One of the biggest reasons for bioinformatics being a hot field is the old supplyand demand . physics.wustl. For genetics. Others have offered various opinions into these definitions as well:http://kbrin. as evidenced by multiple definitions available over the web. The goal of these two fields is as follows: • Bioinformatics: Typically refers to the field concerned with the collectionand storage of biological information. or visualize such data. the terms bioinformatics and computationalbiology have become completely interchangeable terms. based on what my experience hasbeen to the consensus use of these two terms. there isa great distinction.kwing. development.louisville. I'll throw my two cents in. analyze. while for others. a greater confusion into these twoterms has prevailed. biochemestry. and social systems. behavioral. Computational Biology: The development and application of data-analytical and archive.000 results! Inthe past few years. medical. there needs to be methods to manage large amountsof data. or application of computational tools and approachesfor expanding the use of biological. Now that we are close to having thehuman genome finished. computer Bioinformatics = Hot Field Smart Money: #1 among next hot jobs http://smartmoney.businessweek. my understanding of bioinformatics and computational biologyfollows the NIH definitions listed below: Bioinformatics: Research. what does it all mean? That’s where bioinformatics steps in.htm So why is bioinformatics a hot field? One answer to this question is that it is tied to thehuman genome project which has generated a lot of popular interest. molecular biology and mathematics.cfm?story=working-june02 Business Week: Among 50 Masters of Innovation http://www.

Inaddition. Eukaryotes (or as BruceRoe from the University of Oklahoma calls them the “You and I” Karyotes) representmost of the organisms which we can see.e.including centrioles. where all of the genetic information for the organism is stored. ribosomes.ebi. There just are too few people adequately trained in both biology andcomputer science to solve the problems that biologists need to have solved. For humans. Other organisms are made up of many differentcells (i. Introduction to Molecular Biology (For a good overview of this topic. Structure of an animal cell. Image source: biology_intro.or. is a chain of small molecules called nucleotides. each having a different type of function or structural Karyotype showing the 23 pairs of human chromosomes.which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane. Inside the nucleus are they are unicellular). Cells Every organism is made up of tiny structures called cells.e. including plants and whatGenome. For instance. guanine (G) . such as bacteria and baker’s yeast are composed of only asingle cell (i. Some organisms.Contained within the nucleus are one or several long double stranded DNA moleculesorganized as chromosomes. Each cell is in itself a complex system enclosed in amembrane.biotec. as well as one pair of sex chromosomes. cytosine (C). But first.rutgers.adage. lysosomes. there are 22 pairs of autosomes. let’s make surethe basics are covered.htm There are two types of organisms: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. please read:http://www. called a polynucleotide or oligomer . Prokaryotes (such as bacteria) are smaller than eukaryotic cells and have simpler structure. Often these cells are too smallto be seen with the naked eye.Prokaryotes are single cellular organisms (but not all single-celled organisms are prokaryotes!)So what is the difference between the two types of cells? A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus.ebi. eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles with various functions. it is important to understand theterminology and basic processes behind the biological problems. There are four differentnucleotides.html )In order to be a good computational Humans have about 320 different cell types. the human body is composed of around 60trillion cells. Many interesting problems arise out of sequence analysis. they are multicellular). mitochondria.html Image source: www. Image source: www. A single stranded DNA molecule. One copy of each pair is inherited from each parent. There are two different types of biologicalsequences studied in this class: DNA/RNA and amino acids. or bases: adenosine (A).html DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the basis for the building blocks encoding theinformation of life. etc.

The general convention is to label the codingstrand from 5’ to 3’ (left to right). the double-stranded polynucleotide is as follows: 5’ G → T → . the following is a polynucleotide: 5’ G → T → A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ DNA can be either single-stranded or double stranded. meaningthat each polynucleotide sequence will have a directionality.and thymine (T). For the polynucleotide given above.The bases can be separated into two different types: purines (A and G) and pyrimidines(C and T). the ends of the polynucleotide are different. The ends of the polynucleotide are marked either 3’ or 5’. In the case of DNA. When DNA is double-stranded. Complementary bases are determined by which pairs of nucleotides can form bonds between them. This name is derivedfrom the fact that the directionality of this second strand runs in the opposite direction asthe first. A binds to T. The difference between purines and pyrimidines is in the base structure. and the fact that the bases in the second strand are complementary to the bases inthe first.the second strand is referred to as the reverse complement strand. However.Stringing together a simple alphabet of four characters together we can get enoughinformation to create a complex organism! Different nucleotides can be strung together to form a polynucleotide. and C binds to G. For instance.

A → A → A → G → T → C → C → C → G → T → T → A → G → C3’ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3’C ← A ← T ← T ← T ← C ← A ← G ← G ← G ← C ← A ← A ← T ← C ← G5’ .

DNA double helix structure . instead of thymine (T). RNA is important in of 232 Leave a Comment Comment must not be empty.scribd. RNA can be found as double-stranded or single-stranded. RNA Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is similar to DNA in the fact that it is constructed fromnucleotides.scribd.RNA folding will be discussed in detail during a later class period. there appear to be two types of grooves: A larger> nice reply03 / 20 / 2012 <http://www. Crick and Franklin. Submit Characters: 400 < lc/ > <http://www.Two complementary polynucleotide chains form a stable structure known as the DNAdouble helix.scribd.5 base pairs in one complete turn of the> thnx bt i can seem to download this file reply01 / 14 / 2012 <http://www. known as the minor groove. In addition. and can also be part of ahybrid helix where one strand is an RNA strand and the other is a DNA strand.scribd.> <> very nice reply03 / 12 / 2012 <http://www.scribd. thereare roughly> <http://www.genecrc. an alternative base uracil (U) is found inRNA. which iscalled the major groove and a smaller> Santosh Divya <http://www. RNA isgenerally found as a single stranded molecule that may form a secondary structure or tertiary structures due to the complementary bases between parts of the same> Emmanuel Con-Nutsugah <http://www.scribd.htm Note that in this image.Image source:> to leave a> nice book reply06 / 09 / 2011> shantiabrookie <http://www. This spring represents the 50 th anniversary of the discovery of the doublehelix structure of DNA by Watson. You must be logged in <> Uwizeye Herou <http://www.

com/naveenbt> naveenbt <http://www.scribd./ Rating: (55 Ratings) Upload Date: 03/25/2007 Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial Tags: bioinformatics <> Thank you very much!! reply05 / 23 / 2011 <> <> Uploaded by pablasarabjot <http://www.540 Reads/ Info and Rating Category: /> Minesh Jethva <> Science-Biology <http://www. complete notes on Bioinformatics this is a pdf document with complete notes on bioinformatics for> Rajesh Kumar Sahu <http://www.scribd.scribd.scribd.scribd.scribd. You must be logged in <> Marmi Nancy Wei <http://www.<> (fewer <#>) Flag document for inapproriate content This is a private> <http://www. </static/help?type=private> <http://www. Submit Characters: .com/tag/Science-Biology?l=1> bioinformatics <> thanx for share reply03 / 11 / 2011 <> .com/events/20687676?user_id=20788707-naveenbt> Show More Comment must not be> to leave a> this is very usefull thanks a lot reply12 / 24 / 2009 <> bio informatics reply05 / 24 / 2010 <http://www. Download or Print /> <> <> Science-Biology <http://www.

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