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General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews
General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews





General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews
© Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Adapted from the Field Guide to Consulting and Organizational Development.

Sections of This Topic Include
Introduction Preparation for Interview Types of Interviews Types of Topics in Questions Sequence of Questions Wording of Questions Carrying Out Interview Immediately After Interview Other Resources General Information and Resources Ethics and Conducting Research Also see Related Library Topics

Also See the Library's Blogs Related to Doing Research Interviews
In addition to the articles on this current page, see the following blogs which have posts related to Doing Research Interviews. Scan down the blog's page to see various posts. Also see the section "Recent Blog Posts" in the sidebar of the blog or click on "next" near the bottom of a post in the blog. Library's Business Planning Blog Library's Building a Business Blog Library's Strategic Planning Blog

Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around a topic. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open-ended questions are asked during interviews. Before you start to design your interview questions and process, clearly articulate to yourself what problem or need is to be addressed using the information to be gathered by the interviews. This helps you keep clear focus on the intent of each question.

Preparation for Interview
1. Choose a setting with little distraction. Avoid loud lights or noises, ensure the interviewee is comfortable (you might ask them if they are), etc. Often, they may feel more comfortable at their own places of work or homes. 2. Explain the purpose of the interview. 3. Address terms of confidentiality. Note any terms of confidentiality. (Be careful here. Rarely can you absolutely promise anything. Courts may get access to information, in certain circumstances.) Explain who will get access to their answers and how their answers will be analyzed. If their comments are to be used as quotes, get their written permission to do so. See getting informed consent. 4. Explain the format of the interview. Explain the type of interview you are conducting and its nature. If you want them to ask questions, specify if they're to do so as they have them or wait until the end of the interview. 5. 6. 7. 8. Indicate how long the interview usually takes. Tell them how to get in touch with you later if they want to. Ask them if they have any questions before you both get started with the interview. Don't count on your memory to recall their answers. Ask for permission to record the interview or bring along someone to take notes.

Types of Interviews
1. Informal, conversational interview - no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the interviewee's nature and priorities; during the interview, the interviewer "goes with the flow". 2. General interview guide approach - the guide approach is intended to ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each interviewee; this provides more focus than the conversational approach, but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting information from the interviewee. 3. Standardized, open-ended interview - here, the same open-ended questions are asked to all interviewees (an open-ended question is where respondents are free to choose how to answer the question, i.e., they don't select "yes" or "no" or provide a numeric rating, etc.); this approach facilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzed and compared. 4. Closed, fixed-response interview - where all interviewees are asked the same questions and asked to choose answers from among the same set of alternatives. This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing.

Types of Topics in Questions
Patton notes six kinds of questions. One can ask questions about:



judgmental wording. These questions may also cause respondents to feel defensive. Questions should be worded clearly. it may appear as if you're surprised or very pleased about an answer. 3. 6. tasted or smelled Background/demographics . Patton suggests to act as if "you've heard it all before. Be careful about the appearance when note taking. etc. Wording of Questions 1. Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview to avoid long lists of fact-based questions. 5. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible. 6. Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if used) is working. e. if you jump to take a note. Respondents should be able to choose their own terms when answering questions. With this approach. Be careful asking "why" questions... where did the interview occur and when. The last questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview. 2. ensure pages are numbered. 2. Avoid wording that might influence answers. was the respondent particularly nervous at any time? Were there any surprises during the interview? Did the tape recorder break? Other Resources CASAnet's overview of interviewing principles Competency-based Interviewing For the Category of Evaluations (Many Kinds): To round out your knowledge of this Library topic... 3. that they have to justify their response. That is. first ask about some facts.g. "uh huh"s.g. Also. 2. This type of question infers a cause-effect relationship that may not truly exist. Wording should be open-ended. which may inhibit their responses to this and future questions. Make any notes on your written notes. Provide transition between major topics.standard background questions. don't show strong emotional reactions to their responses. This can occur when respondents stray to another topic. etc. Ask one question at a time. Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future. take so long to answer a question that times begins to run out. if used.. Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past. 5. which may influence answers to future questions." 4. 3. That is. which tends to leave respondents disengaged.htm Program Evaluation 2/3 .07/06/12 Patton notes six kinds of questions." so be careful to note that you're looking for feelings Knowledge . Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible. "we've been talking about (some topic) and now I'd like to move on to (another topic). Encourage responses with occasional nods of the head. 3.g. It's usually easier for them to talk about the present and then work into the past or future. One can ask questions about: 1. to clarify any scratchings. fill out any notes that don't make senses.about what people have seen. available from the link below. e. Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions).g.org/businessresearch/interviews. Immediately After Interview 1.about what a person thinks about a topic Feelings . worked throughout the interview. touched. 4. 5. e. Sequence of Questions 1. 5. Each of the related topics includes free.. respondents can more easily engage in the interview before warming up to more personal matters. 3. 4.note that respondents sometimes respond with "I think . Questions should be as neutral as possible. scan the Recommended Books listed below. 2. 2. e. evocative. or even begin asking questions to the interviewer. Don't lose control of the interview." 7. you may want to review some related topics. For example. Verify if the tape recorder. education. Conducting Interview 1. Related Library Topics Recommended Books Evaluation (General) managementhelp. General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews Behaviors . present or future. Write down any observations made during the interview.about what a person has done or is doing Opinions/values . This includes knowing any terms particular to the program or the respondents' culture. Questions should be asked one at a time. such as age. They have been selected for their relevance and highly practical nature. heard. online resources.to get facts about a topic Sensory . 4. etc.

Many materials in this Library topic are adapted from this book. Includes many online forms that can be downloaded. There are few books. published by Authenticity Consulting. Also. To get more information about each book. marketing and evaluating programs. Field Guide to Nonprofit Program Design. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information. that explain how to carefully plan. too many books completely separate the highly integrated activities of planning. To get more information about each book.Recommended Books managementhelp. LLC. a "bubble" of information might be displayed. Also. Also.htm 3/3 . straightforward approach that anyone can follow in order to provide high-quality programs with strong appeal to funders. Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Program Evaluation The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. a "bubble" of information might be displayed.Recommended Books Supervision (Evaluating Employees) -. just click on the image of the book. Marketing and Evaluation by Carter McNamara. if any. too.org/businessresearch/interviews. organize. Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Privacy Information Also see Business Research -. just click on the image of the book. This book integrates all three into a comprehensive. develop and evaluate a nonprofit program. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information.07/06/12 Program Evaluation General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews Evaluation (General) The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. too.