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Networking-1

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RAHUL website "Learn better by Reading on this" NETWORKING-1 Networking Networking is a group of autonomous computers connected with each other. Advantages:Sharing of hardware reources. Sharing of files. It can act as a source of communication between computers. Cost is reduced. Limitations:Networking may become very complex. It may become difficult to locate errors. Requirments for Networking: 1. Computers/Device

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Networking-1

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2. 3. 4. 5.

LAN Card Cable/Transmission Media Protocols Hub-special device

Types of network Three types of network are: LAN MAN WAN LAN It stands for Local Area Network. It is a network within a building or organization. It has heghest data transmision speed(more or equal to 100Mbps). Example:Network of computers within schoolcomputer lab. MAN It stands for Metropolitan Area Network. It is a network within a city. It ha data tranmission peed lower than LAN(10-100Mbps). Example:Cable TV network. WAN It stands for Wide Area Network. It is a network acros cities,countries and continent. It has least data transmission speed(less 10Mbps). Example:Inernet

LAN card it is a network device which provide an interface between a computer and network. Ethernet:It is LAN architecture developed by Xerox Corporation in association with Intel and DEC(Digital Equipments Corporation). The computers that are part of Ethernet, have to install a special card called Ethernet Card.

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Networking-1

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Hub: It is a multiport device which is used to interconnect computers on a network. It provides shared bendwidth to all computers on the network is of two types: Active Hub:It also works as a repeater. Passive Hub:It doesn't work as a repeater.

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Networking-1

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Some definations: Switch:It is a network device which is used to divide a bigger network into smaller segments. Repeater:It is a network device which is used to ampliphy signal which gets week while travelling through the communication channel. Bidge:It is a network device which is used to interconnect two similar networks. Router:It is a network device whichis used to interconnect two different networks having different protocols. Gateway:It i a network device which is used to interconnect two dissimilar networks. Server: A computer on the network which share some resources is known as a server.There are various types of servers: a)File server:The erver which can share files. b)Print server:The server which can share the ptinter. c)Databese server:The server which can share a database. Protocol: A protocol is defined as a set of rules that provides communication between computers. TCP/IP: TCP stands for Transmission control protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol.TCP is reliable, connection-oriented protocol that allow data from the sender to be sent to reciever without error.IP is used to establish a path between source and destination computer. HTTP(Hypertext Transfer Protocol:) HTTP is a protocol used on internet for displaying hypertext based documents. FTP:It stand for File Transfer Protocol.It is used for sending files from one computer to another on the network as well as Internet. SLIP:It stands for Special Line internet ptotocol. It allow the computer to use the internet protocol with a standerd telephone line and a high speed modem. PPP:It stands for point to point protocol. It allows the computer to use the internet protocol with a standerd telephone line and high speed modem with additional functionalities like error detection, authentication etc. SMTP: It stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.It enables email to work smoothly through the internet.

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Networking-1

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Internet: It stands for interconnected networks. It is a collection of computers all over the world. Requirments for Internet: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Computer/device MODEM Internet connection from an ISP(Internet service provider> Telephone Cable/VSAT Web Browser

MODEN: MODEM stands for Modulator/Demodulator.It is a device used for converting analog signal to digital signal and digital signal to analog ignals.MODEM is of two types: 1. Internal MODEM:Internal modem is fixed inside the computer cabinet. 2. External MODEM:External modem is attached from outside the computer.

MODEM ISP: (Internet Service Provider) It may be defined as an organization or company which provide internet access to the customers.E.g. BSNL,Relince,Connect etc.

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Networking-1

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WWW(World Wide Web): WWW is a collection of protocols required for tranmitting document on inernet. URL(Uniform Resource Locator): URL is the complete name of document on a webite.It includes the protocol being used, the addres of the web site where the document is located, the sub directory and name of the file. A URL has three parts: Protocol Domain name server where the page is located the filename for the page Web Browers: It is a software used to display web pages.The important wed browsers are Microsoft Internet Explores Netscape Navgation Mosaic Internet Secuirty: There are a number of method that aim at providing security over the internet. Cryptograph sytem:This involves coding messages so that only authorized users can read them. Authentication:In this process, the username and password of uer is checked to verify that whether the user is a valid uer or not. Use of SIM(Subscriber Identity Module) Digital Signature Use of firewalls

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Firewall: It is a collection of hardware and software which prevent unauthorized access to the network. Search Engine: It is a web site using which we can search any information from internet.Popular search engine is Google.com Audio Conferencing: It is the process in which two or more people can talk each other headphone or mike through internet. SMS: It stands for short message service. In this case small message can be sent from one computer/Mobile phone to another Computer/Mobile phone. WLL: It stands for wireless in Local Loop. It i just like a land line phone but without wires. A WLL phone can be ued within a limited geographical area.It provides many better facilites as compared to normal landline phone. GSM: It stands for Global Sytem for mobile communication. CDMA: It stand for Code Division Multiple Access. It uses spread spectrum technique, in which messages are transmitted at discrete frequencies. 3G: It stands for Third Genration of mobile communication. EDGE: It stands for Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution. It is high speed mobile data standard which allows data transmission speed of 384Kbps. Interspace: It is client server software in which mutiple users can communicate with each in 3D enviroment using audio, video and text. SIM(Subcriber Identity Module): It is small chip which contain a memory, processor and has the ability to interact with user.

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Web Scripting: It is the process of embedding scripts in web page. Script is a list of commands which provide additional functionality to web page hence making them dynamic. Script are executd by web browsers. Scripting i of two types: Client Side Scripting: It allows interaction within a web page. E.g. Javascript, VBScript. Server Side Scripting: It allows a task to be done at a server and then transfer the result back to the client browser. E.g. JSP, ASP etc. 1\ 2\ 3\ 4 copyright@Rahulgupta

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