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Part Number: MDNA*R3*Z*Z*Z*SM-NAS120-WBK Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation
August 2008
Linear Static, Normal Modes, and Buckling
Analysis Using MD Nastran R3 and Patran
2008r1
NAS120 Course Notes
MSC.Software Corporation
Europe
MSC.Software GmbH
Am Moosfeld 13
81829 Munich, Germany
Telephone: (49) (89) 43 19 87 0
Fax: (49) (89) 43 61 71 6
Corporate
MSC.Software Corporation
2 MacArthur Place
Santa Ana, CA 92707 USA
Telephone: (800) 345-2078
Fax: (714) 784-4056
Asia Pacific
MSC.Software Japan Ltd.
Shinjuku First West 8F
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1-Chome, Shinjuku-Ku
Tokyo 160-0023, JAPAN
Telephone: (81) (3)-6911-1200
Fax: (81) (3)-6911-1201
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Legal Information
MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this
document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and
educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or
design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect
damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein.
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of
this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the
prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited.
The MSC.Software corporate logo, Adams, Dytran, Easy5, Fatigue, Laminate Modeler, Marc, Mentat, MD Nastran, Patran,
MSC, MSC Nastran, Mvision, Patran, SimDesigner, SimEnterprise, SimManager, SimXpert and Sofy are trademarks or
registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a
registered trademark of NASA. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
4-57 Workshop 4 Stadium Truss
3-40 Workshop 3 Editing a Nastran Input File
2-50 Workshop 2 Simply Supported Beam
1-37 Workshop 1 Landing Gear Strut Analysis
4-48 Post Processing CROD Results
4-19 The CROD Element
4-5 MD Nastran Element Library
3-22 The Nastran Input File
3-19 Patran-Nastran Workflow and Files
3-3 Patran GUI
2-48 FEM References
2-22 Key Concepts in FEM
2-7 What is the Finite Element Method?
2-3 Engineering Methods
1-32 Company Information
1-12 Case Study: Landing Gear Strut
1-9 What is Patran?
1-4 What is MD Nastran?
1-3 Course Objectives
Case Study: Stadium Arched Roof Truss 4.0
Basics of MD Nastran and Patran 3.0
Introduction to the Finite Element Method 2.0
Overview 1.0
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CONTENTS
5-109 Workshop 8 A-C Tension Coupon
7-105 Element Distortion
6-82 Workshop 7 Tapered Plate
5-153 Workshop 6 Bridge Truss
5-59 Workshop 5 Coordinate Systems
7-52 Loads
7-45 Single Point Constraints
7-29 2-D Elements
7-19 Meshing
6-76 Post Processing CBEAM Results
6-50 Fields
6-31 The CBEAM Element
6-19 Material Properties
5-149 Post Processing CBAR Results
5-142 Multiple Subcases
5-68 The CBAR Element
5-48 Grid Points
5-34 Coordinate Systems
5-3 Introduction to Geometry
Case Study: Aircraft Wing Rib 7.0
Case Study: Traffic Signal Pole 6.0
Space Station Truss 5.0
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CONTENTS
10-134 Workshop 12 RBE2 vs. RBE3
10-40 Workshop 11 Spacecraft Fairing
9-104 Workshop 10 Support Bracket
8-71 Workshop 9 A-B 2 D Clamp
7-127 Workshop 8 D Composite Tension Coupon
Case Study: Aircraft Wing Rib cont. 7.0
7-110 Analysis of Composite Materials
Case Study: Intercooler Structure 8.0
8-9 Solid Geometry
8-14 The CHEXA Element
8-34 Post Processing Solid Element Results
8-68 Solid Elements
10-82 Rigid Body Elements
10-41 0-D Elements
10-6 Groups and Lists
9-87 Axisymmetric Elements
9-64 Mesh Density Control
9-51 Viewports
9-11 Importing Geometry
9-6 Model Simplification Methods
Case Study: Car Design 10.0
Case Study: Scuba Tank 9.0
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
15-33 Workshop 17 Glued Contact
15-33 Workshop 16 3D Contact
14-92 Workshop 15 Parasolid Modeling
13-36 Workshop 14 Buckling of a Submarine Pressure Hull
12-43 Workshop 13 Normal Modes of a Rectangular Plate
Units 11.0
11-3 Units in MD Nastran
Case Study: Communications Tower 12.0
12-3 Normal Modes Analysis
Case Study: Submarine Pressure Hull - 3D 13.0
13-3 Linear Buckling Analysis
Parasolid Modeling 14.0
14-3 Parasolid Modeling Tools
Linear Contact 15.0
15-3 Linear vs. Nonlinear Analysis
15-9 Contact Bodies
15-14 Contact Detection
15-25 Plate Contact Case Study
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CONTENTS
17-18 Good Modeling Practice
17-10 AutoSPC
17-3 Minimum Recommended Model Checks
16-75 Create Tool
16-69 Report Tool
16-66 Animations
16-62 Graph Tool
16-54 Cursor Tool
16-49 Marker Tool
16-32 Fringe Tool
16-18 Deformation Tool
16-6 Quick Plot Tool
Model Checkout 17.0
Results Postprocessing 16.0
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
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NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 1
OVERVIEW
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COURSE OBJECTIVES
Learn the basic features in MD Nastran
Data structure
Element library
Linear static, normal modes, and buckling analyses
Learn the basic functionalities in Patran
Build finite element models (pre-processing)
Evaluate analysis results (post-processing)
Become familiar with solving engineering problems in an integrated
Patran/Nastran environment through hands-on training
Students will work through a number of workshop problems in class
with assistance from the instructor
Simple workshop problems designed to introduce basic concepts
Real-world workshop problems designed to lead the students through
engineering problems from beginning to end
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WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
MD Nastran offers multidiscipline simulation capabilities
based on proven technologies and industry leadership of
over four decades.
In addition to the analysis capabilities of MSC Nastran, MD
Nastran offers key capabilities that drive efficiency and
streamline processes:
Broad Analysis Capabilities - Supports key engineering disciplines that
provide the basis for a superior multidiscipline simulation system
Integration - Unparalleled support for interaction between multiple disciplines
in simulations that facilitates true multidisciplinary analysis
Optimization - Multidisciplinary optimization capabilities with combined sizing,
shape, and topology optimization, special constraints and response functions
across disciplines
High Performance Computing - Optimized for parallel and 64-bit
supercomputing environments
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WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
This course primarily covers basic features that are common
to both MD Nastran and MSC Nastran.
Some course material uses the enhanced functionality of MD
Nastran, while the majority of the course may be completed
using either MSC Nastran or MD Nastran.
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WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
MD Nastran is a general-purpose finite element analysis
program capable of solving a wide variety of engineering
problems, including:
Linear static analysis
Static analysis with geometric and material nonlinearity
Transient analysis with geometric and material nonlinearity
Normal modes analysis
Buckling analysis
Direct and modal complex eigenvalue analysis
Direct and modal frequency analysis (including random analysis)
Direct and modal transient analysis (including response
spectrum analysis)
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WHAT IS MD NASTRAN? (Cont.)
MD Nastran Capabilities (Cont.)
Linear cyclic symmetry analysis (including static, normal
modes, buckling, and direct frequency response)
Linear and nonlinear steady-state heat transfer
Linear and nonlinear transient heat transfer
Aeroelasticity
Substructure analysis (superelements)
Design sensitivity and optimization
Acoustics
Composite material analysis
P-element analysis
Rotor Dynamics
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WHAT IS MD NASTRAN? (Cont.)
MD Nastran is
Extensively documented (including online encyclopedia)
Extensively tested
Continually enhanced with new capabilities
Highly efficient in using modern numerical analysis techniques
Used extensively by aerospace, automotive, energy,
biomedical, civil, and other industries
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WHAT IS PATRAN?
Patran is a CAE pre- and post-processing software
package. It consists of the following major
components:
User-Friendly Graphical User Interface
Powerful Geometry Import, Export, and Creation
Robust Meshing Algorithms
Fast Results Visualization and Reporting
Extensive Analysis Code Preferences
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WORKFLOW IN PATRAN
The Main Menu
2 - Import Geometry
1 - Select Analysis Code
2 - or Build Geometry
3 - Create
Analysis Model
5 - Evaluate and Publish
Analysis Results
4 - Perform the
Analysis
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SOLVING A TYPICAL ENGINEERING
PROBLEM
The following case study demonstrates how to use
Patran and MD Nastran in a typical engineering
application
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: LANDING GEAR STRUT
The design team has created a nose landing gear strut
design for the new fighter jet. Determine if the landing
gear strut has been designed properly to withstand the
landing load.
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CASE STUDY: LANDING GEAR STRUT (Cont.)
Design Specifications
Material: Steel
E = 30 x 10
6
psi
= 0.3
Landing load = 7,080 lb
7,080 LB
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STEP 1 - CREATE DB AND SET ANALYSIS
PREFERENCE
Open a new database in
Patran.
Select MD Nastran and
Structural Analysis for this case
study.
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STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY
The user can import or build geometry in Patran:
Import geometry models from CAD systems:
CATIA
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigraphics
EUCLID 3
I-DEAS
Import geometry models in standard formats:
STEP
Parasolid xmt
ACIS
IGES
STL
VDA
Build the geometry directly in Patran
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STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.)
For this case study, the landing gear strut geometry
model is available as a parasolid xmt file.
Import this model directly into Patran.
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STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Import the landing gear strut geometry.
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STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.)
The landing gear strut geometry is imported.
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STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL
Next, create the analysis model:
Create a finite element mesh
Apply boundary condition
Apply loading
Create material properties
Create element properties
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STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Create the finite
element mesh.
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STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Constrain the hub
cylinder at the
bottom of the
strut.
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STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Apply 7,080 lb to
the upper face of
the strut.
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STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Define a material
property for the
landing gear strut.
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STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Create an
element property
for the landing
gear strut.
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STEP 4 - PERFORM THE ANALYSIS
Submit the model to
MD Nastran to
perform a linear
static analysis.
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STEP 5 - EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS
Review .f06 file
a. Verify that the
analysis has
completed
successfully.
b. Review warning
messages.
c. Review analysis
results.
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STEP 5 - EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS
Read the analysis
results into
Patran.
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STEP 5 - EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.)
Plot displacements
and stresses.
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STEP 6 - PUBLISH ANALYSIS RESULTS
Publish a stress
summary report.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 6 - PUBLISH ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.)
Under File/Images
or Results/Create/
Quick Plot:
Create static,
animated, and vrml
images for reports
and presentations.
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SUMMARY OF PATRAN-NASTRAN WORKFLOW
Patran
MD Nastran
MD Nastran
Pre-Processing
Import/create geometry
Create finite element mesh
Apply boundary condition
Apply loads
Create material properties
Create element properties
Submit model to solver
Solver
Solve for displacements
Compute strains
Compute stresses
Post-Processing
Deformation plots
Stress fringe plots
Reports
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COMPANY OVERVIEW
The MSC.Software Corporation has been supplying
sophisticated computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools
since 1963.
MSC.Software is the developer, distributor, and
supporter of the most complete and widely-used
structural analysis program in the world, MD Nastran.
MSC.Software is also the developer, distributor, and
supporter of the state of the art CAE analysis program,
Patran.
Patran is an open architecture, pre and post processor
for all major finite element analysis (FEA) software,
including MD Nastran and Marc.
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WHERE TO GO FOR HELP
The MSC Technical Support Hotline 1-800-732-7284
is staffed Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Email support:
mscpatran.support@mscsoftware.com
mscnastran.support@mscsoftware.com
Website support at www.mscsoftware.com/support
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHERE TO GET TRAINING
MD Nastran and Patran seminars are held worldwide
Locations, dates, and descriptions of all scheduled
classes can be found at
www.mscsoftware.com/support/msc_institute
MSC also conducts cost-effective in-house seminars
at clients facilities. These seminars can be tailored
to meet clients specific needs.
Contact the MSC Institute at 1-800-732-7211
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PATRAN SEMINARS
Following Patran seminars are offered
PAT301 - Introduction to Patran
PAT302 Patran for Advanced Users
PAT304 - Introduction to Patran Command Language (PCL)
PAT312 - Thermal Analysis Using Patran Thermal
PAT318 - Durability and Fatigue Life Analysis Using MSC Fatigue
PAT325 - Introduction to Laminate Modeler
PAT328 - New Features in Patran
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MD NASTRAN SEMINARS
Following MD Nastran seminars are offered
NAS101 Basic MD Nastran Linear Static and Normal Modes Analysis
NAS102 MD Nastran Dynamic Analysis
NAS103 MD Nastran Nonlinear Analysis
NAS104 MD Nastran Thermal Analysis
NAS105 Practical Finite Element Modeling Techniques Using MD Nastran
NAS106 MD Nastran Superelement Analysis
NAS107 Design Sensitivity and Optimization in MD Nastran
NAS108 New Capabilities in MD Nastran
NAS110 DMAP and Database Applications in MD Nastran
NAS111 MD Nastran Aeroelastic Analysis
NAS113 Analysis of Composite Materials with MD Nastran
NAS115 Fluid-Structure Analysis in MD Nastran
NAS116 Practical Dynamic Analysis with MD Nastran
NAS120 Linear Static and Normal Modes Analysis Using MD Nastran and Patran
NAS122 Dynamic Analysis Using Patran and MD Nastran
NAS123 MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL600) Analysis
NAS125 Stochastic Simulation Using MSC Robust Design
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EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 1 Landing Gear Strut
Analysis in your exercise workbook.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-1
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 2
INTRODUCTION TO THE
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
S2-2
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S2-3
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
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Engineering Analysis
Classical Methods
Numerical Methods
Closed-form
Approximate
Finite Element
Finite Difference
Boundary Element
METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS
As shown below, the finite element method is one of
several methods for solving engineering problems
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METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS (Cont.)
Classical Methods:
Closed-form solutions are available for simple problems such as
bending of beams and torsion of prismatic bars
Approximate methods using series solutions to governing
differential equations are used to analyze more complex
structures such as plates and shells
The classical methods can only be used for structural problems
with relatively simple geometry, loading, and boundary
conditions
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METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS (Cont.)
Numerical Methods:
Boundary Element Method
Solves the governing differential equation for the problem with
integral equations over the boundary of the domain. Only the
boundary surface is meshed with elements.
Finite Difference Method
Replaces governing differential equations and boundary conditions
with corresponding algebraic finite difference equations.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS (Cont.)
Numerical Methods (Cont.)
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Capable of solving large, complex problems with general geometry,
loading, and boundary conditions
Increasingly becoming the primary analysis tool for designers and
analysts
The Finite Element Method is also known as the Matrix Method of
Structural Analysis in the literature because it uses matrix algebra
to solve the system of simultaneous equations.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD?
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical
approximation method. It is a method of investigating
the behavior of complex structures by breaking them
down into smaller, simpler pieces.
These smaller pieces of structure are called
elements. The elements are connected to each other
at the nodes.
The assembly of elements and nodes is called a finite
element model. The piston head shown in the next
slide is an example of a finite element model.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SAMPLE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
Element
Sample Finite Element Model
Node
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FINITE ELEMENTS
Finite elements have shapes which are relatively easy to
formulate and analyze. The three basic types of finite
elements are beams, plates, and solids.
Beam
(1D)
Plate
(2D)
Solid
(3D)
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ONE DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
1D beam elements are used to model long, slender
structural members, as demonstrated in this
communications tower finite element model.
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TWO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
2D plate elements are used to model thin structural
members such as aircraft fuselage skin or car body
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THREE DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
3D solid elements are used to model thick
components such as the piston head shown below:
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BUILDING A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
The Finite Element Method approximates the
behavior of a continuous structure with a finite
number of elements.
As one increases the number of elements (and
hence, decrease the size of the elements), the results
become increasingly accurate, but the computing
time also increases.
Patran provides numerous modeling tools to help the
user build finite element models with the right
balance between accuracy and model size.
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HOW DOES FEM WORK ?
Basic Approach
A given problem is discretized by dividing the original
domain into simply shaped elements.
Elements are connected to each other by nodes.
X
Y
Z
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HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
u
x
u
y
u
z
u
z
u
y
u
x
Three translations (u
x
, u
y
, u
z
)
Three rotations (q
x
, q
y
, q
z
)
{u} = displacement vector
= { u
x
u
y
u
z
q
x
q
y
q
z
}
Each node is capable of moving in six independent
directions: three translations and three rotations. These
are called the degrees of freedom (DOF) at a node.
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HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
The relationship between an element and its surrounding nodes
can be described by the following equation:
[ k ]
e
{ u }
e
= { f }
e
The elemental stiffness matrix [ k ]
e
is derived from geometry,
material properties, and element properties.
The elemental load vector { f }
e
describes the forces acting on the
element.
The displacement vector { u }
e
is the unknown in this equation. It
describes how the nodes are moving as a result of the applied
forces.
[ k ]
e
{ u }
e
= { f }
e
Elemental Equation
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HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
Next, the elemental stiffness matrices are assembled into a
global stiffness matrix. The loads are also assembled into a
global load vector. This results in the following matrix equation
for the overall structure:
[ K ] { u } = { F }
[ K ] { u } = { F }
[ k ]
e
{ u }
e
= { f }
e
Elemental Equation
Global Equation
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
Next, apply the boundary condition to the model (constrain the
model). Mathematically, this is achieved by removing rows and
columns corresponding to the constrained degrees of freedom
from the global matrix equation.
Boundary Condition
[ K ] { u } = { F }
Global Matrix Equation
with boundary condition
applied
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HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
Finally, the global matrix equation is solved to determine the
unknown nodal displacements.
Element strains and stresses are then computed from the nodal
displacements.
Deformation Plot Stress Fringe Plot
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Summary of the finite element method:
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
Assemble loads into a global load vector {F}
Represent continuous structure as a collection of
discrete elements connected by nodes
Derive element stiffness matrices from
material properties, element properties, and geometry
Assemble all element stiffness matrices into a
global stiffness matrix [K]
Apply boundary conditions to constrain the
model
Solve the matrix equation [K] {u} = {F} for
nodal displacements
Compute strains and stresses from
displacement results
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
TYPES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS
There are two different types of finite element methods - the
displacement method and the force method. In both methods,
equilibrium, compatibility, and stress-strain relations are used to
generate a system of equations that represent the behavior of the
structure.
In the displacement method, the grid point displacements are the
basic unknowns in the system of equations.
In the force method, the member forces are the basic unknowns in
the system of equations.
Both methods can be used to solve structural problems. The
displacement method is used by most modern finite element codes,
including MD Nastran.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
KEY CONCEPTS IN FEM
The Displacement Method
Formulation of the Element Stiffness Matrix
Matrix Assembly and Decomposition
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THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD
All structural engineering analyses must satisfy the
following three general conditions:
1. Equilibrium of forces and moments:
EF = 0, EM = 0
2. Strain-Displacement relations (also called compatibility of
deformations): ensures that the displacement field in a
deformed continuous structure is free of voids or discontinuities
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THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD (Cont.)
3. Stress-Strain relations (also called constitutive relations):
For a linear material, the generalized Hookes law states
{o} = [E] {c}
where {o} = { o
x
o
y
o
z
t
xy
t
yz
t
zx
}
{c} = { c
x
c
y
c
z

xy

yz

zx
}
[E] = 6 x 6 matrix of elastic constants
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD (Cont.)
These three conditions can be used to generate a system of
equations in which the displacements are unknown.
The stiffness matrix [K] is used to relate the forces acting on the
structure and the displacements resulting from these forces in the
following manner:
{F} = [K] {u}
where {F} = forces acting on the structure
[K] = stiffness matrix [k
ij
], where each k
ij
term is the
force of a constraint at coordinate i due to a unit
displacement at j with all other displacements
set equal to zero
{u} = displacements resulting from {F}
Boundary conditions are applied to prevent rigid body motions,
and the system of linear equations is solved for the unknown {u}.
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FORMULATION OF THE ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX
A key step in the displacement method is the
formulation of the element stiffness matrix
Each element in a finite element model is represented
by an element stiffness matrix [K]
e
A single-rod case study is used to demonstrate the
element stiffness matrix formulation for a rod element
S2-27
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX
Consider an elastic rod of uniform cross section A and
length L under axial load.
Axial translations u
1
and u
2
are the only displacements
at grid points 1 and 2. Thus, this element has two
degrees of freedom.
F
1
F
2
X 1 2
u
1
u
2
L
X = 0
A
S2-28
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Step 2: Relate strain to displacements
Assume that the rod changes length by an amount AL due to
the axial load. The strain in the rod is
Step 1: Satisfy static equilibrium
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
F
2
F
1
=
c
x
AL
L
-------
u
2
u
1

L
----------------- = =
(1)
(2)
F
x

F
1
F
2
+ 0 = =
E
S2-29
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Step 3: Relate stress to strain
Step 4: Relate force to stress
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
(3)
(4)
o
x
Ec
x
=
P
A
----
o
x
1
F
1
A
------ =
o
x
2
F
2
A
------ =
o =
and
S2-30
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Step 5: Relate force to displacement
Substitution of Equations 2 and 3 into Equation 4 yields
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
F
1
o
x
A Ec
x
A
EA
L
--------
u
2
u
1
( ) = = =
F
1

AE
L
--------
u
2
AE
L
--------
u
1
=
F
2
EA
L
--------
u
2
EA
L
--------
u
1
=
or
similarly,
EA EA
(5)
(6)
S2-31
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
{F} = [K]
e
{u}
Equations 5 and 6 represent two linear equations with
two unknowns. Rewrite them in matrix form:
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
F
1
F
2
)

`


EA
L
--------
1 1
1 1
u
1
u
2
)

`


=
(6)
or
[K]
e
where [K]
e
= [k
ij
], the known 2x2 rod element stiffness matrix
{F} = vector of known applied forces
{u} = vector of unknown displacements
S2-32
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The method used in the previous case study to derive
the rod element stiffness matrix is called the direct
method or the stiffness method. This method works
well for simple elements such as rods and beams.
For more complex 2D and 3D elements, the
variational method is used
The variational method is also known as the Rayleigh-Ritz
method.
Assumed element shape functions and energy principles are
used to derive the element stiffness matrices.
The variational method is covered in detail in text books on
the finite element method. A list of reference books on the
finite element method is included at the end of this section.
FORMULATION OF THE ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX
S2-33
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The stiffness matrix for a rod element under torsion is
shown below:
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX
T
1
T
2
)

`


GJ
L
-------
1 1
1 1
u
x1
u
x2
)

`


=
[K]
e
T
1
T
2
X 1 2
u
x1
L
X = 0
J
u
x2
S2-34
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The stiffness matrix for a beam element under in-plane
shear and bending is shown below:
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont.)
P
y1
M
z1
P
y2
M
z2
)



`




2EI
L
3
---------
6 3L 6 3L
3L 2L
2
3L L
2
6 3L 6 3L
3L L
2
3L 2L
2
y
1
u
z1
y
2
u
z2
)



`




=
{P} [K] {u}
e
F
S2-35
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY
The following case study demonstrates the assembly
of the the individual element stiffness matrices and the
solution to the entire problem.
X = 0
X
u
1
, F
1 u
2
, F
2
1
2 3
u
3
, F
3
L
2
L
1
P
S2-36
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Write the following element stiffness equations based
on the previous derivation of stiffness matrix for a rod
element:
)
`

(
(
(
(

=
)
`

2
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
2
1
u
u
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
F
F
)
`

(
(
(
(

=
)
`

3
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
3
2
u
u
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
F
F
[K]
1
[K]
2
S2-37
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Rewrite the stiffness matrices in simpler terms:
| |
(


=
1 1
1 1
k k
k k
K
1
| |
(


=
2 2
2 2
2
k k
k k
K
1
1 1
1
L
A E
k =
2
2 2
2
L
A E
k =
where and
S2-38
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Assemble the two stiffness matrices by superposition.
The resulting matrix is called the global stiffness matrix.
| |
(


=
1 1
1 1
1
k k
k k
K
| |
(


=
2 2
2 2
2
k k
k k
K
( )
Global Stiffness Matrix [K]
S2-39
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Apply external loads to the structure
F
1
= -P F
2
= 0 F
3
= 0

(
(
(

+

=

3
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
u
u
u
k k 0
k k k k
0 k k
0
0
P
S2-40
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Next, impose the boundary condition
The right end is fixed, so u
3
= 0. This is achieved by discarding
row 3 and column 3 from the global stiffness matrix.

(
(
(

+

=

3
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
u
u
u
k k 0
k k k k
0 k k
0
0
P
)
`

+

=
)
`

2
1
2 1 1
1 1
u
u
k k k
k k
0
P
S2-41
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Now, solve the matrix equation
One way to solve this equation is to multiply both sides by the
inverse of [K]
)
`

+

=
)
`

2
1
2 1 1
1 1
u
u
k k k
k k
0
P
or {F} = [K] {u}
[K]
-1
{F} = {u}
In actual practice, inverting the stiffness matrix to solve the system
of equations is highly inefficient. MD Nastran uses a more efficient
matrix decomposition procedure rather than the matrix inversion
method.
S2-42
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Inversion of the [K] matrix requires that [K] be square
and that det[K] = 0 (i.e. nonsingular).
If rigid body motion or mechanisms are not prevented
(constrained), the structure is unstable and the stiffness
matrix will be singular.
Always remember that MD Nastran is working in a 3-D
space when considering rigid body motion. Therefore,
the set of constraints you apply must be able to prevent
any possible rigid body motion in 3-D space.
S2-43
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Example of Inadequate
Constraints
Example of Adequate
Constraints
S2-44
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The same procedure used for the two-rod model can be
extended to a general structure such as the aircraft
structure shown below:
The two highlighted stringer elements are represented
by the two element stiffness matrices developed in the
previous case study.
Element 100
Element 200
PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
S2-45
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The stiffness characteristics of the rest of the aircraft are obtained by
assembling the individual element stiffness matrices to the global
stiffness matrix using the same procedure as used in the two-rod
model.
k
1
-k
1
0
-k
1
(k
1
+ k
2
) -k
2
0 -k
2
k
2
Stiffness contributions from
the rest of the aircraft
N x N
PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
(Cont.)
S2-46
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rule of thumb for computer resources (CPU time) used
by MD Nastran for a problem with N DOF
Overhead (~ constant)
Stiffness matrix assembly (~ N)
Solution cost ( ~ N
2
)
Data recovery ( ~ N)
PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
(Cont.)
S2-47
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
OTHER APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT
METHOD
In general, the finite element method can be applied to
any continuum described by partial differential
equations.
Example: Steady-state heat conduction
Replace the structural stiffness matrix with the matrix of thermal
conductivities
Single DOF at each node (temperature)
Other fields
Fluid flow/wave propagation
Electromagnetics
Dynamics
S2-48
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
REFERENCES
V. Adams
Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis
OnWord Press, 1999
K. J. Bathe
Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis
Prentice-Hall, 1982
R. D. Cook
Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis
John Wiley & Sons, 1989
R. H. MacNeal
Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance
Marcel Dekker, 1994
S2-49
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
REFERENCES (Cont.)
NAFEMS
A Finite Element Primer
Department of Trade and Industry, UK, 1986
J. S. Przemieniecki
Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis
McGraw-Hill, 1968
B. A. Szabo and I. Babuska
Finite Element Analysis
John Wiley & Sons, 1991
O. C. Zienkiewicz
The Finite Element Method
McGraw-Hill, 1994
S2-50
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 2 Simply Supported Beam in your
exercise workbook.
S3-1
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 3
BASICS OF
MD NASTRAN AND PATRAN
S3-2
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-3
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
The Patran GUI for the Windows and Unix
platforms are shown in the following slides.
Except for the color scheme and icon
arrangements, the two GUIs are basically
identical.
The course material will be presented using the
Windows GUI.
S3-4
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WINDOWS GUI
S3-5
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
UNIX GUI
S3-6
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE MAIN MENU
Menu Bar
Tool Bar
History Window
Command Line
Status Icon
Static Green indicates Patran is
waiting for user input
Rotating Blue indicates Patran is
performing a process which can
be stopped immediately with the
abort icon
Rotating Red indicates that
Patran is performing a process
which cannot be interrupted
Application Buttons
S3-7
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE MAIN MENU (Cont.)
File Save
Print
Copy to Clipboard
Undo - will undo last command
Abort - Stops operation in progress
Reset Graphics
Refresh Graphics
Display and Viewing Icons
S3-8
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE VIEWPORT
Display Mode
Current Group
Current Viewport
Database Name
S3-9
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLICATION FORMS
Action
Object
Method
Select Menu
(Filter Buttons)
S3-10
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLICATION FORMS (Cont.)
Toggle button is an on/off
switch
Select databox is used to
enter data
Data can be inserted by
placing the mouse at the
desired location, clicking
the left mouse button,
and typing in the desired
data
Existing text can be
edited
... suffix denotes that a
subordinate form will open up
upon clicking the button
Apply causes action to execute
Hyphens indicate action can be
undone only immediately after
its execution
Slide bar assigns a value to associated variable
Control icon allows the switching between different actions.
In this example, the icon can be set to highlight or split.
Causes the content of a form to reset back to default values;
the default values may be constant or can change
S3-11
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ENTITY PICKING
Picking is performed in two ways:
Keyboard entry into a databox
Graphical picking with the mouse
S3-12
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ENTITY ID SYNTAX
All points Point 1:#
Signifies an axis with first point representing the
base and the second determining the direction
{[ ][ ]}
< > signifies a vector definition <R T Z>
Mathematical operations like division are possible to
determine the individual components
[1, 2, -64.0/20.0]
y = the z coordinate of point 5
When a point is referenced the letter p can be
dropped
[1, zp5, 3]
[1, z5, 3]
Individual coordinates can reference existing
entities, such as x = the x coordinate of node 28
[xn28, 1, 2]
Square brackets signifies coordinate specification [x y z]
Combinations of entity ID syntax is possible (face 2
of solids 1 through 10)
Solid 1:10.2
References an entity associated with a higher order
one (i.e. edge 1 of surface 3, that is similar to a
curve)
Surface 3.1
Different forms for delimiters: space, , and / Curve 1 2, 3/ 4
Points 1 through 9 by 2 Point 1:9:2
Refers to points 1, 2, and 3 Point 1 2 3
Description Syntax
S3-13
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ENTITY GRAPHICAL PICKING
Individual and collective entity picking is
controlled by the Picking option under
Preferences.
For Single Entity Picking, a portion of the
selected entity must be within the physical
limits of the cursor.
For Centroid Single Picking, the closest entity
to the location of the cursor will be picked.
Additional tools are available to aid the
process of picking, such as Cycle picking.
The Preselection Settings highlight the Entity
and Label (ID #) of the entity before you
select it.
S3-14
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CURSOR PICKING
Single Entity
Move the cursor to the entity label/centroid and press
the left mouse button
Multiple Picking
Hold down the shift key and select the entities
with the left mouse button
Shift
S3-15
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CURSOR PICKING (Cont.)
Ctrl
Rectangle Picking
(Click & Drag)
Polygon Picking
Click
Click
You can also
select this icon
from the select
menu
Note: To complete your selection, double-click the left mouse button
S3-16
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Deselect
Cycle Picking
Move the cursor to the entitys label/centroid and
click on the right mouse button
Picking an entity underneath another, or that is
close to other entities. Once the cycle picking
window appears, make the selection from the
window.
CURSOR PICKING (Cont.)
S3-17
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MANIPULATING THE MODEL FOR
VIEWING
Click on one of these icons, then drag
with the middle mouse button
XY Rotate
Z Rotate XY Translate
Zoom
S3-18
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN ONLINE HELP
Two ways to use on-line help
Use the drop-down help menu to get topical help or help
via the world wide web
Press the F1 key to get context sensitive help on a
form in question
S3-19
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN-NASTRAN WORKFLOW AND FILES
Patran
Patran
MD Nastran
MD Nastran
Solver
K u = F
Solve for u
Compute strain
Compute stress
.bdf
.xdb
.op2
.db
.ses
.db.jou
.f04
.f06
.log
Pre-Processing
Import/create geometry
Create finite element mesh
Apply boundary condition
Apply loads
Create material properties
Create element properties
Submit model to solver
Post-Processing
Deformation plots
Stress fringe plots
Reports
S3-20
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BASIC PATRAN FILES
One per model. Record of all PCL commands
from database creation to present.
Concatenated session files. EXTREMELY useful
for rebuilding a database.
Journal File .db.jou
A Session File is opened at Patran start-up
and it is closed when you quit Patran.
Session File .ses
One per model Database .db
Comments File Type File Extension
S3-21
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BASIC MD NASTRAN FILES
Used by Patran for post processing. Results File .xdb
Used by Patran for post processing. Results File .op2
Contains a time history of job execution. Execution Summary File .f04
Operating System Log File .log
This is the main Nastran output file. It contains
the results of your analysis such as displacements
and stresses. It is in ASCII format so it can be
viewed in any text editor. It also contains
warning messages, error messages, and diagnostic
messages to help the user evaluate the quality of
the analysis results.
Results File .f06
Contains model definition. Popular extensions are
.bdf and .dat
Input File .bdf
Comments File Type File Extension
S3-22
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE MD NASTRAN INPUT FILE
The two files which contain the finite element model
definition are
The Patran database file
The Nastran input file
The Nastran input file is useful in a number of ways:
Can be viewed and edited in any text editor
Can include comments to document modeling assumptions
and changes
Allows the user to add entries which are not supported in
Patran
Useful in debugging a model
S3-23
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ORGANIZATION OF THE NASTRAN INPUT
FILE
The Nastran input file is arranged in five sections:
Nastran Statement
Nastran Statement
File Management Section
File Management Section
Executive Control Section
Executive Control Section
Case Control Section
Case Control Section
Bulk Data Section
Bulk Data Section
CEND
BEGIN BULK
ENDDATA
Optional Sections
Required Sections
Required
Delimiters
ID A,B
Optional
Delimiter
S3-24
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN INPUT FILE SECTIONS
Nastran Statement Used to modify system
defaults. Not needed in most runs.
File Management Section Allocates files, controls
restarts and database operations
Executive Control Section Solution type, time
allowed, program modifications, and system
diagnostics
Case Control Section Requests Output and
selects Bulk Data items such as loadings and
constraints to be used
Bulk Data Section Model definition, loadings, and
boundary conditions
S3-25
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN INPUT FILE DELIMITERS
The delimiters are
ID A,B First statement in Executive Control
Section (optional)
CEND End of Executive Control Section,
beginning of Case Control Section
BEGIN BULK End of Case Control Section, beginning of
Bulk Data Section
ENDDATA Last entry in the input file
SAMPLE MODEL
S3-26
E = 30x10
6
psi = 0.3 A = 4.0 in
2
J = 1.27 in
4
NAS120, Section 3, January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-27
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN INPUT FILE OF SAMPLE MODEL
ID TRUSS,SAMPLE
SOL 101
TIME 5
CEND
TITLE = SAMPLE INPUT FILE
SUBTITLE = TRUSS STRUCTURE
LOAD = 10
SPC = 11
DISP = ALL
ELFORCE = ALL
SPCFORCE = ALL
BEGIN BULK
$
$ GRID POINTS DESCRIBE THE GEOMETRY
$
GRID 1 0. 0. 0.
GRID 2 0. 120. 0.
GRID 3 600. 120. 0.
GRID 4 600. 0. 0.
$
$ TRUSS MEMBERS MODELED WITH ROD ELEMENTS
$
CROD 1 21 2 3
CROD 2 21 2 4
CROD 3 21 1 3
CROD 4 21 1 4
CROD 5 21 3 4
$
PROD 21 22 4. 1.27
MAT1 22 30.E6 .3
FORCE 10 4 1000. 0. -1. 0.
SPC1 11 12 1 2
SPC1 11 3456 1 2 3 4
ENDDATA
Executive
Control
Case Control
Bulk Data
Comments start
with a dollar sign
S3-28
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE BULK DATA SECTION
The Bulk Data Section contains all data
necessary for describing a structural model
Each item described in the Bulk Data section is
called an Entry
The Bulk Data entries are not required to be input
in any order
FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES
Each Bulk Data entry has a specific pre-defined format and
purpose (described in the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide,
Section 5)
Shown below is the CROD entry description from the Quick
Reference Guide:
S3-29
NAS120, Section 3, January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-30
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES (Cont.)
Each line contains 80 columns
A Bulk Data entry may span multiple lines
There are three data formats
Integer
Real
Character String
Each field in a particular entry has a required data
format. See the Quick Reference Guide for the
correct format.
S3-31
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES (Cont.)
Following representations of the real number 123.4
are numerically equivalent and acceptable to MD
Nastran:
Real numbers must be entered with a decimal point.
Integers must be entered without a decimal point.
123.4 1.234+2 1.234E2 12.34E+1
0.1234E3 .1234E3
S3-32
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FIELD FORMAT
Each Nastran input file line contains 80 columns.
There are three field formats for entering data in these
80 columns:
Small Field Format
Large Field Format
Free Field Format
S3-33
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FIELD FORMAT (Cont.)
Small Field Format
Each line is divided into 10 fields
Each field is 8 columns wide
456 9.0 8.6 7.5 10 GRID
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
FIELD FORMAT (Cont.)
Large Field Format
A high degree of accuracy is required in some MD Nastran
applications. The large field format is used when the small field
format does not provide enough significant digits.
An asterisk after the keyword signifies large field format.
GRID* 10 7.5 8.6 *GRID10
*GRID10 9.0 456
S3-34
NAS120, Section 3, January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-35
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FIELD FORMAT (Cont.)
Free Field Format
Fields are separated by commas or blanks (commas are
strongly recommended)
To skip a field, use two commas in succession
Integer numbers or character strings with more than eight
characters cause a fatal error
Real numbers with more than eight characters are rounded off
and will lose some precision
Example:
GRID,10,,7.5,8.6,9.0,,456
S3-36
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTINUATION ENTRIES
Many input entries require more than one line of input
If this is the case, then continuation entries must be
used.
Continuation entries may be generated automatically
when the entries are in sorted order. The parent entry
may be blank in columns 74-80 (field 10), and the
continuation entry may be blank in columns 2-8 (field 1).
For small field entries, the first column of the continuation
entry may be blank or contain a + symbol. For large field
entries, the first column of the continuation entry must
contain a * symbol.
S3-37
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTINUATION ENTRIES (Cont.)
Input rules
Unless you use automatic generation, a (+) or (*) is required in
column 1, field 1 of a continuation entry. The remaining contents in
field 1 of a continuation entry must be identical to the entry in field
10 (columns 2 through 8) of the parent entry (or the preceding
continuation entry).
Any entry in the first column of field 10 on the parent entry is
ignored by the continuation entry
Small field and large field continuation entries may be used
together in defining a single data item entry
An example of the use of continuation is shown in the next
slide
S3-38
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTINUATION ENTRIES (Cont.)
Two methods of entering a MAT8 entry with continuation
are shown below:
Method 1
Method 2
+M101
+M101
+M102
+M102
S3-39
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GENERAL INPUT FORMAT RULES
Input data items in fields 1 and 10 must be left
justified. Input data in fields 2 through 9 do not have
to be left or right justified.
Error results if data extends beyond its field into
another field.
Input data items must not have any embedded
blanks.
All real numbers, including zero, must contain a
decimal point.
Many fields have default values. If these fields are
left blank, the default values will be used (See the
Quick Reference Guide).
S3-40
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 3 Editing a Nastran Input File in
your exercise workbook.
S4-1
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 4
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-2
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 4
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-3
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topics covered in this section:
MD Nastran Element Library
Creating nodes and 1D Elements
The MD Nastran CROD element
Post-processing 1D element results
SECTION 4
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-4
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
The final design of a new support structure for the center field
scoreboard of a baseball stadium is almost complete. The
architect has an exposed, overhanging, arched-roof truss in
her design. An electric billboard will be hung from this truss.
You are asked to analyze the design of the arched-roof truss
to ensure that it can support the weight of the scoreboard.
Analysis Objectives
Determine stress levels in the truss members under loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the
truss material.
Determine the maximum vertical displacement of the
structure. The architect has specified that the maximum
vertical movement of the scoreboard should not exceed 0.25
inch.
CASE STUDY:
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-5
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The MD Nastran element library contains over 50
finite elements
Zero-dimensional
One-dimensional
Two-dimensional
Three-dimensional
Scalar
Axisymmetric
Rigid
Heat transfer
Fluid-structure
P-version
Contact
GENEL user-supplied element
MD NASTRAN ELEMENTS
S4-6
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMONLY USED MD NASTRAN ELEMENTS
Scalar
Elements
1-D
Elements
2-D
Elements
3-D
Elements
Rigid
Elements
CONM2
0-D
Elements
CBUSH
CELASi
(i=1,2,3,4)
CROD
CONROD
CTUBE
CBAR
CBEAM
CBEND
CQUAD4
CQUAD8
CTRIA3
CTRIA6
CQUADR
CTRIAR
CSHEAR
CHEXA
CPENTA
CTETRA
RBAR
RBE2
RBE3
RSSCON
Axisymmetric
Elements
CTRIAX6
CTRIAX
CQUADX
S4-7
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENTS IN PATRAN
Two methods for creating elements in Patran:
1. Mesh geometry to generate elements
2. Create elements by connecting nodes
Method 1 Method 2
S4-8
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For this case study, Method 2 will be used to directly create
nodes and connect the nodes to create elements
There are five identical planar truss assemblies supporting the
roof. Only one truss assembly will be created.
The table below shows the location of truss joints. Use this table
to create the nodes.
CREATING TRUSS NODES AND ELEMENTS
S4-9
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input location for node 1
CREATING NODES
S4-10
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING NODES (Cont.)
Repeat the process
until all 13 nodes
have been created
S4-11
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENTS
Input element connectivity
for element 1
S4-12
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Repeat the process until all 24
elements have been created
CREATING ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S4-13
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Patran BAR2 element corresponds to a family of two-noded
Nastran elements:
The specific element type will be specified later when creating the
element properties.
CREATING ELEMENTS (Cont.)
Scalar
Elements
1-D
Elements
2-D
Elements
3-D
Elements
Rigid
Elements
CONM2
0-D
Elements
CBUSH
CELASi
(i=1,2,3,4)
CROD
CONROD
CTUBE
CBAR
CBEAM
CBEND
CQUAD4
CQUAD8
CTRIA3
CTRIA6
CQUADR
CTRIAR
CSHEAR
CHEXA
CPENTA
CTETRA
RBAR
RBE2
RBE3
RSSCON
Axisymmetric
Elements
CTRIAX6
CTRIAX
CQUADX
S4-14
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Creating Material Properties
The architect has selected steel tubing as the
construction material.
The material properties are as follows:
E = 30 x 10
6
psi
v = 0.3
Tensile yield strength = 36 ksi
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S4-15
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a material named steel
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S4-16
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input material properties
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S4-17
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Following are the most commonly used one-dimensional
elements in MD Nastran:
CROD, CONROD, CTUBE: Pin-ended rod (4 DOFs)
CBAR: Prismatic beam (12 DOFs)
CBEAM: Straight beam with warping (14 DOFs)
CBEND: Curved beam or pipe (12 DOFs)
SELECT THE 1-D ELEMENT TYPE
S4-18
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For this case study, the primary load path in the truss
members is axial. Assume the bending moments are
negligible.
Select the MD Nastran CROD element to model the
truss members.
The truss members have the following physical
properties:
6.0 inch diameter tubing
0.25 inch wall thickness
A = t/4 *(6.0
2
-5.5
2
) = 4.516 in
2
J = t/32 *(6.0
4
-5.5
4
) = 37.398 in
4
SELECT THE 1-D ELEMENT TYPE (Cont.)
S4-19
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
General features of the CROD element are:
Connected by two nodes
Two force components:
Axial force P
Torque T
Displacements components:
u
i
and u
i
Straight, prismatic member
The element stiffness matrix contains only terms for axial and
torsional degrees of freedom
P T
A
T P
B Xe
THE CROD ELEMENT
S4-20
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Element connectivity is defined on the Nastran CROD entry
Field Contents
EID Element identification number
PID Identification number of PROD property entry
G1,G2 Grid point identification numbers of connection
points, where G1 = grid point at End A and
G2 = grid point at End B
7 1 1 23 CROD
G2 G1 PID EID CROD
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.)
S4-21
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Element property is defined on the Nastran PROD entry
Field Contents
PID Property identification number
MID Material identification number
A Cross-sectional area
J Torsional constant (equals to polar moment of
inertia for circular cross sections)
C Coefficient to determine torsional stress
NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real)
37.398 4.516 1 1 PROD
NSM C J A MID PID PROD
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.)
S4-22
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Solid Circular Section
Hollow Circular Section
Solid Square Section
Solid Rectangular Section
Calculation of torsional constant J for some
typical cross sections
J
1
2
---tr
4
=
2r
J
1
2
---t r
o
4
r
i
4
( ) =
r
o
r
i
J 2.25a
4
=
2a
J ab
3
16
3
------ 3.36
b
a
--- 1
b
4
12a
4
------------
\ .
|
| |
=
2b
2a
THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.)
S4-23
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a 1D Rod property
named circular_rod
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS
S4-24
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input element properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS (Cont.)
S4-25
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS (Cont.)
Select application region
S4-26
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click Add to send
selection to the
collector box
below and click
Apply to create the
element property.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS (Cont.)
S4-27
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 06-May-02 Time: 09:25:28
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : circular_rod
PROD 1 1 4.516 37.398
CROD 23 1 1 7
A snap shot of the MD Nastran input file for this problem,
showing how the connectivity entry, the property entry,
and the material entry are linked together:
ELEMENT-PROPERTY-MATERIAL CHAIN
REFERENCE
S4-28
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions
The truss assembly is bolted down at the base.
The billboard weighs 2,500 pounds, which is supported
by five truss assemblies. Each truss assembly,
therefore, supports 500 pounds of weight.
CREATING LOADS AND BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS
S4-29
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a boundary
condition named
fixed
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S4-30
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain all six degrees
of freedom
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-31
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
Select the base of the truss
S4-32
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
boundary condition
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-33
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a second
boundary
condition to
constrain DOFs
not connected to
any element
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-34
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the
T3 and R3
degrees of
freedom
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-35
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
Select the rest
of the truss
S4-36
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the boundary
condition
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-37
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click here first, then drag the
middle mouse button to rotate the
model
Rotate the model
to get a better view
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-38
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a load named force
CREATING LOADS
S4-39
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING LOADS (Cont.)
Input -500 lbs in the y direction
S4-40
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the application region
CREATING LOADS (Cont.)
S4-41
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the load
CREATING LOADS (Cont.)
S4-42
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The pre-processing phase of the analysis process is
now complete. The next step is to send the model to
MD Nastran to perform the numerical analysis.
CASE STUDY WORKFLOW
Solver
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S4-43
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP AND SUBMITTAL
Select linear static analysis and
submit the analysis job to MD
Nastran
S4-44
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP AND SUBMITTAL (Cont.)
Status window reports job progress
S4-45
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
After MD Nastran completes the analysis, the
analysis results are ready to be post-processed.
CASE STUDY WORKFLOW
Solver
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S4-46
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
There are two types of Nastran results files: the .op2 file and the
.xdb file
When the .op2 file is read into Patran, it becomes a permanent part of
the database.
When the .xdb file is read into Patran, it is attached to the database
temporarily and becomes detached when the Patran database is
closed.
truss.op2
truss.db
truss.db +
truss.op2
truss.xdb
truss.db
truss.xdb
truss.db
TWO TYPES OF RESULT FILES
S4-47
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ATTACH THE XDB FILE
By default, Patran
requested for a
.xdb file when the
job was submitted
to Nastran.
Attach the .xdb file
to Patran.
S4-48
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Evaluate the analysis results
Examine the maximum vertical deflection. The
allowable deflection is 0.25 inch.
Examine the truss member stresses. The
requirement is 36 ksi (material yield strength)
POST PROCESS THE RESULTS
S4-49
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT DEFORMATION
Plot the deformation
Max y disp = 0.018 in < 0.25 in
S4-50
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
By default, Patran averages the stresses at a
node from neighboring elements and plots this
average stress value.
By switching off the averaging option, the true
maximum axial stresses in the truss members
are displayed.
PLOT STRESSES
S4-51
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged axial stresses
PLOT STRESSES (Cont.)
S4-52
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT STRESSES (Cont.)
Plot the un-averaged axial
stresses
S4-53
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Open the .f06 file with a text editor
Check the total applied load against the total reaction load
Total applied load
Total reaction load
REVIEW THE .f06 FILE
S4-54
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the constraint forces to verify that the boundary condition
has been applied correctly:
REVIEW THE .F06 FILE (Cont.)
S4-55
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Review the displacements and rod element stresses
REVIEW THE .f06 FILE (Cont.)
S4-56
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Analysis Summary:
Maximum deflection of 0.018 inch is below the 0.25
inch requirement
Maximum axial stresses:
Tensile Stress = 226 psi
Compressive Stress = -268 psi
The strength margin of safety is high
Effects such as dynamic loading and buckling will be
discussed at a later part of the course.
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS SUMMARY
S4-57
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 4 Stadium Truss in your exercise
workbook.
S4-58
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-1
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 5
SPACE STATION TRUSS
S5-2
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-3
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 5
SPACE STATION TRUSS
Topics covered in this case study:
Part 1: Modeling
Introduction to Geometry
Transform Geometry
Organize the model using Groups
Mesh control
Coordinate systems
Part 2: 1D Finite Element entities
NASTRAN CBAR element
Definition of 1D element properties
Part 3: Analysis and Results
Multiple Subcases
Postprocessing 1D data
S5-4
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
The preliminary design of a Space Station truss segment is
complete. The truss assembly carries a number of critical
components used for navigation, communication, and heat
rejection. This truss segment will be launched on the Space
Shuttle and assembled in space to other truss segments. You
are asked to analyze the design of the truss segment to
ensure that it can survive the launch and on-orbit loading
events.
Analysis Objectives
Determine stress levels in the truss members under loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the
truss material.
CASE STUDY:
SPACE STATION TRUSS
S5-5
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PART 1: MODELING
In this section of the workshop, we will learn about:
Modeling Geometry in Patran
Types of Geometry
Meshing Options for each type of geometry
Organizing models using Groups
Coordinate Systems in Patran and Nastran
Nastran Grid Point entries
Equivalent Terminology in Patran and Nastran
S5-6
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Getting started on the Space Station truss analysis:
For the previous case study, no geometry was
used.
Nodes were directly created by entering xyz coordinates
Rod elements were created by connecting the nodes
This method works well for simple models
In general modeling situations, the structure is too
complex to be modeled using the previous
method. The more common method is to create
or import the geometry first, then mesh the
geometry to generate the finite element model.
CASE STUDY:
SPACE STATION TRUSS
S5-7
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
X
Y
Z
9
Y
Z
X
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Point (cyan)
A point is a zero-dimensional CAD entity. It
represents a location in space.
Patran creates points automatically when
constructing curves, surfaces, and solids
Points are created at vertices, e.g. surface
vertices (corners)
It is not always necessary to construct entities
starting with their points, e.g. surface from points
S5-8
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Curve (yellow)
A curve is a general vector function of the
single parametric variable
1
. It can have
many types of mathematical forms:
(X,Y,Z) = function (
1
)
A curve has:
Two points, with one at each end
A parametric coordinate (
1
) whose domain is
from 0.0 at P1 (its origin) to 1.0 at P2
Meshing a curve produces bar elements

1
P2

1
P1
P(
1
)
Z
Y
X
Z
X
Y
5
Bar Element
S5-9
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Simple Surface (green)
There are two types of surface:
Simple - Green
Complex (general trimmed) - Magenta
A simple surface is a general vector
function of the two parametric variables

1
,
2
:
(X,Y,Z) = function (
1
,
2
)
A simple surface has:
3 or 4 bounding edges
A parametric origin and parametric
coordinates whose domains are from 0 to 1
A simple surface with 3 visible edges has a
fourth edge that is degenerate
12
P2
P1
P4
P3

1
Z
Y
X
Z
X
Y
P(
1
,
2
)
S5-10
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A SIMPLE SURFACE
Meshing a simple surface produces 2-D elements
Tria mesh
Quad mesh
S5-11
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Complex Surface (magenta)
A complex or general trimmed surface (magenta) has more
than 4 edges and can have interior cutouts
Not defined parametrically (
1
,
2
not used)
It is a trimmed parametric surface
Outer boundary
Inner boundaries
S5-12
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A COMPLEX SURFACE
Meshing a complex surface produces 2-D elements
Quad mesh
Tria mesh
S5-13
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

3
P
8
P
7
P
6
P
4
P
3
P
2
P
1
P
5
P (
1
,
2
,
3
)
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Simple Solid (blue)
There are two types of solid:
Simple - Blue
Complex - White
Simple solid
Vector function of three parametric variables

1
,
2
,
3
A simple solid has:
4 to 6 bounding faces
Parametric origin and coordinates whose
domains are from 0 to 1
A simple solid with 4 to 5 visible faces
has some degenerate faces
S5-14
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A SIMPLE SOLID
Meshing a simple solid produces solid elements
Hex mesh
Wedge mesh
Tet mesh
S5-15
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Complex Solid (white)
Complex Solid
Can have an arbitrary number of faces which define the solid
boundary. It is called a boundary representation (B-rep)
solid.
Complex solids can be either Patran native B-Rep or
parasolid B-Rep
S5-16
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A B-REP SOLID
Meshing a B-rep solid produces solid elements
Tet mesh
S5-17
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topological entities are subcomponents of the basic geometry entities
TOPOLOGICAL ENTITIES
Vertex
Edge
Face
Solid
All topological entities can be cursor selected to perform PATRAN
functions. For example
Solid 1.4 specifies face number 4 of solid 1 which is a surface
Surface 2.3 specifies edge number 3 of surface 2 which is a curve
S5-18
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING THE SPACE STATION GEOMETRY
S5-19
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a group called bulkheads
CREATING A GROUP
S5-20
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input 7 point locations
-64.740 -30.675 0 6
0 0 0 7
-64.740 30.675 0 5
64.740 -30.675 0 4
64.740 30.675 0 3
0 -81.200 0 2
0 81.200 0 1
Z Y X
CREATING POINTS
S5-21
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create 12 curves for one bulkhead
CREATING CURVES
S5-22
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Make 5 copies of the bulkhead
geometry
X=100
X=100
X=100
X=100
X=120
TRANSFORMING THE CURVES
S5-23
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete
unnecessary
curves and points
from front and
rear bulkheads.
FINISH CREATING THE BULKHEAD
GEOMETRY
S5-24
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a new
group called
longerons.
Groups are an
effective tool to
organize your model
and are covered in
greater detail in
Section 10.
CREATING A NEW GROUP
S5-25
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create geometry for the
longerons
CREATING THE LONGERON GEOMETRY
S5-26
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a new group
called diagonals
CREATING A NEW GROUP
S5-27
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create geometry for all
diagonal members
CREATING THE DIAGONAL GEOMETRY
S5-28
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The truss geometry will next be meshed to generate
nodes and elements.
There are two ways to control the element size
Mesh seeds or Global edge length
MESHING THE GEOMETRY
S5-29
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING A NEW GROUP
Create a new group called FEM
S5-30
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up a mesh
seed of 12
elements per
curve to control
the mesh density
on the 4 diagonal
members in the
longest bay
SETTING UP MESH SEEDS
S5-31
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next mesh all the
curves with a global
edge length of 20 in
MESH THE TRUSS GEOMETRY
S5-32
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTING MESH
Coarser global
mesh controlled by
global edge length
Finer local mesh
controlled by mesh
seeds
S5-33
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Equivalence the model
to merge coincident
nodes
EQUIVALENCE THE MODEL
S5-34
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN
Coordinate systems are used in the
construction and transformation of geometry
S5-35
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN (CONT.)
Coordinate systems are also used to define the
direction of loads and boundary conditions
S5-36
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN (CONT.)
Coordinate systems can also be used to define
the analysis coordinate system of a node
S5-37
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING COORDINATE SYSTEMS
There are three types of coordinate systems:
Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical
There are many ways to create coordinate systems:
S5-38
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD Nastran Coordinate systems are used to
Define locations of grid points in space
Orient each grid points displacement vector
Coordinate systems in MD Nastran:
Basic Coordinate System - Implicitly defined reference
rectangular coordinate system (Coordinate System 0).
Orientation of this system is defined by the user through
specifying the components of grid point locations.
Local Coordinate Systems - User-defined coordinate
systems. Each local coordinate system must be related
directly or indirectly to the basic coordinate system. The six
possible local coordinate systems are:
Rectangular CORD1R
Rectangular CORD2R
Cylindrical CORD1C
Cylindrical CORD2C
Spherical CORD1S
Spherical CORD2S
MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEMS
S5-39
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD Nastran Local Coordinate Systems:
The CORD1R, CORD1C, and CORD1S entries define a local
coordinate system by referencing the IDs of three existing grid
points.
The CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries define a local
coordinate system by specifying the vector components of three
points. This is the format used by Patran.
All angular coordinates are input in DEGREES. All rotational
displacements associated with these coordinates are output in
RADIANS.
MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEMS (Cont.)
S5-40
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rectangular Local Coordinate System (X, Y, Z)
Point A = local coordinate system origin
Point B = reference point for z axis direction
Point C = reference point in the x-z plane
Point P = grid point defined in local rectangular system
(u
x
, u
y
, u
z
) = displacement components of P in local system
MD NASTRAN RECTANGULAR COORDINATE
SYSTEM
S5-41
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Cylindrical Local Coordinate System (R, u, Z)
Point A = local coordinate system origin
Point B = reference point for z axis direction
Point C = reference point in the x-z plane
Point P = grid point defined in local cylindrical system
(U
r
, U
u
, U
z
) = displacement components of P in local system
MD NASTRAN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE
SYSTEM
S5-42
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Spherical Local Coordinate System (R, u, |)
Point A = local coordinate system origin
Point B = reference point for z axis direction
Point C = reference point in the x-z plane
Point P = grid point defined in local spherical system
(U
r
, U
u
, U
|
) = displacement components of P in local system
MD NASTRAN SPHERICAL COORDINATE
SYSTEM
S5-43
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEM ENTRIES
S5-44
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY OF COORDINATE SYSTEM 0
Coordinate system 0
is always displayed at
the lower left-hand
corner of the viewport
The tick mark
represents the origin
of the coordinate
system 0
S5-45
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CORD1X VS. CORD2X ENTRIES
By default, coordinate systems are
translated into MD Nastran CORD2X
entries
If Coordinate Frame Coordinates in the
Translation Parameters form is set to
reference nodes, then CORD1X is
translated where applicable
S5-46
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NESTED COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Creating nested coordinate systems
By default, the nested relationship is lost during
translation to MD Nastran
If nested coordinate system is desired, the
Coordinate Frame Coordinates in the
Translation Parameters form needs to be set to
reference frame.
S5-47
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a rectangular
coordinate system which
will be used later to
define the direction of
the applied load
CREATE A RECTANGULAR COORDINATE
SYSTEM
Point 16
Point 23
Point 17
S5-48
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Grid points are used to specify:
Structural geometry
Degrees of freedom of the structure
Locations of points at which displacements are
constrained or loads are applied
Locations where output quantities are to be calculated
GRID POINTS
S5-49
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Each grid point is capable of moving in six
directions. These are called degrees of freedom
(DOF).
DOF1 = T
1
= u
1
= translation in direction 1
DOF2 = T
2
= u
2
= translation in direction 2
DOF3 = T
3
= u
3
= translation in direction 3
DOF4 = R
1
= u
1
= rotation in direction 1
DOF5 = R
2
= u
2
= rotation in direction 2
DOF6 = R
3
= u
3
= rotation in direction 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
DEGREES OF FREEDOM
S5-50
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For each grid point, all six degrees of freedom must
be accounted for:
Think in terms of 3D even if the problem is only 1D or 2D.
Any un-used DOF must be constrained
1
2
3
4
5
6
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (Cont.)
The NASTRAN GRID entry is show below:
Field Contents
ID Grid point identification number
CP Identification number of coordinate system in which
the location of the grid point is defined (integer > 0 or
blank; default = basic coordinate system)
X1, X2, X3 Location of grid point in coordinate system CP (real)
CD Identification number of coordinate system in which displacements, degrees of freedom, constraints, and
solution vectors are defined at the grid point (integer > 0 or blank; default = basic coordinate system).
PS Permanent single-point constraints associated with grid point (any of the digits 1-6 with no embedded blanks)
This method of constraining a structure is not recommended.
SEID Superelement ID
THE NASTRAN GRID ENTRY
S5-51
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Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
Each GRID entry refers to two coordinate systems
The coordinate system in field 3 is used to locate the grid point.
This is called the positional coordinate system.
The coordinate system in field 7 establishes the grid point
displacement coordinate system which defines for the given grid
point the directions of displacements, degrees of freedom,
constraints, and solution vectors.
THE NASTRAN GRID ENTRY (Cont.)
S5-52
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-53
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The grid point displacement coordinate system is also known as the
output coordinate system because all grid point results
(displacements, grid point forces, etc.) are generated and output in
this coordinate system.
The union of all displacement coordinate systems is called the global
coordinate system.
The grid point displacement coordinate system:
THE GRID POINT DISPLACEMENT
COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate System 5
(cylindrical)
GRID POINT EXAMPLE
Grid points 10 and 20 are located on the aircraft fuselage as show below.
The GRID entry uses coordinate system 5 to define the location of the two
points and uses coordinate system 0 to define the grid point displacements.
Basic coordinate system 0
GRID POINT EXAMPLE
S5-54
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
Coordinate System 5
(cylindrical)
Suppose we are interested in displacements and forces in the fuselage radial
and tangential directions. We can accomplish this by changing field 7 of the
GRID entries from coordinate system 0 to coordinate system 5.
Basic coordinate system 0
GRID POINT EXAMPLE (Cont.)
S5-55
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-56
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examples of how the grid point displacement
coordinate system is used
CONSTRAINTS
SPRINGS
RIGID
ELEMENTS CLEARANCE
USING THE GRID POINT DISPLACEMENT
COORDINATE SYSTEM
S5-57
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
There are two ways to create grid points in PATRAN:
Directly create the grid point
Mesh the geometry
Equivalent to grid point
in MD Nastran
Equivalent to the
displacement coordinate
system in MD Nastran
Equivalent to the
positional coordinate
system in MD Nastran
CREATING A GRID POINT IN PATRAN
S5-58
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Equivalent Terminology in NASTRAN and
PATRAN:
NASTRAN PATRAN
Grid Points Nodes
Basic Coordinate System Global Coordinate System
Global Coordinate System None
Displacement Coordinate
System
Analysis Coordinate System
Positional Coordinate System Reference Coordinate System
NASTRAN AND PATRAN TERMINOLOGY
S5-59
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 5 Coordinate Systems in your
exercise workbook.
S5-60
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PART 2: 1D FINITE ELEMENT ENTITIES
In this section of the workshop, we will learn about:
Types of 1D elements available in Nastran
Selection of appropriate elements for modeling tasks
The Nastran CBAR element
Bar Offsets
Element coordinate systems
Definition of 1D element properties
Orientation for Bar and Beam elements
Display of element cross section
Manual input of sectional properties
S5-61
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now back to the case study. Lets create material
properties.
Aluminum 7075-T7351 plate and bar stock has been selected
for the truss.
The material properties are as follows:
E = 10 x 10
6
psi
v = 0.3
Tensile yield strength = 45 ksi
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S5-62
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a material named
al_7075
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-63
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input material
properties
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-64
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Considering load paths in the truss assembly
The truss members must carry axial and lateral loads
due to the way they are loaded. Shear and bending
moment will develop in the members as they are
loaded laterally at locations between the truss joints as
shown below. We must select an element type that is
capable of resisting the shear forces and moments.
LOAD PATH IN TRUSS
P
M
S5-65
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Following are the most commonly used one-
dimensional elements in NASTRAN:
ROD Pin-ended rod (4 DOFs)
BAR Prismatic beam (12 DOFs)
BEAM Straight beam with warping (14
DOFs)
COMMONLY USED 1-D ELEMENTS
S5-66
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Guidelines on 1-D element selection:
In general, select the simplest element which gives you the
correct load path. More complex elements will still do the job,
but may give you a lot of unwanted output.
If only an axial load or torsional load is to be transmitted in an
element, then the CROD or CONROD element is the best
choice.
If shear and moment are to be transmitted in an element, then
the CBAR is the easiest element to use.
Use the CBEAM element instead of the CBAR element for the
following reasons:
Variable cross-section
The neutral axis and shear center are not coincident
The effect of cross-sectional warping on the torsional stiffness is
significant
The mass center of gravity and shear center are not coincident
The effect of taper on the transverse shear stiffness (shear relief) is
significant
ELEMENT SELECTION
S5-67
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For this problem we will use the CBAR element
due to its ability to transmit shear force and
bending moment.
The CBEAM element has additional capabilities
which we dont need for this problem. The use
of CBEAM will be demonstrated in the next
section.
ELEMENT SELECTION (Cont.)
S5-68
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Connected to two grid points
Formulation derived from classical beam theory
(plane sections remain plane under deformations)
Includes optional transverse shear flexibility
Neutral axis may be offset from the grid points
(internally a rigid link is created)
Principal moment of inertia axis need not coincide
with element axis.
Pin flag capability used to represent slotted joints,
hinges, ball joints, etc.
General Features of the CBAR Element
THE CBAR ELEMENT
S5-69
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
General limitations on CBAR:
Straight, prismatic member (i.e., properties do not vary along the
length).
Shear center and neutral axis must coincide (therefore, not
recommended for modeling channel or angle sections).
The effect of cross-sectional warping is neglected.
Displacement Components:
Six degrees of freedom at each end.
Force components:
Axial force P
Torque T
Bending moments about two perpendicular directions M
1
and M
2
Shears in two perpendicular directions V
1
and V
2
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-70
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR element entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-71
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR element entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-72
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR element entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
CBAR element coordinate system
Defined by the orientation vector V
Orients input cross-sectional properties
Orients output forces and stresses
Orients pin flags
x
x
z
z
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-73
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Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-74
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR Element Coordinate System
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
CBAR Element Coordinate System with Offsets
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-75
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-76
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Following are two examples of when you might define the CBAR element
coordinate system orientation vector V with each of the two available options
(G0 or X
1
, X
2
, X
3
).
If you are representing stringers on a fuselage with CBAR elements, your input will
be minimized by using the G0 option to define the element coordinate system
orientation vector V.
Example 1
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-77
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Example 2
To specify the orientation of the legs of a tripod modeled with CBAR
elements as shown, it would be most efficient to use the components of
a vector (X
1
, X
2
, X
3
) to define the orientation vector V since the
orientation of each of the legs is unique.
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-78
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR Offsets
The ends of the CBAR element can be offset from the Grid Points
(GA, GB) by specifying the components of offset vectors W
A
and W
B
on
the CBAR entry.
The offset vector is treated as a rigid link between the grid point and
the end of the element.
The element coordinate system is defined with respect to the offset
ends of the bar element.
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-79
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Thin sheet
Stiffeners
Grid Points
Bar Offset Example
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
Centroid of
Stiffener
Offset
S5-80
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
The OFFT field
OFFT is a character string code that describes how the
offset and orientation vector components are to be
interpreted.
By default (string input is GGG or blank), the offset vectors
are measured in the displacement coordinate systems at
grid points A and B and the orientation vector is measured in
the displacement coordinate system of grid point A.
At user option, the offset vectors can be measured in an
offset coordinate system relative to grid points A and B, and
the orientation vector can be measured in the basic system
as indicated in the following table:
S5-81
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
The OFFT field (Cont.)
S5-82
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The user specifies DOFs at either end of the bar element that
are to transmit zero force or moment. The pin flags PA and PB
are specified in the element coordinate system and defined in
fields 2 and 3 of the optional CBAR continuation.
CBAR Pin Flags
Example: Pin flag
applied to rotational
DOF at this end of
CBAR creates a
hinged joint.
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-83
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CBAR Element Properties entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-84
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR Element Properties entry (cont.)
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-85
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR Element Properties entry (Cont.)
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-86
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Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-87
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
Shear Factor K
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-88
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-89
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-90
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Alternative CBAR Element Properties entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-91
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
PBARL cross-section types
S5-92
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
PBARL cross-section types
S5-93
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
PBARL cross-section types
S5-94
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
PBARL cross-section types
BAR element internal forces and moments
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-95
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
BAR element internal forces and moments
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-96
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-97
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR
CBEND
CBEAM
Create properties for the
CBAR element
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES
S5-98
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For the Space Station truss segment, there are
two types of cross-sections:
The longerons and bulkhead members carry large axial
and bending loads and are made of heavy I-beam
sections.
The diagonal members carry less loads and are made of
lighter I-beam sections.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-99
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Heavy Section
6 x 6
T
f
= 0.500 in T
w
= 0.25 in
Light Section
6 x 6
T
f
= 0.375 in T
w
= 0.190 in
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-100
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the longerons and
bulkheads
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-101
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a property
for the longerons
and bulkheads
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-102
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the material
created earlier
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-103
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter the
orientation vector
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-104
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select a section
from the Beam
Library
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-105
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter dimensions for the I-
beam section and type in a
section name
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-106
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click
Calculate/Display
to compute
section properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-107
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click OK to accept
the cross-section
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-108
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click OK to accept all the
physical properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-109
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select all curves
representing
longerons and
bulkheads
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-110
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Add to the application
region box and apply
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-111
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
It is important to always verify that the CBAR
cross section is oriented in the correct direction.
Since a cross section from the beam library was
used, PATRAN now has enough information to
display the cross section in 3D space.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-112
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Display -
Loads/BC/Elem.
Props
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-113
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Change from 1D line
display to 3D Display
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-114
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the FEM group
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-115
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBAR elements are
now displayed as 3D
members
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-116
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom in to verify
that the I-beams
are oriented
correctly
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-117
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Shade the I-beams
Shaded
Hidden Line
Wireframe
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-118
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the diagonals
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-119
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a second
property set for the
diagonal members
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (cont.)
S5-120
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
There are two ways to define section
properties in PATRAN:
1. Create a cross section using the Beam Library
a. Standard shape
b. Arbitrary shape
2. Compute the cross sectional properties first and
enter them directly into PATRAN.
For the diagonal members, we will use Method
2 to demonstrate how to directly enter cross
sectional properties.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-121
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Using equations from a handbook such as
Roark, the following cross sectional properties
have been calculated:
Diagonals
6 x 6
T
f
= 0.375 in T
w
= 0.190 in
A = 5.497 in
2
I
1
= 37.94 in
4
I
2
= 13.50 in
4
J = 0.224 in
4
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-122
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select material and enter
orientation vector
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-123
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter A, I1, I2, J
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-124
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter stress recovery points
and click OK to accept
properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-125
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select curves
representing the
diagonal members
and apply
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-126
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Since the cross-sectional properties for the diagonals
were entered directly into PATRAN, PATRAN can not
provide a 3D display of the I-beam cross section
However, Patran can display an equivalent rectangular
section.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-127
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the FEM group
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-128
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Another way to verify
the orientation of
cross sections is to
display the element Y
axis
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-129
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem
shows how the connectivity entry, the property entry,
and the material entry are linked together.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-130
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PART 3: ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
In this section of the workshop, we will learn about:
Definition of loads and boundary conditions
Creation of Loadcases
Subcases created from Loadcases
Submit Analysis
Post-process 1D results
This section wraps up
the workshop by
completing the
simulation of the
space station truss.
S5-131
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Boundary Conditions
The truss segment is tied down at 6 points in the
Space Shuttle cargo bay during launch. Once on
orbit, it is deployed and attached to neighboring truss
segments.
For simplicity, we will only analyze the truss on-orbit
configuration. For this configuration, assume the
neighboring truss assemblies are massive enough to
provide fixed boundaries for the two ends of our truss
segment.
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S5-132
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Applied Loads
There are a number of on-orbit loading events including
Space Shuttle docking loads, assembly loads, and EVA
(Extravehicular Activity) loads. For this case study, we will
focus on the EVA push-off load of 200 lb produced by an
astronaut while working on the Space Station.
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S5-133
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a boundary
condition named
fixed_ends
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S5-134
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain all six
degrees of
freedom
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S5-135
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select two ends
of the truss
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S5-136
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish applying
the boundary
condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S5-137
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The EVA push-off load can be applied anywhere on the truss
segment by an astronaut. Lets apply the 200-lb force on a
diagonal member in the longest truss bay.
CREATE LOADS
S5-138
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a load
named
EVA_Load
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-139
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply a 200 lb
force normal to
the diagonal
member using
the coordinate
system created
earlier.
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-140
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the application
region
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-141
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the load
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-142
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MULTIPLE SUBCASES
A structure may experience different loading scenarios. It may
also be constrained differently during different phases of usage.
A good example of this is the space station.
During launch, the space station segment is attached at several
hardpoints inside the shuttle cargo bay. The design driver is the
severe launch vibration environment.
When in orbit, the space station segment is attached to other
segments at its two ends. The launch loads are now absent.
Thermal loading, EVA loads, and shuttle docking loads become
more important loading events.
All these launch and on-orbit loading events can be applied using
the MD Nastran Subcases.
Each MD Nastran Subcase can contain loads, boundary
condition, and output requests.
S5-143
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MULTIPLE SUBCASES (Cont.)
A Subcase is created in Patran using the Load Case form as
shown on the next page.
Use the Assign/prioritize form to add or remove loads and
boundary conditions to the load case.
Once the load case is created, it is activated by selecting it in
the Subcase Select form.
S5-144
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING THE SUBCASE
S5-145
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SELECTING THE SUBCASE
S5-146
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE SUBCASE ENTRIES
A sample Nastran input file showing multiple subcases
S5-147
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Perform linear
static analysis
PERFORM ANALYSIS
S5-148
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Attach the xdb
file
ATTACH RESULTS
S5-149
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot deformed
shape and
averaged stresses
PLOT RESULTS
S5-150
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot un-averaged
stresses
PLOT RESULTS
S5-151
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the .f06 file for element stresses
Minimum
Combined
Maximum
Combined
EXAMINE RESULTS
S5-152
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the .f06 file for element forces
EXAMINE RESULTS (Cont.)
S5-153
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 6 Bridge Truss in your exercise
workbook.
S5-154
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-1
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-2
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-3
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
Topics covered in this case study:
Material properties
NASTRAN CBEAM element
Fields
S6-4
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
A traffic signal pole supports the signal at one end and is
attached to the vertical pole at the other end. It has a
circular tube cross section. The loading on the signal pole
is 200 lbs.
Analysis Objective
Determine stresses in the pole due to traffic signal loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the
pole material.
CASE STUDY:
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-5
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Traffic signal pole specifications
Length: 20 ft
Cross section: circular tube
Outer radius: 4 tapering down to 3
Inner radius: 3.5 tapering down to 2.5
Material: Steel with 50,000 psi yield strength
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-6
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the signal
pole geometry
CREATE SIGNAL POLE GEOMETRY
S6-7
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the
parametric
direction for the
curve
CREATE SIGNAL POLE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S6-8
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Methods for Creating Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES
S6-9
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Methods for Creating Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-10
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Methods for Creating Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-11
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Other Actions for Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-12
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Editing Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-13
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Showing Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-14
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Transforming Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-15
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Associate/Disassociate Curves
You can only associate curves to curves or
surfaces which are within the global model
tolerance
Associated curves may be used to guide the
interior meshing of an entity through mesh
seeding
Curves can be associated with other curve
and surface types of geometry
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-16
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now, mesh the curve to generate grid points and
elements
Use mesh seeds to control the mesh
MESHING THE GEOMETRY
S6-17
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create uniform
mesh seeds
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S6-18
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the curve
to create 1D
elements
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S6-19
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Creating Material Properties
So far in the case studies, we have been
creating isotropic materials such as steel
and aluminum
Patran supports a number of material
types as shown in the next slide
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S6-20
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Various composite material models Composite
3-Dimensional anisotropic (MAT9) 3D Anisotropic
2-Dimensional anisotropic (MAT2) 2D Anisotropic
3-Dimensional orthotropic material (MAT9) 3D Orthotropic
2-Dimensional orthotropic material (MAT8) 2D Orthotropic
Isotropic structural material (MAT1) Isotropic
Material Types
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-21
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
The creation of isotropic materials is covered in this section.
The creation of composite materials is covered in a later
section
S6-22
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Material Property Definitions
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-23
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Material Property Definitions (Cont.)
Homogeneous Material properties are independent of the location
within the material
Isotropic Material properties do not change with the
direction of the material
The three properties needed to completely
describe an isotropic material are E, , and G
(shear modulus). Only two are independent.
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-24
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
There are two ways to create
material properties in PATRAN
Manual Input
Externally Defined
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-25
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
How to create an
isotropic material
by manual input
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-26
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN entry for isotropic materials
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-27
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create material properties for this case study
Following properties are given for the signal post material:
E = 29 x 10
6
psi
= 0.3
Yield strength = 50 ksi
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-28
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create an
isotropic material
named steel
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-29
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
Define material
strength
properties
Note that Linear
Elastic and Failure
properties must be
input separately and
you must click Apply
after specifying each
constitutive model.
S6-30
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SELECT ELEMENT TYPE
CBAR
CBEND
CBEAM
S6-31
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBEAM Element Overview
Connected to two grid points
Force components:
Axial force P
Shear forces in 2 planes V
1
and V
2
Bending moments in 2 planes M
1
and M
2
Total torque T
Warping torque T
w
Displacement components:
u
i ,

i
, and
THE CBEAM ELEMENT
S6-32
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBEAM Element Overview (Cont.)
The CBEAM element includes all capabilities of the
CBAR element plus several optional capabilities that
include:
The cross-sectional properties may be specified at up
to nine interior points and also at both ends
The neutral axis and shear center axis need not be
coincident
The effect of cross-sectional warping on the torsional
stiffness
The effect of taper on the transverse shear stiffness
(shear relief)
The nonstructural mass center of gravity can be offset
from the shear center
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-33
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBEAM Entry
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-34
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBEAM Entry (cont.)
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-35
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBEAM Entry (cont.)
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-36
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-37
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBEAM Element Properties
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-38
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
The CBEAM Element Properties
S6-39
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
The CBEAM Element Properties
S6-40
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
The CBEAM Element Properties
Shear Relief Coefficients S1 and S2
The shear relief coefficient accounts for the fact that in a
tapered flanged beam the flanges sustain a portion of the
transverse shear load. This situation is illustrated below:
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-41
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-42
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Shear Relief Coefficients S1 and S2 (Cont.)
The value of the shear coefficient for a tapered beam
with heavy flanges that sustain the entire moment load
may then be written as
See the MD NASTRAN Reference Manual for further
details on the shear relief coefficients.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
Cross-Sectional Warping Coefficients CW(A), CW(B)
A twisting moment m is applied to a beam and the beam twists
For a beam with a circular cross section, plane sections remain
plane after twisting
For a beam with a non-circular cross section, plane sections do
not remain plane, but warp. This behavior is described by the
differential equation below:
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-43
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
Cross-Sectional Warping Coefficients CW(A), CW(B)
The first term in the equation is called the twisting torque. The second
term in the equation is called the warping torque. m is the total torque.
In order to model the warping effect, the user must enter the warping
coefficients on the PBEAM entry and specify two scalar points on the
CBEAM entry.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-44
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
Neutral Axis Offset from Shear Center (N
1
, N
2
)
The N1 and N2 fields on the PBEAM entry allow the user to specify the
neutral axis offset from the shear center.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-45
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBEAM properties can be alternatively specified using the
PBEAML entry.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-46
NAS120, Section 6, December 2004
Copyright 2004 MSC.Software Corporation
CBEAM element internal forces and moments
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-47
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
CBEAM element internal forces and moments in plane 1 and
plane 2
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-48
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-49
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use the CBEAM element
The outer radius of the pole tapers from R = 4.0 to R = 3.0
The inner radius of the pole tapers from R = 3.5 to R = 2.5
MODELING THE TAPERED SIGNAL POLE
S6-50
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The linearly varying outer and inner radii of the
beam will be modeled by using Fields.
Fields in PATRAN are used to define variations in
Loads
Boundary Conditions
Material Properties
Element Properties
There are three types of fields:
Spatial Fields
Non Spatial Fields
Material Property Fields
Use Spatial Fields to model the beam tapers in
this case study.
FIELDS
S6-51
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a field for
the taper in beam
outer radius from
4 to 3
CREATING FIELDS
S6-52
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
second field for
the taper in
beam inner
radius from 3.5
to 2.5
CREATING FIELDS (Cont.)
S6-53
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Verify the two
fields by plotting
them
CREATING FIELDS (Cont.)
S6-54
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create 1D
element
properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES
S6-55
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-56
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the steel
material created
earlier
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-57
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter the beam
orientation
vector
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-58
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the
circular tube
section from the
Beam Library
and name it
circular tube
section
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-59
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter R1 and
R2 by selecting
the fields
created earlier
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-60
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select curve 1
and click
calculate/display
to show cross
section at one
end of curve
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-61
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Slide the
parametric location
dial from End A to
End B and click
Calculate/Display
to view cross
section at the other
end of curve
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-62
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select OK to
accept the beam
library section.
Select OK to
accept the input
properties.
Click Apply to
create the
element property.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-63
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
Change from 1D to 3D
display to visually
inspect the cross
section
S6-64
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
3D display of
tapered beam
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-65
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
boundary condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION
S6-66
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain all six
degrees of freedom
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S6-67
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the end point
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S6-68
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
boundary condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S6-69
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
concentrated force of
200 lbs downward
CREATE LOADS
S6-70
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply the force to the end of
the beam
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S6-71
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The load is
applied.
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S6-72
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up a static
analysis run in
NASTRAN
PERFORM ANALYSIS
S6-73
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up the output
request:
Select Subcases
Select the Default
subcase
Select Output
Requests
Select Element Forces
to add this to the
Output Request Box
OK, Apply, and Cancel.
REQUEST FOR ADDITIONAL OUTPUT
S6-74
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click Apply to
submit the job to
MD NASTRAN
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
S6-75
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the MD
NASTRAN results
into PATRAN
ATTACH RESULTS
S6-76
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the
deformation
PLOT RESULTS
S6-77
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the maximum
combined axial and
bending stresses. Plot it
again with averaging
domain set to none.
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S6-78
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the minimum
combined axial and
bending stresses.
Plot it again with
averaging domain
set to none.
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S6-79
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The maximum stress according to PATRAN is 2,307
psi. Compare this to the NASTRAN .f06 file shown
below:
EXAMINE THE f06 FILE
S6-80
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use the NASTRAN element force output from the .f06 file
to compute stresses by hand.
Axial Stress f
a
= P/A = 0 psi
Tens. Bending Stress f
b
= MC/I = 48000(4.0)/83.203 = 2,307.6 psi
Comp. Bending Stress f
b
= MC/I = 48000(-4.0)/83.203 = -2,307.6 psi
The computed stresses do agree with the NASTRAN
stress output in the previous slide.
EXAMINE THE f06 FILE (Cont.)
S6-81
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY SUMMARY
Traffic signal pole stresses based on preliminary finite
element analysis are well below the yield point of the material.
Further analysis may consider different types of loading and
crippling of circular cross section.
S6-82
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 7 Tapered Plate in your exercise
workbook.
S7-1
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
S7-2
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
S7-3
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
Topics covered in this case study:
PATRAN 2D Geometry
Meshing 2D Geometry
Controlling the mesh
NASTRAN Plate and Shell Element Definitions
Importing CAD Geometry
Midsurface Extraction for 2D Modeling of Solids
Loads and Constraints
Post Processing 2D analysis results
S7-4
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
We are tasked with analyzing a wing rib, which is part of the wing
structure of a light aircraft.
The wing rib is attached to the front and rear spars and wing
skins.
In this particular load case, the rib is undergoing shear and we
are going to look at the stress around the cutout lightening holes.
Wing Rib
Front Spar
Rear Spar
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
S7-5
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Wing Rib
We are going to simplify the analysis by assuming that the front
spar loads the rib in shear and that the rear spar is effectively
built in.
The loading will have been determined by assessment of the air
loads and inertia loads.
The geometry is simplified by ignoring the curvature of the rib
edges.
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-6
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
E = 10.0 x 10
6
lb/in
2

= 0.33
7075 T73 Aluminum
10
20
31
X
X
Fully
Fixed
Loading
60 lb
f
/in
t=0.063
Centerline
18
40
R=4
22
R=3
R=5
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-7
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Analysis Objectives
Determine stress levels in the rib skin under shear loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield stress of the
rib material.
Determine the maximum vertical displacement of the rib.
The aeroelastics department has specified that the
maximum vertical movement of the rib should not exceed
0.100 inch.
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-8
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
Wing Rib Geometry has been modeled in a CAD program
Rib is a very thin solid, which we prefer to model with 2D elements
S7-9
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Getting started on the wing rib analysis in PATRAN:
Ignore the cutouts initially and create a simple
surface in Patran to introduce the idea of Surface
Geometry Creation
Initially, we will create a basic geometric surface on which
we will later create the mesh
This type of surface is a Green surface
Later, we will import the CAD Geometry and create
and mesh a more complex surface.
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-10
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Simple PATRAN Surfaces (Green)
A surface is a general vector function of two
parametric variables
A surface is characterized by:
A set of bounding curves
A parametric origin and two parametric variables
( and )
A surface can have the same curvature as a
curve
Display lines can be turned on to visualize the
interior curvature
CREATING GEOMETRY
S7-11
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A Simple Surface (Green) has 3 or 4 edges
A simple surface with 3 sides is degenerate
A simple surface can be meshed with either the Iso
Mesher (Mapped) or Paver Mesher
Simple Surface
IsoMesh (mapped mesh)
Geometry
Elements
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-12
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A General Surface (Magenta) may have more than 4 edges
and can have inner boundaries (holes)
It is also called a Trimmed Surface
General surfaces can only be meshed with the Paver Mesher
General surfaces can be optionally decomposed into simple
surfaces to allow meshing with IsoMesh (Mapped) Mesher
General (Trimmed)
Surface
Paver Mesh
Geometry
Elements
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-13
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create two curves
using the xyz
method
First Curve:
Origin 0,0,0
Vector 0,9,0
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-14
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Second Curve:
Origin 40,0,0
Vector 0,11,0
S7-15
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Create the surface
S7-16
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Make the bottom half of
the rib by Mirroring
Surface 1
S7-17
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Surface 2 is created
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-18
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Mirror reflection Plane
was set up using:
Coordinate System 0
Direction 2 (the y axis)
Coord 0.2
The Offset was 0.0 so the
Plane lies on y=0.0
We reversed the new
surface so that subsequent
meshing keeps consistent
orientation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-19
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Elements Menu
Create the mesh
on Surface 1 and 2
MESHING THE GEOMETRY
S7-20
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Use the IsoMesh Meshing Method
Elements will be Quad4 type
Global Edge Length is 2 inches for
the Elements in the mesh
S7-21
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
When meshing surfaces or solids, IsoMesh divides the surfaces or
faces into groups of parallel edges called Mesh Paths
Mesh Paths are used by IsoMesh to determine the number of elements
per edge for elements along a specific path. The number of elements
per edge is based on the following priority:
Mesh Seeds
Adjoining meshed regions that are topologically congruent (surface 1 and 2)
Global Edge Length (set to 2 inches)
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-22
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A portion of the mesh is shown:
Elements 1 to 120 are on Surface 1
Elements 121 to 240 are on Surface 2
Nodes on the common
boundary must be
Equivalenced
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-23
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
After Equivalencing, the mesh is now
continuous and without cracks. The
redundant nodes have been deleted.
S7-24
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
So far, we have created quad4 elements. The PATRAN
quad4 element is the generic term for a family of four-
noded elements which include the following:
Thin Shell Elements (will be used here)
Bending Panel Elements
2D Solid Elements
Membrane Elements
Shear Panel Elements
The specific element type will be specified later when we
create the element physical properties.
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-25
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Creating Material Properties
The Designer has selected aluminum 7075-T73 sheet
as the construction material.
The material properties are as follows:
E = 10 x 10
6
psi
= 0.33
Tensile Yield strength = 50 ksi
Shear Ultimate Strength = 65 ksi
The data is input using the Materials Menu as before.
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S7-26
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Creating Element Physical Properties
For this application, we are going to use the Thin Shell
Element type. This is a specific application within the
generic PATRAN quad4 designation.
Define this specific type by selecting Thin Shell in the
Element Properties Menu.
Then, define the physical Properties relevant to the
Thin Shell:
Thickness - .063 in
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES
S7-27
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
Property Menu
Create a 2D Shell
property named rib_web
Link to Material
Input Thickness
Apply to Surfaces 1 and
2
S7-28
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Question:
Why do we apply the Element Physical Properties to the
Surfaces?
Answer:
The Physical Properties are then associated to the Surface
any Elements associated to the Surface via Meshing will
automatically be associated to the Physical Properties.
If we re-mesh the Surface, the Physical Properties will
automatically get associated with the new Elements.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S7-29
Two-Dimensional Elements Overview
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
NAS120, Section 7, December 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S7-30
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A plate is a structural element with one small dimension and two
large dimensions.
A thin plate is one in which the thickness is much less than the
next larger dimension (roughly 1/15)
For linear analysis, MD Nastran plate elements assume classical
engineering assumptions of thin plate behavior:
The deflection of the midsurface is small compared with the thickness
The midsurface remains unstrained (neutral) during bending. (This
applies to lateral loads, not in-plane loads.)
The normal to the midsurface remains normal to the midsurface during
bending
Two-Dimensional Elements Overview (Cont.)
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-31
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plate and shell elements (except CQUADR and CTRIAR)
have no stiffness in the normal rotational (drilling) degrees
of freedom.
Two-Dimensional Elements Overview (Cont.)
No stiffness in the drilling
degrees of freedom
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
CQUADR and CTRIAR plate elements have stiffness in
the drilling degrees of freedom.
S7-32
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For V2001
PARAM, K6ROT, 0. is the default for all linear solution
sequences
PARAM, K6ROT, 100. is the default in nonlinear solution
sequences
PARAM, SNORM, 20., is the default
For V2004 and later
PARAM, K6ROT, 100. is the default for all solution
sequences
PARAM, SNORM, 20., is the default
Commonly used parameters for plate and shell
elements
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S7-33
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Element connectivity is defined on the NASTRAN CQUAD4 entry, looking
at Element 1 in our rib:
22 23 2 1 1 1 CQUAD4
ZOFFS THETA
or MCID
GRID4 GRID3 GRID2 GRID1 PID EID CQUAD4
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
T4 T3 T2 T1 TFLAG
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 24 23
CQUAD4 3 1 3 4 25 24
CQUAD4 4 1 4 5 26 25
CQUAD4 5 1 5 6 27 26
.bdf file extract
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-34
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
EID Element identification number (integer>0)
PID Identification number of a PSHELL or PCOMP
property entry
G1,G2,G3,G4 Grid point identification numbers of connection
points. (All interior angles of this element must be
less than 180.)
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-35
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
Theta Material property orientation specification. If real or blank,
specifies material property orientation angle in degrees. If
integer, material x-axis orientation is along projection onto
the plane of the x-axis of the specified coordinate system.
T1,T2,
T3,T4 The continuation entry is optional. If supplied, it describes
the membrane thickness of the element at grid points G1
through G4 (real 0., not all zero). If not supplied, then T1
through T4 is set equal to the value of T on the PSHELL
data entry.
Z
OFFS
Offset from the surface defined by the grid points to the
element reference plane in the element coordinate system.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-36
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MID4 Z2 Z1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 1 .063 1 1 PSHELL
NSM TS/T MID3 12I/T3 MID2 T MID1 PID PSHELL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Element physical property is defined on the NASTRAN
PSHELL entry
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : rib_web
PSHELL 1 1 .063 1 1
$
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 24 23
CQUAD4 3 1 3 4 25 24
We will ignore the other terms for now
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-37
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
PID Property identification number (integer >0)
MID1 Material identification number for membrane behavior
(integer > 0 or blank)
T Plate or membrane thickness
MID2 Material identification number for bending behavior
(integer > 0 or blank, MID2 = -1 represents plane strain)
Note: The default for MID2 is not to include bending
stiffness. For most models, MID2 should not be blank
12I/T
3
Normalized bending inertia per unit length (real or blank,
default = 1.0). The default value is correct for solid,
homogeneous plates.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-38
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
MID3 Material identification number for transverse shear
behavior (integer > 0 or blank)
TS/T Transverse shear thickness divided by membrane
thickness (default = .833333). The default value is
correct for solid, homogeneous plates.
NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (real)
Z1, Z2 Stress recovery distances for bending (real, default Z1
= -1/2 thickness, Z2 = +1/2 thickness)
MID4 Material identification number to define coupling
between membrane and bending deformation
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-39
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : aluminum
$ Description of Material : Date: 09-Oct-00 Time: 11:49:27
MAT1 1 1.+7 .33
A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem,
showing how the connectivity entry, the property entry,
and the material entry are linked together:

CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : rib_web
PSHELL 1 1 .063 1 1
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-40
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads
The Rear Spar is assumed fully built in
A vertical load of 60 lbs force per inch is applied at the
Front Spar
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S7-41
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Loads/BCs
Create a boundary
condition named
fixed
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION
S7-42
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
All six degrees
of freedom are
fixed.
S7-43
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
Select the left
side of the rib
S7-44
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the boundary
condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S7-45
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We can see visually that PATRAN has applied
these constraints but how is this written to a
NASTRAN bdf file?
We do this via SPCs.
A single-point constraint (SPC) is a constraint
applied to one or more components of motion at
selected grid points.
There are two forms of the data input, differing
only in convenience:
SPC - not supported by PATRAN
SPC1 - supported by PATRAN
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS
S7-46
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fixed
SPC1 1 123456 1 22 43 64 85 106
127 149 150 151 152 153 154
Grids 1, 22, 43, 153, 154 are
selected
DOF 123456 are selected
The SPC set is given a SET ID
number 1 in this case.
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-47
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
106 85 64 43 22 1 123456 1 SPC1
G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 C SID SPC1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
154 153 152 151 150 149 127
G14 G13 G12 G11 G10 G9 G8 G7
SPC1 entry format:
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-48
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
These constraints are selected by the SPC Case
Control request
Constraints are only applied if requested
The set of constraints applied may be different for
each SUBCASE
BE CAREFUL - if SPC and SPC1 entries are used,
they are not applied unless specifically requested in
Case Control
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-49
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SPCs are specified in the output coordinate
(displacement) system of the grid point at which
they are defined. Remember that the grid point
output coordinate system is defined in field 7 of the
GRID entry
This can be used to advantage an example
follows in a later section
It is also a major source of error as the constraint
will act in the sense of the orientation of the output
coordinate system
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-50
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Uses of SPCs include:
Support a structure (apply constraints)
Apply symmetric or antisymmetric boundary
conditions by restraining the DOFs that must have
zero values in order to satisfy symmetry or
antisymmetry
Remove degrees of freedom unconnected or weakly
coupled to the structure
Remove degrees of freedom not used in the
structural analysis (e.g. out-of-plane DOFs for a 2-D
analysis)
Apply zero or nonzero enforced displacements to
grid points
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-51
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constraints can be defined as:
Permanent - defined on GRID entry (Not supported in
PATRAN)
User-selected - done in Case Control with SPC=SID. Defined in
the Bulk Data on SPC, SPC1, or SPCD entries
Automatic - PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES
Reaction forces at SPCd grids (termed forces of single-
point constraint), may be obtained by including the
Case Control request SPCFORCES=ALL
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-52
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTRIBUTED LOAD
Create a Distributed
Load named force
Remember, this is a
load/unit length
S7-53
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input -60 lbs in
the f1 direction
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
S7-54
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
Select the
application region
S7-55
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the load
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
S7-56
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We need to be careful with the application of the
Distributed Load.
It is a running load, or load per unit length
In our case, Total Load = 60 lb
f
/in x 22in
= 1320 lb
f
The direction of f1 f2 f3 is parametric, based on the
orientation of the edge
f2
f1
f3
y
z
x
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
S7-57
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We can see visually that PATRAN has applied these loads but
how is this written to a NASTRAN BDF file?
We do this via FORCE data entries.
THE FORCE ENTRY
S7-58
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Distributed Loads of Load Set : force
FORCE 1 21 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 105 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
Grids 21, 42, 63, 84, 105, etc. are selected
A value of 55.0 is applied per grid* (There are 24
grids equally spaced and a total load of 1320 lb
f
)
A vector of < 0. -1.0 0. > is used
The FORCE set is given a SET ID number 1 in
this case
* Rounding causes 54.9999 in the translator
THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont.)
S7-59
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
0.0 -1.0 0.0 55.00 21 1 FORCE
Z1 Y1 X1 F CID GID SID FORCE
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
The FORCE can be applied in any Coordinate
System here, we use default 0
Beware as the Force Magnitude is multiplied by
the vector resultant
FORCE entry format
THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont.)
S7-60
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Distributed Loads of Load Set : force
FORCE 1 21 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 105 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
..etc ...
The application of the FORCE to the grids can appear confusing as
data is repeated this is a valid way for NASTRAN to have a loading
distribution on QUAD4 elements which is kinematically equivalent to
a constant load.
1
1
2
2
2
2
Uniform 10
THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont.)
S7-61
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have now completed the pre-processing phase
of the analysis process. The next step is to send it
to NASTRAN to perform matrix analysis on the
model.
Solver
PERFORM ANALYSIS
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S7-62
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Select linear
static analysis
S7-63
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Status window
reports job
progress
S7-64
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
After NASTRAN completes the analysis, we are
now ready to read the results back into PATRAN.
ACCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS
Solver
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S7-65
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ACCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.)
Read in the xdb file
S7-66
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post Processing the Results
Examine the maximum vertical deflection. The
allowable deflection is 0.100 inch.
Examine the rib tensile stresses and shear stresses.
Must be below 50 ksi in tension (material yield strength)
Must be below 65 ksi in shear (material ultimate
strength requires a 1.5 load factor)
POST PROCESS RESULTS
S7-67
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the deformation
Max y disp = 0.0987 in < 0.100 in
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-68
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged
x direct stresses
Max x stress = 18,900 lbs/in
2
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-69
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged xy
stresses
Max absolute xy stress = 1,930 lbs/in
2
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-70
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
Plot the averaged Von-Mises
stresses
Max Von Mises stress = 17,100 lbs/in
2
S7-71
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POST PROCESS RESULTS (CONT.)
2-D element stresses are
computed at Z1 and Z2
positions.
By default stresses at the Z2
position are selected for
display in Patran.
For this rib problem, set the
position to Z1 and examine
the stresses.
The Z1 results are identical to
the Z2 results since there is
no bending in this problem.
S7-72
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Analysis Summary:
Maximum deflection of 0.0987 inch is below the 0.100 inch
requirement.
Maximum axial stresses:
Tensile Stress = 18,900 psi at upper rear spar
Compressive Stress = -18,900 psi at lower rear spar
Margin of safety >2
Maximum Shear Stress:
Shear Stress = 1,930 psi in center of panel in negative sense
Margin of safety >2
Overall check Von Mises:
Max Von Mises = 17,100 psi appears to be dominated by x direction
direct stresses
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-73
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Manual Check:
Maximum axial stresses at Rear Spar:
Equiv bending section I = b*d^3/12
= .063*18.0^3/12
= 30.618 in^4
Moment at Rear Spar = 1320*40 lb
f
in
= 52800 lb
f
in
Stress at Rear Spar = M*y/I
= 52800*9.0/30.618
= 15,520 psi
Maximum Shear Stress:
Median Cross Sectional Area = .063*20
= 1.26 in^2
Shear Stress = 1320/1.26
= 1047 psi
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-74
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
By default, PATRAN averages the stresses at a node
from neighboring elements and plots this average
stress value.
By switching off the averaging option, the true
maximum stresses in the quad4 elements are
displayed.
We will use this to check stress gradients in the top
rear spar attachment point.
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-75
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Standard fringe from QuickPlot Element Averaging OFF in Fringe
The Element at the top rear spar attachment point is seeing a
steep stress gradient. We would need to take care when
drawing conclusions about local stress levels here.
Otherwise, the gradients are very similar.
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-76
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Full Rib Idealization
We now decide to do a more realistic analysis of the rib,
which includes the cutouts.
We could use a variety of methods to draw the geometry in
Patran or add the holes to the existing simple surface, but
well demonstrate importing geometry from a CAD file.
The geometry we will import is a solid, but we want to do 2D
modeling, so we will extract the midsurface of the solid.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS
S7-77
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
File Menu
Import the existing
CATIA V5 Model
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-78
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
One Solid was
imported.
S7-79
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Extract a midsurface from the solid
geometry.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-80
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete the solid
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-81
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We now have our complex
(Magenta) surface.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-82
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Elements Menu
Create the mesh
on Surface 1
S7-83
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Use the Paver Meshing Method
Elements will be Quad4 type
Global Edge Length is 2 inches for
the Elements in the mesh
S7-84
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Global Edge Length of 2
dominates wherever possible
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-85
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Paver Mesher
Used with all surfaces
trimmed (magenta)
simple (green)
When meshing surfaces, the Paver starts at the boundary
and gradually moves towards the interior
To Add More Control
Mesh seeding controls element generation along seeded
curves
Paver recognizes hard points and curves added to a surface
by association
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-86
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rib Cutout Model
Global Edge Length is good for areas away
from stress concentrations
Mesh Density is poor around holes and in
ligaments (thin regions of material)
To Add More Control
Mesh Seed around the holes, say,
16 elements per 180 degrees
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-87
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
To Rebuild a Mesh
Either - create the mesh again and you will
be prompted to delete the old mesh
Or - Use Delete Mesh
To Change or Add Mesh Seed
You will need to delete the existing Mesh
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-88
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Here we delete the mesh and
Mesh Seed all 3 hole edges
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-89
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
This improves the mesh, but we
wish for a more regular array of
elements around the cutouts
S7-90
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We go back to Geometry to create
additional concentric curves to guide the
mesh.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Click Draw Direction Vector and
Reverse Direction to select the
radially outward direction
S7-91
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now, translate the edges by a constant offset
value of 0.5 inch.
This creates a set of
concentric curves
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-92
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
The association is shown
by a triangular marker
The curves are now associated
to the surface.
S7-93
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The curves are seeded and
then the surfaces re-meshed
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-94
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The final mesh is accepted with:
a global edge length 1.7
further concentric lines associated
extra lines associated
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Extra Lines
S7-95
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For Paver Mesher, the number of elements per edge
are based on the following priority:
Mesh Seeds
Adjoining meshed regions that are topologically congruent
Even number of elements along the boundary
Global edge length
THE PAVER MESHER
S7-96
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Comparison of Paver and IsoMesher
High Degree of User-Control
Selection of smoothing
algorithms
Surface must be 3 or 4 sided
If not, must decompose
Will not mesh to interior
hard geometry
Limited User-Control
Pac Man Algorithm
Any Surface
Can mesh arbitrary
n-sided surfaces
Can mesh to interior hard
geometry
Mixed-element mesh can be generated by
both algorithms (Quad/Tri)
Both methods will match adjacent mesh
IsoMesh Paver
THE PAVER MESHER (Cont.)
S7-97
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Rib is now complete as before
Create Material Property
Create Physical Property
Apply Loads and Boundary Conditions
Equivalence
Analyze
RIB WITH CUTOUTS
S7-98
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the deformation
Max y disp = 0.148 in > 0.100 in
PLOT RESULTS
S7-99
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged
x direct stresses
Max x stress = 20,400 lbs/in
2
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-100
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged xy
stresses
Max absolute xy stress = 8,890 lbs/in
2
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-101
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged von Mises stress
Also, plot the un-averaged von Mises
stress
Compare the average stress with un-
averaged stress. These two values
should be close to each other for a good
mesh.
Max von Mises stress = 22,000 lbs/in
2
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-102
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Analysis Summary:
Maximum deflection of 0.148 inch is above the 0.100 inch
requirement. If we include Rib Caps and Spar Attachment
Flange, then we would expect the deflection to be within
limits.
Maximum axial stresses:
Tensile Stress = 20,400 psi at upper rear spar
Compressive Stress = -20,400 psi at lower rear spar
Margin of safety >2
Maximum Shear Stress:
Shear Stress = 8,890 psi in center of panel in negative sense
Margin of safety >2
Overall check von Mises:
Max von Mises = 22,000 psi appears to be dominated by x
direction direct stresses
ANALYSIS SUMMARY
S7-103
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Manual Check:
Maximum axial stresses at Rear Spar (as before):
Equiv bending section I = b*d^3/12
= .063* 18.0^3/12
= 30.618 in^4
Moment at Rear Spar = 1320*40 lb
f
in
= 52800 lb
f
in
Stress at Rear Spar = M*y/I
= 52800*9.0/30.618
= 15,520 psi
Maximum Shear Stress reduced area
Median Cross Sectional Area = .063*12
= 0.756 in^2
Shear Stress = 1320/0.756
= 1746 psi
ANALYSIS SUMMARY (Cont.)
S7-104
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have a poorly shaped element in
the mesh. By setting stress averaging
off, we can see the influence of that
element.
ANALYSIS SUMMARY (Cont.)
S7-105
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN
PATRAN
MD Nastran performs a number of element
distortion checks. For a complete description of
element distortion checks performed by MD
Nastran, please refer to the MD Nastran Linear
Static Analysis Users Guide.
It is good practice to check the quality of the finite
elements before running the MD Nastran job.
Patran has a number of element distortion checks
shown in the next slide.
S7-106
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN
PATRAN (Cont.)
S7-107
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN
PATRAN (Cont.)
Within each element type, specific element
distortion tests can be made and the results
are displayed in a fringe plot.
For example, verification tests for the Quad
element include Aspect Ratio, Warp, Skew,
and Taper.
S7-108
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WING RIB ELEMENT DISTORTION PLOT
The quad element aspect ratio plot is shown below:
S7-109
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISES
Perform Workshop 8A Tension Coupon in your
exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 8B Tension Coupon in your
exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 8C Tension Coupon in your
exercise workbook.
S7-110
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
The following slides provide a brief introduction to the
analysis of composite materials.
Please attend the NAS113 Analysis of Composite
Materials with MD Nastran course for a more
comprehensive treatment of composite analysis.
S7-111
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Typically a ply is a flat group of fibers imbedded in a
matrix.
The matrix is usually an isotropic material that holds
the fibers together.
In a ply called a tape, the fibers are unidirectional.
In a ply called a cloth, the fibers are woven at 0 and
90 degree directions.
PLY DEFINITION
S7-112
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Fiber:
Unidirectional in tape
Direction is the 1 axis of the
ply coordinate system
Matrix:
Glue that holds fibers together
Matrix direction is the 2 axis
90 degrees to the 1 axis
Material properties are:
2D orthotropic material in
Patran
MAT8 in Nastran
TAPE PLIES
S7-113
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MAT8 BULK DATA ENTRY
Defines the ply orthotropic properties.
Elastic properties are E1, E2, NU12, G12, G1Z, G2Z.
Allowables are Xt, Xc, Yt, Yc, S.
Use STRN=1.0 if allowables are in units of strain.
F12 is for the Tsai-Wu failure theorem.
Thermal coefficients of expansion are A1 and A2.
The MAT8 TREF reference temperature is not used since it is overridden by the PCOMP TREF.
Density is RHO.
The MAT8 GE structural damping is not used since it is overridden by the PCOMP GE.
The example below is typical for a graphite/epoxy tape.
1.3-4 1.0+6 1.0+6 1.0+6 0.35 2.+6 20.+6 1 MAT8
RHO G2Z G1Z G12 NU12 E2 E1 MID MAT8
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1.25+4 1.2+4 1.1 +4 1.2+5 1.3+5 4.5-6 -2.3-7
S Yc Yt Xc Xt TREF A2 A1
.bdf file extract
STRN F12 GE
mat8, 1, 20.+6, 2.+6, 0.35, 1.0+6, 1.0+6, 1.0+6, 1.3-4,+
+, -2.3-7, 4.5-6,, 1.3+5, 1.2+5, 1.1+4, 1.2+4, 1.25+4
S7-114
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN 2D ORTHOTROPIC
Materials:
Create/ 2d Orthotropic/
Manual Input
Material Name
Input Properties
Linear Elastic
Apply
Input Properties
Failure
Apply
Note that Linear Elastic
and Failure properties
must be input
separately with an
Apply between and
after.
S7-115
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Stack of plies
Each ply has a different
direction, material, and
thickness
Composite properties are
calculated in the material
coordinate system (Xm, Ym,
Zm)
Zm is the same as the element Z axis (Ze)
Right hand rule of grid ordering, G1,G2,G3,G4
Xm is in the direction of the 0 degree ply
Positive angles are defined by right hand rule
around Zm
S7-116
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PCOMP BULK DATA ENTRY
Defines the composite layup.
0.0 HILL 5000.0 1 PCOMP
LAM GE TREF FT SB NSM Z0 PID PCOMP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
YES 45.0 0.0054 1 YES 0.0 0.0054 1
SOUT2 THETA2 T2 MID2 SOUT1 THETA1 T1 MID1
90.0 0.0054 1
etc. SOUT3 THETA3 T3 MID3
Z0 is composite offset.
Use default = -(composite thickness)/2
NSM is nonstructural mass
SB is allowable interlaminar shear stress
Put as Bonding Shear Stress in Patran 2D
Orthotropic Material
Required for failure indices
FT is the ply failure theorem
Required for failure indices
TREF is reference temperature
Overrides TREFs on ply MAT8s
GE is element damping
Overrides GE on ply MAT8s
LAM is layup options
MIDi is ply material ID
MAT8 ID
Ti is ply thickness
THETAi is ply angle
SOUTi is data recovery option
S7-117
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PCOMP BULK DATA ENTRY (cont.)
The example composite below is an 8 ply layup, symmetric
about its centerline, with an equal number of plies in each of the
0, +45, 90 degree directions.
.bdf file extract
PCOMP, 1,,, 5000., HILL
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
S7-118
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Materials:
Create/ Composite/
Laminate
To create a ply, click on
a ply material in
Existing Materials.
Repeat for each of the
plies
Enter Thickness for all
layers: 0.0054 in the
box under Input Data
<return>
Click on first cell in
Orientation column
Enter Orientations: 0 45
45 90 90 45 45 0 in
the box under Input
Data.
Apply
PATRAN COMPOSITE
S7-119
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CQUAD4 BULK DATA ENTRY
Defines the composite plate.
Material coordinate system
can be defined one of two
ways:
MCID (integer) - ID of a user
defined coordinate system whos
X-axis is projected onto the
element to define the elements
material coordinate systems X-
axis. This along with the Z-axis of
the element coordinate system
defines the material coordinate
system.
THETA (real) - an angle
between the G1G2 vector of the
element and the X-axis of the
material coordinate system. The
positive sense of this angle is the
right hand rule direction around
the elements Z-axis.
99 4 3 2 1 1 1 CQUAD4
ZOFFS THETA
or MCID
G4 G3 G2 G1 PID EID CQUAD4
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
CQUAD4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 4, 99
CQUAD4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 4, 25.0
S7-120
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN COMPOSITE PROPERTIES
Properties:
Create/ 2D/ Shell
Property Set Name
Option: Laminate
Input Properties
Click on Mat Prop
Name Icon to
select the material
Click on coord. sys.
for projection to
material coord. sys.
OK
Select elements
Apply
S7-121
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN MATERIAL COORD. Z-AXIS
Elements:
Verify/ Element/
Normals
Draw Normal Vectors
Apply
S7-122
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN MATERIAL COORD. X-AXIS
Properties:
Show
Material Orientation
Apply
S7-123
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GRID 1 0. 0. 0.
GRID 2 0. .5 0.
GRID 3 0. 1. 0.
GRID 4 .5 0. 0.
GRID 5 .5 .5 0.
GRID 6 .5 1. 0.
GRID 7 1. 0. 0.
GRID 8 1. .5 0.
GRID 9 1. 1. 0.
$
SPC1,1,1235,1
SPC1,1,135,2,3
$
FORCE 1 3 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 6 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 6 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 9 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 7 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 9 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 7 250. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 9 250. 0. 1. 0.
$
CORD2R, 99,, 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1.
, 0., 1., 0.
ENDDATA
SOL 101
CEND
TITLE = Composite Workshop Chapter 2 - Sample Composite Input
SPC = 1
LOAD = 1
DISP = ALL
STRESS =ALL
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, -1
$
PCOMP, 1,,, 5000., HILL
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
MAT8, 1, 2.+7, 2.+6, .35, 1.+6, 1.+6, 1.+6
,,,,130000., 120000., 11000., 12000., 12500.
$
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 5 4 99
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 6 5 99
CQUAD4 3 1 4 5 8 7 99
CQUAD4 4 1 5 6 9 8 99
$
NASTRAN INPUT FILE
.dat file extract
The single ply per line format on PCOMP continuation fields allows easier
cutting and pasting of plies
S7-124
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S T R E S S E S I N L A Y E R E D C O M P O S I T E E L E M E N T S ( Q U A D 4 )
ELEMENT PLY STRESSES IN FIBER AND MATRIX DIRECTIONS INTER-LAMINAR STRESSES PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR) MAX
ID ID NORMAL-1 NORMAL-2 SHEAR-12 SHEAR XZ-MAT SHEAR YZ-MAT ANGLE MAJOR MINOR SHEAR
0 1 1 2.55820E+05 2.81603E+04 2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 6.74 2.59049E+05 2.49319E+04 1.17058E+05
0 1 2 4.96222E+05 1.19674E+04 -2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 -0.32 4.96237E+05 1.19524E+04 2.42142E+05
0 1 3 -3.72387E+04 4.79000E+04 2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 88.19 4.79852E+04 -3.73239E+04 4.26546E+04
0 1 4 2.03163E+05 3.17071E+04 -2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 -8.83 2.07406E+05 2.74647E+04 8.99705E+04
0 1 5 2.03163E+05 3.17071E+04 -2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 -8.83 2.07406E+05 2.74647E+04 8.99705E+04
0 1 6 -3.72387E+04 4.79000E+04 2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 88.19 4.79852E+04 -3.73239E+04 4.26546E+04
0 1 7 4.96222E+05 1.19674E+04 -2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 -0.32 4.96237E+05 1.19524E+04 2.42142E+05
0 1 8 2.55820E+05 2.81603E+04 2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 6.74 2.59049E+05 2.49319E+04 1.17058E+05
0 2 1 2.20297E+05 -1.59550E+04 9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 2.41 2.20715E+05 -1.63734E+04 1.18544E+05
0 2 2 9.15727E+04 -7.28449E+03 -2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 -12.54 9.67154E+04 -1.24272E+04 5.45713E+04
0 2 3 -1.02861E+05 5.81209E+03 2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 78.47 1.05290E+04 -1.07578E+05 5.90535E+04
0 2 4 -2.31585E+05 1.44826E+04 -9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 -87.69 1.48844E+04 -2.31987E+05 1.23436E+05
0 2 5 -2.31585E+05 1.44826E+04 -9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 -87.69 1.48844E+04 -2.31987E+05 1.23436E+05
0 2 6 -1.02861E+05 5.81209E+03 2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 78.47 1.05290E+04 -1.07578E+05 5.90535E+04
0 2 7 9.15727E+04 -7.28449E+03 -2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 -12.54 9.67154E+04 -1.24272E+04 5.45713E+04
0 2 8 2.20297E+05 -1.59550E+04 9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 2.41 2.20715E+05 -1.63734E+04 1.18544E+05
0 3 1 -5.90459E+04 1.03837E+04 8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 83.40 1.13269E+04 -5.99891E+04 3.56580E+04
0 3 2 1.11984E+05 -1.13646E+03 9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 4.70 1.12753E+05 -1.90558E+03 5.73294E+04
0 3 3 -4.72039E+04 9.58604E+03 -9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 -80.88 1.10887E+04 -4.87066E+04 2.98976E+04
0 3 4 1.23826E+05 -1.93411E+03 -8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 -3.69 1.24352E+05 -2.45970E+03 6.34056E+04
0 3 5 1.23826E+05 -1.93411E+03 -8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 -3.69 1.24352E+05 -2.45970E+03 6.34056E+04
0 3 6 -4.72039E+04 9.58604E+03 -9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 -80.88 1.10887E+04 -4.87066E+04 2.98976E+04
0 3 7 1.11984E+05 -1.13646E+03 9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 4.70 1.12753E+05 -1.90558E+03 5.73294E+04
0 3 8 -5.90459E+04 1.03837E+04 8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 83.40 1.13269E+04 -5.99891E+04 3.56580E+04
0 4 1 8.79761E+04 9.55942E+01 1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 8.96 9.02149E+04 -2.14316E+03 4.61790E+04
0 4 2 1.69212E+05 -5.37626E+03 -5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 -1.93 1.69411E+05 -5.57467E+03 8.74926E+04
0 4 3 -1.08326E+05 1.33180E+04 5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 87.23 1.36024E+04 -1.08610E+05 6.11062E+04
0 4 4 -2.70896E+04 7.84613E+03 -1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 -70.44 1.28923E+04 -3.21357E+04 2.25140E+04
0 4 5 -2.70896E+04 7.84613E+03 -1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 -70.44 1.28923E+04 -3.21357E+04 2.25140E+04
0 4 6 -1.08326E+05 1.33180E+04 5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 87.23 1.36024E+04 -1.08610E+05 6.11062E+04
0 4 7 1.69212E+05 -5.37626E+03 -5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 -1.93 1.69411E+05 -5.57467E+03 8.74926E+04
0 4 8 8.79761E+04 9.55942E+01 1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 8.96 9.02149E+04 -2.14316E+03 4.61790E+04
NASTRAN PLY STRESS OUTPUT
Printed in the f06 file if STRESS=ALL or STRAIN=ALL Case Control
Commands are used.
.f06 file extract
S7-125
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN PLY OUTPUT REQUEST
Analysis:
Analyze/ Entire
Model/ Full Run
Translation
Parameters/ OP2
Subcases/ Create
Output Requests/
Advanced/ Element
Stress
Ply Stresses
OK
Apply
S7-126
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN PLY STRESS RESULTS
S7-127
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Perform Workshop 8D Composite Tension Coupon in your
exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 18 Stiffened Plate in your exercise workbook.
EXERCISE
S7-128
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S8-1
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 8
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-2
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S8-3
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topics covered in this case study:
Creating 3D Geometry
Meshing 3D Geometry
Controlling the mesh in 3D
Nastran Solid Element Definitions
Post Processing the 3D analysis
SECTION 8
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-4
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
The task is to analyze an Intercooler Design. The Intercooler
is pressurized and cooled by a fluid on the inner face of its
thick wall. Hot fluid passes through holes running inside the
wall.
For the initial analysis, we will only consider the mechanical
loading. We will consider the combined thermal loading in a
later case.
CASE STUDY:
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-5
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Intercooler assumptions
We simplify the analysis by assuming that a 30 degree
segment is able to represent the full 360 degree structure.
We will set up constraint boundary conditions to achieve
this.
CASE STUDY:
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont.)
S8-6
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Analysis Objectives
Determine stress levels in the intercooler under
pressure loading. The maximum stress must be
below the yield stress of the intercooler material.
CASE STUDY:
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont.)
S8-7
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Basic Intercooler Idealization
No cooling holes
SIMPLIFIED INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-8
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Getting started on the Intercooler analysis
We will introduce the idea of Solid Geometry Creation.
The simple type of Solid Geometry in PATRAN is a Blue
Solid. We will use this.
SIMPLIFIED INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
(Cont.)
S8-9
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A PATRAN Solid can be:
Blue - Parametric
White - Boundary Representation
In our case, we will build a
Parametric Solid (Blue)
Vector function of three
parametric variables (x1, x2, x3)
Parametric solids are meshed with
the IsoMesh (Mapped) mesher (Hex,
Wedge, or Tet elements)
SOLID GEOMETRY
S8-10
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY
Geometry Menu
Create a local cylindrical
Coordinate system -
number 1 - to help in the
construction.
Construct 2
points in this
system at
100,0,0 and
130,0,0
S8-11
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct two
curves by
revolving the
two points in
the cylindrical
coordinate
system.
Note the Axis
definition 1.3
and the angle
definition.
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-12
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct
a green
surface
from
these two
curves
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-13
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Extrude the
surface to form
the geometric
solid, using the
local axis
system.
S8-14
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESH THE GEOMETRY
Use Isomesh and
Hex8 Element
Type
This results in
NASTRAN 8-
Noded CHEXA
Elements.
S8-15
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Set up Material Properties as before
Steel: E = 209E9 = 0.3
Then, assign Physical Properties.
S8-16
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Element connectivity is defined on the NASTRAN
CHEXA entry, looking at Element 1 in our intercooler:
74 73 7 8 2 1 1 1 CHEXA
G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 PID EID CHEXA
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
79 80
G8 G7
CHEXA 1 1 1 2 8 7 73 74
80 79
CHEXA 2 1 2 3 9 8 74 75
81 80
CHEXA 3 1 3 4 10 9 75 76
82 81
ELEMENT CONNECTIVITY
.bdf file extract
S8-17
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
0 1 1 PSOLID
FCTN ISOP STRESS IN CORDM MID1 PID PSOLID
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Element physical property is defined on the
NASTRAN PSOLID entry
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : wall
PSOLID 1 1 0
ELEMENT PROPERTIES
.bdf file extract
S8-18
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 26-Oct-00 Time: 14:47:56
MAT1* 1 2.09+11 .3
*
A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem shows how
the connectivity entry, the property entry, and the material entry are
linked together.

CHEXA 1 1 1 2 8 7 73 74
80 79
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : wall
PSOLID 1 1 0
ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S8-19
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
An interesting feature of the solid elements in Nastran,
such as the CHEXA, is that each grid only has:
3 translational Degrees of Freedom (DOFs)
No rotational DOFs
We must be very careful to account for this when we
mix element types, or apply constraints to the solid type
elements.
SOLID ELEMENTS
S8-20
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
We want to apply
theta direction
constraints to the
two cut faces of the
segment.
This will mean each
face is free to slide
radially.
S8-21
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 0
Remember only translational DOFs for solids
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-22
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 30
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-23
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Question
We have applied constraints on faces theta 0 and theta 30
Are these sufficient to enable us to carry out the analysis?
Think about how these components of constraints map to the
basic x y z system of the model and remember that ALL
possible Degrees of Freedom need to be considered.
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-24
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Answer
The translational constraints in the theta 0 and theta 30 planes map to
constraints in the x and y directions only of the basic coordinate system.
These constraints can take out translational movement in basic system x and y.
They will also take out rotations of the structure about the basic system x y and
z axes by providing couples.
They will not constrain the model in basic system z or indeed the local
cylindrical z which maps directly.
So, we must add a z direction constraint.
As we are not loading in the z (axial) direction, we can choose just one grid as
the datum.
To load in the z direction, we would need to consider an appropriate constraint
set:
either build in the base or top
or apply a reflective symmetry constraint
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-25
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
We specify a Node by using the FEM filter.
The z translation of the basic Coord
system is constrained.
S8-26
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : plane1_th
SPC1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6
73 74 75 76 77 78 145 146
147 148 149 150 217 218 219 220
.......
1085 1086 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158
1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : plane2_th
SPC1 3 2 67 68 69 70 71 72
139 140 141 142 143 144 211 212
213 214 215 216 283 284 285 286
.......
1151 1152 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224
1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : datum_z
SPC1 4 3 679
A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem,
showing the three defined constraint regions
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-27
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Nodes of the Entire Model
GRID 1 100. 0. 0. 1
GRID 2 106. 0. 0. 1
GRID 3 112. 0. 0. 1
GRID 4 118. 0. 0. 1
GRID 5 124. 0. 0. 1
GRID 6 130. 0. 0. 1
GRID 7 99.8867 4.75819 0.
GRID 8 105.879 5.04368 0.
.......
GRID 65 110.215 56.8201 0.
GRID 66 115.548 59.5694 0.
GRID 67 86.6025 50. 0. 1
GRID 68 91.7986 53. 0. 1
GRID 69 96.9948 56. 0. 1
GRID 70 102.190 59. 0. 1
GRID 71 107.387 62. 0. 1
GRID 72 112.583 65. 0. 1
GRID 73 100. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 74 106. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 75 112. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 76 118. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 77 124. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 78 130. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 79 99.8867 4.75819 5.88235
GRID 80 105.879 5.04368 5.88235
GRID 81 111.873 5.32917 5.88235
If we look at a sample of the
GRID data for those grids in
the constrained faces, we see
that the Analysis Coordinate
System has been
automatically set to 1 for each
grid.
It is essential that each grid
preserves this Analysis
Coordinate System in any
further PATRAN modelling,
otherwise, the sense of the
constraint is corrupted.
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-28
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The constraints are verified
using a Marker Plot
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-29
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE LOADS
The pressure of 100.0 N/m
2
is applied to the inside face.
S8-30
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS
Select linear
static analysis
S8-31
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Status window
reports job
progress
S8-32
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
After NASTRAN completes the analysis, we are
now ready to read the results back into PATRAN.
Solver
ACCESS RESULTS
MD/NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S8-33
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The .xdb file is attached, ready to view the results for
post processing.
We will look at the deformed shape to confirm correct
boundary conditions.
We will also look at the stresses to check the magnitude
and sense of the loading.
ACCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-34
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT RESULTS
The correct radial nature of
the deformation is shown by a
top view with the deformed
shape shown in dashed
outline
S8-35
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The radial and hoop
stresses can be checked by
looking at stresses relative
to the local cylindrical
system no. 1
hoop
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
radial
S8-36
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
hoop
radial
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-37
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We can look at radial and/or hoop stresses in a similar
manner by setting up the vector controls.
Define everything relative to the local coordinate
system 1.
Switch off the option to plot on the deformed shape.
Root the base of the vector.
And choose either of the xx or yy vector components to
plot.
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-38
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-39
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-40
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Basic Intercooler Idealization
No cooling holes
Alternative Construction:
Create 2D shells
Extrude these 2D shells
No solid geometry created
BASIC INTERCOOLER
S8-41
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Alternative Construction sweeping
Create the base surface as before
Mesh this base surface using 2D shell elements
Sweep the 2D mesh to form a 3D mesh
Delete the 2D elements
This is a powerful technique, but not often feasible in
complex solid geometry.
BASIC INTERCOOLER (Cont.)
S8-42
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct a green
surface as before.
CREATE GEOMETRY
S8-43
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct a mesh
of quads on the
base surface.
MESH THE SURFACE
S8-44
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct the solid
elements by
sweeping the shells.
The vector and
distance are defined
in the main form.
The number of solid
elements are defined
under mesh control.
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS
S8-45
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS (Cont.)
Clean up the model
by deleting the shell
elements.
An easy way to do
this is by a general
element delete
command, but using
the entity selection
icon to pick only 4-
noded shells.
S8-46
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The model creation and analysis are as before except:
There is no Patran geometry associated with the solid
elements.
This means we have to apply loads and boundary conditions
to the FEM.
We have to apply the Element Physical properties directly to
the group of solid elements.
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S8-47
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Therefore, the typical Menu selections are :
CREATE ELEMENT PROPERTIES
Create Physical
Properties:
Pick the
elements directly.
Use the selection
icon to help pick
only solid
elements.
S8-48
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Hidden Line Pick
Create displacement
constraints:
Pick the FEM Filter.
Use the hidden line
picking option.
Use the polygon
picking option to
capture the correct
region.
Polygon Pick
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S8-49
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Advanced Intercooler Idealization
Introduce cooling holes
Alternative Construction:
Create 2D shells
Extrude these 2D shells
No solid geometry created
DETAILED INTERCOOLER
S8-50
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Alternative Construction - sweeping
Create the base surface as before, including the hole
Mesh this base surface using 2D shell elements
Sweep the 2D mesh to form a 3D mesh
Delete the 2D elements
DETAILED INTERCOOLER (Cont.)
S8-51
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the two
start curves as
before.
Then, create
the mid points.
CREATE GEOMETRY
S8-52
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the center
point of the circle
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-53
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Create the center
circle using 2D
Arc Angles
Method (R=5)
Then, close the
outer boundary
with two curves.
Chain the outer
boundary using
autochain.
Then, create the
trimmed surface.
S8-54
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The 2D base mesh
is constructed in
the same way as
the rib in case
study 4.
Concentric circles
are made from the
center ring, using
a local cylindrical
axis system.
These are mesh
seeded.
Then, the surface
is paver meshed.
MESH THE SURFACE
S8-55
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS
Construct the solid
elements by
sweeping the
shells as before.
The vector and
distance are
defined on the
main form.
The number of
solid elements are
defined under
mesh control.
S8-56
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now, apply materials, properties, loads and
boundary conditions as before, but without using
geometry to assist.
We must use the FEM filter and carefully pick the surface
grids for the displacement constraints.
Similarly, the internal pressure load is applied to the solid
element faces.
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S8-57
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 0
Remember only translational DOFs for solids
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-58
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 30
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-59
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Alternative Construction Advanced Solid
Create the base surface as before, including the hole
Copy the base surface to the top
Create the other bounding surfaces
Form the Boundary-Representation (B-Rep) Advanced
Solid
Tet-Mesh the Solid
ALTERNATIVE METHOD
S8-60
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Non-Parametric Solids (White)
Non-parametric solids have only a surface representation
inside PATRAN
Boundary representation (B-Rep) solids can be created
CAD solids are normally accessed as B-Rep solids and
can be meshed using the Auto Tet Mesh algorithm
Solid
Automatic Tet Mesh
ALTERNATIVE METHOD (Cont.)
S8-61
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY
The base surface
is created as a
trimmed surface
as before.
S8-62
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The base surface
is translated to
form the top
surface
<0 0 100>
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-63
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The other 5
surfaces are
created (including
the hole).
These are simple
green surfaces.
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-64
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now the b-rep
solid is complete
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-65
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Another way to
create the solid is
to extrude the
base surface
directly.
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
<0 0 100>
S8-66
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESH THE SOLID
Mesh the solid using
TET10 Topology.
Use Global Edge of 2
S8-67
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Summary of Patran Solids:
PATRAN SOLIDS
S8-68
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Commonly used solid elements:
PENTA (6-15 nodes)
HEXA (8-20 nodes)
TETRA (4-10 nodes)
NASTRAN SOLID ELEMENTS
Note Note - - any or all mid any or all mid- -side side
nodes may be deleted nodes may be deleted
S8-69
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HEXA -
Recommended for general use. Accuracy degrades when
element is skewed and used in a situation where bending
behavior is dominant. In most modeling situations, it has
superior performance to the other 3D elements.
PENTA -
Commonly used to model transition. This element is designed to
behave well as a reasonable thin shell element. If the triangular
faces are not on the exposed surfaces of the shell, it results in
excessive stiffness.
TETRA -
Frequently used by automatic mesh generators. The 4-noded
TETRA is not recommended for modeling. The 10-noded
TETRA elements will provide much better accuracy.
NASTRAN SOLID ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S8-70
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Hex versus Tet Meshing
Convenience and speed of Tet Meshing in a
non 2 D case
Control and Quality of Hex Meshing
MESHING METHODS SUMMARY
S8-71
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 9A 2 1/2 D Clamp Sweep Mesher
in your exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 9B 2 1/2 D Clamp Iso Mesher in
your exercise workbook.
S8-72
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S9-1
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-2
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S9-3
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topics covered in this section
Axisymmetric modeling techniques
Importing Geometry
Mesh Density Control
Perform quality checks on stress results
Create and manipulate viewports
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-4
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
Scuba tanks are designed to withstand cyclic
pressurization and depressurization loads. They must
also survive loads induced during transportation and
actual service. You are asked to analyze a new scuba
tank design.
Analysis Objectives
Determine stresses in the scuba tank under an internal
pressure of 3000 psi. The maximum stress must be
below the yield point of the tank material.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-5
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Getting started on the scuba tank analysis
The scuba tank is a thick shell structure. We expect the
state of stress to be 3 dimensional in the tank shell. Solid
elements should be used.
Solid element models tend to get large and take a lot of
CPU time to solve. This is especially true for non-linear or
transient analysis. It is often advisable to simplify the model
in order to speed up the analysis process.
Several ways to simplify finite element models are
presented next.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-6
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Simplifying Finite Element Models
Finite element models can be simplified by using a 2D
(planar) representation of a 3D model. There are three
ways to do this:
Plane Stress
Plane Strain
Axisymmetric
Finite element models can also be simplified by taking
advantage of symmetry. There are two primary types of
symmetry - reflective symmetry and cyclic symmetry.
Symmetry techniques will be presented in detail in the
advanced course.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-7
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Plane Stress Model
Assumptions:
Z stress is zero
Stresses do no vary through
the thickness
One way to identify a plane
stress model is to look for
structures in which the
thickness is small compared
to the other two dimensions.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-8
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Plane Strain Model
Assumptions:
Z strain is zero
The depth of the plane strain
model is large compared to the
cross section.
Plane strain problems are
common in civil engineering and
are used to model retaining walls
or dams.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-9
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Axisymmetric Model
Assumptions:
The geometry, loads, and
boundary conditions are not a
function of .
Another way to state this is that
the geometry, loads, and
boundary conditions do not vary
in the circumferential direction.
Axisymmetry is commonly
used to analyze pressure
vessels and tanks.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK

S9-10
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Simplification of the scuba tank model
Since the scuba tank is axisymmetric and the pressure
load is axisymmetric, we can simplify the problem
using axisymmetry. We will solve this problem using
two different axisymmetric methods:
1. Build a sector of the tank using 3D solid elements
2. Build the tank cross section using 2D solid elements
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-11
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Creating the geometry for the tank
A geometry file for the scuba tank generated by a CAD
package is available so there is no need to re-create
the geometry.
Use File/Import to import the geometry file directly into
PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-12
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the file type
to be imported
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-13
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Models created by the following CAD packages
can be imported into PATRAN:
CATIA
Unigraphics
Pro/ENGINEER
EUCLID 3
I-DEAS
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-14
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Additional types of geometry files can also be imported
into PATRAN
ACIS solid geometry files
Typical file extension is .sat
Generated by CAD systems such as Autocad, SolidEdge, and
Mechanical Desktop
Parasolid solid geometry files
Typical file extension is .xmt
Generated by CAD systems such as SolidWorks
IGES geometry files
Typical file extension is .igs
Generated by most CAD systems
STEP geometry files
Typical file extension is .stp
Generated by CAD systems such as CATIA
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-15
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The scuba tank geometry file we have is a
parasolid solid geometry model. Lets import
this file into PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-16
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Import the
parasolid model
tank.xmt
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-17
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select Parasolid
xmt options and
select Model Units.
Select Inches. This
converts the units
in the parasolid
model from meters
to inches.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-18
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish importing
the parasolid
model
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-19
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rotate and shade
the model
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-20
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Break the solid
into two halves
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-21
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete half the
tank
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-22
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Break the
remaining tank
into two halves
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-23
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete the
upper quarter of
the tank
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-24
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lets create a coarse
mesh.
Select Tet10
elements.
Select TetMesh
Parameters and
deselect curvature
check.
Select the solid.
Use a global edge
length of 0.521 to
create one element
through the thickness.
Click Apply.
0.521 in
thick
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-25
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A relatively
coarse mesh is
created
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-26
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create Boundary Conditions
Since the scuba tank is axisymmetric, we need to create
a cylindrical coordinate system to define the symmetry
boundary conditions.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-27
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
cylindrical
coordinate system
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-28
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
symmetric
constraint in the
tangential (theta)
direction
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-29
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain
translation in the
theta direction and
select coordinate
system 1 as the
analysis
coordinate system
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-30
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the two
surfaces located
on the planes of
symmetry
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-31
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
theta symmetry
boundary
condition
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-32
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select Display-
Loads/BC/Element
Prop to change the
display to show on
FEM only. Also
turn off LBC/Prop
values to simplify
the display.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-33
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, create a
symmetry
constraint in the
radial direction.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-34
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the
radial translation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-35
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the edge
along the tank
centerline.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-36
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
radial constraint.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-37
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a final
constraint in the Z
direction.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-38
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the z
translation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-39
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
Select the cylindrical
surface at the valve
interface.
S9-40
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
z constraint.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-41
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a pressure load.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-42
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select all the
internal wetted
surfaces.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-43
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
pressure load
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-44
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the scuba tank material properties
The tank is made from 17-4 PH stainless steel
forging, heat treated to the H1025 condition.
E = 28.5 x 10
6
psi
= 0.27
Ultimate strength = 155 ksi
Yield strength = 145 ksi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-45
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create an
isotropic material
named 17-4PH.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-46
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a 3D solid
physical property
set for the tank.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-47
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the solid
and apply.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-48
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Submit the model to
MD NASTRAN for a
static analysis.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-49
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the MD
NASTRAN results
into PATRAN
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-50
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
deformation
plot.
The maximum
deformation is
0.007 in,
which is
reasonable.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-51
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create 3 additional
viewports to
display the results.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-52
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Tile the 4
viewports.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-53
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, lets plot the stresses
By default, the solid element stresses are computed
in the basic coordinate system.
For the scuba tank, we are interested in the radial,
hoop, and axial stresses which are defined in a
cylindrical system. We need to transform the
stresses from the basic coordinate system to the
cylindrical coordinate system no. 1.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-54
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click the Plot
Options icon.
Select CID and
coordinate
system no. 1.
This transforms
the stresses into
coordinate
system 1.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-55
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the radial
(x component)
stress.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-56
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the hoop
(y component)
stress.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-57
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the axial
(z component)
stress
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-58
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the Von
Mises stress
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-59
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom in to the
critical area
near the base
of the tank.
Notice that the
stress gradient
is high through
the thickness
of the tank.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-60
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Turn off stress
averaging.
Notice that the
stress fringes are
jagged.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-61
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the stress
jumps at each
node. The
difference
between the
maximum stress
and the minimum
stress at each
node is plotted.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-62
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Scuba tank coarse-mesh model analysis summary:
The maximum Von Mises stress is 31,600 psi at the base
of the tank near the fillet radius.
The stress gradient through the tank wall thickness is
high. It ranges from 31,600 psi on the inside wall to about
5,000 psi on the outside wall. This stress gradient is
captured by a single tet10 element through the thickness.
The un-averaged stress fringe plot is jagged, an indication
that the mesh is too coarse.
The stress difference plot shows a maximum stress jump
of 15,000 psi. This suggests that the mesh is too coarse in
this area.
This first scuba tank model was relatively coarse. It
helped us identify the critical area in the tank. We will
now create a second model with a finer mesh in the
critical area.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-63
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a new
database and import
the tank geometry.
Break the solid into
90-degree sectors
as before and
create a cylindrical
coordinate system.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-64
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a point
1 away from the
fillet radius.
Point
163
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-65
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a plane at
this new point.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-66
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use the plane to
break the solid.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-67
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the bottom
portion of the
tank with an
element size of
0.125 inch.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-68
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Move to the other
end of the tank.
Create a point
1 away from the
dome/cylinder
transition point
and create a
plane there.
Break the solid
using this plane.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-69
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the dome
portion of the
tank with an
element size of
0.25 inch.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-70
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Solid 8
Solid 7
Solid 9
Finally, mesh the
cylindrical portion
with an element
size of 0.521 inch.
Under assembly
parameters, turn
on Match Parasolid
Faces to match the
mesh on two
neighboring solids.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-71
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Equivalence the
model
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-72
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
loads, boundary
conditions,
material
properties, and
element
properties.
Submit the model
to NASTRAN for
static analysis.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-73
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the NASTRAN
results into PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-74
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
deformation plot.
The maximum
deformation of
0.007 inch
agrees with the
coarse model.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-75
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the Von
Mises stress
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-76
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom into the
critical area.
The maximum
Von Mises stress
is 29,500 psi.
Notice that there
are 5 elements
through the
thickness in the
critical area.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-77
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Turn off stress
averaging.
The maximum
Von Mises stress
is 30,300 psi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-78
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the stress
jumps across
nodes.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-79
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Scuba tank fine-mesh model analysis summary:
The maximum Von Mises stress is 30,300 psi at the base
of the tank near the fillet radius.
There are 5 elements through the thickness in this critical
area. The stress gradient is represented reasonably well
through the thickness.
The un-averaged stress fringe plot is relatively smooth,
indicating that the re-meshing effort paid off.
The stress difference plot shows a maximum stress jump
of 4300 psi. Is further mesh refinement necessary?
A total of 98,830 nodes and 66,504 elements were used
to model this problem.
Lets analyze the tank again using 2D axisymmetric
elements.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-80
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Using 2D Axisymmetric Elements
This converts a 3D problem into a planar problem by
using 2D elements.
Only half of the tank cross section is modeled.
Geometry, boundary condition, and loads must all be
axisymmetric.
A much finer mesh can be used to solve this problem.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-81
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Open a new PATRAN
database and import the
scuba tank parasolid
model.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-82
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Again break the
solid with the
YZ plane and
delete one of
the resulting
solids.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-83
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Break the solid
with the XZ
plane and
delete one of
the resulting
solids.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-84
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use Create /
Surface / Extract
with the Face
Option to create a
surface from a face
of the solid that lies
in the XZ plane.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-85
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete the
remaining solid,
leaving just the
surface geometry.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-86
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Change the view
by using Viewing
Angles.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-87
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the surface to
generate triangular
elements with a
global edge length of
0.0625 inch.
The axisymmetric
elements must lie in
the positive x half of
the x-z plane of the
basic coordinate
system with the z axis
as the centerline.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-88
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The use of
planar elements
allowed us to
use a much finer
mesh.
There are now
10 elements
through the
thickness in the
critical area.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-89
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The T2, R1, R2,
and R3 degrees
of freedom are
not used in this
axisymmetric
problem.
Constrain these
unused degrees
of freedom.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-90
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the
model in the z
direction.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-91
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply the z
constraint to the
curve at the valve
interface.
The radial
constraint is
automatically
handled by
NASTRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-92
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
pressure load
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-93
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply the pressure
to all the internal
curves.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-94
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the material
properties
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-95
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
axisymmetric
element properties
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-96
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Run the static
analysis.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-97
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the results
back into
PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-98
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
deformation plot.
Maximum
deformation is
0.007 inch which
agrees with the
previous two
models.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-99
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the Von
Mises stress.
The maximum
Von Mises
Stress is
29,100 psi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-100
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Turn off stress
averaging.
The maximum
Von Mises
stress remains
at 29,100 psi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-101
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom in on the
critical area.
Note that the un-
averaged stress
fringes are
relatively smooth.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-102
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the stress
jumps across
nodes.
The maximum
stress
difference in
the critical
area is near
zero.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-103
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Scuba tank 2D axisymmetric analysis
summary
The maximum Von Mises stress is 29,100 psi at the
base of the tank near the fillet radius.
There are 10 elements through the thickness in this
critical area. The stress gradient is represented
reasonably well through the thickness.
The un-averaged stress fringe plot is very smooth,
indicating that the mesh density is adequate.
The stress difference plot shows near zero values.
Using a 2D representation of the scuba tank, we
were able to create a smaller model with a finer
mesh compared to the 3D model.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-104
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 10 Support Bracket in your
exercise workbook.
Optional:
Analyze the Scuba Tank covered in this section.
S10-1
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 10
CAR DESIGN
S10-2
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S10-3
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topics covered in this case study:
Groups and Lists
0-D Elements
Rigid Elements
SECTION 10: CAR DESIGN
S10-4
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
We have inherited a Nastran input file of a vehicle body-in-
white.
We are tasked with breaking the model down into
manageable sections so that the we can:
refine the mesh further
apply properties to the elements
breakout components for detailed analysis
control the post processing of different components
We are required to add a mass representation of the
engine and spring stiffnesses of the shock absorbers.
SECTION 10: CAR DESIGN
S10-5
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S10-6
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Groups allow geometric and FE entities to be divided into
separate groups for various modeling and post-processing
tasks
A group named default_group is created automatically
when a new database is created
Newly created items automatically become members of the
current group
Any number of groups can be created, and entities may
belong to more than one group
Groups become permanent members of the database
Name of current group is displayed as part of Viewport
banner
INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS
S10-7
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
What is a Group?
Any subset of model
A collection of entities
Why use more than just the Default Group?
Separate groups for geometry & finite elements
Isolate Subsets when working with large models
Geometry
Elements
Total
Ends
Middle
INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS
S10-8
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Current
Group into which newly created entities are placed
Only one group may be current at a time
Target
Group that will be acted upon
Translate entities from the Target Group to the
Current Group
Modify the appearance of the Target Group
Posted
Group is displayed in a viewport
A group may be posted to more than one viewport
More than one group may be posted to a viewport
GROUP TERMINOLOGY
S10-9
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING A GROUP
Choose Group/Create, or change the
Action to Create in the Group menu
Assign new group name
The default is to make the new group
the Current Group (new entities
assigned to)
Use the Group Contents options to
select group member categories, i.e.
Add Entity Selection, Add All Geometry,
Add All FEM, Add All Orphans, Add All
Entities
Loads, boundary conditions, coordinate
frames, fields, load cases and results
are not group members
S10-10
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Perform set operations on contents of groups, e.g. operation of
union on groups group_A and group_B
Boolean
Select MPC type, i.e. RBAR, RBE2 MPC Type
Specify element number range, e.g. start ID = 1, End ID = 327 Element ID
Select element shape, i.e. 2D, 3D, bar Element Shape
Select element topology, i.e. hex8, quad4 Element Topology
Select material set names, i.e. matl_1, matl_2 Material
Select load and boundary condition types, i.e. displacement,
force
Loads/BCs Type
Select load and boundary condition set names, i.e. lbc_1, lbc_2 Loads/BCs Set
Select element property type, i.e. 2D shell, 3D solid Property Type
Select element property set names (user specified), i.e.
prop_1, prop_2
Property Set
Select the desired entities from the screen or all entities of a
particular type (i.e. geometry or finite elements)
Select Entity
CREATING A GROUP (Cont.)
S10-11
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
First step: Create a group that contains the roof
mesh only.
defining the current group
controlling the entity picking
controlling the viewport display of the group
modifying the group
This may be demonstrated on the model included
in the Nastran input file car_1.bdf.
CREATE GROUP
S10-12
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Choose a view that will
allow a us to pick all the
roof entities.
Choose Group/Create.
New Group Name is roof
Check Make Current
Check Unpost All Other
Groups
Choose Option:
Add Entity Selection
This allows us to make the
selection by clicking and
dragging in the viewport.
CREATE GROUP
S10-13
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The selected entities are
now highlighted.
Now hit Apply
The group will be created.
It will be made current,
which means any new
entities created will be
added to it.
All other groups will be
unposted.
CREATE GROUP
S10-14
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have the roof
region, but it has
extra entities.
We need a strategy
for cleanly eliminating
these.
First we change our
Picking Preference
from default
Enclose centroid
to
Enclose any Portion
CREATE GROUP
S10-15
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next use
Group/Modify
The Target Group is
roof as that is what
we want to modify.
The Member List
shows us what is in
the group at present.
We wish to select
entities to put into the
Member List to
Add/Remove set.
Then we will click the
-Remove- option.
MODIFY GROUP
S10-16
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now we are ready to
pick the entities to
remove.
Select Polygonal Picking from the Selection bar, and set the Picking
Preference so that entities we just touch will be picked. That makes
the selection very simple now. Hit OK to complete the action.
CREATE GROUPS
S10-17
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The group roof is now
finished.
However it can be
irritating when working
with groups because
the viewport will snap
to a view that fits each
group posted or
created.
To disable this use
Preferences/Graphics
and uncheck
Auto Extend
DISABLE AUTO EXTEND
S10-18
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
USING LISTS WITH GROUPS
Manual selection of
entities for groups is
not always efficient.
Often we want to
define a collection of
entities with some
feature in common.
Lists allow us to do
this, and then the list
contents may be saved
as a group.
S10-19
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LIST OVERVIEW
Create list of entities based on given criterion
Lists can be used as input for various Patran applications,
such as Application Regions for element properties
Criteria for list creation are
Attributes, such as location, results value, assigned properties
Association with other entities, such as Points, Edges, Elements,
Groups, etc.
Lists are not stored in the database, but can be added to
a Group
List
S10-20
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW TO CREATE A LIST
Create two lists: List A: all nodes at X = 18.0 (+ 1.0 tolerance)
List B: all elements associated with the nodes in List A
Create List A
Nodes at X = 18 + 1
Create List B
Elements
associated with
nodes in List A
When using a list
as input, enclose
the List name in
back quotes (e.g.
`lista`)
S10-21
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We now introduce methods for using lists to help create groups
We will create a group containing entities belonging to the B pillar
of the car.
CREATE GROUP FROM LIST
S10-22
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the Default
Group.
The B pillar is
defined as shown.
We want to get the
nodes and
elements for this
component into a
group.
B Pillar
CREATE LIST
S10-23
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
To help us define the
group we first build a
local coordinate system
which has its y axis
running up the B Pillar.
Use Create/Coord/Axis
Axis: Axis 1 and 2
And pick 3 Nodes.
CREATE LIST
S10-24
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Objective:
All nodes in the
region +/- 2.5 in
around the xy
plane of Coord 6
will be put into a
temporary list.
Patran LISTS
We will use a LIST method to create
the B Pillar group.
In our case the Attribute will be a
distance from the xy plane of
coordinate frame 6.
CREATE LIST
S10-25
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Under Tools:
Select List/Create
Select
FEM/Node/Attribute
Attribute is
Coord Value
Refer. Coord Frame is 6
Check z axis
Use default tolerance of
.005
Choose the between
option 2.5 to 2.5
Choose Target List A
CREATE LIST
S10-26
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
List box List A will now
pop up and will contain a
list of all the nodes that
meet the criterion set.
If we select Add to
Group then we have a
further option in the List
Save menu to choose a
Group to add the entities
into.
This can be an existing
group or a new as yet
undefined group.
We define a new group
b_pillar
ADD TO GROUP
S10-27
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the
b_pillar group
POST GROUP
S10-28
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Clear List A box and
create a new list that
includes all the elements
associated to the nodes in
the b_pillar group.
Use
FEM/Element/Association
Select Nodes
Select Target List A
Apply
Choose Add To Group
and select b_pillar
CREATE LIST
S10-29
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The resulting of
adding the List A
contents is
shown.
The group can be
cleaned up as
before using
Group/Modify to
remove unwanted
elements.
POST ENTIRE GROUP
S10-30
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post both the roof
and b_pillar
groups.
Use Ctrl to select
multiple groups.
POST TWO GROUPS
S10-31
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
Boolean operations are used to manipulate lists or groups
Intersection operation finds items common to both
Union operation combines items in both
Results of subtracting one from another
Example
Find elements with a von Mises stress result value > 20,000
psi and a temperature result value > 300 F
S10-32
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BOOLEAN EXAMPLE
Plot von Mises
stress
Create List A
Find elements
with a von Mises
stress greater
than 20,000 psi
Plot temperatures
Create List B
Find elements
with a
temperature
greater than 300
F
o
S10-33
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BOOLEAN EXAMPLE (Cont.)
Use Boolean operation to create List C
Contents of List C are all elements with a
von Mises stress greater than 20,000 psi
and temperature greater than 300 F
o
S10-34
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We deviate from the Car example to look at two
powerful functions of Groups:
To Create new entities
We have created a 1 x 1 surface and meshed it using
global edge length of 0.1
We created a group called mesh that contains only the
finite element entities and a similar geometry group
called geom
We now wish to create further regions of geometry and
mesh using the Group Options
To Scale Geometry and Finite Elements
simultaneously
If a model needs to be scaled after meshing, we may
scale a group that contains all entities.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-35
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create and post a
group called combo
that contains all of
the entities in the
model.
We can do this
directly or by
assembling the
mesh and geom
groups
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-36
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Using
Group/Transform/Translate
We now translate the group
combo to form a new group called
combo2.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-37
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have a further option to
Transform any
Loads and Boundary Conditions
and/or
Material and Physical Properties
that are associated with the
selected group
The Translation Vector we have
used here is the edge of the plate.
It is convenient to use the Tip and
base point method.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-38
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The translation is completed and
the new entities are in the current
group combo2
combo
combo2
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-39
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
All existing entities in a group or
groups may be transformed
together.
This technique is useful to scale an
entire model that has already been
meshed.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-40
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 11 Spacecraft Fairing in your
exercise workbook.
S10-41
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We now look at the general class of elements
termed 0D. This includes the following:
Spring Elements used to model bolts, connections
etc.
Mass Elements used to simulate lumped mass.
ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S10-42
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Spring Elements
CELAS1, CELAS2, CELAS3, CELAS4, CBUSH
The CELASi elements are connected by two degrees of freedom
- one at each grid/ground connection point.
The CBUSH elements connects from 1 to 6 degrees of freedom
between two GRID points.
Force components: axial force P
or moment M
Displacement components: axial translation u
or rotation
ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S10-43
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
CELAS1 Connects two points, which may be grid points, scalar
points, or both, with reference to a property entry.
CELAS2 Connects two points, which may be grid points, scalar
points or both, without reference to a property entry
CELAS3 Connects only scalar points with reference to a property
entry (Not Supported in Patran)
CELAS4 Connects only scalar points without reference to property
entry (Not Supported in Patran)
CBUSH Connects two GRID points. Avoids the grounding problem
inherent in CELASi elements (when mis-used). May connect 1 to 6
dof.
ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S10-44
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CBUSH is the recommended form for scalar springs.
It avoids the potential grounding which may occur when two non-coincident points
are connected.
The CELASi elements simply insert terms directly into the stiffness matrix without
considering geometry or displacement coordinate systems.
The CBUSH correctly accounts for the effects of geometry and displacement
coordinate systems.
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-45
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CBUSH - Defines a generalized spring-and-damper
structural element that may be nonlinear or frequency
dependent.
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-46
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CBUSH
Field Contents
EID Element identification number. (Integer > 0)
PID Property identification number of a PBUSH
entry. (Integer > 0; Default =EID)
GA, GB Grid points identification number of connections points.
(Integer > 0)
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-47
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CBUSH
Xi Component of orientation vector, from GA, in
the displacement coordinate system at GA.
GO Alternate method to supply orientation vector using grid
point GO. Direction is from GA to GO
CID Element coordinate system identification. A 0 means the
basic coordinate system. If CID is blank, then the element
coordinate system is determined from GO or Xi.
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-48
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CBUSH
S Location of spring-damper (Real; Default =0.5)
OCID Coordinate system identification of spring-
damper offset. (Integer; Default=-1 which means element
coordinate system)
S1, S2, S3 Components of spring-damper offset in the
OCID coordinate system if OCID <> 0
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-49
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized
spring-and-damper structural element
Field Contents
PID Property identification number. (Integer > 0)
"K" Flag indicating that next 1 to 6 fields are
stiffness values. (Character)
Ki Nominal stiffness values in directions 1 through 6.
(Real; Default=0.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-50
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized
spring-and-damper structural element
Field Contents
"B" Flag indicating that the next 1 to 6 fields are
force-per-velocity damping. (Character)
Bi Nominal damping coefficient in units of force per
unit velocity. (Real; Default=0.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-51
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized
spring-and-damper structural element
Field Contents
"GE" Flag indicating that the next fields is structural
damping. (Character)
GE1 Nominal Structural damping constant.
(Real;Default=0.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-52
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized spring-
and-damper structural element
Field Contents
"RCV" Flag indicating that the next 1 to 4 fields are stress or
strain coefficients. (Character)
SA Stress recovery coefficient in the translational
component numbers 1 through 3. (Real, Default=1.0)
ST Stress recovery coefficient in the rotational component
numbers 4 through 6. (Real; Default=1.0)
EA Strain recovery coefficient in the translational
components. (Real; Default=1.0)
ET Strain recovery coefficient in the rotational components.
(Real; Default=1.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-53
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rear Suspension
Zero Dimensional Elements
We want to add the rear suspension to the car model. We
will do this using, in turn:
CELAS elements
BUSH elements
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-54
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
If the suspension is connected to
another component then we
need to define a pair of grids to
form end B of the springs.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-55
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create each suspension
element directly using
Create/Element/Edit
Use Bar2 generic
MSC.Patran Topology.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-56
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the suspension element
properties using
Create/1D/Spring
Provide a Property Set Name
Pick the elements using Select
Members
Use the element selector
El 17581
El 17582
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
S10-57
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
From the main form
select Input Properties
On the CELAS1 form:
Input Spring Constant
Select the DOFs using
the String List: here we
use UY
Note: In general,
springs should always be
created between
coincident nodes. A
spring connecting two
nodes separated by a
distance can cause
grounding problems.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
String List
S10-58
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : rear_susp
PELAS 12 1.+6
$ Pset: "rear_susp" will be imported as: "pelas.12"
CELAS1 17581 12 7142 2 7239 2
CELAS1 17582 12 872 2 1869 2
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CELAS1 and PELAS cards are shown
The Cross Reference from the CELAS1s to the
PELAS is via PID 12
Both ends of the spring have DOF 2 (the y direction)
Ky = 1e6 lbf/in
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
S10-59
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional
Elements
If CELAS2 is desired,
select Write Properties
on Element Entries in
the Patran Analysis
Translation Parameters
form:
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
S10-60
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
Stiffness in multiple directions:
The Suspension has only the Uy direction stiffness
defined so far.
If we want to apply stiffness in all 6 degrees of freedom
we will need to define 6 elements for each suspension
component, connected between the same grids. We
will end up with 6 CELAS1 elements per suspension
component.
Setting up this number of elements is tedious and is
one of the reasons to use a CBUSH element instead.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-61
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
Zero Length Springs:
The concept of length in a spring is misleading and in
general it is bad practice to put in a finite length. They
are strictly 0D elements even though we create them
via generic Patran Bar2 elements.
There are two alternatives in our case:
A Spring between two coincident grids
A Grounded Spring
When creating the Spring between coincident grids we
create the zero length Bar2 element and property
exactly as shown before, except being careful to select
the coincident grids properly.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-62
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
Zero Length Springs:
The grounded spring is created by defining a 0D
element in Patran and then associating Grounded
Spring Properties. By definition, only one grid is
needed.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-63
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The Bush Element:
As described in the theory section the CBUSH element
is much preferred when defining a finite length spring.
Length now has a physical meaning and geometry is
taken into account properly.
However we still classify it as a 0D element.
The CBUSH can be defined as having coincident grids,
or grounded with a single grid. But we need to define
an orientation vector to define the direction of the
stiffness terms
We repeat the suspension example now
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-64
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create each suspension
element as before
Create/Element/Edit
Use Bar2 generic MSC.Patran
Topology
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-65
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the suspension element
properties using
Create/1D/Bush
Provide a Property Set Name
Pick the elements using Select
Members
Use the element selector
El 17581
El 17582
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-66
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
String List
From the main form
select Input Properties
On the Bush form:
Input Bush Orientation
Input Spring Constants
1 to 6 as required
S10-67
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Bush Element
We define the Orientation by using the
orientation vector method. The CID
method can be used when the two grid
points are coincident.
The direction of the stiffness terms is
then defined. Note only translational
stiffness is defined.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-68
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Elements
The CBUSH and PBUSH cards are shown.
The Cross Reference from the CBUSHs to
the PBUSH is via PID 12.
The Stiffnesses are defined on the PBUSH
card via the K flag and the orientation is
defined by the vector <1. 0. 0.>
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-69
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
Mass elements are used when mass properties of a
structural component are idealized at a single grid
point.
They are used in dynamic analysis and static
analysis where inertia loading are used.
Only 3 mass elements are created by MSC.Patran:
CONM2 a simple lumped mass definition
CONM1 a more complex mass definition
CMASS1 a scalar mass definition
Of these the CONM2 is the most commonly used.
MASS ELEMENTS
S10-70
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
We will now represent the engine block in the car via
a CONM2 element.
This is a very typical example where we do not want
to model the engine block in detail, but want to have
the correct mass and inertia terms included.
We have a tet mesh of the block, so we can use that
to find lumped mass properties.
MASS ELEMENTS
S10-71
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The tet mesh of the block
MASS ELEMENTS
S10-72
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MASS PROPERTIES
Select Tools
Mass Properties
Show/3D
Define the region using
a previously defined
group block
Check Plot Principal
Axes
S10-73
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Principal Axes are
plotted.
MASS PROPERTIES
S10-74
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The cg is reported
relative to Coord 0 in this
case.
Coord 9 has been
created at the cg.
M = .8412
I11 = 50.32 I22 = 36.11 I33 = 30.22
CG = [34.24,24.91,-30.0]
(Mass density values)
MASS PROPERTIES
S10-75
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
First we create a grid at
the origin of the block as
reported.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-76
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now we create a Point
Element at this grid.
A triangle confirms the
element position.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-77
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
In Properties
Create/0D/Mass
Input Property Set Name
Choose Lumped Option
Select Members (use the
point element selection
pick).
Input Properties for
CONM2 as reported
previously.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-78
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : block_mass
CONM2 17583 11365 .8412
50.32 36.11 30.22
Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
The CONM2 element is shown below with M, I11, I22, I33
completed.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-79
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
The other options for creating Mass properties from
point elements are shown:
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-80
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
If generic bar2 elements are used then a
CMASS1 element with 2 grids is created.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-81
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Offset 20,0,0 in Coord 0
from grid
Mass 200
Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
A very common application is to offset a
CONM2 element. The setup is shown below:
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-82
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rigid Elements
A very useful set of elements are defined as Rigid
Elements. They are most commonly used as general
connection elements, where we do not wish to model
the connections in detail.
The most common Rigid Elements are:
RBE2 - one independent node and multiple dependant
nodes.
RBE3 one dependent node and multiple independent
nodes.
RIGID ELEMENTS
S10-83
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBEs and MPCs
Working Definition:
The motion of a DOF is dependent on
the motion of at least one other DOF
S10-84
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MOTION AT ONE GRID DRIVES ANOTHER
Simple Translation
X motion of Green Grid drives X motion
of Red Grid
S10-85
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MOTION AT ONE GRID DRIVES ANOTHER
Simple Rotation
Rotation of Green Grid drives X translation
and Z rotation of Red Grid
S10-86
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR RBEs and MPCs
The motion of a DOF is dependent on
the motion of at least one other DOF
Displacement, not elastic relationship
Not dictated by stiffness, mass, or force
Linear relationship
Small displacement theory
Dependent v. Independent DOFs
Stiffness/mass/loads at dependent DOF transferred
to independent DOF(s)
S10-87
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SMALL DISPLACEMENT THEORY & ROTATIONS
Small displacement theory:
sin() tan()
cos() 1
For Rz @ A
Rz
B
= Rz
A
=
Tx
B
= ()*L
AB
Ty
B
= 0
X
Y
A
B

Tx
B
S10-88
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Geometry-based
RBAR
RBE2
Geometry- & User-input based
RBE3
Less Common Rigid elements (not covered in this course)
RBAR1, RJOINT, RROD, RTRPLT, RTRPLT1, RBE1, RSSCON,
RSPLINE
User-input based
MPC
COMMONLY USED RIGID ELEMENTS IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Really-rigid rigid elements
S10-89
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMON GEOMETRY-BASED RIGID ELEMENTS
RBAR
Rigid Bar with six DOF at each end
RBE2
Rigid body with independent
DOF at one GRID, and
dependent DOF at an arbitrary
number of GRIDs.
S10-90
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE RBAR
The RBAR is a rigid link between two GRID points
Proper rigid body motion is preserved
S10-91
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE RBAR
Can mix/match dependent DOF between the GRIDs, but this is rare
The independent DOFs must be capable of describing the rigid
body motion of the element
123456 123456 1 2 RBAR 535
CMA CMB CNA CNB GA GB RBAR EID
Most common to have all the
dependent DOFs at one GRID,
and all the independent DOFs at
the other
B
A
S10-92
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBAR EXAMPLE: FASTENER
Use of RBAR to weld two parts of a model
together:
123456 123456 1 2 RBAR 535
CMA CMB CNA CNB GA GB RBAR EID
B
A
S10-93
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBAR EXAMPLE: PIN-JOINT
Use of RBAR to form pin-jointed attachment
123 123456 1 2 RBAR 535
CMA CMB CNA CNB GA GB RBAR EID
B
A
S10-94
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBAR DEFINITION IN PATRAN
S10-95
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE RBE2
One independent GRID (all 6 DOF)
Multiple dependent GRID/DOFs
S10-96
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE2 EXAMPLE
Rigidly weld multiple GRIDs to one other GRID:
3 2 RBE2 4 1 101 99 123456
GM5 GM3 GM2 RBE2 GM4 GM1 GN EID CM
1
3
2
101
4
S10-97
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE2 EXAMPLE
Note: No relative motion between GRIDs 1-4 !
No deformation of element(s) between these GRIDs
3 2 RBE2 4 1 101 99 123456
GM5 GM3 GM2 RBE2 GM4 GM1 GN EID CM
1
3
2
101
4
S10-98
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMON RBE2/RBAR USES
RBE2 or RBAR between 2 GRIDs
Weld 2 different parts together
6DOF connection
Bolt 2 different parts together
3DOF connection
RBE2
Spider or wagon wheel connections
Large mass/base-drive connection
S10-99
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE2 DEFINITION IN PATRAN
Be careful of Patran
defaults
For RBE2
Typically want dependant grid
to have either
3 translational DOFs
(UX, UY, UZ)
or
6 DOFs
(3 translation & 3 rotation)
Default in Patran is UX only
and this is typically not
correct.
For RBE3
Typically want independent
grids to have 3 translational
DOF only (UX, UY, UZ).
Including rotations for RBE3
MPCs can cause incorrect
results.
S10-100
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE & MPC NOTES
Dependent DOF cannot be SPCd,
OMITted, SUPORTed or be dependent on
other RBE/MPC elements
PARAM,AUTOMSET,YES can resolve
conflicts
1
3
2
101
4
S10-101
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
engine
Rigid Elements the RBE2
Consider the engine mass we created for the car
model. We need to connect it into the bulkhead
structure, but we have a lumped mass idealization
and we do not wish to model the detail of the
connections.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
connections
S10-102
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
lumped mass idealization
Rigid Elements the RBE2
We will connect the lumped mass to the attachment
points via an RBE2 element.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-103
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create/MPC/RBE2
Define Terms
Switch off Auto Execute
Check Create Dependent
Select only DOFs Ux thru Rz
Pick Node List and hit Enter
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-104
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Dependent Terms box will be
populated
Select Create Independent
Select Node List pick the node at the
engine mass
Hit Enter
The Independent Terms will be filled in
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-105
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Hit Cancel in the sub-form
Hit Apply in the main form
The RBE2 will be shown
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-106
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The spider we have formed will now form an infinitely
rigid connection between the CONM2 at its grid and the
other four connecting grids.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-107
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE 3: THE DEMOCRATIC MPC
RBE3
Everyone votes on the outcome
Some votes carry more weight!
S10-108
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 ELEMENTS
NOT a rigid element
IS an interpolation element
Does not add stiffness to the structure (if used
correctly)
Motion at a dependent GRID is
the weighted average of the
motion(s) at a set of master
(independent) GRIDs
S10-109
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 DESCRIPTION
By default, the reference grid DOF will be the dependent
DOF
Number of dependent DOF is equal to the number of DOF
on the REFC field
S10-110
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 IS NOT RIGID!
RBE3 vs. RBE2
RBE3 allows warping
and 3D effects
In this example, RBE2 enforces beam
theory (plane sections remain planar)
RBE3 RBE2
S10-111
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Forces/moments applied at reference grid are
distributed to the master grids in same manner as
classical bolt pattern analysis
Step 1: Applied loads are transferred to the CG of the
weighted grid group using an equivalent Force/Moment
Step 2: Applied loads at CG transferred to master grids
according to each grids weighting factor
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? APPLIED FORCES
S10-112
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? APPLIED FORCES
Step 1: Transform force/moment at reference grid to
equivalent force/moment at the weighted CG of master
grids.
M
CG
=M
A
+F
A
*e
F
CG
=F
A
CG
F
CG
M
CG
F
A
M
A
Reference Grid
e
CG
S10-113
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? APPLIED FORCES
Step 2: Move loads at CG to master grids according
to their weighting values.
Force at CG divided amongst master grids according to
weighting factors W
i
Moment at CG mapped as equivalent force couples on
master grids according to weighting factors W
i
S10-114
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Step 2: Continued
CG
F
CG
M
CG
Total force at each master node is sum of...
Forces derived from force at CG: F
if
= F
CG
{W
i
/W
i
}
F
1m
F
3m
F
2m
Plus Forces derived from moment at CG:
F
im
= {M
cg
W
i
r
i
/(W
1
r
1
2
+W
2
r
2
2
+W
3
r
3
2
)}
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? APPLIED FORCES
S10-115
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? MASS DISTRIBUTION
Masses smeared to the master grids similar to
forces distribution
Mass is distributed to the master grids with weighting factors
Rotational inertia is transferred to master grids
Reference node inertial force is distributed in same manner as when
static force is applied to the reference grid.
S10-116
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1
RBE3 distribution of loads when force at reference grid
at CG passes through CG of master grids
S10-117
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG
Simply supported beam
10 elements, 11 nodes numbered 1 through 11
100 LB. Force in negative Y on reference grid 99
S10-118
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG
Load through CG with uniform weighting factors results
in uniform load distribution
S10-119
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG
Comments
RBE3 Require 6 RBMODES
x rotation DOF is added to satisfy equilibrium
S10-120
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 2
Force does not pass thru CG of master grids
S10-121
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 2: LOAD NOT THROUGH CG
The resulting force distribution is not intuitively
obvious
Note forces in the opposite direction on the left side
of the beam.
Upward loads on
left side of beam
result from moment
caused by
movement of
applied load to the
CG of master grids.
S10-122
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3
Use of weighting factors to generate realistic load
distribution: 100 LB. transverse load on 3D beam.
S10-123
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
If uniform
weighting factors
are used, the load
is equally
distributed to all
grids.
S10-124
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
Displacement Contour
The uniform load distribution results in too much
transverse load in flanges causing them to droop.
S10-125
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
Assume quadratic distribution of load
in web
Assume thin flanges carry zero
transverse load
Master DOF 1235. DOF 5 added to
make RY rigid body motion
determinate
S10-126
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Displacements with quadratic weighting factors
virtually equivalent to those from RBE2 (Beam
Theory), but do not impose plane sections remain
planar as does RBE2.
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
S10-127
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
RBE3 Displacement Contour
Max Y disp=.00685
S10-128
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
RBE2 Displacement contour
Max Y disp=.00685
S10-129
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 USAGE GUIDELINES
Do not specify rotational DOF for master (independent) grids
except when necessary to avoid singularity caused by a
linear set of master grids
Recommend independent grids use DOF = 123 (Ux, Uy, Uz)
Using rotational DOF on master grids can result in implausible
results
S10-130
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 USAGE GUIDELINES
Make check run with PARAM,CHECKOUT,YES
Section 9.4.1 of MSC.Nastran Reference Manual (V68)
EMH printout should be numeric zeroes (no grounding)
No MAXRATIO error messages from decomposition of R
g
mm
and R
m
mm
matrices (numerically stable)
Perform grounding check of at least K
GG
and K
NN
matrix
V2001: Case control command
GROUNDCHECK (SET=(G,N))=YES
S10-131
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
engine
Returning to the car model, if we connect the
engine with an RBE3:
The engine location will be determined by the
average of the connecting locations
The presence of the engine will not stiffen the rest of
the model.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3
connections
S10-132
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create/MPC/RBE3
The procedure is the same as before
except that the mass grid is dependent.
The connection grids are independent
and only choose DOFs Ux to Uz.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3
S10-133
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The engine mass will now move as the average of the
connection grids.
The connections and the bulkhead will not be stiffened
by the presence of the RBE3.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3
S10-134
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 12 RBE2 vs. RBE3 in your exercise
workbook.
S11-1
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 11
UNITS
S11-2
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S11-3
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD Nastran does not know what units you are using.
It is up to you to use a system of consistent units in the finite
element model.
This means that you must input all model quantities such as grid
point locations, elastic modulus, applied loads, etc. using a
consistent system of units.
You must also interpret the model output quantities such as
displacements and stresses in the same consistent system of
units.
UNITS IN MD NASTRAN
S11-4
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NEWTONS SECOND LAW
A consistent set of units must satisfy Newtons
Second Law of Motion:
In other words, one unit of force applied to one unit of
mass must result in one unit of acceleration:
Whenever in doubt about a system of modeling units,
use the equation above to check them.
1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
F = M
.
a
S11-5
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BASE AND DERIVED UNITS
Newtons Second Law of Motion contains the units
of force, mass, length, and time
We can choose any three of the four units as our
base units. The fourth unit is then derived from
these three base units.
F = M
.
a
Force
Force
Mass
Mass
Time
Length
2
S11-6
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMONLY USED SYSTEMS OF UNITS
The two major systems of units used by engineers and
scientists are the International System of Units (SI) and
the U. S. Customary System (USCS).
The SI system is the modern version of the metric system.
The base units include the meter (m), the kilogram mass
(kg), and the second (sec).
The USCS is based on the British Imperial System. It is also
known as the English System. The USCS includes two
systems of units:
The foot-pound-second (fps) system - the base units include the
foot (ft), the pound force (lb
f
), and the second (sec).
The inch-pound-second (ips) system - the base units include the
inch (in), the pound force (lb
f
), and the second (sec).
S11-7
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SI UNITS
In the SI system of units, the base units are the
meter, the kilogram mass, and the second.
The fourth unit, the unit of force, is derived from
Newtons Second Law and is called the newton (N).
Lets check this system of units using Newtons
Second Law:
N = kg
.
m/sec
2
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 N 1 kg x 1 m/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-8
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SI-mm UNITS
A popular variation of the SI system of units uses the
millimeter as the unit of length. The unit of force is the
newton and the unit of time is the second.
In order to satisfy Newtons Second Law, the unit of
mass must be the megagram (Mg), the metric ton (t), or
the tonne (T
e
).
Lets check this system of units using Newtons Second
Law:
Mg = t = T
e
= 1000 kg
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 N 1 Mg x 1 mm/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-9
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
U. S. CUSTOMARY fps SYSTEM
In the U. S. Customary foot-pound-second system, the
base units are the foot, the pound force, and the second.
The fourth unit, the unit of mass, is derived from
Newtons Second Law and is called the slug.
Lets check this system of units using Newtons Second
Law:
slug = lb
f
.
sec
2
/ft
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 lb
f
1 slug x 1 ft/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-10
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
U. S. CUSTOMARY ips SYSTEM
In the U. S. Customary inch-pound-second system, the
base units are the inch, the pound force, and the second.
The fourth unit, the unit of mass, is derived from
Newtons Second Law and has no official name. This unit
is unofficially called the snail or the slinch.
Lets check this system of units using Newtons Second
Law:
snail = slinch = lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 lb
f
1 lb
f
.
sec
2
/in x 1 in/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-11
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WEIGHT UNITS vs. MASS UNITS
MD Nastran expects your mass input (MATi, CONMi,
etc.) to be in consistent mass units.
However, mass property data for the U. S. Customary
System are typically reported in the units of weight.
There are two methods to handle the weight units:
Convert the weight units into the correct mass units before
entering them into the finite element model.
Input the weight units into the finite element model. Then, use
the MD Nastran WTMASS parameter to convert weight units
to mass units.
S11-12
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WTMASS PARAMETER EXAMPLE
For example, you are modeling a steel structure in the U. S. Customary
inch-pound-second system. The material density obtained from a
handbook is show below:
Method 1
Use Newtons Second Law to convert weight to mass:
W = M x g M = W x 1/g = W x 1/386.1 = W x 0.00259
Mass Density = 0.283 x 0.00259 = 7.33 x 10
-4
lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
4
Weight Density = 0.283 lb
f
/in
3
7.33E-4 0.32 29.E6 1 MAT1
Method 2
Enter the weight density directly into MD Nastran. Use the WTMASS
parameter to convert weight units to mass units.
0.283 0.32 29.E6 1 MAT1
0.00259 WTMASS PARAM
S11-13
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WTMASS PARAMETER EXAMPLE (Cont.)
The WTMASS
parameter is defined
in Patran as shown
on the right.
The default value for
this parameter is 1.0
S11-14
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLES OF CONSISTENT SYSTEMS OF
UNITS
psf lb
f
ft 32.17
ft/sec
2
1.0 slug/ft
3
slug psf lb
f
ft 3
Output
in
in
mm
m
Disp
lb
f
lb
f
N
N
Force
Input
5
4
2
1
386.1
in/sec
2
386.1
in/sec
2
9807
mm/sec
2
9.807
m/sec
2
1 G
psi
psi
MPa
Pa
Stress
psi
psi
MPa
Pa
Elastic
Modulus
2.59x10
-3
1.0
1.0
1.0
WTMASS
Parameter
lb
f
lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
t or Mg
kg
Mass
lb
f
/in
3
lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
4
t/mm
3
or
Mg/mm
3
kg/m
3
Mass
Density
lb
f
lb
f
N
N
Force
in
in
mm
m
Length
System of
Units
Following table contains some of the most commonly used
consistent systems of units
S12-1
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-2
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S12-3
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topics covered in this case study:
Normal modes analysis
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-4
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
A communications tower is in the final design stage. You
are asked to analyze the tower structure under dynamic
loading, including wind and seismic loading.
Before you can perform any dynamic analysis, you must
first perform a normal modes analysis to determine the
dynamic characteristics of the tower.
Analysis Objectives
Perform a normal modes analysis to determine the
natural frequencies and mode shapes of the tower
structure.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-5
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Getting started on the case study
The tower structural members are made from steel open
sections. These members are modeled by CBAR elements.
The communications equipment is mounted at the top of
the tower. The equipment is fairly compact so it will be
modeled as lumped masses attached to the top corners of
the tower.
The model is shown in the next slide.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-6
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lumped mass
element
CBAR element
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-7
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Before performing a normal modes analysis on
the tower structure, lets look at the theory
behind the normal modes analysis:
Equation of motion for free vibrations
Mass Matrix Formulation
Solving the equations
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-8
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Governing Equations
Consider the undamped single-degree-of-freedom system
shown below:
The equation of motion for free vibrations (i.e. without
external load or damping) is
where m = mass
k = stiffness
m
x
k
mx = -kx or mx + kx = 0
.. ..
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-9
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
For a multi-degree-of-freedom system, this equation
becomes
..
M x + K x = 0
where [K] = the stiffness matrix of the structure
(the same as in static analysis)
[M] = the mass matrix of the structure
(it represents the inertia properties of the
structure)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-10
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Formulating the mass matrix
The mass matrix represents the inertia properties of the
structure. MD Nastran provides the user with two choices:
Lumped Mass Matrix (default)
Contains only diagonal terms associated with translational
degrees of freedom
Coupled Mass Matrix
Also contains off-diagonal terms, coupling translational
degrees of freedom and rotational degrees of freedom. (Note:
For a rod element, only translational DOFs are coupled.)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-11
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Example of Mass Matrix
L
2 1 3 4
M | | AL
1 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 2 0
0 0 0 0
=
Lumped Mass Matrix
M | | AL
5 12 0 1 12 0
0 0 0 0
1 12 0 5 12 0
0 0 0 0
=
Coupled Mass Matrix
where = mass density and A = cross sectional area
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-12
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lumped vs. Coupled Mass
Coupled mass is generally more accurate than lumped mass
Lumped mass is preferred for computational speed in dynamic
analysis
User-selectable coupled mass matrix for elements
PARAM,COUPMASS,1 to select coupled mass matrices for all
BAR, ROD, and PLATE elements that include bending
stiffness
Default is lumped mass
Elements that have either lumped or coupled mass:
CBAR, CBEAM, CONROD, CHEXA, CPENTA, CQUAD4,
CQUAD8, CROD, CTETRA, CTRIA3, CTRIA6, CTRIAX6,
CTUBE
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-13
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lumped vs. Coupled Mass (Cont.)
Elements that have lumped mass only
CONEAX, CSHEAR
Elements that have coupled mass only
CBEND, CHEX20, CTRAPRG, CTRIARG
Lumped mass contains only diagonal, translational
components (no rotational ones).
Coupled mass contains off-diagonal translational
components as well as rotations for CBAR (though no
torsion), CBEAM, and CBEND elements.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-14
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Solving the equation of motion for free vibration
Assume a harmonic solution of the form
(Physically, this means that all the coordinates perform
synchronous motions and the system configuration does not
change its shape during motion, only its amplitude.)
(1)
M | | x

{ } K | | x { } 0 = +
x { } | { }e
i
e
t
=
(2)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-15
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Differentiating equation (2) twice, we get
Substituting equations (2) and (3) into equation (1),
we get
which simplifies to
This is an eigenvalue problem.
(3)
(4)
e
2
M | | | | |e
i
e
t
K | | | | |e
i
e
t
0 = +
x

{ } e
2
| { }e
i
e
t
=
..
K | | e
2
M | | | { } ( ) 0 =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-16
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
There are two possible solutions to the eigenvalue problem:
1. If , then the only possibility is
which is the so-called trivial solution and is not interesting from a
physical point of view.
2. If , then there is a nontrivial solution to
the eigenvalue problem.
The eigenvalue problem is reduced to
or
where = e
2
is called the eigenvalue.
| { } 0 =
det K | | e
2
M | | ( ) 0 =
det K | | e
2
M | | ( ) 0 =
det K | | M | | ( ) 0 =
(5)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
| | | | ( ) 0 det
2
= M K e
S12-17
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
If the structure has N dynamic degrees of freedom (degrees of
freedom with mass), then there are N number of es that are
solution for the eigenvalue problem.
These es (e
1
, e
2
, ..., e
N
) are the natural frequencies of the
structure (also known as normal frequencies, characteristic
frequencies, fundamental frequencies, or resonant frequencies).
The eigenvector , associated with the natural frequency e
j
, is
called normal mode or mode shape. The normal mode
corresponds to deflected shape patterns of the structure.
When a structure is vibrating, its shape, at any given time, is a
linear combination of its normal modes.
|
j
{ }
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-18
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Example of normal modes
Simply Supported Beam
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
The number of grid points (degrees of freedom) in the model
must be adequate to describe the mode shapes.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-19
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Reasons to compute natural frequencies and normal modes:
Assess the dynamic characteristics of the structure. For example, if
rotating machinery is going to be installed on a certain structure, it
might be necessary to see if the frequency of the rotating mass is
close to one of the natural frequencies of the structure to avoid
excessive vibrations.
Assess possible dynamic amplification of loads.
Use natural frequencies and normal modes to guide subsequent
dynamic analysis (transient response, response spectrum analysis),
i.e. what should be the appropriate At for integrating the equation of
motion in transient analysis?
Use natural frequencies and mode shapes for subsequent dynamic
analysis, i.e. transient analysis of the structure using modal
expansion.
Guide the experimental analysis of the structure, i.e. the location of
accelerometers, etc.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-20
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The natural frequencies (w
1
, w
2
, ..., w
j
) are expressed in
radians/seconds. They can also be expressed in hertz
(cycles/seconds) using
f
j
hertz ( )
e
j
radians second ( )
2t
------------------------------------------------- =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-21
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
If a structure is not totally constrained, i.e. if it admits a rigid body
mode (stress-free mode) or a mechanism, at least one natural
frequency will be zero.
Example: The following unconstrained structure has a rigid body mode.
m m
k
x
1
x
2
e
1
0{ } =
|
1
{ }
1
1
)
`

=
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-22
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Scaling of normal modes is arbitrary.
For example, the following three mode shapes represent the same
model of vibration:
x
1
x
2
m
m
|
1
{ }
.66
.33
)
`

= |
1
{ }
1
0.5
)
`

, =
)
`

|
1
{ }
300
150
)
`

=
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-23
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Determination of the natural frequencies, i.e. solution
of
is a difficult problem. The solution to this problem
must be determined using a numerical approach.
det K | | e
2
M | | ( ) 0 =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-24
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD Nastran provides the user with the following three
types of methods for eigenvalue extraction:
Tracking Method
Eigenvalues (or natural frequencies) are determined, one at a time,
using an iterative technique. Two variations of the inverse power
method are provided: INV and SINV. This approach is more
convenient when a few natural frequencies are to be determined.
In general, SINV is more reliable than INV.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-25
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Transformation Method
The original eigenvalue problem
is transformed to the form
Next, the matrix [ A ] is transformed into a tridiagonal matrix using
either the Givens technique or the Householder technique. Finally,
all the eigenvalues are extracted at once, using the QR Algorithm.
Two variations of the Givens technique and two variations of the
Householder technique are provided: GIV, MGIV, HOU, and MHOU.
These methods are more efficient for small models when a large
proportion of eigenvalues are needed.
A | | | { } | { } =
K | | M | | ( ) | { } 0 =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-26
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lanczos Method
This is a combined tracking-transformation method and is the
most modern method.
This method is most efficient for computing a few
eigenvalues of large, sparse problems (most structural
models fit into this category).
This is the recommended method for most structural
problems. By default, Patran uses this method when setting
up a Nastran input file.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-27
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
In order to perform a normal modes analysis, following entries are
required in the Nastran input data file:
Executive Control Section
SOL 103
Case Control Section
METHOD = n where n is the ID number for the EIGR or EIGRL entry
that is included in the bulk data section. Multiple subcases can be used to
control output requests.
Bulk Data Section
EIGRL entry Lanczos method
EIGR entry Other eigenvalue extraction methods
Mass properties are required
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-28
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The EIGRL entry
Defines data needed to perform vibration or buckling analysis with the
Lanczos Method
10 3.2 0.1 1 EIGRL
NORM SHFSCL MAXSET MSGLVL ND V2 V1 SID EIGRL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Field Contents
SID Set identification number (unique integer > 0)
V1, V2 Vibration analysis: Frequency range of interest
Buckling analysis: Eigenvalue range of interest (V1 < V2,
real). If all modes below a frequency are desired, set V2
to the desired frequency and leave V1 blank. It is not
recommended to put 0.0 for V1 (It is more efficient to
use a small negative number or to leave it blank).
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-29
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The EIGRL entry (Cont.)
Field Contents
ND Number of roots desired (integer > 0, or blank)
MSGLVL Diagnostic level (integer 0 through 3, or blank)
MAXSET Number of vectors in block (integer 1 through 15, or
blank)
SHFSCL Estimate of the first flexible mode natural
frequency (real or blank)
NORM Method for normalizing eigenvectors, either "MASS" or
"MAX"
MASS Normalize to unit value of the generalized
mass (default)
MAX Normalize to unit value of the largest
component in the analysis set
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-30
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mass properties are required for normal analysis
analysis. There are several ways to enter mass:
Structural Mass Density field on MATi entries (mass/volume)
Non-Structural Mass NSM field on element property entries
(mass per unit length or area)
2.59E-4 0.33 10.E6 10 MAT1
GE TREF A RHO NU G E MID MAT1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0.125 1 0.1 1 20 PSHELL
NSM T
S
/T MID3 12I/T
3
MID2 T MID1 PID PSHELL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-31
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Concentrated Mass Mass property fields on
concentrated element entries CONMi and CMASSi
I33 I32 I31 I22 I21 I11
49.7 176 15 COMN2
3.9 13.7 16.2
X3 X2 X1 M CID G EID CONM2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Non-structural mass can also be defined on non-
structural mass entries: NSM, NSM1, NSML, NSML1,
and NSMADD.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-32
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mass Units
MD Nastran does not know units. It is up to you to use a
consistent set of units.
For the steel tower structure in this case study, the SI system of
units is used.
Units of Force = Newton Units of Length = meter Units of time =
second Units of mass = kg
Mass Density = 7,861 kg/m
3
Concentrated Mass m = 1000 kg each
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-33
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mass Units (Cont.)
Another common system of units is the English in-lb
f
-sec system:
Units of Force = lb
f
Units of Length = in Units of time = second
Units of mass = lb
f
sec
2
/in
Mass Density r = 7.36 x 10
-4
lb
f
sec
2
/in
4
Concentrated Mass m = 5.710 lb
f
sec
2
/in each
The consistent mass unit of lb
f
sec
2
/in must be used in this system of
units. If your problem definition is based on the weight unit of lb
f
, use
the following equation to convert lb
f
to the correct mass units:
W = M x g M = W x 1/g = W x 1/386.1 = W x 0.00259
2204.6 lb
f
x 0.00259 = 5.710 lb
f
sec
2
/in
0.284 lb
f
/in
3
x 0.00259 = 7.36 x 10
-4
lb
f
sec
2
/in
4
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-34
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mass Units (Cont.)
Alternatively, the user of the English system of units can use
lb
f
as the mass unit in the model and use the WTMASS
parameter to convert lb
f
to the correct mass unit.
Mass Density = 0.284 lb
f
/in
3
Concentrated Mass m = 2,205 lb
f
each
Use PARAM, WTMASS, 0.00259 in the model. This is a multiplier
for the mass matrix (0.00259 = 1/386.1 = 1/g).
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-35
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lets now continue with the case study.
We want to determine the first 5 modes for the tower
structure.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-36
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up the
normal modes
analysis
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-37
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click on Solution
Type and select
Normal Modes
analysis.
Click on Solution
Parameters and
enter a node ID for
the Wt. Generator.
The mass
properties of the
model will be
computed about
this node. Enter 0
to select the origin
of the basic
coordinate system.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-38
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, click on
Subcases and
select the Default
subcase.
Click on Subcase
Parameters and
select the
Lanczos method.
Enter 5 in the
number of
desired roots
box.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-39
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Run the
analysis, read
the results
into Patran,
and animate
the mode
shapes, one
at a time.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-40
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the .f06 file
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-41
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the .f06 file (Cont.)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-42
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Normal modes analysis summary:
Total mass of structure is 85,732 kg
Mode No. Frequency (Hz) Description
1 12.01 Primary Bending
2 12.01 Primary Bending
3 23.43 Torsion
4 32.70 Secondary Bending
5 32.70 Secondary Bending
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-43
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 13 Normal Modes of a rectangular plate in your
exercise workbook.
S12-44
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S13-1
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-2
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S13-3
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Topics covered in this case study:
Linear buckling analysis
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-4
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Problem Description
You have been presented with the conceptual design of a
next-generation military submarine. The submarine
pressure hull is a thick shell structure reinforced with ring
frames. The submarine must be capable of operating at
depths up to 1000 ft. Will the pressure hull buckle under
the pressure loading?
Analysis Objective
Perform a buckling analysis on the submarine pressure
hull to determine the buckling load.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-5
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SAIL
FC
ER
RC
FWD MBT
AFT MBT
Submarine General Spec:
Overall Length = 350 ft
DIA = 36 ft
ER = Engine Room
RC = Reactor Compartment
FC = Forward Compartment
AFT MBT = Aft Main Ballast Tanks
FWD MBT = Forward Main Ballast Tanks
Submarine Design
Pressure hull
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-6
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Pressure Hull Details
4
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-7
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Pressure loading
The cruising depth for the submarine is 1000 ft. The
water pressure load at this depth is the main design
load.
Compute the pressure:
p = gh
g = 64 lb/ft
3
h = 1000 ft
p = 64 x 1000 = 64,000 lb/ft
2
= 445 psi
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-8
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Getting started on the case study
The pressure hull shell structure is modeled with plate
elements.
The ring frames (typical frames and King frames) are
modeled with CBAR elements without offsets.
The two bulkheads are modeled with plate elements.
The model is shown in the next slide.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-9
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Pressure hull shell structure
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-10
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Ring frames and bulkheads
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-11
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Loads and Boundary Conditions
At 1000 ft, the water pressure load is
p = 445 psi
The pressure hull is fully fixed at one end point
x
y
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-12
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A structure can fail in a number of ways such as
Yield failure (material yield strength exceeded)
Ultimate failure (material ultimate strength exceeded)
Excessive deflection
Buckling
So far in this course, we have been designing and
analyzing structures to prevent them from material
failure and excessive deflection. Lets now examine the
concept of buckling.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-13
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Concept of Linear Buckling
A compressive force P is applied to a
perfectly straight column.
A lateral force is introduced to create a
small lateral deflection o.
If the lateral deflection disappears when
the lateral force is removed, the straight
form of equilibrium is stable.
P
P
o
Q
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-14
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Concept of Linear Buckling (Cont.)
If P is gradually increased, a condition is reached when the
straight form of equilibrium becomes unstable and a small
lateral force will produce a deflection which does not
disappear when the lateral force is removed.
This critical load P
cr
is defined as the axial force which is
sufficient to keep the column in such a slightly bent form. At
this load, the bent column is said to be buckled.
The critical loads for the buckling of plates and shells are
developed using this same concept.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-15
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Thin-walled or slender structures are susceptible to
buckling
Examples of such structures are
Columns
Beams
Plates
Cylindrical shell, conical shell, and spherical shell structures
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-16
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theory of Linear Buckling
The equilibrium equations for a structure subjected to a
constant force system take the following form:
Under loading, the structure deforms and internal loads are
developed within the structure. Write the equilibrium
equations for this deformed state:
[ K ] { u } = { P }
( [ K ] + [ K
D
] ) { u
-
} = { P }
(1)
(2)
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-17
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theory of Linear Buckling (Cont.)
The matrix [K
D
] is the differential stiffness matrix. It is also called
the geometric stiffness matrix or the stress stiffness matrix. The
differential stiffness is the stiffness that results from including the
higher-order terms (non-linear terms) of the strain-displacement
relations.
The differential stiffness matrix is proportional to the internal
forces in the structure. This allows us to rewrite Equation (2) as
where is an arbitrary scalar multiplier for the applied load
( [ K ] + [ K
D
] ) { u
-
} = { P } (3)
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-18
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theory of Linear Buckling (Cont.)
Now, lets perturb the structure slightly from its equilibrium
position by taking the derivative of both sides of Equation (3):
At the critical buckling load, both, the reference and the slightly
perturbed (buckled) configurations are possible equilibrium
positions. Therefore, as the displacement { du
-
} takes place, the
load does not change. This leads to the eigenvalue problem for
buckling:
( [ K ] + [ K
D
] ) { du
-
} = { dP }
( [ K ] + [ K
D
] ) { du
-
} = 0
(4)
(5)
( [ K ] + [ K
D
] ) { | } = 0
(6)
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-19
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Solution to the eigenvalue problem
The solution is nontrivial (different from zero) only for
specific values of
that make the term ([ K ] + [ K
D
]) singular.
To each eigenvalue
i
, there is a corresponding distinct
eigenvector { |
i
} which represents the buckled shape.
The critical buckling loads for the structure are computed as
=
i
i = 1, 2, n
{ P }
cr
i
=
i
{ P }
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-20
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Solution to the eigenvalue problem (Cont.)
Usually, only the lowest eigenvalue
1
is of interest because
it is associated with the lowest buckling load for the
structure.
The eigenvalue is also called the buckling load factor
(BLF). A structure has buckled if the buckling analysis
indicates that BLF s 1.0
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-21
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Linear Buckling vs. Nonlinear Buckling
Linear buckling analysis assumes that the structure in the pre-
buckled configuration is perfectly straight and elastic.
Nonlinear buckling analysis accounts for the pre-buckled
deformations as well as material non-linearity.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-22
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
Buckling Solutions in MD Nastran
SOL 105 -- Linear Buckling
SOL 106 -- Nonlinear Buckling
SOL 600 -- Nonlinear Buckling
SOL 105 may be applicable for column and plate
structures with slight manufacturing imperfections or
slightly eccentric loadings. Must use engineering
judgment.
Some examples of nonlinear buckling problems are
shown on the next slide.
S13-23
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Highly Eccentrically
Loaded Column
Beam-Column
Snap-Through of thin Shell
(Large pre-buckled deflection
and possible inelastic pre-
buckled behavior)
Examples of nonlinear buckling problems
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-24
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rules for SOL 105 linear buckling analysis
The Case Control must contain at least two subcases.
The first subcase controls the static analysis run (this step is
used to determine the differential stiffness matrix [K
D
]).
The second subcase controls the buckling analysis run. The
METHOD entry must appear in this subcase to select an
EIGRL or EIGB entry from the Bulk Data Section.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-25
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rules for SOL 105 linear buckling analysis (Cont.)
For multiple buckling solutions
All static subcases must appear first
The buckling subcases follow the last static subcase
A METHOD entry must appear in each of the buckling subcases
Each buckling subcase must contain a STATSUB command that
references the appropriate subcase ID of the static subcase
The use of offsets in bar, beam, and plate elements in buckling
analysis is not recommended.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-26
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
In order to perform a linear buckling analysis, the
following entries are required in the Nastran input data
file:
Executive Control Section
SOL 105
Case Control Section
SUBCASE 1
LOAD = M Defines static loading condition (LOAD,
TEMP, DEFORM)
SUBCASE 2
METHOD = N Selects eigenvalue extraction method
Bulk Data Section
EIGRL entry Lanczos method (recommended)
EIGB entry Other eigenvalue extraction methods
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-27
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The EIGRL entry
Defines data needed to perform vibration or buckling analysis
with the Lanczos Method.
10 3.2 0.1 1 EIGRL
NORM SHFSCL MAXSET MSGLVL ND V2 V1 SID EIGRL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Field Contents
SID Set identification number (unique integer > 0)
V1, V2 Vibration analysis: Frequency range of interest
Buckling analysis: Eigenvalue range of interest (V1 < V2,
real). If all modes below a frequency are desired, set V2
to the desired frequency and leave V1 blank. It is not
recommended to put 0.0 for V1 (It is more efficient to
use a small negative number or leave it blank).
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-28
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The EIGRL entry (Cont.)
Field Contents
ND Number of roots desired (integer > 0 or blank)
MSGLVL Diagnostic level (integer 0 through 3 or blank)
MAXSET Number of vectors in block
SHFSCL Estimate of the first flexible mode natural
frequency (real or blank)
NORM Method for normalizing eigenvectors, either "MASS" or
"MAX"
MASS Normalize to unit value of the generalized
mass (default)
MAX Normalize to unit value of the largest
displacement in the analysis set
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-29
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lets now continue with the case study
We want to determine the first 5 buckling loads for the
submarine structure.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-30
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up the linear
buckling analysis
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-31
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click on Solution
Type and select
buckling analysis
Click on Solution
Parameters
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-32
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, click on
Eigenvalue
Extraction
Select the
Lanczos
method and
enter 5 as the
number of
desired roots.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-33
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Run the
analysis, read
the results
into Patran,
and plot the
buckled
shapes one at
a time
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-34
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the .f06 file
{ P }
cr
= { P }
P
cr
= 2.93 x 445 psi = 1,304 psi
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-35
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Linear buckling analysis summary:
The critical buckling load factor (BLF) is 2.93. This is equivalent to
a critical buckling load of 1,304 psi.
Mode No. BLF Description
1 2.93 Pressure hull buckling
2 2.93 Pressure hull buckling
3 4.42 Bulkhead buckling
4 4.50 Bulkhead buckling
5 5.22 Pressure hull buckling
A follow-on nonlinear buckling analysis may be necessary to
account for nonlinear effects.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL 3D
S13-36
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 14 Buckling of a Submarine Pressure
Hull in your exercise workbook.
S14-1
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 14
PARASOLID MODELING
S14-2
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S14-3
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PARASOLID MODELING TOOLS
Patran has a set of powerful parasolid modeling
tools to help the user create complex geometry in
Patran.
The parasolid modeling tools described in this
section use the parasolid kernel which requires the
Parasolid Modeling license.
S14-4
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PARASOLID MODELING TOOLS (Cont.)
Primitive Creation
Block, cylinder, cone, sphere, torus
Optional on-the-fly (automatic) Boolean operation
Solid Creation Operations
Extrude
Revolve
Solid Editing Operations
Boolean operations: add, subtract, intersect
Edge blend: constant radius, chamfer
Shell: create thin-wall solids
Imprint: solid on solid
Refit to Parasolid
Auto update of CAE data after a solid editing operation
S14-5
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A primitive is a solid that can be defined with several
parameters.
Patran has five different types of primitives:
PRIMITIVE CREATION
BLOCK CYLINDER CONE SPHERE TORUS
S14-6
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
BLOCK
Create a rectangular solid by
specifying Side lengths.
The direction of the X, Y,
and Z length are determined
by the coordinate frame
listed on the right. Users
can also specify a negative
side length to get the block
defined in the opposite
direction.
The base origin defines the
corner of the block and also
depends on the Reference
Coordinate Frame.
S14-7
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CYLINDER
Define a cylinder
using a Radius,
Height, and Location
of the base.
The height can be
defined along the X,
Y, or Z axis. This
direction is defined
on the Axis List.
S14-8
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CYLINDER (Cont.)
By entering a wall
thickness, a tube
can be created.
S14-9
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CONE
Define a cone by
specifying a Base
Radius, Top Radius,
Height, and Base
Center Point.
The height of the
cylinder can run
along the X, Y, or Z
axis. The direction is
defined on the Axis
List box.
Height
Base Radius
Top Radius
S14-10
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CONE (Cont.)
The Cone Primitive
also has a
Thickness box for
making thin walled
cones. This option
works the same way
as the Thickness
List option for the
cylinder.
S14-11
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
SHPERE
Define a sphere by
specifying a Radius
and Center Point.
S14-12
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
TORUS
Define a torus by
specifying a Center
Point, Inner
Radius, and Outer
Radius.
The centerline of
the torus can run
along the X, Y, or Z
axis. Users can
define this direction
on the Axis List
box.
S14-13
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
MULTIPLE PRIMITIVES
In the Center Point List box, users can create multiple
primitives at once by entering multiple center points.
This example shows 3 spheres created in one operation.
S14-14
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
AUTOMATIC BOOLEAN OPERATION
The Boolean
Operation menu
controls what kind of
boolean to perform
using the solid that
will be modified.
This menu comes
up when the user
first turns on the
Modify/Solid option
and clicks on the
Boolean Operation
button on any of the
Primitive Solid
menus.
The resulting solid
is added to the
target solid.
The resulting
solid is
subtracted from
the target solid.
The user will get
the solid that is
common, or the
intersection of
the resulting
solid and the
target solid.
S14-15
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
AUTOMATIC BOOLEAN OPERATION
In this example, the cylinder created will be
automatically subtracted from the target solid,
making the hole in one step.
Target Solid
Newly Created
Primitive Solid
(Cylinder)
Finished Part
- =
S14-16
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
EXTRUDE
Extruding Surfaces:
Using this option, any surface can be
extruded to create a complex (white) solid.
Surface 1
S14-17
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
EXTRUDE (Cont.)
Extruding Simple Surfaces:
This option works only with simple
(green) surfaces which are
extruded into simple (blue) solids.
Surface 1
S14-18
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
REVOLVE
Revolving Surfaces:
Using this option, any surface can be
revolved to create a complex (white) solid.
Surface 1
S14-19
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
REVOLVE (Cont.)
Revolving Simple Surfaces:
This option works only with simple
(green) surfaces which are revolved
into simple (blue) solids.
Surface 1
S14-20
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
The following parasolid editing tools are available in
Patran:
Boolean operations: add, subtract, intersect
Edge blend: fillet, chamfer
Shell: create thin-wall solids
Imprint: solid on solid
Refit Parasolid
S14-21
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS OVERVIEW
This solid model represents the top part of a cell phone. It was created
using the three types of Boolean operations: add, subtract, and
intersect.
The holes for the
keyboard are made
using multiple solids
for the subtraction.
This is much faster
than subtracting the
solids one at a time.
The main body of
this solid can be
made by intersecting
a thin walled
cylinder with a
simple block.
The tabs on the top
of this part can be
added using a
Boolean Add.
S14-22
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Add option:
Patran allows users
to perform this
operation on more
than one solid at
once.
This picture shows
individual solids
before an Add
operation is
performed.
S14-23
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
The eight solids
have been
combined into
one solid.
S14-24
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Subtract
option:
In this example,
the cylinder is
subtracted from
the block, which is
the target solid.
S14-25
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Subtract
option:
This is the resulting
solid.
The Boolean Subtract
can also be used on
multiple solids at once.
This would allow users
to easily use multiple
solids to create holes
or to cut a solid.
S14-26
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Intersect
option:
Creates a new solid
from what was
common between
the Target Solid and
the Intersecting
Solids.
S14-27
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Intersect
option:
Patran automatically
deletes the solids
used for this
operation. If the user
still wants to use
these solids, it will be
necessary to copy
them BEFORE the
operation.
S14-28
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND OVERVIEW
Users can also add fillets and chamfers to a solid using the
Edge Blend tool.
For this model, an
intersection of
pipes, edge fillets
were added using
the
Edit/Solid/Edge
Blend tool under
the Geometry
menu.
Chamfers were
added to this
solid using the
same menu.
S14-29
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Fillet option:
With this option,
the user can add
fillet to a single
edge on a solid, to
all edges on a face
or to all edges on
the solid.
Lets consider this
solid and add
fillets to all its
edges.
Single edge on solid
All edges on face
All edges on solid
S14-30
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Fillet option:
The All Edges on
Solid button was
selected and a
Constant Radius
of 0.05 chosen.
The fillets were
added in one
operation.
Filleted edges
Multiple fillets
blended at a corner
S14-31
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Chamfer option:
This option works the
same as the fillet
option. The user can
add chamfer to a
single edge on a
solid, to all edges on
a face or to all edges
on the solid.
The parameters that
have to be chosen
are the Offset and
the Angle.
Single edge on solid
All edges on face
All edges on solid
S14-32
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Chamfer option:
This model has a
few edges
chamfered with
different offsets
and different
angles.
Chamfered edges
S14-33
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
SHELL OVERVIEW
Users can remove the material on the interior of a solid using
the Edit/Solid/Shell tool under the Geometry menu.
This model was
obtained from a solid
that was hollowed
out using the shell
tool.
S14-34
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
SHELL (Cont.)
Shell option:
Lets remove the
material from the
interior of this solid,
leaving a wall
Thickness of 0.1 in.
The Solid Face List
identifies the face or
faces which will be
pierced to allow the
removal of material.
S14-35
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
SHELL (Cont.)
Shell option:
The material is
removed from the
solid up to the wall
thickness.
S14-36
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
IMPRINT
The Imprint tool
imprints one or
more solids onto
other solids.
For example, the
cylinder on the
right is imprinted
onto the
rectangular block.
S14-37
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
IMPRINT (Cont.)
The imprinting
broke the larger
rectangular face
into two faces.
This tool is useful
for creating
congruent
meshes across
neighboring
solids.
S14-38
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
REFIT TO PARASOLID
Non-Parasolid geometry can be converted
into Parasolid geometry by using the Refit
tool.
Once the geometry is converted to
Parasolid geometry, the user can take
advantage of all the new Parasolid editing
tools described in this Section.
Alternatively, the user may choose to let
Patran automatically refit the geometry to
Parasolid geometry. This automatic refit
occurs whenever a Parasolid editing
operation is requested and Patran detects
that the solids involved are not Parasolid
solids.
S14-39
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA
The Auto Update Solid Mesh/LBC
toggle from the Preferences/Geometry
form re-applies mesh parameters, loads
and boundary conditions, and re-
meshes after geometry modification
(such as a Boolean operation).
S14-40
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
For example, the
Parasolid solid on
the right has been
meshed with
Tet10 elements.
We now want to
drill a hole
through the solid
using Boolean
subtract.
S14-41
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
A cylinder is
created and it will
be used to drill
the hole.
S14-42
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
Use Boolean
Subtract to drill
the hole.
The solid is
modified and the
Tet mesh is
automatically
updated.
S14-43
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NEW SOLID MODELING TOOLS
The following three Case Studies will demonstrate
the parasolid modeling tools
Case Study 1: Lamp Housing
Case Study 2: Tension Fitting
Case Study 3: Valve Housing
S14-44
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING
Model the lamp housing shown below using primitive
geometry, shell, fillets, and Booleans.
S14-45
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Step 1: Model the base
geometry using a
primitive cone.
Step 2: Use a shell
operation to hollow out
the cone.
Step 3: Use a trimmed
surface to model the
outline of the tabs.
Extrude the surface into
a solid and use a
Boolean Add to combine
the tabs to the main
solid.
Step 4: Add the fillets to
the solid.
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-46
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Define a primitive
cone with the
dimensions
shown.
The Thickness
List option will
not work in this
case because it
would remove
material from
both sides of the
cone.
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-47
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use the
Edit/Solid/Shell
tool to remove
the interior
material from
the solid, with a
wall thickness of
0.25 in.
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-48
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Defining a
surface on the
top of the base
is easier if a
coordinate
system is
placed on the
top of the base.
This will make
defining
coordinates
and moving the
tabs easier.
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-49
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the base
points for the tab
such that they
penetrate into
the top of the
cone.
These
coordinates
reference the
new coordinate
system.
Point 1 Point 2
S14-50
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the left
and right
edges of the
tab, 1.1 inch
tall.
Point 1 Point 2
S14-51
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the rounded
top edge of the tab.
The coordinates of
the center point are
easier to define using
the local coordinate
system Coord1.
S14-52
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Create the bottom
curve of the tab.
Without this curve,
there will not be a
closed loop, which
is required for a
trimmed surface.
S14-53
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Use the chain tool
to link the curves
together.
S14-54
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the hole for the tab
with a radius of 0.125 in.
S14-55
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Create a trimmed
surface. This surface
will be extruded to
create the tabs.
S14-56
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Extrude the trimmed
surface to create the
tab using the local
coordinate system
Coord1.
S14-57
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
There are two tabs on the
top of the base. Use the
Translate tool to copy the
solid you created in the
previous step.
S14-58
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Add to
combine all the
solids together.
Without the
Boolean, it will
not be possible
to add the
fillets in the
next step.
S14-59
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Apply fillets
to the root of
the tabs and
the bottom
lip of the
cone.
S14-60
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING
Model the bathtub tension fitting shown below,
using techniques similar to the last case study.
S14-61
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Step 1: Create an outline of
the bracket as a trimmed
surface and extrude the
surface to create the base.
Step 2: Use a shell
operation to hollow out the
bracket. For the shell,
remove the top, angled, and
front face of the base solid.
Step 3: Use a Boolean or
the Modify/Solid option to
add the hole on the back of
the part.
Step 4: Add fillets to the
solid.
S14-62
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Start with a
simple
rectangular
surface (5x2
in). This
surface will be
cut to create
the outline of
the bracket.
S14-63
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Translate the
points shown
below to
create the
cutting line for
the outline.
S14-64
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Connect the
two points to
create a line.
This line will
be used with
the break tool
to create the
outline of the
bracket.
S14-65
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use the break
tool to split the
surface.
S14-66
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Delete the extra
surface. The
resulting trimmed
surface can be
extruded to create
the base for the
part.
S14-67
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use the extrude
Parasolid option
on the extrude
menu. Since
this is a
magenta
surface, the
blue solid option
would not have
worked.
S14-68
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use the shell
tool to remove
the interior
material from the
solid.
The shell
operation needs
to remove
material from the
top face, angled
face, and the
front face of the
solid.
S14-69
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
This is the
hollowed out
bracket.
S14-70
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Create a solid
cylinder where
the hole will be.
The height of the
cylinder is not
important. It only
needs to pass
through the solid.
Alternatively, the
Modify/Solid
option could be
used to skip the
Boolean Add
operation.
S14-71
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Subtract to
remove the
cylinder and
create a hole on
the back face of
the fitting.
S14-72
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Add the fillets
to complete
the model.
S14-73
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING
S14-74
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The valve housing shown in the previous slide
can be created in two ways:
1. Generate the cross section of the part and revolve it to
create the part.
2. Create the outer solid and inner cavity using primitive
geometry and use a Boolean operation to subtract the
two solids. This requires less calculation and often,
less work from the user.
We will use method 2 to create this part.
S14-75
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Step 1: Model the outer
solid with three
primitives: two cones
and a cylinder. Use a
Boolean operation to
combine the three solids
into one.
Step 2: Model the inner
cavity with solids. This
can also be done using
cones and cylinders.
Use another Boolean to
combine all the solids.
Step 3: Subtract the
cavity from the outer
solid.
S14-76
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Since the user
probably wants
the cone to taper
in the - Z
Direction, use a
negative height.
Otherwise, the
user would have
to rotate the
cone to get it to
face the right
direction.
S14-77
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Create the middle
portion of the
outer solid by
extruding the
bottom face of the
cone into a
cylinder (this is to
make sure the
solids are joined).
S14-78
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The end of the
outer solid can be
created using
another Primitive
Cone. But for
good practice, to
make the solids
join exactly,
extrude the
cylinders surface
and scale at the
same time to
create a cone (4
inch high).
S14-79
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Add to combine
all the solids into
one part.
S14-80
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Place the outer
solid in its own
group. This will
help with the next
set of steps.
S14-81
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Before creating the inner
cavity, define a group for
the next set of solids. Use
the Make Current option to
make sure any solids
created join this group, and
Unpost All Other Groups to
clean up the display.
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-82
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The first part of the
cavity is a cylinder.
The base of the
cylinder is at (0, 0, -
4). One alternative
is to specify a
negative height and
an origin of (0, 0, 0).
S14-83
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Even with the separate
groups, it is difficult to see
what is going on with the
model. Use the Group
Display mode to draw the
outer solid in wireframe and
the inner cavity in solid
shaded mode.
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-84
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Draw the
cutting_tool group in
solid shaded mode.
S14-85
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
To display the
settings on screen,
post both groups to
the viewport.
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-86
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The next part of the
cavity is a cone. This
can also be defined
using a primitive.
S14-87
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
To define the rest of
the cavity, use a
mirror operation.
Defining a coordinate
system in the middle
of the part will help
define the mirror
plane.
S14-88
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Use the Z-Axis of
the new coordinate
system to define the
mirror plane.
S14-89
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
For the remaining
solid, extrude a face
of one of the cones to
make the cylinder. A
primitive could also
be used for this step.
S14-90
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Combine all of
the inner solids
into one part.
S14-91
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Subtract to
remove the cavity
from the outer
shell.
S14-92
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 15 Parasolid Modeling in your
exercise workbook.
S15-1
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 15
LINEAR
CONTACT SIMULATION
S15-2
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S15-3
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR VS. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Linear Analysis
Kinematic relationship is linear, and displacements are small.
Element compatibility and constitutive relationships are linear,
and the stiffness matrix does not change. There is no yielding,
and the strains are small.
The equilibrium is satisfied in the undeformed configuration.
Boundary conditions and loads do not change.
It follows that:
Displacements are directly proportional to the loads
Results for different loads can be superimposed
S15-4
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR VS. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Nonlinear Analysis
Geometric nonlinear analysis:
The kinematic relationship is nonlinear. The displacements and rotations are large.
Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.
Follower forces:
Loads are a function of displacements.
Large strain analysis:
The element strains are nonlinear functions of element deformations.
Material nonlinear analysis:
Element constitutive relationship is nonlinear. Element may yield.
Element forces are no longer equal to stiffness times displacements.
Contact analysis:
Deformable and rigid body contact is generally nonlinear, but simple enough contact
may be modeled linearly using MD R2 Nastran and Patran as shown on following slides.
Boundary conditions and loads may change.
It follows that:
Displacements are not directly proportional to the loads.
Results for different loads cannot be superimposed.
S15-5
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT IN MD NASTRAN LINEAR ANALYSIS
Linear Contact Modeling
Beginning with MD R2 Nastran, SOL101 supports linear contact
analysis.
Linear contact is defined as the full nonlinear contact algorithm of
SOL 400 without material nonlinear requirements and the usual
linear requirements of small strain and small rotation imposed.
Permanent Glued Contact Modeling
Beginning with MD R2 Nastran, SOLs 101, 103, 105, 107, 108,
109, 110, 111, and 112 support permanent glued contact.
Permanent Glued contact is defined as a special type of contact
model which imposes the condition that between the contacting
surfaces there is no relative normal or tangential motion.
The primary benefit of the Permanent Glued contact is the joining
of two dissimilar meshes.
S15-6
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR CONTACT ANALYSIS
Linear Contact Modeling
SOL101 supports linear contact analysis provided that contact is the
only nonlinearity in the analysis.
The contact bodies need not be in initial contact, and multiple contact bodies
are allowed.
The grids of the contacting bodies need not be aligned, and the contact
algorithm may be used to join dissimilar meshes with relative motion.
Both deformable-deformable and deformable-rigid contact is allowed.
Only surface to surface 3D contact is currently supported.
Bilinear Coulomb or bilinear shear friction is allowed.
Note that the linear GAP contact defined by PARAM,CDITER,n is still
supported in Nastran, but should not be used in association with the surfaces
defined for linear contact.
If more detailed complex contact simulation is necessary, consider use
of SOL 400 nonlinear simulation.
If after running a model in SOL 101 the user determines that there are other
nonlinear effects such as material nonlinearity or large rotation, the model
can simply be switched to SOL 400 without having to redefine the contact
surfaces.
S15-7
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
Why do we need it?
Finite elements are based on the concept of local
support nodes and elements usually communicate only
with their nearest neighbors.
Forces are transmitted
between elements only
via shared nodes
No Common Node =
No Communication
S15-8
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Why do we need it? (cont.)
Elements not connected via a common node are not aware of
each other and would pass right through each other in a
standard finite element analysis
Thus, standard finite element solutions are not sufficient for
contact problems
CONTACT IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
S15-9
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POSSIBLE CONTACT BODIES
Deformable body
Body is deformable
Stress and temperature distribution
Rigid body
Body is not deformable (rigid)
No stress distribution
Constant temperature
S15-10
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DEFORMABLE BODIES
Each deformable body consists of one or more finite elements
A deformable body does not need to completely correspond with a physical
body
v
deformable contact body
Include all elements in the contact body in a coupled analysis if heat transfer to
the environment is taken into account
Nodes or elements must belong to NO MORE than one deformable body
Internally, FE data is transferred into segments and nodal points defining the
boundary of the deformable body
2D: a segment corresponds to an element edge
3D: a segment corresponds to an element face
S15-11
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIGID BODIES
A rigid body is defined by means
of a number of geometrical
entities
Discrete description
straight line, circular arc, spline
surface of revolution, Bezier
surface, ruled surface, 4-point
patch, poly-surface
Analytical description
NURBS curve or surface
cone surface
sphere surface
Patran uses the analytical
NURBS description more on
this later.
Bezier Surface
Ruled Surface
S15-12
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIGID BODIES
Internally, the geometry of a rigid body is stored:
Piecewise linearly for each discrete entity
Exactly for analytical entities
Analytical entities (NURBS) are more accurate for curved geometries, as
they can provide a continuously varying slope as well as continuity of the
normal vector along the surface
The number of subdivisions for analytical entities is used for searching
purposes (it might influence the amount of memory allocated)
Each rigid body may have a prescribed motion
Velocity
Position
Force or moment
S15-13
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR CONTACT SETUP
Contact bodies are specified in Patran as shown.
Linear SOL 101 MD Nastran R3 analysis is performed.
S15-14
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT DETECTION IN A
STATIC ANALYSIS
S15-15
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POSSIBLE CONTACT SITUATIONS
contacted (touched)
body
distance tolerance
2
2) Node outside element, inside distance tolerance
3
3) Node inside element, inside distance tolerance
4
4) Node inside element, outside distance tolerance
contacting (touching)
body
1
1) Node outside element, outside distance tolerance
S15-16
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
1) NODE OUTSIDE ELEMENT, OUTSIDE
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
Bodies are not in contact
Contacting node remains in current position
S15-17
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
2) NODE OUTSIDE ELEMENT, INSIDE
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
Contacting node is projected onto segment of contacted
body
According to internal equilibrium (mass preservation)
Remains in contact if necessary force is less than
separation force
S15-18
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
3) NODE INSIDE ELEMENT, INSIDE DISTANCE
TOLERANCE
Contacting node is pushed back onto segment of
contacted body
According to internal equilibrium
S15-19
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
4) NODE INSIDE ELEMENT, OUTSIDE
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
Node penetrated
Increment will be recycled with modified time step
If this situation occurs at beginning of analysis,
contact will not be found
S15-20
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
The size of the contact tolerance has a significant impact on
the computational costs and the accuracy of the solution
Contact tolerance too small:
Detection of contact is difficult, leading to higher costs
More nodes are likely to be considered penetrating leading to increase in
increment splitting, therefore, increasing the computational costs
Contact tolerance too large:
Nodes are considered in contact prematurely, resulting in a loss of
accuracy
Nodes might penetrate the surface by a large amount
S15-21
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
Measured normal to the contacted body
May be user-defined
By default, this tolerance is evaluated from:
1/20x smallest element edge for continuum elements
1/4x smallest thickness for beam and shell elements
L
min
y
x
S15-22
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
Recommended usage is
to leave the tolerance
blank and let SOL 101
evaluate this
If necessary, specify a
tolerance in the contact
table for a specific
contact pair
S15-23
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
By default, the contact tolerance is biased to the inside by a factor of 0.9
Can be changed within the range of bias factor 0 < B < 1 (default: 0.9)
Improves accuracy since the distance below which a node comes into
contact is reduced
Reduces increment splitting since the distance to cause penetration is
increased
The default/recommended value is B = 0.9 for most contact analyses
For analyses involving frictional contact, a bias into a contact body is
recommended (0.95 - 0.99)
dist
tol
dist
tol
dist
tol
(1-B)
dist
tol
(1+B)
BIAS FACTOR
S15-24
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BIAS FACTOR
Where in the GUI?
0.9
S15-25
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Import the MD Nastran input file: 2plates.bdf
Define a contact body for each plate.
Define any other loads and boundary conditions.
Configure contact table under Subcase Parameters.
Perform SOL101 Linear Static Analysis.
Postprocess results. Keep in mind that while contact is present the
analysis is still linear and does not include nonlinear effects such
as large displacement.
S15-26
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Import the file:
2plates.bdf
S15-27
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Define a contact body
for each plate under
Loads/BCs
S15-28
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Define other
Loads/BCs to apply
force and constrain
ends.
S15-29
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Select Contact Table under
Subcase Parameters.
S15-30
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
In the contact table,
you may disable self
contact (via the
diagonal entries) to
decrease solution time.
T indicates Touch
Contact, G indicates
Glued Contact, and
Blank indicates no
contact.
Be sure to click OK to
implement changes.
S15-31
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Perform Linear Static
Analysis.
S15-32
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Plot analysis results.
Verify that contact
took place, and that
linear assumptions
were not violated.
S15-33
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 16 3D Contact in your exercise
workbook.
Perform Workshop 17 Glued Contact in your exercise
workbook.
S15-34
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S16-1
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 16
RESULTS POSTPROCESSING
S16-2
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S16-3
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION
Manages the Display, Output, Transformation,
Animation & Calculation of Result Quantities
Application based on Tools (Fringe,
Deformation, etc.)
Soon to be the Single Source Post-Processing
tool for all of MSC.Patran (Insight IsoSurfaces is
the last tool to be incorporated into MSC.Patran
Results)
S16-4
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION
There are 5 Actions to the Results Form, each of which has
its own Objects:
Create: Quick Plot, Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Cursor, Contour,
Graph, Animation, Report, Results, Freebody
Modify: Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Cursor, Contour, Graph, Report
Post: Plots, Ranges
Delete: Plots, Result Cases, Result Data
Use Templates: Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Graph, Report
S16-5
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION
Results Forms are designed such that for any of the
Objects being created, all you need to do, at a minimum,
to create a Result Object/Tool is to Select:
Object
Result Case
Result Type
Position (when applicable)
Quantity (when applicable)
Whether to Animate the Tool upon creation
Apply
The other 3-4 Form Icons may be used to customize the
Object/Tool at any stage of its creation, but are NOT
necessary for the Object/Tool creation
S16-6
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Quick Plot Tool
S16-7
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
A combined, yet simplified, version of the Deformation & Fringe
Tools
Designed so that a minimum of 4 clicks would be needed to
create a combined Deformation/Fringe plot
4 Icon Menu Options:
Select Results
Fringe Attributes
Deform Attributes
Animation Options
Data Manipulation (averaging, coordinate transformation, etc.)
can only be changed by settings.pcl variables
Changing settings means Quitting out of MSC.Patran, editing
settings.pcl, & restarting MSC.Patran
S16-8
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Other limitations:
Process multiple Result Cases at once, but the display will show a pseudo-
animation (1 cycle), where each frame/picture is one of the Result Cases
Selected. This will not do a Max/Min Fringe carpet plot single picture, like
Create/Fringe.
However, the fringe animation will allow you to have either a constant
range/spectrum, or a variable range/spectrum during the animation
Display results on whatever is in the current viewport. If you want to display
on only certain pieces of what is being displayed, you must create a group of
that area and post it by itself
S16-9
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Select Results
Select one or more Result Cases
Optionally select a Fringe and/or Deformation Result
Type
For Fringe, Select the Position(s) and the Component of
interest
Optionally Animate the plot(s)
S16-10
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Result Quantities
For Vector Type Results:
Magnitude, X-Component, Y-Component, Z-Component are
Available
For Tensor Type Results:
Many values shown were not computed by the Analysis code
MSC.Patran knows how to take Tensorial Data and calculate
Result Quantities that are not generated by the Analysis Code
MSC.Patran On-Line help describes the computed Quantity
Derivations in great detail ( Using MSC.Patran
Results_Postprocessing Numerical Methods Derivations )
S16-11
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Engineering vs.True/Tensor Strain Results
Tensor Result Quantities
XY, YZ, & ZX Component vs. XY, YZ & ZX Engr. Component
MSC.Patran translators convert Engineering strain values to Scientific
(True/Tensor) strain values by dividing the shear strain components by 2, i.e.,
xy
=

xy
/2
Analysis codes such as MSC.Nastran & ABAQUS calculate Engineering strain values
MSC.Patran does this conversion (True/Tensor) to calculate other result components and to transform
results into other coordinate systems
To distinguish between Engineering and True/Tensor strain values, and to allow
MSC.Patran to display the same results as the analysis code, the above 6
quantities were made available
Keep in mind that these 6 quantities are shown whenever any tensor result is selected. Be aware that
the Engineering Components are intended only for Shear Strains and no other results, such as Shear
Stresses or Shell Forces.
S16-12
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
True Shear
Strain
Engineering
Shear Strain
S16-13
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Position Sub Form
Select & Filter Positions on elements to be displayed
Several Types
Non-Layered (2D & 3D Solids)
Layeri; i=1 to Max Ply (Laminate Shells)
Center, C, D, E, F (Bars/Beams)
Z1 / Z2 (2D Shell Elements)
One or more positions may be selected
For Quick Plot, multiple positions can be selected for 1 or
more result cases since only 1 Result Case is operated on
at a time
For Other Result Tools, if multiple Result Cases are
selected, only 1 position may be selected, since the other
results tools will process multiple result cases into 1 picture
S16-14
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Position Sub Form (cont)
Options
Maximum: Plot the Maximum value for each element from either the multiple result positions
selected, or from multiple result cases at a singular result position
Minimum: Plot the Minimum value for each element from either the multiple result positions
selected, or from multiple result cases at a singular result position
Average: Plot the Average value at each element from either the multiple result positions selected,
or from multiple result cases at a singular result position
Sum: Plot the Sum value at each element from either the multiple result positions selected, or from
multiple result cases at a singular result position
Merge: This option will Plot the first existing value encountered from any particular layer or Result
Case. For instance if both top and bottom stresses are selected then only the top will be reported.
This is useful for layers that are associated with certain element types. That way a layer with shells,
a layer with solid, and a layer with beam elements can all be displayed simultaneously on the
graphics screen in one operation.
S16-15
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Fringe Attributes
Controls the Display of Fringe plots
Option to display Spectrum & Max/Min summary legend
Control Fringe Style
Discrete/Smooth, Continuous, Discrete/Flat are all targeted towards
nodal type fringe plots
Element Fill is targeted towards Centroidal fringe plots (checker
board pattern)
Fringe overlaid onto elements can be shrunk using the shrink factor
Great in combination with Show Fringe Label toggle when wanting to
display fringe values without colors, especially when comparing
results to MSC.Nastran .F06 file
Element edge color & display can be altered
Edit label style & title content placed on Fringe Plot
Easy Access to Spectrum & Range controls
S16-16
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Deform Attributes
Provides ability to modify the look of a deformed results plot
Deformation shading controlled by Render Style on this form (not
Toolbar shading icons)
Model scale is default scale interpretation
Model Scale is defined as the maximum length of the models bounding
box in the current viewport, multiplied by the Scale Factor on the form.
The resulting value is the scale factor applied to the deformations to be
displayed
True Scale always recommended for non-linear analyses & scale factor
type plots (i.e., 100x displacements shown)
Option to show/unshow Undeformed shape
Control Undeformed shading characteristics in this form as well
Result Titles & Label styles on plot may be adjusted
S16-17
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
Animation Options
Choose to Animate Fringe and/or Deformation plots (available when a single
result case selected)
Constant Range Value option available when multiple result cases are selected
Two Animation Methods (single result case only)
Modal: Animate from 1x to 1x the displayed result values
Ramped: Animate from 0x to 1x the displayed result values
Animation Graphics Control
2D: Animate without the ability to change view of the model
3D: Animate with the ability to change view of the model
Preview: Shows only 1 cycle of the Animation
VRML: Generate a VRML file format of the Animation (single result case only)
MPEG: (Single result case only) Generate an MPEG-1 recording of the displayed Animation
(suggest using default window size to get a manageable MPEG file)
Select the number of frames to display for the Animation
Must use the Animate button on the Select Results Form Icon to initiate the
Animation
S16-18
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Deformation Tool
S16-19
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
The Deformation Tool is specifically designed to deal
with Displacement-type Plots
Provides GUI based flexibility in customizing
Deformation Plots that is not provided in Quick Plot
The Deformation Result listbox may include non-
displacement type results because all vector type
results are listed
Form settings may be saved to a plot name on the
database
S16-20
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Anatomy of Form
Similar to Quick Plot in Format
5 Icon menu Options
Select Results
Target Entities
Display Attributes (same as Quick Plot)
Plot Options
Animation Options
Have an additional option to Modify the Tool (which QP
does not have)
S16-21
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Select Results
The form is essentially the same as shown in Quick Plot
One exception is that multiple Result Cases may be
processed at one time
Based on this, there are Result Case Filter Buttons that may
appear
When there are Result Case names that contain the same
Subcase/Subtitle, they can be displayed in either a compressed
or expanded format
Note: Result Case Name is actually made up of 2 parts: <Nastran
Subtitle>, <Type of Subcase>
S16-22
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Result Case Filtering
Two Icons appear when you have multiple Result
Cases using the same prefix
Compress/Expand Toggle Icon
Select Subcase Filter Icon
The default is to have a Compressed listing if more
than 30 Result Case Names have the same Prefix
settings.pcl variable controls this:
pref_env_set_integer( "result_loadcase_abbreviate", 30 )
The Filter Icon only appears if the
Compress/Expand Toggle Icon is depressed
(activated)
Compressed Format
Expanded Format
S16-23
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Result Case Filtering
When in Compressed format, you must enter the Filter Form to
select Result Cases
Depending on the Analysis type (modal, non-linear, etc.) the
filter method variables may change
Filter Types
Global Variable: Frequency, time,..
String: Text within Result Case Names (may use wildcards
for search)
Subcase IDs: Filter by ID or range of IDs
All: Select all Result Cases
Procedure:
Select one or more Result Case sets
Choose Filter Method, Variable, & Value
Hit Filter & Apply, or add another Filter result
S16-24
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Result Case Name Filtering
Notice that even though the Result Case block is highlighted, the important change is
0 of 40 to 11 of 40. That is your indication that Result Cases have been selected.
Before After
S16-25
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Target Entities
Select what entities to display Deformations upon
Current Viewport: All entities currently posted
Nodes/Elements: Select specific Nodes or Elements
Groups: Select entities by Groups
Materials: Select entities by Material sets
Properties: Select entities by Property sets
Element Types: Select entities by Element Type (BAR2,
QUAD4, etc.)
Additional Display Control:
Elements or Nodes; Available for all Target Entity Options
except for Nodes & Elements
S16-26
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Plot Options
Controls 3 things
Coordinate Transformations
Results Scaling
Allows Deformations to be scaled above and
beyond scale factor on Display Attributes
Constant or PCL function scaling available
Saving Plot Settings to Database
S16-27
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Coordinate Transformation
As Is: No Transformation; Numbers Exactly from Solver Code
CID: Transformed WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame (which can be created on the fly
in MSC.Patran; does not have to be part of the Analysis)
Projected CID: Transformed WRT a selected Projected Coordinate Frame Axis onto
an Element
Global: Transformed WRT the MSC.Patran Global Axes (MSC.Nastran Basic)
Default: Transformed WRT the Projected MSC.Patran Global Axes
Nodal: Transformed into the Nodes Analysis Coordinate System
S16-28
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Save Deformation Plot As:
Name saved to database which contains all settings and results
used to generate the plot
May be posted at a later time using Results->Post/Plots form
Up to 31 characters may be used to define the name
Nomenclature used for plot names are:
<First 3 letters of plot type>_<saved name>
Example: DEF_john plot
Note that if a name is not used to save the settings, an
automatically overwritten name is created containing the last plot
settings using the format:
<First 3 letters of Plot Type>_default_<plot tool>
Example: DEF_default_Deformation
S16-29
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Animation Options
Need to Have Animate Switch turned on (Select Results)
before coming to this form
Select Animation Method depending on result/analysis
type (none, modal, ramp, global variable)
Modal goes from 1x to 1x the values being displayed
Ramped goes from 0x to 1x the values being displayed
Global Variable changes due to Analysis/Results type;
examples being load case id, frequency, time)
S16-30
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Animation Options
Animation Graphics
2D: Display in Viewport w/ no rotation
3D: Display in Viewport w/ rotation
Preview: 1 cycle of Animation shown
VRML: Save Animation to this file format
MPEG: Make an MPEG-1 recording of the Animation (make sure to use Default
Window Size switch for a manageable MPEG file)
Select Number of Frames for Animation
Extrapolation:
Linear: Good for single case Animations (1 static subcase deformation)
Closest Value: Intermediate frames will show values closest known values
None: Best when doing multiple result cases or time steps; Make sure #Frames
= #steps selected
S16-31
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
Animation Control Form
Appears after an Animation starts
May pause and change frame to display manually
Can change the sequence
Provides options for what to do after stopping the
Animation
S16-32
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Fringe Tool
S16-33
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
The Fringe Tool provides fringing capabilities that are not
provided in Quick Plot
GUI based results transformation, averaging options, display options
5 Icon menu Options
Select Results (same as Quick Plot for selection, position, & quantity;
same as Deformation for the rest)
Target Entities
Display Attributes (same as Quick Plot)
Plot Options
Animation Options (same as Deformation)
One of the more misunderstood tools in attempting to correlate
MSC.Patran results to MSC.Nastran results
May Process Multiple Result Cases
S16-34
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Target Entities
Options
Current Viewport: Plot Results on all entities posted in Viewport
Elements/Connectors: Plot Results on selected
Elements/Connectors posted in Viewport
Groups: Plot Results on selected Groups posted in Viewport
Materials/Properties: Plot Results on selected Material/Property
sets assigned to elements posted in Viewport
Element Types: Plot results on specific Element Types posted in
Viewport (QUAD4, BAR2, etc.)
S16-35
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Target Entities (contd)
Additional Display Control
Free Faces: More applicable to 3D Solids; plot results on Free Faces & not
internal shared faces
Faces: More applicable to 3D Solids; plot results on all faces of targeted
elements
Free Edges: Plot Fringe Results on only Free Edges of elements; no fill
Edges: Plot Fringe Results on all edges of elements; no fill
S16-36
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Edge Display
Control Example
Examples of Edge Control
for 2D Shell Models
Free Edge Display
Control Example
S16-37
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Example w/
All Faces
In Solids, Display Control for
Faces, combined with Arbitrary
Clipping Planes, can provide
additional Results
investigation
Example w/
Free Faces
S16-38
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Plot Options
The Mother of All Results Forms
Controls Coordinate Transformation, Value Filtering, &
Averaging Techniques
Save Fringe Plot Options & Scaling Options similar to what
was shown for Deformations
Proper combination of Averaging Selections, along with
Display Attribute Options will produce correct correlation
with MSC.Nastran .F06 results
S16-39
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Coordinate Transformation
As Is: No Transformation; Numbers Exactly from Solver Code
CID: Transformed WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame (which can be created on
the fly in MSC.Patran; does not have to be part of the Analysis)
Projected CID: Transformed WRT a selected Projected Coordinate Frame Axis
onto an Element
Global: Transformed WRT the MSC.Patran Global Axes (MSC.Nastran Basic)
Default: Transformed WRT the Projected MSC.Patran Global Axes
Material: Transformed WRT the Elements Material Coordinate System
Not supported for solid elements
Element IJK: Transformed WRT the MSC.Patran Element Axes
S16-40
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Within Plot Options, you can Filter what Values are shown on a
Fringe Plot
None: No Value Filtering is Applied
Minimum: Values BELOW this Setting will NOT be Displayed
Maximum: Values ABOVE this Setting will NOT be Displayed
Range: Only Show Values BETWEEN the Min/Max Settings
Defined for this Range
Exclude: Show all Displayed Values EXCEPT those WITHIN this
Min/Max Range
Entities falling outside the Filter Parameters are shown with a
black fill (for black backgrounds)
S16-41
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Example of Fringe Results Filtering
S16-42
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Results Averaging
Many Mistakes are made by not knowing the
defaults of these 3 Results Averaging values and
what they do
Some of the Options shown for
Domain/Method/Extrapolation are designed for
Gauss Point Results
MSC.Nastran uses Gauss Point Locations to
INTERNALLY calculate values, but they are not
allowed to be output to the
F06/OP2/XDB/T16/MASTER
Lets talk about how the options operate, and how to
use them to get correct correlation with the
MSC.Nastran .F06 file
S16-43
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Averaging Definition: Domain
All Entities: Average Nodal Values among ALL elements, posted or not
posted
Material: Only Average Nodal Values common with Elements that have the
same Material Property
Property: Only Average Nodal Values common with Elements that have the
same Property sets
Target Entities: Average Nodal Values among Elements defined in the
Target Entities portion of the Fringe Form (2
nd
Icon)
Element Type: Only Average Nodal Values common among elements of the
same type (Quad4, Tri3, etc.)
None: No averaging performed at all
S16-44
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Averaging Definition: Method
Derive/Average: When computing Invariants, such as from a Stress Tensor, compute
the Invariant first, then Average the Invariants coming from each Element contribution
at a common Node
Average/Derive: Compute the Average of the Element-Nodal components used in an
Invariant calculation, and then use the Averaged values to Derive the Invariant
Difference: At a node, the Maximum & Minimum Element-Nodal value is determined,
the difference computed and displayed. Sometimes called a Stress Jump Plot when
plotting Stresses. Quality check method. Must use Domain option other than NONE to
make this work properly.
Sum: Sum all the Element-Nodal values common to a Node and plot that Sum
S16-45
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Averaging Definition: Extrapolation
This has more meaning for Analysis codes that output Gauss Point
Results
Definitions for MSC.Nastran Results are a bit different and will be
discussed here
Shape Function: If Elemental Nodal values exist, use the values at the Nodes
Average: If Elemental Nodal Results exist, Average the values within an element and
assign that value to each Node in the element
Centroid: If Centroidal values exist, use the value at the Centroid
Min: Review all the Result Values within an Element, find the Minimum value, and assign
that value to all Result locations within that Element
Max: Review all the Result Values within an Element, find the Maximum value, and assign
that value to all Result locations within that Element
S16-46
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Comments on Averaging
There are pluses & minuses about Averaging
Pluses
Great way to determine if your mesh has enough density to predict the results.
If the averaged result appears to be the same as the unaveraged result, then
the mesh is considered adequate
Smooths peaking results or results approaching a singularity
Minuses
Blind Averaging can hide real peak results
Never Average:
Across Different Material Boundaries
Across Different Thicknesses
Across Elements with Different Coordinate Systems
Across Elements not in the same Plane
Amongst Different Element Types
S16-47
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Averaging Examples
4 Regions, 2 Different
Materials
4 Regions, 4 Different
Properties/Thicknesses
S16-48
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
Nodal Results, Average Amongst
Common Materials: Good! (Provided
Elements w/ Common Materials Have
same Element Coordinate Axes
Nodal Results, No
Averaging: Good!
Element Centroid Results, No
Averaging: Good!
Nodal Results, Average All Entities:
Bad!
Note that reviewing the Unaveraged
and Averaged Nodal Results, it is
determined that the model does not
have enough mesh density. Results
cant be trusted.
S16-49
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Marker Tool
S16-50
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
Scalar, Vector or Tensor Plots
Displacements & Constraint Forces are Vectors
Element Stresses/Strains/Forces are Tensors
Vector Plot is an Arrow Plot
Tensor Plot can be as detailed as a 6 component Tensor Cube
Scalar Plots are simply a marker shape with a number/value
alongside of it
This saves a person from doing a Fringe plot and turning off the
fringe colors, and turning on the fringe value labels
5 Icon Menu Choices
Select Results (same as Deformation)
Target Entities
Display Attributes
Plot Options (same as Fringe)
Animation Options (same as Deformation)
S16-51
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
Target Entities
Options
Current Viewport: Plot Results on all entities posted in Viewport
Nodes/Elements/Connectors: Plot Results on selected Nodes/Elements/Connectors
posted in Viewport
Groups: Plot Results on selected Groups posted in Viewport
Materials/Properties: Plot Results on selected Material/Property sets assigned to elements
posted in Viewport
Element Types: Plot results on specific Element Types posted in Viewport (QUAD4,
BAR2, etc.)
Additional Display Control
Nodes: Display on Nodes
Elements: Display on Elements
Free Faces: (3D) Display on Free Element Faces
Free Edges: (2D or 3D) Display on Free Element Edges
Corners: Display on Components or Structures Free Corners
S16-52
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
Display Attributes
Controls the look of Scalar Symbols,
Vector Arrows, or Tensor Cubes
Control Scaling of Scalar Symbols,
Vectors & Tensor Boxes
Control Label Style
Now includes its own Label Font Size!!!
Control Result Title, Spectrum & Range
S16-53
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
Another Application of Marker/Tensor
Crows Foot Plots
Turn off Tensor Box
Select in-plane Normal & Shear components
Scale Arrows & Labels correspondingly
Great Application for Utilizing Results
Templates
S16-54
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Cursor Tool
S16-55
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CURSOR
One of the Insight Tools that has
been migrated into MSC.Patran
Results
Create a Scalar, Vector, or
Tensor Tool that when activated,
picked entities will have results
labels shown at their location
S16-56
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CURSOR
Cursor/Scalar shows a single value at either an
Element or a Node
Cursor/Vector shows a column of values at either
an Element or Node
Cursor/Tensor shows a diagonal matrix of
values at either an Element or a Node
Keep in mind to treat Tensor values as Tensors
and Vector values as Vectors to save on
confusion with Tensor/Vector conversions
S16-57
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CURSOR
Display Attributes
Reduced feature form to
modify/create titles & change
label style
Plot Options
Reduced feature form to control
CID Transformation & Result
Averaging
S16-58
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Contour Tool
S16-59
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CONTOUR
Another of the Insight tools
brought into MSC.Patran
Results
Generates old style Contour
Line plots in color or Black &
White
Fringe Post-Processing rules
apply for this tool
S16-60
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CONTOUR
5 Options on form are similar to other forms we have
discussed:
Select Results (Same as Deformation)
Target Entities
Display Attributes
Plot Options (Same as Fringe)
Animation Options (Same as Deformation)
S16-61
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CONTOUR
Target Entities
Only display on Current Viewport, Elements, Groups,
Materials, Properties, and Element Types
ADC only Free Faces
Display Attributes
Similar in look to other forms
Spectrum/Constant switch allows color lines or single
color lines
Modify Contour Line Style & Width
Label Spacing may be controlled
Suggest setting to Min to get the maximum number of
Contour Letter Labels
Title & Label Style Controls
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NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Graph Tool
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NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: GRAPH
A Tool to Plot Results in XY-Plot Format
Plot Results vs. Coordinate Axes, Defined Path Length, or
other Results
4 Icon Menu Options
Select Results
Target Entities
Display Attributes
Plot Options (same as Fringe)
Graphs created using XY-Plot Windows
Additional Graph/Window Control not available in this Tool is
managed by the XY-Plot Application
S16-64
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: GRAPH
Select Results
Only difference to form vs. Fringe or Deformation is the X-Axis selection
option menu
Three choices
Coordinate: Plot Results vs. Location WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame Axis
by selecting a Target Entity Appropriate to the Result type (Nodes, Elements,
etc.)
Result: Plot Results vs. Another Result, such as Stress vs. Strain for a Non-
Linear Analysis
Path Length: Plot Results vs. an Arbitrary Path Length which can be defined by
Points/Nodes, Geometric Curves/Edges, or Beams/2D Element Edges
Target Entities / Display Control changes accordingly to the selection of
the X-Axis Quantity
S16-65
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: GRAPH
Display Attributes
Subset of Display Options for the XY-Curves that will be
generated
Control the Fit and Style of the curve
Control Axis Titles, Scales, & Label Format
Control Name of XY-Window created
Option to Append Curves to a Single XY-Plot Window
Default is to make a separate Window for every XY-Graph
created by this Results Tool
S16-66
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Animations
S16-67
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: ANIMATION
Stand-Alone Animation Tool for
Existing Results Plots
2D & 3D Graphics, Preview, VRML &
MPEG are the same as the Animate
options on Tool forms like Fringe &
Deformation
Single Panel Form (No Icon menu
choices)
S16-68
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: ANIMATION
Procedure
Before using, there MUST be Result Plots posted to the Current Viewport
If not, just go to Post/Plots, and Post existing Plots of interest
After Selecting Plot of Interest & depending on how the Result Plot was made, up to 4
Animation Methods may be Available
None: No Animation Settings
Global Variable: Animate based on Multiple Result Cases / Time Steps /
Frequencies
Modal: Animate from -1x to 1x the displayed result values
Ramp: Animate from 0x to 1x the displayed result values
After Method Selection, the Plots to Animate Listbox will show the method as the first part
of the Plot name (Modal, Ramp, GV)
Choose appropriate options for the selected method
Select the number of frames for the animation and the Interpolation type
For multi-case animations, the number of frames should be the same as the number
of cases/steps
S16-69
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Report Tool
S16-70
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
Facility to Export & Format Results Reports from the
MSC.Patran Database
Select Results Cases, Results Types, Positions, Quantities, &
Entities to have in the Report
4 Icon Menu Options
Select Results
Target Entities
Display Attributes
Plot Options (same as Fringe)
3 Methods
Preview: Show Report in Unix Shell or DOS STDOUT Window
Overwrite File: If File Exists, Overwrite; If not, Create New File
Append File: If File Exists, Append to File; If not, Create New File
S16-71
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
Selecting Results
Normal Procedure of Selecting Results Case(s) & Result
Type
Depending on Result Type, Select Result Position &
Quantity/Quantities
Example Quantities for Stress Tensor:
NSHAPE (element code), Loadcase, Subcase, & Layer ID
X, Y, Z Locations
X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, ZX, XY Engr.,YZ Engr., ZX Engr.
Components
Von Mises, Max/Mid/Min Principal, Max/Min 2D Principal,
Hydrostatic, 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
Invariants, Tresca & Tresca 2D,
Octahedral, Max Shear & Max Shear 2D
CID, ACID, Property Name & ID, Material Name & ID
S16-72
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
Target Entities
Depending on the Target Entity Type (Current
Viewport, Groups, etc.), the Additional Display
Control (ADC) may vary
Example: Element All Data will Export Nodal &
Centroidal Stress Information for the Stress Tensor
S16-73
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
Display Attributes
Since there is no Display for this Results Type,
the Attributes are Report & Data Formatting
Format Allows You to Layout the
Report with Specific Margins,
Column Headings & Order, Titles,
Value Formatting, etc.
Sorting Options Provides a Way
to Sort the Data Report with
Several Options
S16-74
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
Sample Report Output File
S16-75
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Create Tool
S16-76
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CREATE RESULTS
One can Create Analysis Results (within Solver
& Engineering Guidelines) without Re-running
the Analysis
7 Methods of Results Creation
Combine
Maximum / Minimum
Sum
Average
PCL Function
Demo (Facility to Create Sample/Test Results To
Demonstrate the Results Tools)
S16-77
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/COMBINE
Select Result Cases to Combine
Within Spreadsheet, Input Optional Scale
Factors & Result Quantities to Combine
Up to 31 Characters may be used for the New
Result Case Name & New Subcase Name
Think of it as a 62 character max. descriptor
Very useful since MSC.Patran does not store the
Metadata about how the combination was created
S16-78
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/MAX OR MIN
3 Icon Menu Options
Select Results, Target Entities, Plot Options
Multiple Results Cases May be Selected
Note: Resulting Max/Min Case will not indicate which Result
Case the Max/Min Value came from
Up to 62 Characters (31 Result, 31 Subcase) May be used for
New Result Case Name
Only one Quantity per New Result Case at a time
S16-79
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/MAX OR MIN
Select Target Entities to be Saved in this Result Case
(Entire Model, Elements, etc.)
Plot Options Similar to Fringe except for Comparison
Criteria
Method to determine a Max/Min value to be stored to newly
created Result Case
Saved Max/Min quantity is a Scalar Value, regardless of
how it was computed
S16-80
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/SUM OR AVERAGE
Create a New Result Case by Summing a Result Array, such as Stress Tensor in
3 ways:
Select Multiple Results Cases @ one Position
Select Single Result Case & Multiple Positions
Select Multiple Results Cases & Multiple Positions
Entire Result Array Processed (not just one component)
Option to do an Algebraic or Absolute Sum
Results saved in same format as the Array that was being Summed
Results/Average works the same way except that the New Results are either
Averaged by the number of Results Cases Selected or Number of Positions
Selected
S16-81
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/PCL FUNCTION
Create a Result Case by Scaling a Result Array using a PCL
Function
Depending on the Result Array, Different PCL Functions may be
used to Scale Different Components
Option to Save PCL Scaled Results as Scalar, Vector, or Tensor
Quantities
Example: Select Stress Tensor, but only want to operate on the
Octahedral Invariant; Save Result as Scalar
This Option can be Important since Scalar, Tensor, & Vector Results
have their own characteristics in the Results Application
S16-82
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Modify/Post/Delete
S16-83
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MODIFY
We have discussed the Creation Tools in Results
The Modify Function is Available for 5 Tools:
Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Cursor, Contour, Graph, Report
To use, One has to have a Plot Type Saved to the Database
When Entering Form, Select Results has a Button for Existing
<Tool> Plots
After Selecting a Plot, All Icon Menu Forms Affected by the Plot
Changes are Modified
Upon Apply, the Plot Type will be Modified
If Modifying a Saved Plot Name Under Create, MSC.Patran will
Confirm to User if this Operation is to be Performed
S16-84
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: POST & DELETE
Post
Saved Plot Names & Ranges May be Posted to Viewport Any Time
After Being Created
Great Way of Regenerating Plots EXACTLY the way they were Created
the First Time
No Guessing What Settings Were Used
Delete
Option to Delete Plots, Result Data (Arrays), or Result Cases
If Using XDB, MASTER, or T16/T19, this option will do the same thing as
Analysis-Delete/(XDB or MASTER or T16) Attachment
S17-1
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 17
MODEL CHECKOUT
S17-2
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S17-3
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
Pre-Analysis
Understand the structure and the elements
Make small models understand the problem
Use pilot models in areas of uncertainty
If you are not familiar with using the element type or SOLution you
expect to use, make simple models and compare the answers to
theoretical results (with a simple model, you should be able to obtain
excellent correlation with theoretical results).
Model checks before the analysis
Geometry
Pre-processor (or Undeformed plots)
Look at connections between different element types
Based on knowledge of elements
Based on loads
Look at corners (QUAD plates)
Shrink plots
S17-4
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Check for Rigid Body Motions (singularities)
Sufficient Nodal Displacement should be specified so that the 6 rigid
body modes of movement are fixed.
Rigid Body Motion
Adequate Constraints
S17-5
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Rigid Body Motions
Forgetting to Equivalence in Patran or other preprocessors is a very
common error.
Rigid Body Motion
Adequate Constraints
S17-6
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Elements
Beam and bar
Check that I1 and I2 have proper orientation and values
Check all end releases (in member coordinates)
Verify all offsets (in output coordinate system of GRIDs)
Material need E, (or G), and
Plates and Shells
Check aspect ratios, taper, and warpage
Check orientation Z, surfaces consistent
Check attachments especially any depending on in-plane rotational
stiffness, any corners, and shells
Verify any offsets (in element coordinate system)
Material need E, (or G), and
Property entry be sure to get the correct properties. (One of the most
commonly made errors is not specifying MID2 for bending plates.)
S17-7
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Solids
Check aspect ratios
Check taper
Check attachments. If any attachments depend on rotational stiffness,
special modeling effort is required
Material need E, (or G), and
Mass properties
Check on MATi entries
Check NSM on property entries
Bars, beams = mass/unit length
Plates = mass/unit area
Submit with PARAM, GRDPNT, xxxx
where xxxx = ID of GRID point to calculate mass properties about
Always check center of gravity and total weight (mass) versus known
values
S17-8
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Loadings:
Verify they are correct (OLOAD RESULTANT)
Constraints:
Verify that they are defined (often they are forgotten)
Verify they are correct (location and orientation in output coordinate system
of the GRID points)
Verify that they are applied (SPC CASE CONTROL command)
Static Checks ALWAYS RUN STATICS FIRST!!!
Apply 1g in X, Y, and Z directions independently
Check load paths (GPFORCE)
Check reactions (SPC FORCE)
Does total = applied load?
Are the reactions at the correct locations and do they have the correct orientation?
In Dynamics, approximate frequency:
where d = center of gravity displacement in direction of applied g-load
g = acceleration due to gravity
d
g
f
2
1

S17-9
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Equilibrium check verify model is not over-constrained
Run free-free. Remove known constraints and check for
unconstrained motion under applied loads or imposed displacements.
or
Use the Case Control Command GROUNDCHECK, to check for
over-constrained systems.
Thermal equilibrium check if thermal loads are to be considered.
Check on MATi entries
Check for unconstrained thermal expansion on a copy of your
model
Apply a determinate set of constraints
Use the same for all materials
Apply a uniform T to the structure. It should expand freely, that is, with
no reactions, element forces, or stresses
S17-10
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
AUTOSPC
If obvious singularities exist, MD Nastran attempts to
automatically deal with them.
Controlled by either:
AUTOSPC = Yes (case control)
Or
Param,autospc,yes
User action is not needed as feature is turned on by
default in most solution sequences.
S17-11
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW AUTOSPC WORKS
GRID 99 Stiffness Terms
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Hexa Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
S17-12
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW AUTOSPC WORKS (Cont.)
GRID 99 Stiffness Terms
Successful Elimination of
Zero Stiffness terms
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Hexa Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
S17-13
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC
Solid Bar
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
No Elimination of Solid
Element Zero Stiffness terms
S17-14
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.)
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
No Elimination of Solid
Element Zero Stiffness terms
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Combined Stiffness Terms
S17-15
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.)
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
3 Mechanisms !
S17-16
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.)
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
Solutions
Manual SPC
MPCs (later)
Rigid Links (later)
S17-17
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
AUTOSPC
Controlling AUTOSPC
All failed DOFs are written to Grid Point Singularity Table
Can get very large obscure real problems
Write out failed DOFs to .pch File
Param,spcgen,1
or
PUNCH keyword in AUTOSPC Case Control Command
Disable the printout of a table of singularities
Param,prgst,no
or
NOPRINT keyword in AUTOSPC Case Control Command
Re-use generated SPC1 data selectively
S17-18
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE
Essentials
Mesh Density fit for purpose
Mesh Quality fit for purpose
Loading Boundary Conditions
Displacement Boundary Conditions
S17-19
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.)
Mesh Density fit for purpose
S17-20
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.)
Loading Boundary Conditions
Simple Point Loading?
Poor stress Poor stress
distribution locally distribution locally
Good stress Good stress
distribution locally distribution locally
S17-21
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.)
Loading Boundary Conditions
More sophisticated loading?
S17-22
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
After the Analysis
Statics
Check EPSILON and MAXRATIO
Epsilon > 10
-9
may indicate trouble
MAXRATIO > 10
6
may indicate trouble
Check reactions. Do they equal the applied loads ( applied loads are
printed as OLOAD RESULTANT in superelement solutions)?
Check load paths use grid point force balance to trace loads
Check stress contours for consistency
Sharp corners indicate bad modeling
Use different options (i.e., topological and geometric) and compare results
Check stress discontinuities
Compare values to hand calc or small model results
S17-23
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
Dynamics normal modes
Check frequencies. Are they in the expected range? (Did
you forget WTMASS???)
If free-free, are there six rigid-body (f=0.0) modes?
Are there any mechanisms (f=0.0)?
More than six rigid-body modes in free-free?
Any rigid-body modes in constrained modes?
Check mode shapes, and Identify modes
Plots and/or animation
Effective weight and kinetic energy (Case Control Commands
MEFFMASS and EKE) help to identify significant modes
S17-24
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW TO AVOID SERIOUS MODELING
MISTAKES
Take the time to understand the structure and how it
behaves under load. Perform hand analysis or use a
simple model first.
Take the time to understand MSC.NASTRAN
(particularly the elements). Run small samples each
time you try something new.
Use independent checks (if available).
Estimate the cost (labor and computer costs) before
you start.
S17-25
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECK FOR BAD MODES
Identify your modes using one or more of the
following:
Plot your eigenvectors and identify them
Use Case Control Commands EKE, and MEFFMASS to print
kinetic energy and modal effective mass .
Watch for warnings on orthogonality checks
Look for extraneous low frequency modes these
often indicate incorrect modeling.
S17-26
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOME RECOMMENDATIONS
Understand the important things BEFORE you get into
trouble!!!
Understand your structure and how you expect it to perform
Understand your loading
Understand your model
Understand how to use the program
Understand the limitations of the method
Use simple sample problems (preferably with known solutions)
to understand the MSC.Nastran solution.
ALWAYS perform a static solution first, then progress
to the more complicated solutions.