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LATIN COMPOSITION
1

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AN ELEMENTARY GUIDE
TO

Writing
PART
PART
II.
I.

in

Latin

CONSTRUCTIONS
IN

EXERCISES

TRANSLATION

BY
J.

H.

ALLEN and

J.

B.

GREENOUGH

BOSTON GINN AND HEATH


1878

Entered according to Act of Congress,


J.

in the year 1875,

by

H.

ALLEN AND

J.

B.

GREENOUGH,
Washington.

in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at

"

PREFACE.
This book completes the
announced by the present
series of preparatory text-books
It

editors.

has been prepared with

a view to furnish a sufficient amount of study and practice in

Latin composition, during the last year of preparation for college,

and the

first

of

a college course.

It

supposes in the

learner a fair acquaintance with the language, gained by the

reading of the usual authors and the careful study of gram-

mar and notes, with some elementary practice in writing, least as much as that given in the " Method," to which this
intended as a sequel.

at
is

"Latin Composition," so
solely

called, has

often been taught

by the use of detached sentences

illustrating the vari-

ous constructions of syntax, translated out of


to be re-translated into the original form.
that,

Roman

authors,

We

are persuaded

however serviceable

this

may be to give

a certain mechaniit is

cal familiarity with the formal rules of

Grammar,

not a

good preparation

for " composition," in the sense that prop-

erly belongs to that word.

The
is

best

way to

learn intelligently

the usages of the language


Latin.
of

to put real English into real to cover the entire

While we seek, therefore,

ground

syntactical

constructions, the suggestions given in this


of view.

book are throughout from the English point


question

The

we have attempted

to

answer

is

not

"How

closely

may this

or that phrase in Cicero be imitated

by the learner ?

629481

iv
but, "

Preface.

Latin

How may good common English be forms?" We would thus suggest

best represented in

a comparison not

merely of the words or the constructions, but (so to speak) of


the genius and spirit of the two tongues, which,
vinced,
istic
is

we

are con-

the true

way

of appreciating

what

is

most character-

and best worth knowing


this view, the

in the ancient authors.

With

passages to be rendered into Latin are

freely selected from the sources

which seemed suitable

to our

purpose.*

It will

be observed that we

have very early intro;

duced continuous paragraphs or narratives


are not only

which,

we

believe,

more

interesting in themselves, but will be found

easier in practice than detached sentences, besides the advan-

tage of exhibiting the rarer constructions in

situ,

and not as

mere
given

isolated puzzles.

The

extracts have been very carefully

selected, with a view not to anticipate constructions not already


j

or,

where

this is inevitable,

it

is

hoped they

are suf-

ficiently

helped by notes and vocabulary, while they are accomfull

panied in every case by

preliminary instruction.!

The

earlier of these extracts are chiefly anecdotes

from

Roman

history, or other matter within a range already familiar

to the pupil.

In the later ones we have been obliged to

in-

troduce, here and there,


it

modern material and


pupil's

ideas.

These,

is

likely, will tax


it

more severely the

knowledge and
intricate con-

capacity; but

seems evident that the more

structions of Latin prose can be best understood

when we

meet them from our own them


to express our

point of view, and find the need of


of thought.
It

own forms
difficulties

should be

understood that the


language
itself;

they include are those of the


start,

and

it is

best to meet them fairly at the

rather than evade or disguise them.

There

is

no such thing

* Of these we may specify Smith's "Smaller History of Rome," and Sargent's "Easy Passages for Translation into Latin." t It may be worth while to suggest that the teacher may at his pleasure select
single passages or phrases for elementary practice.

Preface.
as

v
indirect discourse in

making a Ciceronian period or an


;

Caesar or Livy an easy thing to boys


fairly

and the student

is

not

master of

them

until

he can to some extent follow and

reproduce them in his own work.


ever,

The

difficulties

may, how-

be lightened to any extent, at the discretion of the

teacher, even to the extent of going over in detail the whole

ground of each exercise


It will

in

advance.

be observed that a Vocabulary has been prepared


First only;

to Part

and that

this

aims only to give, as a

simple mechanical convenience, the Latin terms which

may

be used
occur

in the

passages where the English ones

actually

in the

book, leaving the mind free to attend wholly to

the construction.
start

The

learner should be impressed from the

with the need of habitually consulting his Lati?i Lexicon,

to obtain the true

meaning and use

of the terms
in a partial

he employs.
vocabulary
if

Such explanation as could be given


would be
grounds desirable, the need of

at best of very doubtful service.


it

Even

on some

appears to be removed by

White's excellent " English Latin Dictionary for the use of

Junior Students," which within reasonable limits of size and


price furnishes a guide such as every learner should possess,

who aims

at

any thing better than the mere performance of


of

the required task

the

day

while the more

advanced

student will not be content without something at least as

complete as the larger work of Smith


design of Part Second

or

Arnold.

The

obviously

excludes the use of any


this,

partial or special list of words.

For

we

trust that the

suggestions of the Introduction, and the frequent assistance

given in the notes,

with

the

faithful

consultation of the

Lexicon, which must always be supposed,


sufficient guide.

will

prove a

Cambridge, May

10, 1876.

The

following works, which have been freely used in the prepa-

ration of this manual, will be of service to those

who

desire to
2, 3, 4,

give the subject a more thorough study.

Those marked

have been used


1.

to

some extent

as text-books in this country.

Theorie des lateinischen


1843.

Stiles,

von C.

J.

Grysar.

2d ed.

Koln

J.

G. Schmitz.

A very
2.

complete and elaborate

treatise, the

source from which ex-

cellent material has

been largely drawn by others.

3d ed.

A
tions,

Hints towards Latin Prose Composition. By Alex. W. Potts. London Macmillan & Co. 1872. brief but admirable essay on the main points of Latin style and
:

expression (without exercises), with a great number of brief illustra-

some

of

which

will

be found in the introduction to Part

II. of

the

present manual (pp. 126-129).


3.

Parallel Extracts, arranged for translation into English

with Notes on Idioms.


Epistolary.

By

J.

E.

Nixon.
Co.
1874.

Part

I.

Historical

and Latin, and

London

Macmillan

&

An

excellent working manual, the passages on opposite pages sug-

gesting points of comparison between Latin and English style, and with

numerous figured references


4.

to the introductory Notes.

A Manual
By

of Latin Prose Composition for the use of Schools and

Colleges.

the Rev.

Henry Musgrave Wilkins. 3d


1861.

ed.

London

Parker, Son,

&

Brown.

Numerous
(in

exercises, very fully annotated, a portion being " adapted "

English) to the Latin idiom.


of idiomatic expressions.

With introductory remarks and

table

Key

is

published for the use of

teachers.
5.

Principia Latina.

Part VI.

Short Tales and Anecdotes from

Ancient History for translation into Latin Prose. D.D. 3d ed. London : John Murray. 1870.

By William Smith,

CONTENTS.

Part.
Lesson
I.

I.

Constructions.
PAGE

The Order
Adjectives

of

Words

2.

Rules of Agreement.

i.

Apposition

3-

2.

The Verb

45.

6.
7.

Pronouns.

3- Adjectives Special Uses


1.

Personal and Reflexive

.... .... .... ....


. .

4 6
8
10
12

2. 3.

Demonstrative
Relative
Interrogative and Indefinite

8. 9.

14
17

10. Cases.
11.

4.
1.

2.
3.

As Objects of Verbs As Modifying Adjectives


Indirect Relations

20

....
... ... ...

23

12.
13.

4.
5.

Cause, Means, and Quality


Separation and Comparison

25 28

14.
15.
16.
17. 18.

32

6. Special
7.

Uses of the Genitive

8.

Use of Two Cases Time and Place


Prepositions

34 37

19. Verbs.
20.

9.
1.

39 42
45 48

Narrative Tenses

2.

The Passive Voice


Infinitive Constructions

21.

3.

22.
23.

4.
5.

Participial Constructions

Gerundive Constructions
Subjunctive Constructions

24.

6.

.... .... ....

53

57

60 62

25. Relations of
26.

Time

66 69
72

27.

Purpose and Result Conditional Sentences


Intermediate Clauses
Indirect Discourse

28. Substantive Clauses


29.

74
77

30.

80
83

31. Certain Special Constructions

Part Second.
Introduction
:

i.

Choice of the

Word

or Phrase

...

PAGB

2.

Structure of the Sentence 3. Idiomatic Phrases

119 126
130

Exercises in Translation.
Death of Epaminondas II. The Ring of Gyges III. Cyrus the Younger IV. Xenophon's Sacrifice V. The Sibylline Books VI. Hannibal and Antiochus
I.

135

135 136

136
137 138

VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.

The Talking Crow Hannibal in the Alps.


Hannibal near

Arnold The Embassy of Philip. Arnold


Rome
.

139

139 140
141

Young

Scipio

142
143

XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII.

Bacon Assassination of Caesar. Plutarch


The Tale
of Atalanta.

Hannibal's Exile

145
.

145

Death of Marcus Antonius


Destruction of Carthage

147 148 149 150


151 152
.
.

Xenophon

at the

Sea
. . .

Vercingetorix

...... XXV. XXVI. XXVII. Siege of Syracuse. Arnold XXVIII. Battle of Metaurus. A mold XXIX., Inundations of the Tiber. Gibbon Rome. Livy XXX. First Acting
XXIV.
Arnold Story of Cincinnatus. Feltham Princely Generosity. Creasy Defeat of Varus.
at

Story of Wolves Death of Socrates. Plato Hannibal in the Apennines The Gauls at Rome XXIII. Murder of Marcellus

155

156
157

159 160
161

162

163
165

167

XXXIV. Character of Q2X0. Middleton ....... XXXV. Of Studies. Bacon XXXVI. Antony in Defeat A orth' s Plutarch XXXVII. Speech of Antony. Shakespeare
T
.
. .

XXXI. The Fire of London XXXII. The Earthquake at Lisbon Gibbon XXXIII. Character of Trajan.

169
171

174
175

176
178 180

COMPOSITION.
PART FIRST. CONSTRUCTIONS.

Lesson

i.

The Order of Words.

Read
Note.

carefully the

258-262).

Learn
it

whole of Chapter VI. (pages 343, with c, d ; and 344.


seems

Though

the order of words in a Latin sentence


will

very arbitrary, yet

be observed that almost every arrangement

effect such as must usually be given in English by emphasis or stress of voice. In the Exercises to follow, the pupil should observe the reason of any change he may make from the normal order, and the effect it has in making prominent some particular word or words. He should also acquire, as early as possible, the habit of regarding his composition as a Latin sentence, and not as an English sentence turned into Lati?i words. And he will be aided in this by habitually reading over the sentence as Latin after he has written it, to be sure that it has a Latin sound.

produces some

I.

The normal
is

or regular form of words in a Latin


:

sentence

the following
;

(a)

The

Subject, followed

by

its

modifiers

(b) the modifiers of the Predicate,


(c) the

the direct object being usually put last;

Verb,

preceded by any word or phrase which directly qualifies its action.

This is the order usually to be followed, where no emphasis is thrown on any particular word, as in
simple narrative of fact
:

thus,
\

Hannibal imperator factus proximo triennio omnes gentes Hispaniae hello subegit. Nepos, Harm. 3.
\

'

Latin O,oyiposition.
actual! practice,- file

REMA'kk.-^-ln
is

normal order of words


sake

rarely found.

of emphasis,

It is continually altered, either for the

to throw stress

or for the sake of euphony,

on the more important words ; to make the sentence more

agreeable to the ear.


2.

Modifiers of

Nouns

as
;

adjectives (not predi-

and oblique cases used as attributes modifiers of Verbs usually follow the noun inadverbial phrases cluding adverbs and precede the
cate), appositives,

verb.
the

Genitives

may come

indifferently before or after

noun which they limit, according to emphasis. relative 3. In the arrangement of Clauses, the clause more often comes first in Latin, and usually while, in English, the contains the antecedent noun demonstrative clause almost always precedes as, Quos amisimus elves, eos Martis vis per culit. Cic.
;

Marc.

6.

("Those

citizens

whom," &c. See examples

in 200.

b.)

4.

same order of words


order
1.

In contrasted phrases or clauses, either (1) the is repeated (anaphora) , or (2) the
is

reversed {chiasmus)
Manil.

as,

Helium genere necessarium magnitudine periculosum. id.


10.

2.

Non
5.

terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate,

(id. 11.)

Almost universally the main word of the senis put first (rarely last). This may be (1) simply the emphatic word, containing the idea most prominent in the writer's mind (emphasis) or it may be (2) contrasted with some other word preceding or following (antithesis) Compare, for example, the following
tence
;
. :

1.

M. Brutus

Ciceronis amicus Caesar em interfecit.

2.

3.

Amicus Ciceronis M. Brutus Caesarem interfecit. Caesarem interfecit 31. Brutus Ciceronis amicus.
That
is,

"It was Caesar," &c.

Afposition
4.

Interfecit

Caesarem
is

31.

Brutus Ciceronis amicus.


killing
:

Here the emphasis


5.

thrown on the fact of

compare

Interfectus est propter


tlones V. Gracchus.

Cic. Cat.
est.

quasdam seditionum
1.

suspi-

2 (see the passage).

6.

Ilomae

summum
is

otium

Here Rome spoken of.

contrasted with Syria, which Cicero had just

Rules of

Lesson 2. Agreement. 1. Apposition.


;

Review
used where

184, 185

Learn

a, b,

c.

Observe that in Latin simple apposition is often in English we use as, of, when, or even
:

a separate clause
1.

thus,

2. 3.
4.
5.

I come to help you, adjutor tibi venio. To treat Cicero as a friend, Cicerone amico uti. To regard the gods as immortal, deos aeternos habere. The city of Rome, Homa urbs. I remember seeing when a boy, puer tnemini videre.

6. 7.

Publius and Lucius Scipio, jP. et L. Scipiones.

Cato used to
consul),

tell in his

old age,

Cato seneoc narrabat.

8.

Fabius in his second consulship (when he was second time

Fabius consul iterum.

N.B.
Proper

In the following Exercises, words in brackets are to be

omitted in the Latin.

Names

of the

first

or second declension are not given in


is different

the Vocabulary, except where the spelling

in English.

Exercise
I.

1.

The

consul Caius 1 Flaminius defeated the Insu-

brians. 2
1

The

next consuls, Scipio and Marcellus, conalways to be abbreviated (see 80. title. *Insubres.
d).

Praenomens

(as Caius) are

The name must

here precede the

4
tinued the war.

Latin Composition.
Marcellus slew Viridomarus, chief of
2.

the Insubrians, and Scipio his colleague took Milan,


their

chief town.

Give

this

message

to

Tar^
[into
to-

quinius, your king.

3.

father Tiber, take


4.

me

thy charge] and bear

me

up.

We
The
to

have sworn

gether, three hundred noble youths, against Porsena.


5.

Bocchus was gained over

to the 6.

Roman

cause by

Sulla, the quaestor of Marius.

consul Publius

Rupilius brought the Servile


capture of
holds of the insurgents.

War

an end by the
the two strong-

Tauromenium and Enna,


7.

Sempronia, the only sister of Tiberius Gracchus, was married to the younger Scipio Africanus. 8. The next year, Lucius Cornelius Scipio,

brother of the

great Africanus, and


latter, 2

Caius Laelius, the intimate-friend of the


consuls.
10.
9.

were

The

Ulyrians were a nation of pirates.

The she-wolf acted [as a] mother. 11. The Academy introduced a new [branch of] knowledge [viz.] to know nothing. 12. Demetrius, an unprincipled Greek, surrendered to the Romans the important

island

[of]
at

were born
1

Corcyra. 13. Marius and Cicero Arpinum, a free-town of Latium.


Report these [things] ."
2

Literally, "

idem.

Lesson
i.

3.

Rules of Agreement. 2. The Verb.

Review

204 (the general rule of agreement).


;

Learn

205, with a, b

206. a, b.
its

Note.
in

The correspondence of the verb with


is

subject (called

agreement)

nearly the

same

in

most languages, though obscured

English by the loss of the inflectional endings.

The

peculiarities

The Verb.

of Latin use are given in the sub-sections cited above. The most important of these is the regular omission of the personal pronoun
of the
first

or second person as subject (the pronoun being contained

in the verb-ending 1 ), also of the third

from the context.


2.

Hence

the rule

person whenever

it

is

plain

The

personal pronoun

is

never

to

be expressed

in Latin, except
cision.
3.

when

required for emphasis or pre-

A single idea is very often

expressed in Latin by

two nouns connected by a conjunction (hendiadys). In this case the singular verb is the usual form as,
:

There is a continued series of events, est continuatio et series rerum,


4.

The

following examples
:

Latin usages
1.

show

the most frequent

Faniiius and Mucius came to their father-in-law, et Mucins ad socerum venerunt.

Fannius

2.

Neither

.ffilius

Coruncanius
3.

nor Coruncanius thought ita ptitabat.

so,

nee Aelius nee

Balbus and
If

held up our hands, ego et

Balbus sustuliwell, si til et

mus manus.
4.

you and Tullia are well, Cicero and I are Tullia valetis, ego et Cicero valemus.
earth remained,
et
rarely:

5.

Water and
I say, aio
I strongly
;

aqua

6.
7.

aqua restabat et terra (more terra restabat). they say (people say), aiunt.
for

approve of Epicurus,
(licit

he says, &c, Epicuetc.

rum
8.

valde probo,

enim,

Rational instruction prescribes, ratio et doctrina


scribit.

prae-

N.B.

The

periphrastic forms of the verb

come properly under

the treatment of Adjectives,


1

and are included

in the next Lesson.

the like?

So sometimes in old English or in poetry: as, Did' st ever see (Taming of the Shrew, iv. 1). So the phrases, thank yo7i,
}

pray come, &c.

Latin Com-position.
Exercise
I.
3.

Catulus in the Senate, and Cato in the forum,


2.

hailed Cicero [as] the father of his country.


calls

Cicero

Athens the inventress of arts. 3. The army of Hannibal lived luxuriously at Capua, a beautiful city of Campania. 1 4. We avoid death as-if a dissolution of nature. 5. Many ancient peoples worshipped the dog and cat [as] gods. 6. The swallow, harbinger of Spring, had now appeared. 7. Marcus
Manlius, the preserver of the capitol, came forward 8. The censors, Crassus [as] the patron of the poor.

and Maenius, created two new tribes, the Ufentine and 2 shall set sail to-morrow 9. Quintus and I you and Tiro will wait [for] us in the harbor. 11. To 10. Honor and shame from no condition rise. you, [my] son Marcus, belongs the inheritance of my 12. Never is glory and the imitation of my deeds. danger overcome without danger, as they say. 13. The
Falerian.
;

exigency 3 of the occasion 3 demands severity.

14.

The

mad-scheme of Saturninus and


gave-new-strength
1

the discredit of Marius

to the

Senate.
*

See

184.

b.

In Latin, "
Coiiftnno.

and Quintus."

Two words

with

et.

Lesson
Rules
i.

4.

of Agreement. 3. Adjectives.

186 (the general rule of agreement) ; also sub-section d, and 187, with a, b. Note. As adjectives are not inflected at all in English the beginner is required to pay constant attention to the rule. The

Learn

only special

difficulties likely to arise are

when

the

same

adjective

belongs to two nouns, especially when these are of different genders. As to these, the principles stated 187, with a and b, will in general

be a

sufficient guide.

Adjectives,

2.

The

participial forms in the

compound

tenses, as

well as other participles, are treated in construction as


adjectives
i.
:

as,

Caesar and Bibulus

were elected

consuls,

Caesar

et

Bibu-

lus consules creati sunt.


2.

3.
4.

Tullia is dead (or died), Tullia mortua est. Both consuls were slain, uterque consul occisus est. Virginius and his daughter were left alone before the judgment-seat, Virginias et /ilia ejus soli ante tribunal

relicti sunt.
5.

The wife and

little son of Regulus embraced him as he departed, Megulum discedentem uxor et parvus jilius amplexi sunt.

Exercise
i.

3.

Brutus, the deliverer of his country, and Colla-

husband of Lucretia, were chosen first con2. Disunion and distrust were created among the allies by the Julian law. 3. Herculaneum and Pompeii : have been preserved to our times. 4. The entire Senate and Roman people went out to meet 2 Cicero on his return from exile. 5. All sensible [people] had become alarmed at the mad-conduct of Saturninus. 6. Valerius commanding the foot, and Brutus being appointed to head the cavalry, went out to meet Tarquinon3 the Roman borders. 7. My uncle and myself, having returned to Misenum, passed an anxious and doubtful night. 8. Manlius during-hisabsence 4 had been elected consul a second time. 9. Pompey, having marched into Syria, deposed xAntiochus, and made the country a [Roman] province.
tinus the
suls at

Rome.

10.
foot
1

The

conspiracy against Caesar's life was set-onby Caius Cassius Longinus, an enemy [of] his.
3

Supply urbes in apposition. Obvia?n with dative, following

Lesson

17, h.
4

Rem.

egredi.

absens.

8
ii.

Latin Composition.

Mantua, alas! too near unhappy Cremona. 1 12. You have before your eyes Catiline, the most 13. Aurora opens the purple audacious of men. doors and the courts full of roses. 14. A boar is often 2 15. The wall was common held by a small dog. 4 3 both houses, and was cleft by a narrow chink. to 16. Lepidus[was] defeated near the Mulvian bridge by Catulus [and] sailed with the remainder of his forces
to Sardinia.
1

Dative.

non magnus.

Genitive.

Ablative.

Lesson

5.

Adjectives: Special Uses.


1.

Review

186, 187; learn

188, 189. a, b

(adjectives used as nouns), with 190, 191, 193, 203.

Under

these heads occur

many common

phrases, in

which the Latin usage must be carefully distinguished


from the English as, 1. I saw Scipio in his lifetime, Scipionem vivum 2. He came against his will, invitus venit. 3. Every thing was safe, omnia tuta erant.
:

vidi.

4.
5.

6. 7. 8.

All of us are here, omnes adsumus, He was the first to see (he saw first), primus On the top of a tree, in sumtna arbore. The inner part of the house, interior domus.

vidit.

The

rest

of

the

crowd remained, reliqua multitudo


is

manebat.
Note.

The use of adjectives as nouns

most common

in the

masculine plural, just as in English the wise, the brave, &c.

In

the singular this use is rare, except with a few words which have

become

practically nouns, such as familiaris,

sapiens, a wise

man;

an intimate friend; avarus, a miser, and with neuters as in 4. a.


is

In other cases the noun

generally expressed

and almost always

when a feminine

or neuter would be used.

Hence

Adjectives:
2.

Special Uses,
arise

When

any ambiguity would

from the use


:

of the adjective alone, a noun must be added


1.

as,

Boni, the

good; omnia, every thing,


die,

2.

All [men] must

omnibus moriendum
potentia

est.

But

3.
4.

A
3.

good man, vir bonus,


thing,

Power over every

omnium rerum,

When

or accusative, the

any other case is used than the nominative noun is more commonly expressed,
for distinctness.

even when not required

4. An abstract notion is very often expressed in Latin by an adjective in the neuter plural thus,
:

1.

2.

3.

omnes fortia laudant, The past at least is secure, praeterita saltern tuta sunt, Choose the better part, elige meliora,
All
praise bravery,

men

4.
5.

Fleeting good,

bona caduca,
are often

Pleasing

ill,

mala blanda,
used in Latin where in

5. Adjectives

English
tion
1.
:

we

use the possessive, or a noun and preposiCannae,

as,
fight at

The

2. 3.

Caius Blossius of Cumae, C. Blossius

pugna Cannensis, Cumanus,


most commonly represent the geni15, b.

Another man's house, aliena domus.

Note.
tive,

These
will

adjectives

and

be treated in Lesson

Exercise 4.
i.

Duillius was-the-first

of the

Romans to a conquer
first

in a in

naval battle

Curius Dentatus

led elephants

a triumph.

2.

Right and wrong are by nature

opposed to-each-other. 2 3. After [his] exile Scipio passed the-rest-of his life at Liternum, a small town of Latium. 4. Demosthenes, the Athenian orator, being banished from his country on 3 a false charge
1

Simple adjective.

Inter

se.

Ob.

jo

Latin Composition.

of having received
exile at
2

money 1 from Harpalus,

was-in-

Megara. He [was] afterwards recalled [and] Athens in a ship sent for that [purpose]. returned [to] 5. Octavia and Livia, the one the sister of Augustus, the other [his] wife, had lost [their] sons, the 3 [famous] young Marcellus and Drusus Germanicus. 6. The aged senators who-had-been-consuls 4 or censors 4 sat in the Forum on [their] curule chairs, awaiting death. The Gauls found the city deserted but marching on they came to the Forum, where they beheld the old men sitting immovable like beings 5 of 6 another 6 world. 6 For some time they stood 7 in-awe-at 8 the strange sight, till one of the Gauls ventured to go up to Marcus Papirius and stroke his white beard. The old man smote him on the head with 9 [his] ivory staff; then the barbarian slew him, and all the rest were massacred.
;
1

Lit. "

of

money

received."
6
8

Megarae or
'

is.

tile.

4
7

Adjectives.
Obstipesco.

forma

ac natura.

de caelo delapsus.
9

admirans followed by

ace.

Ablative.

Lesson
i.

6.

Pronouns. 1. Personal and Reflexive.

Review 98
;

(the Personal

and Reflexive Pro-

nouns)

and 99.

a, d, c (Possessive adjectives), d, e.

Observe that the pronouns have almost precisely the

same syntax
2.

as nouns.

Latin never uses the plural of the second person (vos) for the singular you; but often the
plural of the
3.
first

The

person (nos) for the singular /.


objective
thus,

Of
in

the double forms in the genitive plural, the


is

form
i.

urn

partitive, while that in

i is

The elder

of us,
us,

major nostrum,
nostri.

2.

Mindful of

memor

Pronouns.
4.

The

Reflexive pronoun (se), with


is

ing Possessive (suus),

its correspondused in some part of the

predicate, always referring to the subject of the sen-

tence or clause (read the whole of 196).

Note.
and own.

In such cases we generally (not always) use


:

self, selves,

These accordingly are not necessary in being expressed by the when they are emphatic, personal pronoun (me, te, &c.)

Latin,

except

reflexive or the

1.

Virtue
(his

knows

itself,

Virtus se novit.

2.

Brutus slew his

friend,

own

friend,

Brutus amicum suum amicum),


pleasure in
it,

[suum] occidit

3.

Philosophy has

much

Philosophia mul-

tum habet
5.

in se delectationis.

The

Possessives (like other adjectives) take the

gender, number, and case of the noun they are used


with, not of the one they refer
to.

They

are regularly

omitted

when they

are plainly implied (see


Exercise
5.

197).

I.

Bulls defend themselves by [their] horns, boars

by
2.

their tusks, 1 [and] lions

by

their teeth

and claws.

Horatius

slew his

sister

with

his

own hand.

3.

"Young man,"

said Sulla,

"you have strengthened


4.

your

rival against yourself." cried Augustus, " give me 2 back

"Varus, Varus,"
legions." 5. Cras;

my

sus, indeed, has defeated the

enemy

but
"

have exart thou,"

terminated them root-and-branch. 6.


said Brutus,

Who

"and

for

what purpose art-thou-come ?" 3

"I
"

am

thy evil genius, 4 Brutus," replied the spectre;

me to-morrow at Philippi." 7. Ciaccustomed to write down his orations. 8. Few men know their own faults and vices. 9. How long a letter I have written to you with my own hand
thou shalt see
cero was
!

ictus dentium.

Dative.

Perfect active.

Furia.

12
10.

Latin Composition.

Ancus Martius

instituted the college of


at Ostia, at the

Heralds

he also founded a colony


agreeable to

mouth of the

Tiber, and built a fortress on the Janiculum.

n.

Very-

me

is

your remembrance of

me

(plur.).

Lesson

7.

Pronouns. 2. Demonstrative*
i.

Review
a

J ioo,

and learn carefully the sub-seclike the corre-

tions 102.

to e

(use of the Demonstratives).


Demonstratives are used much

Note.

These

sponding words in English, this, that, &c. Observe, however, that though they run into one another in meaning, yet regularly hie,
ille, iste,

are true demonstratives, and actually point to something while is (the pronoun of reference) only refers without pointing
;

out.

Thus

a,

a man, the

7?ian,

one {who), &c, are often rendered

by

is

with qui following.

2.

The

Possessives his, hers,

its,

theirs,

are ex-

pressed by the genitive of a demonstrative, and have

no difference of gender
3.

in the singular.
is

When

the

word

that

used instead of repeating


it

word before expressed,


But when a

is

regularly omitted in
it

Latin.

distinct object is referred to,

may be expressed by ille, hie, or Thus, itself may be repeated.


1.

even

is

or the

noun

I prefer the art of

memory

to that of forgetfulness,

memo-

2.

riae artem quam oblivionis malo. Virtue seeks no other reward except this [of which I have just spoken] of glory, nullam virtus aliam mercedem desiderat praeter hanc laudis. Cic. Arch. 11.

Note. In

such cases, the Latin often prefers some possessive


:

adjective or other construction (see hereafter, Lesson 15)

as,

The army of Caesar defeated that of Pompey at Pharsalus, Caesaris exercitus Pompeiatws ad PJiarsalum vicit.

Pronouns,
Contrary
to the

13

English usage, hie is generally used to refer to a preceding statement or example as, ille to a following one
4.
;
:

That [which
a greater

I
:

have just mentioned]


[namely] that, etc.,

is

a great argument, but this

is

tum, sed
5.

Mud

hoc majus, quod,

magnum
etc.

est

argumen-

Hie

often corresponds with our here^ the present;

ille to
1.

our there;

and

iste,

yonder (by you)

as,

2.
3.

hie C. Caesar. yonder (by you), ista subsellia. Those benches The present (now living) Mucius Scaevola, hie Scaevola.
Caius Caesar here,
6.

Mucins

The

demonstrative pronoun regularly agrees in

gender and number with a predicate appositive if there as, is one ( 195. d) This is the toil, this the task, hie labor hoc opus est.
:

7.

The

intensive ipse

is

usually put in the case of


real

the subject, even

where the

emphasis appears
/)
:

to

be on the object (see


1.

195. /"to

as,

You

praise yourself over much, ipse te


itself,

nimium

laudas.

2.

This thing is sufficient in satis est.

haec res per se ipsa


reflex-

N.B.
ive se
fully

both rendered in English by "self" requires

The distinction between the intensive ipse and the


to

be care-

observed (see
:

102.

<?,

n.).

Ipse often expresses even, very,

or just
1.

as,

This very thing,

hoc ipsum.

2.

It is just three years, tres

anni ipsi sunt.


6.

Exercise
i.

yneas carried with him

into Italy his son

Ascakindly

nius and the sacred Penates of-Troy. 1

He was

received by Latinus, king of the country, and married


1

Adjective.

14
his

Latin Composition.
daughter Lavinia.
3.
2.

All philosophers, and

among

them
tian.

Epictetus, were banished from

Rome

by Domi4.
1

The

ancients regard this [as] true riches,

this [as] a
all

good reputation and great renown.


is

While
that

arrogance

hateful,
is

at-the-same-time
by-far the

of

most offensive. 5. Diseases of the mind are more dangerous than 6. The self-same Cato, the Centhose of the body. sor, thus discourses in that very book of Cicero on Old

genius and eloquence

Age.
8.

7.

When

listen-to

Cicero,

desire to write

down his orations, so greatly they delight me. Romulus killed with his own hand Acron, king of Caenina, and dedicated his arms to Jupiter. 9. Upon 2
the death of

Numa

an interregnum again followed

but soon after Tullus Hostilius was elected king.


reign

His

had been peaceful. *io. Servius, the sixth king of Rome, gave his two daughters in marriage to the two sons of Tarquinius Priscus, Lucius and Aruns. The former was proud and haughty; the latter, unambitious and quiet. 11. This was the third and last attempt [on the part] of the Tarquinii for by this victory 5 the Latins were completely humbled, and Tarquinius Superbus could apply He had already surto no other state for assistance. vived all his family, 3 and he now fled to-Cumae, 4 where he died a wretched and childless old man.
as warlike as that of
;

was

Numa

cum

turn.
6

Ablative.
c lades

Dative.
cc).

Accusative.

Use

.(see p. 121,

Lesson
i.

8.

Pronouns. 3. Relative.

Review

198 (the rule of agreement), reading


e.

the introductory Note; together with 199, 201.

Relatives,

15

Note. relative word used as in English, merely to introduce a descriptive fact, is as simple in construction as a demonstrative, and requires no special rule. Several classes of relative clauses in which the mood of the verb is affected 317-320) will be treated
(

hereafter.

N.B. Adverbs
2.

Relative words include relative Pronouns, Adjectives, and


;

with the indefinites quisquis and quicumque, whoever.

The
it

relative

is

never

to

be omitted in Latin,

though
1.
2.

often

is

in English.

Thus,

3.

The book you gave me, liber quern mihi dedisti, I am the man I always was, is sum, qui semper fui. He is in the place I told you of, eo in loco est de quo
tibi

locutus sum.
relative is often

used in Latin where other constructions are used in English particularly where we should use a participle, appositive, or noun of
3.
;

The

agency as, 1. The book entitled


:

2.

3. 4.
5.

Brutus, liber qui dicitur ^Brutus. The existing laws, leges quae nunc sunt. The men of our day, homines qui nunc sunt. Caesar the conqueror of Gaul, Caesar qui Galliam vicit. True glory the fruit of virtue, just a gloria qui est fructus

virtutis.
4. In formal or

to place the relative clause

emphatic discourse, it is often better first and in such cases it


; :

usually contains the antecedent noun


Those

as,

evils which we suffer with many seem to us lighter, quae mala cum multis patimur ea nobis leviora

videntur.

noun is in apposition with the main clause or some word in it, it is to be put in
5.

When

the antecedent

the relative clause

as,
is

Steadfast friends, a class of which there

great lack,

firmi

amid, cujus generis

est

magna penuria.

6
1

Latin Composition
6.

relative

is

constantly used in

Latin

when
as,

English uses a demonstrative with and or but:


i.

And

since these things are so,

quae cum
qui

ita sint.
si

2.

But if they hesitate or are aut gravabuntur.


7.

unwilling,

dubitabunt

When
it

the

word as

is

used in English as a rela-

by the relative promust be rendered noun, adjective, or adverb which corresponds to its
tive,

in Latin

demonstrative antecedent
1.

as,

2.

3.

The same thing as, eadem, res quae, Such (men) as, el qui, Such a leader as we know Hannibal to have been, talis

dux qualem Hannibalem novimus,


4.

There were as many opinions as men, quot erant sententiae.


Exercise
i.
7.
1

homines

tot

Tiberius Gracchus was by birth

connected with the noblest families in grandson of the conqueror of Hannibal, son-in-law of the chief of the Senate, and brother-in-law of the destroyer 3 of Carthage. 2. Quintus Silo, a Marsian, and Caius Papius Mutilus, a Samnite, who cherished an hereditary hatred against the Romans, were chosen
consuls.
3.

and marriage 2 the Republic

Sulla with his

Nola, a town which was


4.

still

army was then besieging held by the Samnites.


;

exposed to great danger for those who had been her most faithful friends now rose against her. 5. A day shall come when * sacred Troy shall
terms which the general proposed seemed intolerable to the Carthaginians. 7. Tiberius and Caius Gracchus were the sons of Tiberius Semj

Rome was now

perish.

6.

The

pronius Gracchus, whose measures gave tranquillity


1

Propinquitas
Lit.

(plur.).

Adfinitas (plur.).

" of him

who

destroyed."

Repeat the noun.

Interrogatives
to

But they were educated with the utmost care by their mother Cornelia, the daughter of Scipio Africanus the elder, who had inherited from 4 [her] father a love of literature, and united 5 in herperson 6 the severe virtue of the Roman matron with a superior knowledge 7 and refinement, which 8 then prevailed 9 in 10 the higher-classes 11 at-Rome. 12 She engaged for [her] sons the most eminent Greek teachers and from the pains she took 13 with u their
at

Spain for an early

so

many

years.

They

lost their father

age.

education they surpassed


their age.
I
4 7
II

all

the

Roman
3 6

youths of

per.

2
5

Ablative.

pri?nus.
se.
10

studium.
docirina.
nobiles.
l2

habeo conjunctam.
plural.
13

Neuter

floreo,

apud.
dare.

Adjective.
14

"

Take

pains,"

operam

Dative.

Lesson

9.

Pronouns: Interrogative and Indefinite.

tive

104, 106, with a (forms of InterrogaPronoun). These forms, including quisnam (emphatic), and titer (see 83, and a), are used much as in English. Thus,

Review

1. 2.

3.

4.

is the man? Quis est homo? What a man he was! Qui homo erat! What do you find fault with? Quid reprehendis? What plan of his do you find fault with? Quod consil-

Who

ium
5.

ejus reprehendis?

6. 7.

Which eye aches? Titer oculus dolet? Which finger hurts? Qui digitus dolet?

8.

Who Who

is

it? (emph.)

")

world (pray who) is it?


in the

I
j

Q u i snam es t ?
(The

Quis tandem

est ?

latter a little stron S er -)

8
1

Latin Composition.
2.

Review
;

105.

c, d, e,

h (forms and use of the

Indefinites)
a.

study the whole of

202.

The pronouns which correspond to the English a or some, any (indefinite, not emphatic) are quis, quispiam, aliquis, quidam. Of these quis is the least definite, and quidam the most. When some is used of objects defined in thought though not named, it is regularly quidam. The expressions nonnullus, nonnemo, nonnihil are somewhat less definite than quidam. Quis is the regular word after si, nisi, ne, num, to signify if any, &c. With these particles aliquis is more definite, like our if some one, &c. A few or several may be expressed by aliquot, nonnulli, plures; pauci (restrictive) means only a few. The English any one who is often best rendered by si quis (See Note, Gr. p. 227).
one, or
1. 2.

3.

Some cne may cay, aliquis dicat (dixerit quispiam). Some philosophers think so, aliqui (or, if definite persons are thought of, quidam) philosophi ita putant. Some poor women live here, habitant hie quaedam
mulieres panperculae. [That is, some women he knows some women or other would be aliquae or nescio
quae.]

4.
5.

Up

runs a man, accurrit

quidam.
aliquot amicos adhibebo.

I will call in a

few

friends,

6.

In the very senate-house there is more than one enemy, in ipsa curia nonnemo hostis est.

7.

8.

Banished not on some other charge but this very one, expulsus non alio aliquo sed eo ipso crimine. He neither denies nor asserts a thing, neque negat aliquid neque ait (any thing whatever would be quidquam).
b.

The pronouns which correspond most nearly with the English quisquam (substantive), ullus (adjective), quivis, and quilibet The first two are used chiefly with negatives (but see 202. b, c) the other two are universal {any you tike).

any

(emphatic) are

of, either is uter (corresponding to quisquam), utervis, uterlibet (corresponding to quivis and quilibet). For the negatives non quisquam, non ullus, non quid-

When

only two are spoken

quam, non
1.

uter, use

nemo,

nullus, nihil, neuter.

"What can happen to any (one) man can happen to any man (whatever), cuivis potest accidere quod cui-

quam potest.

Indefinites.
2.

19

3.

4.

any thing worse, numguam quidquam feci pejus (better, nihil uniquam). "Why did I send to anybody before you? cur cuiquam mist prius ? I have less strength than either one of you, minus habeo
I never did

virium
5.

quam vestrum

utervis.
flight,

No
c.

one thinking of any thing but nisi fugae memor.

nemo

ullius rei

The

Distributives each, every, are expressed by quisque


if

(uterque,
nearly the

there are only two).

Unusquisque

is

more emphatic
and
is

{every single one).

Omnis

is

sometimes used

in the singular in

same sense as quisque, but more

indefinitely,

almost equivalent to a plural.


1.

2.

3.

4.

Every good book is better the larger it is, bonus liber melior est quisque, quo major. Both armies go away every man to his home, ambo exercitus suas quisque abeunt domos. Each army was in sight of the other, uterque utrique erat exercitus in conspectu. Every system of instruction (=all systems of instruction),

omnis ratio

et

doctrina.
Exercise
8.

i.

Which do you

consider the greatest general,


?

Caesar, Scipio, or Hannibal

Which

the better orator,

Cicero or Demosthenes

2.

"We

here bring you war

and peace," said the


3.

Roman
;

ate of the Carthaginians

"

ambassadors in the Senwhich pleases you best ? "

any recommendation were redeemed by some brilliant qualities. 5. Most men's vices are redeemed by some better qualities. 6. No x great man was ever without some divine inspiration. 7. Horace did not read his poetry to any one except friends and then 2 under compulsion, not everywhere,
of ancestors.
4.

that of the consulship without

Pompey

obtained the highest dignity in the State

The

vices of Alcibiades

nemo.

Lit.

" and that."

20
nor before
skill
2
1

Latin Composition.

everybody [indiscriminately].
3

8.

Some

as

an orator

is

necessary to a commander.
of Sparta were dissatisfied
;

9.

Several of the

allies

and soon after some of them determined to restore the ancient power 10. Some slight battles occurred, in which of Argos. the side 5 of-the-Syracusans 6 had the advantage. 7 11. Since Agamemnon, no Grecian king had led an
4

with the peace she had concluded

army

into Asia.

12.

It is

contrary-to nature to take

any thing from any other 9 [person]. Does anyone deny this ? 13. Whoever had killed a tyrant was Thus Harmopraised by the Greeks and Romans. dius, who expelled the sons of Pisistratus, was honored at Athens; Timoleon, who consented-to 10 the death of his brother Timophanes, at Corinth and Brutus,
;

the slayer of Julius Csesar, at


1 4

Rome.

Coram with
Infinitive.
8

abl.
5

Lit.
6

res.

" Something of skill." 3 Adjective. 7 Adjective. Lit. " was superior."


9

detraho.

Dative.

10

probo.

Cases.

Lesson 10. 1. As Objects of

Verbs.

i.

Review
;
;

237, with b, c (Accusative as Direct

Object) Object)

225, 227, with a, b, 228 (Dative as Indirect

219,

220,

221

(Genitive as the object of


;

verbs of

and 249 (Ablative of means, with utor, etc.). 2. All of the above cases are used in Latin with different classes of verbs to represent the English
Feeling)
Objective case.
1.

Memory and

I see the

man, man,

Thus hominem
:

video (Accusative).

2.

I help the I pity

3.

4.

I treat

homini subvenio (Dative). the man, Jiominis miser eor (Genitive). the man as a friend, homine amico utor (Ablative).

Object-Cases,

21
is

Remark.

In

all

the above examples the verb

transi-

tive in English,

but not really so in Latin.

In deciding on
verb,

the case to be used as the

object of any given


:

following points are to be observed


a.
to

the

The

Accusative, as the case of Direct Object,

general in

its

use than either of the others

represent the English

is far more and may be assumed Objective, except as limited by the


;

special rules which follow.


b.

The Dative

is

to

be used, along with the Accusative, wher-

ever in English two object-cases follow, with one of which

we may

use the preposition to or for (except after verbs of Asking and

Teaching, which take two accusatives)


1.

as,

He
I

gave

me

lib
2. 3. 4.

rum

the dedit.

book
fig,

= he

gave the book to me), tnihi

promise you a
for

He asked me

Plato taught his

tibi jficum promitto. But money, pecuniain me rogavit. scholars geometry, Plato discipulos

suos geometriam, docuit.

The Dative

is

also to be

used

after the

verbs (apparently tran-

sitive) given in the lists in 227, 228, 229.

with the accompanying examples and remarks,


studied
;

These sub-sections, must be attentively


is

as an accurate knowledge of these classes of verbs

absolutely essential to the correct use of the language in one of


the

commonest constructions
c.

in Latin.
in Latin are few,

Verbs governing the Genitive


are
chiefly verbs

and belong
(with

to

the strictly limited classes given in the sub-sections under 219, &c.

They

of

Memory and

Feeling

egeo,

indigeo, 7ieed).

The

genitive of Charge and Penalty corresponds

with the English use of the preposition of.

d. The only verbs governing the Ablative in Latin, corresponding to transitives in English, are the few deponents given above,

249 either of them may easily be represented in English by a phrase with a preposition as,

: :

1. 2.

I use

(make use

of)

a sword, gladio titor,

He

eats (feeds on) flesh,

came
of)

vescitur.

3.

They abuse (take advantage mea abutuntur.

my

friendship,

amicitia

22

Latin Composition.
Exercise
i.
9.

In our

own
2.
I

calamity,

we remember the

calamities

of others.
peril of 2

day: it reminds me at-once l of the greatest delight and 1 greatest


shall never forget that

life. 3. Pity the sorrows of a poor old Bocchus, king of Mauretania, had-pity-on the condition of his son-in-law, Jugurtha, king of Nu-

my

man.

4.

midia, and promised him aid

but afterwards, calling-

to-mind 3 the greater power of the Romans, betrayed

him

to Sulla, the quaestor of

Caius Marius.

5.

The

Italians loudly

demanded

the rights

which had been

6. Caesar forgave all promised them by Drusus. those who had fought on the side of Pompey in the civil war. 7. Marius commanded a separate army in the neighborhood. 8. If a patrician man married

a plebeian wife, or a patrician

woman

plebeian

husband, the State did not recognize the marriage. 9. Dentatus had accompanied the triumphs of nine generals. As tribune of the people, he most bitterly 10. The Knights abused opposed the patricians. the judicial power, as the Senate had done before.
11.

He who commands

the sea

is

lord of affairs.

12.

After the Mithridatic war,


private-citizen,

Pompey, [though] only a performed the part of a commander,

and having gained 4 a brilliant victory was received by Sulla with the greatest distinction. 13. Marcus Livius Drusus, like his father, favored the side of the nobles. But he had promised the Latins and allies the Roman franchise, a measure which had always displeased the Roman people, and which they violently resisted. Drusus, therefore, had recourse to sedition and conspiracy. A secret-society
levied three legions,
4
1

cum

turn.

in.

memor, with gen.

Abl. abs. Passive.

Cases with Adjectives.

23

was formed, which was bound by oath to obey 1 his commands. The ferment increased, and threatened the safety 3 ofthe State; but at last Drusus was assassinated in his
1

own
Lit.

house. 2
infin.
*

Ace. and
3

domi suae.

danger or destruction, with dat.

Lesson n.
Cases. 2.

As Modifying

Adjectives.

i.

Review
;

218. a, &, c,

(Genitive with Adjec;

tives)

234. a (Dative of Fitness, &c.)

243. d, 244.

a, 245. a, 248. c, 253, 254. b. N. B. These rules include many


like adjectives.

participles,

which are used

2.

Adjectives in

English

almost
their

always require

phrases with prepositions

when

meaning

is

to

be limited or explained. In Latin this is generally done by using after the adjective the Genitive, Dative,
or Ablative case without a preposition. Note.
in the

Some

particular adjectives

rather
will

take a preposition, as in English.

These

than classes be treated hereafter,

Lesson on Prepositions (see

234. b, c).

a. Relative Adjectives
rally relates to

that

is,

adjectives

whose quality natuto the

some

object, especially

object of a transitive verb


relation
1.

regularly

one which corresponds


take the Genitive.

This
as,

is

often expressed in English

by the preposition of:

Mindful of others, forgetful of himself, oblitus sui.


Disdaining

memor

alioj'um,

2.

3.

4.

letters, fastidiosus literarum. Possessed of reason and judgment, compos rationis et Judicii. Sharing in the booty, particeps praedae.

See also examples under

218. a,

b, c.

24
6.

Latin Composition
Where

the relation between the adjective and

noun would be

expressed in English by the preposition to or for, it is commonly expressed in Latin by the Dative. The chief exceptions are given
in

234.

6, c, d, e.

(See constructions given in the Dictionary

under each word.)


1.

2.

A A A
c.

battle very like a

flight,

man

hateful to

many,

pugna simillima fugae. homo odiosus multis,

3.
4.
5.

hostile to virtue, tempora infesta virtuti. Adjoining the Belgians, finitimi Belgis, law advantageous to the state, lex utilis rei pub-

Times

licae,

When

the
in,

meaning of the
IN

the modifying phrase denotes that in respect to which adjective is taken where the English uses

regard

to, or the like; sometimes


:

OF

the

Ablative

is

generally used in Latin


1.

as,

2.

Lame of one foot, claudus altero pede. A man distinguished in war, vir hello egregius.
"Worthy of
praise,

3.

dignus laude.

and Genitive approach each but the Ablative generally expresses a remoter and the Genitive a closer relation. The same relation is often
this use the Ablative
;

Note.

In

other in meaning

expressed by the Accusative with ad.


Exercise 10.
I.

Oil rubbed-upon

the body

makes

it

more capa2.

ble of enduring heat,

cold, or hardship.

Numa

instituted a college of priests, four in


fifth

king of

Rome

number. 3. The was an Etruscan by birth, but a


4.

Greek by descent.
is

The

reign of Servius Tullius

almost as barren of military exploits as that of

5. Wild beasts are not only devoid of reason and speech, but ungovernable 2 in fury, and impatient of control. 6. A Roman patrician had a-number-of 3

Numa.

clients attached to
1

him,
3

to

whom
2

he acted as patron.
with genitive.

inunctus, with the dative.

itnfiotens,

quidajn.

Cases: Indirect,
7.

25

Mucius, ignorant of the person 1 of Porsena, killed 8. Veii his secretary instead-of the king himself.

was

closely allied with Fidenae.

9.

The

Pentri in-

habited the Apennines.

But, not content with their

mountain homes, 2 they overran the rich lands of Cam10. The season of the year was favorable to pania. Hasdrubal, and the Gauls were-friendly-to his cause. 11. The Roman ambassadors, forgetting their sacred 12. At character, 3 fought in the ranks 4 of Clusium. the beginning of the first Punic war, the Romans had no fleet worthy of the name. 5 13. Porsena, alarmed
for his life, offered

terms of peace to the Romans.


ambitious of power

14.

Cneius

Pompey was extremely

and glory, and jealous of the superior merit and fame 15. The Romans were like the Spartans in 6 [their] passion for 7 military glory and empire.
of other men.
16.

The

poet Archias, a

man endowed

with genius

and virtue, was regarded by Cicero [as] equal to the most learned of the Greeks, and worthy of the highest praise. 8
1 2 fades. 6 id nomen. 3 8 4 7

sedes.

officium.

acies Clusina (sing.).


8

Ablative.

Genitive.

Plural.

Cases.

Lesson 12. 3. Indirect Relations.

Review 224 to 230; 231, 233, 235 (Dative of Indirect Object, of Possession, of Service, of Reference)
;

also

222 (refert and interest).


is

a. The most common use of to or for in English sented in Latin by the Dative of Indirect Object as,
:

repre-

1.

The province
obtigit.

fell

by

lot to Cicero,

provincia Ciceroni

26
2.

Latin Composition
I

consult for the safety of the state, civitatis saluti


health,

3.

consulo* Medicine is sometimes bad for the valetudini nonnumquam nocet.

medicina
cases

Note.

1.

These

should be distinguished
is

where the

direct effect of an action

from the spoken of as,


:

The dust hurts


2.

my

eye,

pulvis oculum
must

meum

laedit.

The

dative of indirect object

apparently the same in English where guished from the cases to or for expresses the limit of motion. In Latin all relations of place, where, whence, or whither, are regularly expressed by

also be carefully distin-

means of prepositions (see


b.

hereafter,

Lesson

17).
is

This construction (dative of indirect object)

used

in

many
is

cases to express with, over, upon, in, before, against, where


in the Latin expression a

verb compounded with a preposition

used (see
1.

list in

228: ad, ante, con, &c.)

rock hung over his head,

2.

I agree

saxum capiti impendebat. with Zeno, Zenoni adsentior.


omnibus ejus
consi-

3.

I set myself against all his plans,


liis obstiti,

N. B.

Particular

attention

construction of each of these

must be given to the meaning and compounds in the vocabulary, as


:

many

of them are transitive and take the accusative (See p. 44)

as,

He

besieged the city of Alesia,


c.

urbem Alesiam
is

obsidebat.

by a Latin idiom, expressed by the Dative with esse (compare Rem. under 231): as,
often,
1.

The English verb to have

2.

The boy's name (or Marco).


d.

have a father at home, est mihi pater domi. is Marcus, puero nomen est

Marcus

The phrases

it

belongs

to, it is

most commonly expressed


It is

in Latin

the part of, and the like, are by the Genitive with esse as,
:

the part of wisdom (of a wise man), sapientis (compare d, with Remark).

or, it is

wise, est

e.
is
still

To
is

or for is also expressed by the Dative when the object more remotely connected with the action, so that the sen-

tence

complete without

it

(dative of reference)

as,

Cases: Indirect.

27

The good husbandman plants trees for his posterity, posteris sals serit arbores bonus agricola (compare the
examples
in 235.

and

a).

f. When for or of expresses the purpose or end of an action, the Latin idiom has the dative, often with the dative of indirect object also
1.
:

as,

Caesar sent three cohorts for a guard,

Caesar

tres co-

hortes praesidlo tnisit.


2.

It

was

of great service to our men,

tnagno usui nostris


is

fuit.

Note.
struction

In
is

English the same relation

often expressed

by

simple apposition or by the conjunction as.


limited to a few words, which

In Latin this con-

must be learned by

practice (see examples

and Note

under

233).

For the cases in which to or for is expressed by the geniand interest, see 222. a, b. The phrase for my sake and the t'epublic^s is expressed by mea et reipublicae causa.
g.
tive with refert

Exercise 11.
I.

The

troops of Sulla did no injury to the towns


2.

or fields of the Italians.

Tiberius Gracchus relied

3. Both Quintus Caand Hortensius were-opponents-of 1 the Gabinian Law. 4. On 2 the arrival of Pompey, Tigranes was

chiefly on the country-people.

tulus

obliged to look-to-the-safety-of 3 his

The great-numbers

of the

rather than a help to

own power. 5. enemy were a hindrance them. 6. Caesar's death was

to the

undoubtedly a loss not only to the Roman people, but whole world. 7. To the modern reader the
elegies of Propertius are not so attractive as those of

Tibullus.

8. The greatest danger Rome had experienced since the time of Hannibal was now impending over the State. 9. The consulship fell to Cneius Octavius, who belonged to the aristocratic-party, 5 and Lucius Cinna, a professed champion of the people.
1

obsisto.

Ablative.

firospkio.

multitude?.

optimates.

; ;

28

Latin Composition.
their
1

To
it

election

Sulla

made-no-opposition, 3

for

was his own The Gauls once


but Caesar

interest to quit Italy immediately.

10.

attacked the
his

camp

of 4 Quintus Cicero,

brother of the orator, [as he was] wintering in Gaul

came

to

assistance with two legions,

n. A servant of the consul and rescued him. Opimius, pushing against Gracchus, insolently cried 12. out, " Make way for honest men, you rascals " " Stand aside young man," said Caesar to the tribune
!

Metellus,
"
it is

who

vainly attempted to defend the treasury

easier for

me

to

do than say."

13.

Damophilus,

a wealthy man-of-Enna, had treated his slaves with-

They consulted a Syrian slave, whose name was Ennus, who belonged-to 6 another
excessive-barbarity. 5

This Ennus pretended-to 7 the gift-of-proHe phecy, 8 and appeared to breathe flames-of-fire. joined in the not only promised them success, but enterprise himself. 14. " Mother," exclaimed Coriomaster.
lanus, " thine
is

the victory, a

happy

victory for thee,

but
1
5

shame and
Relative.

ruin to thy son."


2

petitio.
6 8

non

obsz'stere.
7

Dative.

Adverb

in superlative.

servio.

sibi adrogare.

vis divina.

Lesson
Cases.

13.

4.

Cause, Means, and Quality.

Review

246, 248 (Ablative of Agent

and Means)
;

251 with 215 (ablative and genitive of Quality) with a (Price and Value: compare 215. c)
(ablative of Cause), with #, b,
c.

252
245

a. The means, instrument, or agent by which any thing is done we commonly express in English by the preposition by or with. In Latin a distinction is made between the voluntary agent
(expressed by the ablative with ab)
;

a person considered as an

Cases: Cause, &c.


;

29

the

instrument or means (expressed by par with the accusative) and means or instriDnent (expressed by the ablative alone, or Thus in special cases by per with the accusative).

1.

Caesar

was informed by

the ambassadors,

Caesar certior

/actus est a legatis,


2.

Caesar was informed by ambassadors (i. e. by means of ambassadors), Caesar certior factus est per legatos. Caesar was informed by letter, Caesar certior factus est Uteris (or per liter as if the letters were official documents used expressly as means of information).
b.

3.

of,

The English on account of, for, from, for the sake through, denoting cause, occasion, or motive, though oftenest
:

expressed by the ablative alone, are frequently also rendered by


prepositions
1.

as,

It

happened through
of the
in

my

fault,

mea

culpa accidit.

2.

On account

pleasure from conversation I delight

entertainments,

propter sermonis deleetationem


for
(so

conviviis detector*
3.

4.

"We love the good propter virtutes He could not speak


poiuit.

their virtues,

bonos diligimus

pro

tneritis),

for grief,

loqui

prae maerore nan

ex quo, on which account; ex eo quod, So the phrases: for the 7'eason that ; per aetatem, by reason of age j quam ob rem, wherefore. See also Lesson 18.
c.

Quality

is

very often expressed in English by a noun


:

with the preposition of

as,

man of

worth, a tale of horror.

In Latin an adjective must be used in such cases, except

noun of quality has an adjective connected with


put either
in the genitive or ablative
trait.
:

it,

when

generally the

noun describes a physical


1.

Thus
(or

when the it may be latter when the

2. 3.

A man A man A man

4.

fortissimus). egregiae virtutis, of bodily strength and beauty, homo validus et pulcher. Achilles was a man of very great strength and remarkable beauty, Achilles vir erat summis viribus et eximia pulchritudine*
of eminent valor, vir

of valor, vir fortis

30
d. Manner
pressed by

Latin Composition.

in

English with or in
is

is in
;

Latin usually ex-

an Adverb when there

one
as,

otherwise by the

ablative, otten with


1.

cum
(or,

(see 248. R.)


(or,

With

care,

accurate

cum

cur a),

2.

In silence, taclte

silent to),

3. 4.

In the most friendly manner, amicissime,


"With the greatest zeal,
e.

summo

studio.
given
in

The

Price of a thing,

preposition

for

or

at,

when

usually
;

English with the


is

a definite

sum

stated,

is

expressed in Latin by the Ablative


is

but indefinite price or value

given

expressed by the Genitives of Quantity (tanti, quanti, &c), in 252. a. These Genitives often answer to the use of an adverb in English, such as highly, slightly, not-at-all, used with
expressions of value or esteem.
1.

Thus

How much
terces.

does this house

sell

for? ten thousand ses-

Quanti hae aedes veneunt? decies mille


JPlatonem

nummis.
2.

I esteem Plato very highly, but the truth more,

permagni sed veritatem pluris aestimo.


Exercise 12.
i.

The Veneti had much


positions.

confidence in their

forti-

fied

Their coasts were fringed with pro-

montories and peninsulas, and, relying on their strong

armed and supplied x with leathern sails, they were not alarmed even by the greatest tempests of the ocean. 2. A liar 2 hath need of a good memory,
ships, fully

always consistent with itself. 3. I offer because thou art demyself to thee, O Hercules scended from the gods, and givest proofs of that descent by thy love of virtue. 4. Great things are achieved by great exertions, and glory was never the reward of sloth. 5. The Sabines, like most other mountaineers,
but truth
is
!

were brave, hardy, and frugal and even the Romans looked-up 3 to them [with admiration] on account of 4 their honesty and temperance. 6. Remus leaped in
;
1

omatus.

Dative.

ad?niror.

per.

Cases: Cause, &c.


scorn over his brother's wall.
after
7.

31

Romulus appeared
l

[his]
8.
3

death to Proculus in more-than-mortal

Augustus lived with republican simplicity house on the Palatine [hill], and educated in a plain 4 9. Vihis family with great strictness * and frugality. 5 and his coarse 6 tellius was remarkable for his gluttony 10. Demosthenes listened awhile to the bland vices.
beauty.
professions of Archias, the actor, but at length replied,
*

Archias, you never

won me by your

acting, nor will

you now by your promises." II. Columbus entered the hall surrounded by a brilliant crowd of cavaliers, among whom he was conspicuous for his stately and commanding person. 7 12. To the English it was a
night of 8 hope, fear, suspense, [and] anxiety.

They

had been wasted by disease, broken with fatigue, and weakened by the many privations which are wont to attend 9 an army marching through a hostile country. But they were supported by the spirit and confidence of their gallant leader, and by the recollection of victories won by their fathers. 13. The forests have given place to cultivated fields, the morass is dried up, the land has become solid, and is covered with
habitations.

countless multitude, living in

10

peace

and abundance upon the fruits of their labors, has succeeded to the tribes of hunters who were always contending with war and famine. What has produced these wonders? What has renovated the surface

of

the
is

earth?
Security.

The name
(abl.).
8

of

this

beneficent

genius n
1 4
7

divinus.

cultus moderatus
* 8

minime sumptuosus.
*

Adverbs.
habitus corporis.

inte?nperantia gulae.

turpis.
J

plena.

esse

10

w,

ablative.

dea.

32

Latin Composition.

Lesson
Cases.

14.
c,

5.

Separation and Comparison.

Learn
tion)
;

243, with a, b,

(ablative of Separa;

229 (dative with Compounds) 247, with #, (ablative of Comparison and of the Degree of 250
a.

Difference).

The

relations denoted in English


of, to be

are in Latin expressed by the ablative


1.

phrases as to deprive

free from, in
:

by from or of in such want of and the like


as,

He
To

is free

2.

retire

from terror, caret formidine. from office, abire magistratu.

3.

4.
5.

A A

city stripped of defence,

urbs nuda praesidio,

man without a country, homo qui caret patria, You will relieve me of great fear, magno me metu
liberabis.

N. B. Motion from a place


prepositions (see Lesson 17).
b.

is

regularly expressed

by means of
the

When
is

a thing

is

said to be taken

away from a person,


:

dative
1.

almost always used instead of the ablative

as,

He took

a ring detraxit,

from

the

woman, mulieri anulum


property,

2.

You
c.

have robbed

me

of

my

bona mihi abstumay be


seen

listi.

The uses

of the ablative with the Comparative


:

in the following
1.

2.

Nothing is dearer to a man than life, nihil homini vita est carius. Quicker than one would think, opinione celerius.

3.

Much more
entior,

rich than wise,

multo divitior quarn sapi-

4.

5.

The more dangerous the disease the more praised the physician, quo periculosior morbus eo laudatior medicus. The more virtuously one lives, the less he will injure others, quanto quis vivit honestius tanto minus
nocebit aliis,

6.

Not more than two hundred horsemen escaped, hand

amplius ducenti equites effugerunt.

Cases: Separation

and Comparison.

33

Exercise 13.

I.

The

orator Hortensius
2.

was eight years older


liberated
3.

than

Cicero.

Licinius

the

plebeians

from an oppressive bondage.


prived of almost
all

Rome was now


4.

de2

her

allies.

The

constitution

of Lucius Cornelius took from the knights the judicial-

power 3 which they had exercised since the times of


the

Gracchi.

5.

Men
6.

are

much
4

less

in

bulk than
dethe
will

very

many

animals.

Grief and indignation


7.

prived
deliver

Marius

of utterance.

Antisthenes,
"

Cynic, was once very sick, 5 and cried out,


genes,
will."

Who

me from these torments?" 6 Then said Diowho by chance was by, "This knife, if you
" I

do not say from

my

life,"

he

replied, " but

from my disease." 8. The archbishop tore the diadem from the head of the statue, and the image, thus despoiled of its honors, was thrown upon the ground. 9. The aged Nestor boasts his virtues, nor seems to be too loquacious for his speech, says Homer, flowed from his tongue sweeter than honey. 10. Hesiod was robbed of a fair share of his heritage by the unrighteous decision of judges who had been bribed by
;

his brother Perses.

The

latter

was afterwards derelief

prived of
brother.

his

property,

and

asked

of

his
his

11. Alcaeus, for

instance, cheered

by

songs the nobles who had been driven into-exile. 9 12. After the expulsion of the kings, 10 a new office

was created

at

Rome,

called the dictatorship, greater

than the consulship.

This dignity, however, was

dis-

continued after the second Punic war.


1

The
ille.

stronger
*

plebs (sing.).
9

instituta (plur.).
6

judicium.
7

vox.
8

graviter aegrotare.
e

malum.
10

a.

patria (abl.).
3

post reges exactos.

34

Latin Composition.
it

the Republic became, the less

needed

this extraor-

was revived by order of the people, and conferred upon Sulla, who afterwards resigned it and became a private

dnary power.

But

in

the civil

war

it

citizen.
1

Ablative.

Lesson
Cases. 6.

15.
(Partitive genitive);

Special Uses of the Genitive.

Learn

216, with

c,

d, e

and 217 (Objective genitive with nouns).


a. When in English one noun is closely connected with another by a preposition, the genitive is commonly used in Latin, no matter what the preposition is in English (objective Genitive see exam:

ples under 217)


1.

as,

2. 3.

Prayer to the gods, precatio deorum. Escape from danger, fug a periculi,

Power over every

thing,

potestas

omnium rerum.

4.
5.

Pain in the head, dolor capitis,


Confidence in one's strength, fiducia virium.

6.
7.

Departure from

life,

excessus vitae.

Subject for
Struggle for

jests,

materia jocorum.
contentio

8.
9. 10.

office,

honorum.

Relief from duty, vacatio


Difference in politics,

muneris. rei publicae dissensio.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Reputation for valor, opinio virtutis.

Union with

Caesar,

conjunctio Caesaris,

Victory in war, victoria belli, Devotion to us, studium nostri,


Grief for his son, luctus filii,

16.

means of guarding against

troubles,

cautio incom-

modorum.
Note.
with
in,

Nouns which
217. R.).

denote feeling often take the accusative


instead of an objective genitive.
the relation
is

erga, adversus, ad,

Prepositions are also used

when

very remote.

(See

examples under

Cases:
b.

The Genitive.

35

by a noun with a preposiviewed as a quality of the modified noun, the Latin preters to use an adjective just as in English we say, the Boston massacre; the "Jackson administration; the Socratic philosophy; the touch of the royal hand, &c. (compare

Wherever

the relation expressed

tion (especially of) can be

examples
1.

in

Lesson

5).

Thus

The shout of the enemy, clamor hostilis.


Jealousy of the Senate, invidia senatoria.

2.

3.

Confidence in you, fiducia tua (more commonly tui).

4.

The Cyrus
c.

of

Xenophon, Cyrus Xenophonteus.


denoting a whole
in,
is
it

Where a word

used with
is

another

denoting a part (English of,


the genitive. the

among),

regularly put in

(But notice carefully the Rertfarks on page 116 of

Grammar.)

The

peculiarities of the
:

in the following idiomatic phrases


1.

construction are seen

2.

Enough money, satis pecuniae. More learning than wisdom, plus doctrinae
dentiae.

quam pru-

3.

One

of a thousand,
all,

4.
5. 6.
7.

Alone of

solus ex

unus de multis. omnibus (or omnium).

At that age, id aetatis. Nowhere in the world, nusquam gentium. Of the two consuls one was killed and the other wounded, duo consules alter est interfectus alter
vulneratus.
Cxercise 14.
i.

On
3

his

way

gross

insults
2.

Phocion suffered some 2 from the populace with-meekness 4 and


1

to prison

dignity. 5
tus,

Two
;

wives of the

German

king, Ariovis-

one was slain, have not yet discussed 6 the principal wages of virtue and the greatest of the
perished
of their daughters,
3.

another captured.

We

prizes that are held out to

it.

4. to

From
8

his

boyhood
9

the
1

Roman
cum
5

soldier

was schooled
2

habitual
4 7

indiffer-

duceretur.

quidam.
6
9

gravis.

submisse.

cum

(with abl).
8

disserere de.

a puero.

Ablative.

perpetuus.

36
ence
to [his
2

Latin Composition.

1 own] life. the holidays in 5. During summer the young men exercise themselves with 3 sports. 6. To what a degree of brutality will excess

of misery debase
lus,
"

human

nature!

7.

Cneius Lentuconsul,

a military tribune, said to the

wounded

Lucius yEmilius,

whom

the gods ought to favor as


4

blame of this day's disaster, take this horse while you have any remains of strength. 5 Do-not 6 add to the horror of this day 7 by the death of a consul. Even without that, there is abundant [cause for] tears and mourning." 8. I will recount the delights and pleasures in this age of eighty-three, which I now take, and on account of which men generally account me happy. 9. Many
the only [person] free-from
the

inventions greatly facilitate success in the chase.

The

most singular of these


their

is

a poison in

which they dip

arrows. The slightest wound with these envenomed shafts is mortal. 10. Hannibal, after his defeat at Zama, served his country in peace. 11. Many men

expose themselves

to

death for the sake of power

but this king resigned his crown because his love for
his dominion, his affection for his subjects,

and

his re-

gard

for their interests

were greater than

his desire for

power.
r

12.

The conspirators

divided into three parties.

One w as

posted near the governor's house, a second

secured the approaches to the market-place, a third hastened to the quarter of the tombs, and awaited
the signal for the fight.
life

13.

Not only was Brutus's

saved

at the battle of Pharsalus, but, restored to

the state after the death of

Pompey, along with many


8

of his friends, he had also great influence with


1

Caesar.

Ablative.
5

Adjective.

m.
6

insons.
8

dum

aliquid superest virium.


this

ne

(perf. subj.).

Lit.

"make

day one-of-horror" (funesius).

apud.

Use of Two Cases.

37

Lesson
Cases.

16.

7.

Use of

Two

Cases.

i.

Review
;

225, with sub-sections (Accusative

and Dative) 239, with a, b, c> d (two Accusatives). Learn 219, 220, 221, 222 (Verbs of Reminding, Accusing, &c, with the Impersonate miseret, etc.).
2.

A verb

in

English, besides

its

object, has often

another modifying noun

with a preposition.

Such

in Latin usually put in the case corresponding to the English preposition, though sometimes a

nouns are

preposition
a.

is

expressed.
10, b), in

The Accusative and Dative (compare Lesson

phrases as
1.

such

He
I

laid

the burden on

my

shoulders,

humeris meis

onus imposuit.
2.

do not envy Crassus for his wealth (I do not grudge wealth to Crassus), Crasso divitias non invideo.

3.

Caesar required ten hostages of the Helvetians,

Caesar
it

Helvetiis decent obsides imperavit

(225. c).

Note.
differs

In

these cases notice


;

the Latin idiom, as

often

from the English and observe carefully the construction of each verb as given in the Vocabulary.
b.
1.

Accusative and Genitive, in such phrases as

2.

3. 4.

You remind me of my duty, me mones officii, He accuses me of theft, arguit me furti, I repent of my folly, meae me stultitiae paenitet. I am weary of life, me vitae taedet (weary with
fessns labor e).
c.

toil,

Two

Accusatives

I.

One

in

Apposition (see Lesson 2)


:

2.

With verbs of Asking and Teaching

Panaetius taught Scipio the Greek philosophy,

Panaefpus Scipionem Graecam docuit philosophiam.

38

Latin Composition.

Exercise 15*
i.

The men-of-Minturnae
2

repented of their un-

grateful conduct towards


safety of Italy.
to his
2.

man who had been

the

The younger Marius


to

put an end

own life. 3 3. In the many a man who belonged

proscriptions of Sulla, to

no party an estate or a

house was his destruction. For although the property of the proscribed belonged to the state, yet the friends
of Sulla purchased
it

at-a-nominal-price. 4

4.

Marius

upbraided the nobles 5 [with] their effeminacy and idleness, and proudly compared his own words and
exploits
election

with their indolence and ignorance.

His

was a great

victory for the common-people,

and a great humiliation to the aristocracy. 5. The great numbers of the enemy were a hindrance rather
than a help to them.
6.

Polybius taught the noblemunicipal


law.
7.
6

men

of
!

Rome

their

own

Jupiter

give us those things that are-good-for

us

8. Praise is to

an old man an empty sound. I have Nothing is now outlived my friends and my rivals. of much account to me. 9. An exile and a menial muttered the last farewell to Pompey, the mighty
victor of the East, the powerful lord of the

Roman

The Senate distributed provinces and 11. suitable honors among the partisans of Brutus. The noblest of the Romans were ashamed of the
Senate.
10.

victory

the Caudine Forks.


to the poor. 8

by which they had avenged the disgrace of 12. Old age is 7 most irksome 7

nelius Sulla

13. Publius Autronius and Servius Corhad been elected consuls, but were conCatiline also, who wished to victed of bribery.
"^Minturnensis.
4 s

erga.
6

mortem
7

sibi consciscere.
8

minimo.

Dative.

convenire.

piget.

Accusative.

Cases: Time

and Place,
1

39

had been impeached for oppression in his province by Publius Clodius. 14. Caius was seized by the guards and brought before Mucius the king, who threatened him with cruel tortures. But he said, " See now how little your torments terrify 2 Then he plunged his right hand into the me." fire of an altar that burned near by, and held it in From the flames, by which it was wholly consumed. this act the name Sccevola was given him, which

become

a candidate,

signifies

He

that uses the left hand.


4

15.

The second
:{

secession extorted from the patricians again a second

great charter
tired of the

of liberty.

The

people had become


5

decemvirs, and were dissatisfied


;

with

their

measures
office,

for

which reason they

retired

from

and the people elected ten tribunes. The decemvirs were then accused of treason, and some were condemned to death, others Committed suicide. Two consuls were elected, and the Valerian and Horatian laws were passed. The plebeians were still, however, debarred from marriage with the patri[their]

cians.
1

reus fieri.

Subjunctive.

alter.

fiignus.

paenitet.

Cases.

Lesson 8. Time

7.
Place.

and

with a,

256, with a; 257, 258 (reading Notes), d,f, g; and Remarks. Learn also 259. a to h, and 260. a.

b, c,

Learn

a.

Many

expressions have in Latin the construction of time


in

when, where
1.

English time

is

not the main idea

as,
(or

In the fight at

Cannae,

pugna Cannensi

apud

C annas).
2. 3.

At
In

the
all

Roman

games, ludis

the wars of Gaul,

Momanis. omnibus Gallicis

bellis.

40
b.

Latin Composition.
In
is

many

expressions of time the accusative with ad,


:

sub,
i.

used.

Such are the following

in,

or

thanksgiving was voted for the 1st of January, supplicatio deer eta est in Kalendas Januarias.
at the
[appointed]

2.

They assembled diem.

day,

convenerunt ad

'

evening,
evening,
time,
m

4.

Towards (about) About the same


c.

\
^

ad vesperum.

sub idem tempus.

Time

either

a noun
1.

in the singular,

during or within which may be expressed by with an ordinal numeral as,


:

Within

(just) four days,

quinto die.

2.

3.

He has reigned going on six years, regnat jam, sextum annum. But also He has already reigned for six years, regnavit jam sex
annos.
is

d. Distance of time before or after any thing pressed as,


:

variously ex-

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

after, post (or before, ante) tres annos, post tertium annum, tres post annos, tertium post annum, tribus post annis, tertio post anno. Three years after his banishment, tribus annis {tertio anno) jjost exsilium [post quam ejectus est). Within the last three years, his tribus proximis annis. A few years hence, paucis annis. Three years ago, abhinc annos tres {tribus annis) ; ante hos tres annos.

Three years

6.

It is three years since,

triennium

est

cum

{tres

anni

sunt cum).
e.

sunrise

The time of day is only counted by (prima, secunda hora) the time
;

hours, beginning at
of night by watches,
to sunrise.

(vigiliae), of

which there were four from sunset


of the

/.

The names

Months

are adjectives, and agree either

with mensis or with the parts into which the month was divided
in the complicated

Roman

system, for which see Grammar,

376.

expressed by the names of the consuls in the Ablative Absolute. Modern dates may be expressed by the year
g.
is

The year

after the birth of Christ {post

Christum natum)

Cases:

Time and Place.

41

h. With names of places (except Towns, &c, see 258), to expressed by in or ad with the accusative IN by in or ab, with from by ab, de, ex, with the ablative. But at, the ablative meaning near (not in) is expressed with all names of place by ad
is
;
;

or apud, with the accusative.

Remark.

Notice

that,

when

several
its

names of place
construction.

follow a

verb of motion, each must be under

own

Thus

Within four days after this was done the matter was reported to Chrysogonus in Sulla's camp at Volaterrae, qaadriduo quo haec gesta sunt res ad Chrusogonum in castra L. Sullae Volaterras defertur.
Notice also that the meaning of the Latin verb must be considered in relations of place
1.
:

as,

2. 3.

He He

arrived in Spain, pervenit in


arrived at

Hispaniam.

Rome, pervenit

Romam.

4.

They assembled in the Senate-house, convenerunt in curiam. He brought his army together in one place, coegit exercitum in unum locum.
Exercise 16.

i.

After the death of Lucretia, Brutus threw off his


stupidity,

assumed

and placed himself


carried the

at the

head

of

her friends.

They

body

into the

market-

place [of JCollatia. 2

There

the people took

up arms

and renounced the Tarquins.


tus

number-of 4 young men attended the funeral-procession 5 to Rome. Bru-

summoned
8

the people

[and] related

the deed-of-

shame.

All classes were influenced with the same

indignation. 9

By

order of the people Tarquin was

deposed, 10 and, along with his family, was banished from the city. Brutus now set out for the army at

Ardea. 11
1
4

Tarquin
b

in the

meantime had hastened


2

to

Lit.

"added himself
de.
s

as leader."

Accusative.
6 9

Relative.

plures.

exsequiae funeris.

convocato populo.

narrare

facinus flagitiosum.
dat.)

dolor et indignatio.

10

regnum abrogari (with

n Accusative.

42

Latin Composition.
but

against him. Ardea, and the army renounced [their] allegiance : to the tyrant. Tarhis two sons, Titus and Aruns, took refuge quin, with Sextus fled to Gabii, where he at Caere, in Etruria. was shortly after murdered by the friends of those whom he had put to death. Tarquin had reigned twenty-two years when he was driven from Rome. In memory of this event an annual festival was celebrated on the 24th of February, called the Regifngium. 2. Jugurtha was taken prisoner. The 2 great traitor fell by the treachery of his nearest relatives. Lucius Sulla brought the crafty and restless Numidian in chains, 8 along with his children, to the Roman headquarters and the war, which had lasted for seven
the

Rome,

found

gates

closed

Brutus was received with joy

at

years,

an end. The glory of this victory was given to Marius. King Jugurtha, in 4 royal robes and in chains, along with his two sons, preceded the triumphal chariot of the victor, when-he-entered 5 Rome

was

at

two years afterwards, on January


order of Marius, the son
6

1st, b. c. 104.

By

of the desert perished a few

days afterwards
1

in the subterranean city prison.


*
*

obedientiam abicio.
regie vestitus.

tile.

vinctus catenis.
*

Participle.

alu?nnus.

Lesson
Cases.

18.

9.

Prepositions.

152, with a, b 9 c> comparing 260 (Use of Prepositions) ; also 237. d, 239. b (compounds of
i.

Learn

circum and trans).


2.

In general, the use of prepositions in Latin

is

the

same

as in English.

They

are always followed

Cases: Prepositions.
either
:

43

by the Accusative or Ablative those implying motion towards an object for the most part taking the accusative, and those implying rest in, or motion from an object, the ablative.
Note.
for

There are very many idiomatic uses of prepositions, which see the Examples in 153, and consult the Lexicon.
Position
is

a.

frequently expressed in
/h?,?/
.

Latin with

ab

(rarely

ex), properly
1.

meaning

as,

In the

rear,

tergo.

2.

3.

4.
5.

On On On
b.

the side of Pompey,


the
left

a parte JPompeiana.
this side).

a sinistra (compare nine, on other side, ex, altera parte. the


hand,

In a great degree,

magna

ex parte.
it

In the choice of prepositions the Latin point of view must

be carefully observed, as in many cases


(see 260. a).
1.

Thus

differs

from our own

2. 3.

4.
5.

To put clothes into a chest, ponere vestes in area. To choose in one's place, in alicujus locum deligere. To fight on horseback, ex equo pugnare. It was reported in camp, in castra ntintiatum est. To go on board ship, conscendere in navem (more commonly without the preposition).

6.

7.

To send a man a allquem. But To give one a letter


c.

letter,

mittere

{dare)

literas

ad

(to carry),

dare

literas alicui.
used
in English, Latin
it.

In

many

cases where a preposition

is

has the preposition compounded with a verb or implied in


(see
1.

In

such cases the construction of the Latin verb must be observed


Dictionary)
:

as,

2.

To go over a river, /lumen transire. To take one's forces across a river, copias /lumen
transdncere.

3.

4.
5.

To go beyond the boundaries, egredi fines (or out the city, ex urbe). To fly from the enemy, fugere hostes. To get into one's favor, inire alicujus gratiam.

of

44
Note.

Latin Corn-position

When

a verb with a Preposition in English

is

repre-

sented in Latin by one of the compounds given in 228 (ad, ante,

con, &c.),
the
its

it is commonly followed by the dative. If, however, compound represents a verb qualified by an Adverb, it retains
:

original construction

as,

insidet equo, he sits upon a horse;

but,

convocat suos, he

calls his

men

together.

Exercise 11.
1.

Without intelligence and goodness bodily


of
3

gifts

are

little

worth. 1

and sense (which he has in common is in man 4 something more exalted, more pure, and that more nearly approaches 5
2.

Besides

life

with

the brutes), there

to divinity. 3.
It

was an arduous [undertaking]

to

conduct such

body of men through hostile nations, across swamps and rivers which had never been passed by any one except roving barbarians. Bat they penetrated a good way into the mountains. Then, however, a chief appeared, with a numerous body, in a narrow-pass. But men who had surmounted so many obstacles
a

despised the opposition of such feeble enemies. 12


4. As I was hurrying through the town a group of boys ran before me, crying out, Agamemnon ! Agamemnon! I went on behind them, and they led me to the tomb of the king of kings, a gigantic structure, 7 for

the most part in-good-preservation, 8 of a conical form,

and covered with


than any
pillar.

turf.
9

The

stone over the door


;

is

twenty-seven feet long

and seventeen wide

larger

hewn 10 stone in the world, except Pompey's The royal sepulchre was forsaken and empty
;

the shepherd shelters his flock within


sits
1

it

the traveller

under
valere.
2

its

shade, and at-that-moment u a goat was


8

Superlative.
6

commune esse
7

\alicui\

cum.
H

Plural.

ftrope abesse.
12

tantum agmen.
10

moles.

incolumis.

in longitudinem.
tarn

quadratus.

turn maxitne.

exiguam vim hostium.

Verbs: Narrative Tenses.

45

turned-away 2 [and] left him in quiet possession. The boys were waiting outside the door, and crying, Mycelial Mycence! led me away from the place. I came 5. I have at length arrived at Cadiz. across the bay yesterday morning, and have established myself in very pleasant rooms which look out
dozing 1 quietly in [one] corner.
3

upon the public square of the city. The morning sun awakes me, and the sea-breeze comes in at my window. At night the square is lighted by lamps suspended from the trees, and thronged with a brilliant crowd of the young and gay. Cadiz is beautiful
almost beyond-imagination. 4
1

dormito (imperfect).
4

Participle.

Relative.

supra

quam

quis

animo

concipere possit.

Lesson
Verbs. 1.

19.

Narrative Tenses.

264. a; 276, with a, d; 277, with a-c; with a-c; 280 (Present and Past Tenses of 278, 279, and 275 (Historical Infinitive). the Indicative)
i.
;

Learn

Review
2.

115. b (use of Perfect

and Imperfect).

The

narrative tenses in Latin are used nearly as

in English.
a.

But

The Present

is

used much oftener than

in

English to express

a past action more vividly.


b.

The ordinary English

past tense

is

represented

in

Latin

sometimes by the Perfect (historical), and sometimes by the ImBut the use of (For the distinction see 11$. b). perfect. the Imperfect depends not so much on the actual duration of the action as upon the way in which the writer wishes to
represent
it.

Thus

46
1.

Latin Composition.
Cicero
lived sixty-three years, Cicero vixit [Here the action, though of long duration,

LXIII
is

annos,
2.

stated

as a simple fact.]

Bibulus -watched the heavens, -while Caesar held the election,

Dibulus de comitia habebat,

or

caelo servabat, cum Caesar habuit. [Here the action, though

brief, is
3.

represented as continuing.]

Homer

flourished before the founding of

Rome,

Homerus
doctior

fait ante
4.

Romam

conditam,

Homer was more


erat Hesiodo.
c.

skilled than Hesiod,

Homerus
is

In rapid narrative, the English past tense

often rendered

by the simple
tive.

(historical) Infinitive, with its subject in the

nomina-

This construction also often corresponds with the English "began to." (For examples, see Grammar, p. 194.)
d.

and

in

Customary action is represented in general by the Present, past tense by the Imperfect; though soleo, and similar

words, are often used (but


to give
1.

much

less

emphasis to the

fact of

custom.

commonly than Thus

in English)

2.

He was always praising Milo, laudabat semper JSlilonem. He -would often play with his children, saepe cum
pueris ludebat.
It

3.

was a habit of Quintus Mucius narrare solebat,


The beginning
of an action
is

to

tell,

Q. JMucius

e.

often expressed
as,

by the Present

or Imperfect, especially with


1.

jam:

I begin to feel like dancing,

Jam

lubet saltare,

2.

They stood up and began


bant.
f.

to applaud, stantes

plaude-

The English compound


still

perfect

is

often expressed in Latin

(when the action

continues) by the present, with

some word
is

denoting duration of time.

The same usage with

the imperfect

more
1.

rare.

2.

3.

"We have suffered many years, multos annos patimur. We have long been involved in dangers, Jam diu in periculis versamur, The forces which they had long been getting ready, copiae quas diu comparabant.

Verbs: Narrative Tenses,

47

Exercise 18.

The Tiber had overflowed its banks far and The cradle in which the babes were placed wide.
i.
1

was stranded

at

the foot of the Palatine, and over-

turned on the root of a wild fig-tree.

she-wolf,

which had come to drink 2 of 3 the stream, came to them from time to time, and suckled them. When 4 they wanted other food, the woodpecker, a bird sacred to Mars, brought it to them. At length this marvellous spectacle was seen 5 by Faustulus the king's shepherd, who took the children home to his wife Acca Larentia. They were called Romulus and Remus, and grew up with the sons of their foster-parents 6 on the
Palatine Hill.
2.

followed

Then Nasica rushed out of the Senate-house, 7 by many of the Senators. The people made 8
the benches,
8

way for them, broke up 8


selves with sticks,
friends.

and rushed
9

and armed 8 themupon Tiberius and his


;

fled to the temple of Jupiter but the door had been barred by the priests, and in

The
he

tribune

his flight
rising,

fell

over a prostrate body.

As 10 he was

colleagues, and
3.

first blow from one of his was quickly despatched. Pyrrhus was at first victorious for his own
;

he received the

were superior to those of the captains who were opposed to him, and the Romans were not prepared for the onset of the elephants of the East, which were then for the first time seen in Italy as it were moving mountains, with long snakes for hands. But the victories of the Epirots were fiercely disputed,
talents

late.

potum
9

(supine).
6

ad
7

(ace).

cum

(with indie).
Hist. Inf.

conspicere.

altores.
10

comitates.

We.

cum

(with imperf. subj.).

48

Latin Composition.

dearly purchased, and altogether unprofitable.


length Manius Curius Dentatus,
consulship

At
at

who had

in his first

won two

triumphs,

was again placed

the head of the

Roman commonwealth, and

sent to

encounter the invaders.


defeated.

great battle

was fought

near Beneventum, in which Pyrrhus was completely

His 4. Cato was an unfeeling and cruel master. conduct towards his slaves was detestable. After dinner he would often severely chastise them, thong
in hand, for

times

some trifling act of negligence, and somecondemned them to death. When they were worn out or useless, he sold them or turned them out

He treated the lower animals no better. His war-horse, which had borne him through his campaign in Spain, he sold in-that-country. 1 In his old age he sought gain with increasing eagerness, but never attempted to profit by the misuse of his public functions. He accepted no bribes, he reserved no booty to his own use but he became a speculator, not only in slaves, but in buildings, artificial waters, and pleasure-grounds. In this, as in other points, 2 he was a representative of the old Romans, who were a money-getting 3 and money-loving 4 people.
of doors.
;
1

ibi.

res.

quaestuosus.

avarus.

Verbs.
i.

Lesson 20. 2. The Passive Voice.


(use of the Passive)
;
;

Learn

in

also 135.

(gerundive of Deponents)
phrastic Conjugation).

and 129 (the second Peri-

Review

232, with a, c (dative of Agent); 246

(ablative of Agent).

Verbs: The Passive


2.

Voice,

49

English

The Passive in Latin is often employed where in we prefer the Active. The principal cases
:

are the following


a.

The Impersonal use

of neuter verbs in the passive (compare


20,

146. c;
1.

and Method, Lesson

Obs. 3)

as,

2.

They live on plunder, eoc rapto vivitur. They fought fiercely on both sides, acriter utrimque

pugnatum
b.

est.

This impersonal use is the regular way of representing the English passive, where the corresponding Latin verb does not
govern the accusative (see
1.

230)

as,

The commander is relieved (by imperatori succeditur.


I

the appointment of a successor),

2.

am

persuaded that this

is

true,

mihi persuasum

est

hoc esse vevum.


3.

4.

These things are done more easily than they are resisted, facilius haec fiunt quam his resistitur. This subject was much discussed, de hac re multum

disputatum
5.

est.

Let the influence of friends be employed, and when employed obeyed, amicorum auctoritas adhibeatur
et
c.

adhibitae pareatur.
of expressing the English ouht,
like, is

The most common way


this

must, and the

which in
voice
1.

by some form of esse with the Gerundive, construction is always passive, no matter which
English (compare 296. 'Note)
:

is

used
i3

in

as,

2.
3.

nemo culpandus est. We must do every thing, omnia nobis sunt facienda. All must die, omnibus moriendum est.
Nobody
to be blamed,

4.

We
d.

must

resist old age

(or

old

age must be resisted),

senectuti resistendum est.

When

the

Subject of the action

is

indefinite,
a,

the Latin
:

generally prefers the passive, construction (compare


1.

above)

as,

Men do not gather grapes from thorns, ex sentibus uvae non percijnuntur. 2. We do ill whatever we do from confidence in fortune, male geritur quicquid geritur fortunae fide.
4

50
e.

Latin Composition
Many

reflexives or
i.

neuter verbs in English are rendered in Latin by by the passive as,


:

Hens

2.

3.
4.

gallinae in pulvere volutantur* on the Appian Way, in via Appia vehitur. Codrus is bursting with envy, invidia rumpitur Codrus,
roll in the dirt,

He He
3.

rides

turns to his lieutenant, vertitur).

ad legatum

se vertit

(or,

On

the other hand, an

active construction
is

is

often preferred in Latin,

English.

This happens
itself,

where the passive

used in

a. In cases where the emphasis


or the action
sis

rather than on the


in

can be given

Thus
1.

on the Object of an action, Agent because the emphaLatin (though not in English) by position.
is
;

Socrates -was put to death by his fellow-citizens, Socratem elves sui interfecerunt,

2.

Egypt

watered by the Nile, and Mesopotamia made by the Euphrates, Aegyptum Nilus irrigat, Mesopotamiam fertilem efticit Euphrates.
is

fertile

b.

As most deponent verbs have no


must frequently be used
for the

passive, the active con-

struction
1.

English passive

as,

He

is most admired who is not influenced by money, quern pecunia non tnovet eum homines maxime

admirantur.
2.

"We should not mourn a death which


immortality, non lugenda est litas consequatur.
c.

is

succeeded by

mors quam immorta-

In a few cases, instead of the regular passive in Latin, a


is

neuter verb of kindred meaning


1.

employed

as,

2.
3.

4.

To To To To
4.

adder e ; to be added, accedere. destroy, perdere ; to be destroyed, perire.


add,
sell,

flog,

vendere; to be sold, venire {veneo). verberare; to be flogged, vapulare,


the present passive
it is

When

in

English denotes
trje

a completed action,

generally represented by
it

perfect in Latin; but

when

denotes an action in

Verbs: The Passive


-progress, or a

Voice.

51

Thus
1.

general fact, we must use the present.

The enemy

are beaten, hostes victi sunt,

2.

3.

He is loved by his friends, diligitur ah amicis. Among the Parthians the signal is given by a drum, apud Parthos signum datur tympano.
Remark.

Care
is

must be taken

in rendering the
:

confused or

disguised forms of the passive in English


1.

as,
(but,

The house

building,

domus

aedificatur

he

is

building a house,
2.

domum

aedificat).

While these
5.

tilings are

being done,

dam

liaec aeruntur.
is

When

a verb in the active voice

followed by

two cases (with or without a preposition), the accusative of the direct object becomes the subject of the passive, the other case being retained as in the active construction. Thus (compare examples on p. 37)

1.

Crassus

is

not envied for his "wealth, Crasso dlvitiae

non invidentur.
2.

Verres

is

charged with extortion, Verves


his opinion,

repetundarum

reus
3.

fit.

Cato

is

asked

Cato rogatur sententiam.

Remark.
tion
is

The
must

use of a second accusative in this construc-

found chiefly with rogo, posco, and celo.


Exercise 19.

I.

We

resist

old

age,

my

friends,

and Cicero in the book entitled x Cato Major, pains-taking. failings must be made good by

says
its

We

must fight against old age as against disease. ReModerate exercise gard must be paid to health. should be employed, a sufficiency of food and drink Not only the body needs to be must be taken. 2 for bolstered-up, but the mind and soul much more these too die out through old age.
;
1

See Lesson

8. 3.

adhibere.

52
2.

Latin Composition.

"Even now,"
moment

said Caesar,
2

"we may 1

return;

if

we
At
and and

cross the bridge,


that

arms must decide the

contest."

of suspense

[there] appeared sud-

denly the figure of a youth, remarkable for comeliness


stature,

playing on a pipe, the emblem of peace

security.

The shepherds who were

about the

spot began to mingle with the soldiers and straggle

towards him, captivated by his simple airs; when with a violent movement he snatched a trumpet from one
of the military band, 3 rushed with
river,
it

to the

bank of the

and blowing a furious

blast of martial music,

leaped into the water, and disappeared on the opposite

"Let us advance," 4 exclaimed Caesar, the gods direct, and our enemies invite us.
side.

"

where 5

Be

the

die cast!"
3.

A conspiracy
7

against the

life

of Caesar had-been-

formed

in-the-beginning-of-the-year. 8

Many

of the

war against Caesar and had not only been pardoned 6 by him, but raised Among others was to offices of rank and honor. Marcus Junius Brutus, whom Caesar had pardoned after the battle of Pharsalia, and had since treated He was now persuaded by Cassius almost as a son. to-join 9 the conspiracy, and imitate his ancestor Lucius
conspirators had fought in the

Junius

Brutus,
9

the

liberator

10

of

Rome

from the
11

tyranny of the Tarquins.


assassinate

They now

resolved

to

the Dictator in the Senate-house on the

Ides of March.
Caesar

Rumors

of the plot got abroad,

and

was strongly urged not


1

to attend the session of


2

posse> impersonal.

in ea sollicitudine.

3 6 9

5 4 qua. Present Subjunctive. uni ex cornicinibus. 8 7 ineunte anno. Impersonal. Change the voice. 10 " I mpers. passive. Lit. "who," &c. /, with imper. subj.

Verbs: Infinitive Constructions,


the Senate.

53

But he disregarded the warnings which

had been given him.

whom Cato was chief, which was accepted by Masinissa, but rejected by the Carthaginians, who had no This refusal Cato never confidence in Roman justice. them. In traversing their country, he had forgave remarked the increasing wealth and population.
4.

The

ten ambassadors, of

offered their arbitration,

After his return to


his robe

Rome, he

let fall

from the fold of


1

Libyan figs; and as their 2 some 1 beauty was admired, "Those figs," quoth he, " were gathered three days ago at Carthage. So close is our enemy to our walls." From that time forth, whenever he was called upon for his vote in the Senate, though 3
early-ripe

the subject of debate bore no relation to Carthage, he

added these words,


1

"

Carthage must be destroyed."


8

Active (cum, with imperf. subj.).


8

Relative.

quamquam,

with imperf.

Lesson 21.
Verbs.
i.

3.

Infinitive Constructions.
;

Learn

270, 271 (uses of the Infinitive)

also

288, with a, b (use of the Present and Perfect infinitive).

Learn

also 272, 330,

336 (Accusative and


the Latin

Infinitive).

The English infinitive is rendered by infinitive in many constructions


2.
:

a.

When

it is

equivalent to an abstract

noun

as,

To

err is

human,
and
is

humanum,
noun

est errare.
also

Note.
infinitive,
1.
2.

An abstract
is

is

sometimes equivalent
:

to

an

to

be rendered in the same way in Latin

as,

What

creation?

Quid

est

creare?

Writing with a

stile is easy,

est facile stilo scribere.

54
b.

Latin Composition.

When

a second action of the same subject


old,

is

indicated

as,

I begin to

grow
is

senescere incipio.

Note.
which
it

This
depends

principle includes

many

classes of words where

the connection

very close between the infinitive and the verb on


;

and also many where

it

is

more remote, so

that a subjunctive clause might also be used.

3.

The English that

with a verb,
is

when

it

denotes

always to be rendered by an Infinitive with an Accusative for its subject. This construction (called the Indirect Discourse) is a very common one in Latin, and is used after all words of knowing, -perceiving, thinking, and telling. In English we often use the infinitive in such sentences as, " I think it to be right; " " He is as the preceding
a statement or thought,
:

said to be rich

"

and so on.
infinitive,

a, The English simple

with expressions of hoping,


is

promising, threatening, and the

like,

rendered by the same


:

construction, of the infinitive with subject-accusative

as,

hope to come, spero


b,

me venturum

[esse],

The English infinitive may be used after any verb of commanding or forbidding. In Latin it is regularly used only after
jubeo and veto (see
c,

hereafter,

Lesson 28).

In using the Indirect Discourse in Latin, observe


be

what

tense

would
1.

infinitive

used in the direct discourse, and make the tense of the correspond to that. Thus

2.
3.

He He He
In

says that his father


said that his father

is here,

dicit

was

here,

dixit

will say that his father

is here,

patrem adesse. patrem adesse, dicet patrem adesse.


:

the

all these three cases the same tense is used in Latin, because same tense would be used in the direct viz. " My father is

here."
4.
5.

6.

He says his father was here, dicit patrem adfuisse, He said his father had been (or -was formerly) here, dixit patrem adfuisse, He will say that his father was here, dicet patrem
adfuisse.

Verbs: Infinitive Constructions,

55

jn direct discourse
7.

These three cases take the perfect infinitive, because the words would be, " My father was here."
says that his father will be here, die it
[esse].

He
He

patrem adpatrem
patrem

futiirum
8.

said that his father

would be
be

here, dixit

adfiituriim,
9.

He "will say that adfuturum.

his father will

here, dicet

In these cases, the words in direct discourse would be, "


father will be here."

My

(In this tense, the esse

is

usually omitted.)

In like manner, with verbs of promising, expecting, and the like


10.

He hopes

to

come

(direct,

"I

shall

come"),

sperat se

venturum,
11. 12.
13.

He hopes that you are well, sperat te valere. He hopes that you were there, sperat te adfuisse. He threatened to destroy the city, minatus est urban deltturum.
;

se

d. When the verb of knowing, &c, is in the impersonal construction is more common in English
the personal
is

Passive, the

but in Latin

regular with the simple tenses, the impersonal with


(see 330. a)
:

the
1.
2.

compound

as,

It It

seems to me that you are wrong, videris mihi errare, was reported that Caesar's house had been attacked,

3.

There

oppugnata domus Caesaris nuntiabatur. is a tradition that Homer was blind, traditum Homerum caecum fuisse.

est

4.

The

subject of the Infinitive

is

regularly in the

Accusative.

But if the subject of the infinitive is not expressed, then any predicate word will agree with
the subject of the main clause
subject (see sec.
1.

if

there be a personal
:

272, with

Remarks)

as,

It is

2.

am
(or

advantageous to be honest, utile est probum esse* anxious to be merciful, cupio me esse clementem cupio esse clemens),
infinitive

in Latin (see hereafter,

N. B. Never translate the infinitive of Purpose by the Lesson 25).

56
The English
to be rendered

Latin Composition.
Infinitive and the clause with that are also often by other constructions than the above (for which Lesson 28).

see hereafter,

Exercise 20.
i.
is

"You,"

said Scipio yEmilianus, "to

whom

Italy

not mother, but step-mother, ought to keep silence.


I

Surely you do not think that

shall fear those let 8 loose

whom
2.

sent in chains to the slave-market."

The king

of Syria, Antiochus, had nearly conPopilius Laena ordered him, in the

quered Egypt.

name

Antioof the Senate, to abandon the country. chus wished to deliberate but Popilius, having traced l a circle l about the king with a staff which he held
;

in
"

his

hand, "Before

leaving this circle," said he,

answer the Senate." Antiochus promised to obey, and went out of Egypt. Popilius then divided the kingdom between the two brothers Philometor and Physcon. 3 to write the history of a memorable 3. I purpose revolution which has agitated men deeply, and which I do not conceal from mydivides them even to-day.
self the-difficulties-of-the-undertaking
4
;

for

passions

which

it

was thought were

stifled

under [the influence

of] a military despotism have just been reawakened.

Suddenly men overwhelmed with years and toil have felt revive 5 in them resentments which seemed to be appeased, and have communicated them to us their But if we have-to-maintain 6 the children and heirs.

same cause, we-have-not 7


1

to

defend their conduct;

Participle passive, ablative absolute (see next Lesson).


2

ante quam, with pres. indie.

in

animo
I

habere.

Lit. "
6

how

difficult are (subj.) those things which


6

undertake."

Infinitive.
7

Part in dus, agreeing with causa.


8

nihil opus est.

Lit.

" those will alarm me."

Verbs: Participial Constructions,

57

and we can separate liberty itself from those who have well or ill served it, while * we still have the advantage of-having-heard 2 and watched these old men, who, filled as-they-are 3 with their memories still excited by their impressions, teach us to understand them. 4. The king entered the ship in a violent storm, which the mariners beholding-with-astonishment, 4 at length with great humility gave him warning of the
danger.
off,

But he commanded them instantly to put and not be afraid, for he had never in his life heard that any king was drowned.
1

cum, with subj.

* 4

quod, with indie.

quidem.

admirari.

Lesson 22.
Verbs.
i.

4.

Participial Constructions.

Learn

289

to 292,

with

Remark on

the uses
(Peri-

of Participles.

Also,

293 and a; with 129


;

phrastic Conjugations)

294, with a, b, c; and 255,


often expressed not
relative
:

with a, b (Ablative Absolute).


2.

The English
in

participle

is

by

a participle

Latin, but
or

by a

clause, or

one with
1.

cum

dum

(see

290. c)

as,

In the following winter, ea


Caesar, seeing this,

quae secuta est hieme.

2.

gave the signal for battle, Caesar


iledit proelii.

cum
am
esse

hoc vidisset signum


3.

"While humoring the young, I have forgotten that I


old,

dum

obsequor adulescentibus,

me senem

oblitus
3.

sum,
any simple modifying

On

the other hand, almost

clause can be rendered in Latin in a participial form.

This principle includes, among others, relative clauses,

58

Latin Composition,
if,

and those introduced by when,


together with
a.
If

because, although,

many

adverbial phrases.

participle

is any word in the main clause to which the can be attached as a modifier, it usually agrees with it. This corresponds to the English use of participles, except that

there

it
1.

is

much more common.


evil is easily

Any

crushed at

its birth,

omne malum

2.

nascens facile opprimitur. The enemy slay Valerius while fighting bravely, Valerium hostes acerrime pugnantem occidunt.
b.
If there is
is

which the paniciple can be attached, some word in agreement, which serves as a kind of Subject (Ablative Absolute see examples in " Method," p. 121).
no word
to

the participle

put in the ablative, with

c.

Even what

in

English seems a separate clause

is in
:

Latin
as,

often crowded into the


1.

main clause

in a participial

form

Our men followed them close encumbered as they were and cut them, down, quos impeditos nostri
It is a

2.

consecuti occiderunt. wretched thing to fret yourself when it does no good, miserum est nihil proficientem angi.

d.

The

perfect active participle, which

is

missing

in

Latin, is

supplied either (1) by a change of voice with the Ablative Absolute or (2) by a clause with cum or dum. The difficulty is,
;

however, often avoided by the use of Deponents, whose perfect participle usually has an active signification. Thus

1.

2.

Having delayed a little, and set fire to all the villages, they pushed forward, paulisper morati, omnibus vicis incensis, contenderunt. Having observed this, he sent the third line as a relief to our men who were in difficulty, id cum animadvertisset, tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit,
,

Exercise 21.

i.

Veii was not succored by the other Etruscan

cities

then threatened with an invasion of the Gauls.

Besides, the Veians had given themselves a king

Verbs: Participial Constructions.

59

instead of the annual magistrate, and a king odious


to the

other

cities.

This lucumo,

irritated

at

not

having been named chief of the confederation, had stirred up the artisans, and violently interrupted the
sacred

games of

Volsinii.

On

leaving for the siege

of Veii, the

Roman

knights swore never to return,

unless [they were] conquerors.

This was also the vow

of the

Spartans on leaving for Ithome.

On 2

the

approach of the
torches.

Roman army,
city

the Veians

left their

city, clothed in funeral apparel,

The

and bearing lighted was taken by a mine. The


in
it

besiegers,

[who were] concealed


"

near the temple

of Juno, overheard the reply of an oracle, which the

Etruscans had consulted.


"shall be with
the altar."
4

Victory," said the priest,

him who
the

shall sacrifice this heifer

on

Then

Roman
;

soldiers burst into the

temple, seized the axe from the priest's hand, and

down the heifer and the town, thus betrayed own gods, fell into the hands of the Romans. 2. The deputation arrived at Epidaurus the peculiar seat of ^Esculapius, and invited the god to make his abode at Rome. Nor did he refuse for one of
struck
its

by

the snakes sacred to ^Esculapius crawled from his

Epidaurus, and thence proceeded to the sea-shore, and climbed up into the ship of the Roman ambassadors [which was] drawn up on the
to the city of

temple

beach.

that the

by the Epidaurians god willingly accompanied them, sailed away with the sacred snake to Italy. But when 5 the ship 5 stopped at Antium so goes the story the snake
instructed

They now,

left

[it

and] crawled

to the
2

temple of -^Esculapius
Ablative.
*

Accusative with
Dative.
5

Infinitive.

Relative.

Lit.

" the ship (ace.) stopping."

Participle.

60
in that city
;

Latin Composition.

where he coiled himself round a tall palmThe Romans and remained for three days. meanwhile anxiously awaited his return to the ship. At last he went } back [and] did not move again till the ship entered the Tiber. Then, when she came 2 to
tree,

Rome, he again crawled

forth,

swam

to the island in

the middle of the Tiber, and there went on shore

and

remained quiet. A temple was built, therefore, god on the spot which he had himself chosen.
1

to the

Participle.

Pluperf. subj. (impers.).

Lesson 23.
Verbs.
i.

5.

Gerundive Constructions.

Learn

114. a, with 295-301 (uses of the


participial

Gerund and Gerundive).


2.
is

The English
When
it is

noun, or verbal in -ing,

represented in Latin in several different ways.


a.
subject or object, by the Infinitive (see Lesson
; :

21), or
1.

2.

quod with the Indicative rarely by a verbal noun as, Your being here is agreeable, quod acles (or te adesse) gratum, est. I prefer writing to speaking, malo scribere qiiam
loqui,
b.

In the other cases, most


;

Gerundive

less

commonly by the Gerund or commonly by an Adverbial or Substantive


:

Clause (see Lessons 25, 27)


1.

as,

The labor of writing


turn est.

is

irksome, labor scribendi

moles-

2.

plan

was formed
him from

for firing the city,


est.

consilium in-

flammandae urbis initum


3.

I dissuaded

going,

ne

iret dissuasi.

Gerundive are precisely equivalent in meaning. But the Gerundive, being in its origin a passive construction, can be used only of verbs which govern the accusative (except utor, &c). When it can be used, it is generally to be
preferred.

Note. The Gerund and

Verbs: Gerundive Constructions,


c.

61

The phrase

" without doing any thing," or the like, has no

but must be analyzed and ; rendered by some other form of words, chiefly a participle or the

corresponding expression in Latin


as,

ablative absolute
i.

2.

Without accomplishing his purpose, re infecta. Without being compelled, non coactus,

3.

4.

He -went away You shall not


hoc feceris.
I trod

-without doing this, abiit

neque hoc

fecit.

go without doing

this,

non

abibis nisi

5.

on a snake without knowing insciens (or inscienter).

it,

anguem

calcavi

d.
the

Purpose

is

often expressed in Latin

Gerund or Gerundive with ad, or by causa or gratia (see hereafter, Lesson


mar, 318).
Exercise 32.
i.

the Genitive followed


26,

by the accusative of by and examples, Gram-

When
l

polished nations have obtained the glory

of victory, or have enriched themselves


tion-of
2

by the addi-

territory, they may end the war with honor. But savages are not satisfied until they extirpate 3 the community which is the object of their rage. They

fight not to

conquer, but to
it

destroy.

If they

engage
5

in hostilities,

is

with a resolution never to-see


in

the

face of the

enemy

peace, but to prosecute the war

The desire of vengeance [is] and almost the only [principle which] a savage instils into the minds of [his] children. 2. Cato's opinion prevailed, and the Senate only
with immortal enmity.
first

the

waited for a favorable opportunity to-destroy

the city.

The Romans had

resolved on war;

and when the

Carthaginian ambassadors arrived at Rome, to 4 offer to the Senate the submission of Carthage, the two consuls were already levying troops. The ambassa1

Gerundive.

licet.
6

Perfect.

ad, with gerund.

Gen. of gerund.

bello decertare statuerant.

62
dors,

Latin Composition.

knowing

that resistance

appease the anger of the dience. They were ordered to send three hundred of the noblest families to [meet] the consuls at Lilybseum, and were told that the consuls would inform them of
the further orders of the Senate.
3.

was hopeless, sought to Senate by unconditional obel

[when] quaestor in the war against-Jugurzeal and energy soon gained the full approval of [his] commander. He was equally sucSulla,
tha, 2

by

his

cessful in gaining the affections of the soldiers.

He

always addressed them with the greatest kindness, seized every opportunity of conferring favors upon them, was ever ready to 3 take-part-in all the jests of the camp, and [at the same time] never shrank from It is a sharing in all their labors and dangers. curious circumstance that Marius gave to his future enemy and the destroyer of his family and party the
first

opportunity of distinguishing himself.

The

ene-

mies of Marius claimed for Sulla the glory of the


betrayal-of 4 Jugurtha
credit of
it

and Sulla himself took the by always wearing a signet ring represent;

ing
1

the [scene of the] surrender.


*

conor.
Perf. part.

Adjective.
*

3 ad, with gerundive. " on which was represented." Lit.

Lesson 24.
Verbs. 6. Subjunctive Constructions.

i.

Learn

Subjunctive)
tions).
2.

265, with a, b; 266-268 (uses of the and 269, with a (Imperative Construc-

The

Subjunctive

mood

in Latin is

used

to repre-

sent a great variety of constructions in English, most


Verbs: Subjunctive Constructions, 63
of which are included in the dependent clauses, to be

given in future Lessons.


ing
:

The

others are the follow-

a, The rare Subjunctive in English is for the most part rendered by the subjunctive in Latin (but compare special conThus structions in future Lessons).

1.

Let him that standeth take heed lest he stat tie cadat.
I care not, so

fall,

caveat qui

2.

modo
3.

it serve the state, nil ret publicae prosit.


if

mea

refert

dum-

"What would Cicero say Cicero si viveret?


b.

he were alive?

Quid diceret

The

auxiliaries

which form the English Potential

may,

might, could, would, should


ing their proper force.

are

very loose in their use and

meaning, being sometimes pure


rendered by the subjunctive

auxiliaries,

and sometimes retain-

In the former case they are generally


in Latin

some verb of
1.

similar meaning.

Thus

in the latter, they require

2.
3.

4.
5.

You may say (it is possible you should say), dicas. You may say (you are permitted to say), licet dicere. He would go if I should wish it, eat si velim. He would go (now) if I wished it. iret si vellem. You would have it so, sic voluistu
I should like to go, ire I could

6.

velim.

7.

8.

wish he were soldier should obey

here,

his

vellem adesset. commander, miles imperatori

9.

10.
11.

12.

parere debet. Whoever could go went, qnicumqiie ire poterat ivit. What could I do (what was I to do) ? Quid facer em ? I wish he would come, utinam veniat. Would he were now here! O si nunc adesset I
c

The English Imperative

person

except
1.

commands

in the second

is

regularly rendered by the Latin subjunctive.


to a definite

ComLatin
;

mands addressed

person take the imperative

in

prohibitions to a definite person,

noli, with the infinitive


3.

2.

cave, with the present subjunctive


junctive.

Thus

ne, with the perfect sub-

64
1.

Latin Composition*
Let us
go,

eamus.
fall,

2.
3.

fiat sane. Let justice be done though the heavens


it so,

Well, be

fiat justitia

4.
5.

6.

ruat caelum. Leap down, fellow-soldiers, desilite, commilitones. Do not suppose, nolite putare. Pardon nothing, do nothing by favor, be not moved bycompassion, nihil irjnoveris, nihil gratiae causa feceris, misericordia commotus ne sis.

d. General precepts, both affirmative and negative, are regularly expressed by the second person of the present subjunctive, less

commonly
e.

the perfect.

There are many idiomatic constructions

clauses of Result and clauses in Indirect Discourse

more especially which in

Latin require the subjunctive, though they have no modal form


in

English. (For these constructions, see hereafter, especially Lessons 26 and 28.)
Exercise 23.

Let him go then," they said, "where he pleases as an exile, and suffer in some other place whatever and let us pray that the fate has reserved for him
i.

"

Moved by such body entered the room where Marius was, and getting round him, began to conduct him to the sea. 2. "Why," said Rasselas, " should you envy others
city in

gods from our

visit

us not with their anger, for rejecting Marius

poverty and rags."

considerations, all in a

so great an advantage?
for universal

good.
to

others,

and ought

ought to be exerted Every man has owed much to repay the kindness that he has
All
skill

received."
3. Sweet language will multiply friends, and a fairspeaking tongue will increase kind greetings. Be in peace with many nevertheless have but one counsellor of a thousand. If thou wouldest l get a friend, prove
;

volo.

Verbs: Subjunctive Constructions.

65
3

him

first,

and 1 be not 1 hasty


4

to credit

him. For some


4
5

his own occasion, and will not 5 day of thy trouble. abide in the 6 But 4. My lords, if you must fall may you so fall. and stand I trust you will if you stand together with the fortunes of this ancient monarchy, together with the ancient laws and liberties of this great and illustrious kingdom, may you stand as unimpeached May you stand the refuge in honor as in power. May you stand a sacred temple of afflicted nations
is

man

a friend for

for the perpetual residence of


5. Believe me, Athenians!

if,

an inviolable justice recovering from this


!

lethargy, you would

assume the ancient

spirit

and

freedom of your fathers, the world might 7 once more behold you playing a part worthy of Athenians May the gods inspire you to determine upon such measures
!

6.

Lay
!

hold on this chance of safety, Conscript

Fathers

by the immortal gods


to the

conjure you.

Give
to the

one sign
crisis

Roman

people, that even as

now they

pledge their valor, so you pledge your wisdom


of the state.

not know this Antony? companions? To be slaves to such as he, to such as they, would it not be the fullest measure of misery, joined with the fullest measure of which heaven forfend disgrace? If it be so that 8 the supreme hour of the republic has come, let us, the rulers of the world, rather fall with honor than serve with infamy Born to glory and to liberty, let

Do you

Do you

not

know

his

us hold these bright distinctions


die!

fast,

or

let

us greatly

neve.
nee.
6

Adverb.

quispiam.
7

tcmporis causa,
*

Paires

ConscriptL

Pres. subj.

ut,

with subj.


66

Latin Composition,

Lesson 25.
Relations of Time.

322-324; 325, with b; 326-328 (use 283-286, with Remark (Sequence of Tenses).
i.

Learn

of Temporal Particles)

Remark.
the

Subjunctive

Whenever becomes necessary mood a subordinate clause as following Lessons careful attention must
it

to

use the

in

in this

and

be paid to
is

the rule for the

Sequence of Tenses.
is

The
i.

learner must
the

notice carefully which

the maifi clause,

e.,

what

main

fact

to be stated.

This

is

often disguised in English by one

or more modifying clauses ; especially Relative (who, which), Temporal (when), and Conditional (if). Upon the time of the main clause will depend the time of the whole. Sometimes, however, an intervening dependent verb may throw the time back so as to require secondary tenses in those which follow, though the leading verb is primary.

Thus
1.

Cicero is said to have gone into exile to prevent civil war, Cicero ex patria excessisse dicitur ut helium civile averteret.

2.

We

seem to have advanced so far that even in fulness of words we are not surpassed by the Greeks, tantum profecisse videmur ut a Graecis tie verborum quidem, copia vinceremur.

2.

The English
:

particle

when

and similar expressimilar parti-

sions of time are rendered in Latin by two different

constructions

a. ubi,

postquam, and

cles (see 324) with the Indicative, usually the perfect


b.

cum, generally with the Indicative of the present or perfect, and with the Subjunctive of the imperfect see examples in Grammar). or pluperfect (325
:

Relations of Time.

67

Remark.
is

The

distinction
;

between these two constructions

not at

first

obvious

but will become clearer by considering the

distinction of Absolute

of the

and Relative time (see Note on page 234 Grammar), and by careful observation of the practice of

Latin writers.

a. If when is always to be used

equivalent to
:

whenever,

the

Indicative is

as,

When midsummer had begun, he used to make his quarters at Syracuse, cum aestas summa esse jam coeperat,
Syracusis stativa faciebat,
b.

The common English form of

narrative, "

Such and such

things had happened (were happening), when," &c, is always to usually with cum: as, be rendered with the Indicative in Latin

1.

This he had said


I

when news was


est,

brought, dixerat

hoc

cum nuntiatum
2.

was
me,

just reading your letters, when one was brought legebam tuas epistolas, cum mihi epistola

adfertur,
c.

If

when

or

while approaches
it

in

meaning to since
as,

(as

it
;

often does in fact),

is

expressed by

cum

with the subjunctive


:

sometimes by other constructions (see Lesson 22)

But

you do not yet quite see when the thing itself by so many clear proofs and tokens, quod si nondum satis cernitis cum res ipsa tot tarn Claris argumentis signisque luceat.
if

is

plain

Exercise
i.

584.

Hamilcar had poured the libation on the victim, which was duly offered on the altar when on-a-sudden he desired 1 all the others to 3 step aside to a little distance, [and then] called his son Hannibal. Hannibal, a boy of nine years old, went up to his father, and Hamilcar asked him kindly whether 2 he would like 2 to go with him to the war. When the boy eagerly caught at the offer and with a child's earnestness implored his father to 3 take him, Hamilcar took
; 1

Participle.

velletne.

tit,

with subj.

68

Latin Composition.

him by the hand and led him up to the altar; and bade him, if he wished 1 to follow his father, to lay his hand on the altar, and swear that he would never be the friend of the Romans. Hannibal swore, and never to his latest hour forgot his vow. 2. When 2 Archias came to the door of the temple with his satellites, he found Demosthenes seated. He first addressed him in [language of ] friendly persuasion,
and offered to intercede with Antipater in his behalf. Demosthenes, having listened for-a-time in silence to K Archias, you his bland professions, at length replied, never won me by your acting, nor will you now by your promises." When the player found that he was detected, he threw away the mask and threatened in earnest. "Now," 3 said Demosthenes, "you speak from the Macedonian tripod before you were only acting. Wait a little till I have written 4 a letter to my friends at home." And he took a roll as if to write and, as was his wont when he was engaged in composition, put the end of the reed to his mouth, and bit it he then covered his head with his robe and bowed
:

his head.
3.

When

he had remained some time in

this atti-

tude, the barbarians, thinking that he

was lingering

through fear, began to taunt him with cowardice ; and Archias, going up, urged 5 him to rise, and repeated
his offers of mediation.

poison in his veins


his eyes

Demosthenes now 6 felt the he uncovered his face, and fixing


said, " It is time for

on the dissembler
dogs.
I

you,

Archias, to finish the part of Creon, and cast


to

my

body
still

the
1

quit thy sanctuary,


ubi.
ut.
3

Poseidon,
4

si vellet.
5

nunc.
6

Future perfect.

petere ab eo

jam.

Purpose and Result,


breathing
;

69

though 2 Antipater and the Macedonians have not spared even this from pollution. " So saying, he moved with-faltering-step towards the door; but had scarcely passed the altar, when he fell with a groan, and breathed his last.
1

cum, with subj.

Lesson 26.
Purpose and Result.
i.

Read

carefully the Introductory


a.

Note on
But

p. 227.

Remark.

In general, Relative or other subordinate


in

clauses are used in Latin nearly as in English.

Latin

the Subjunctive

mood

is

used

in

many such

clauses,

where

English uses the Indicative.

It will

every relative or other subordinate clause

be seen, therefore, that not is to be translated


is

by the Latin subjunctive

nor,

on the other hand,

every

English indicative in such clauses to be rendered by the indicative. The learner must, accordingly, accustom himself

between the subordinate and the main clause and express the former according to the Latin idiom, which will appear in the subsequent Lessons. b. When a relative clause (including those introduced by relative adverbs and conjunctions) simply states a fact or circumstance which might be put as an independent statemefit,
to notice the true (logical) relation
;

there

But in is no occasion for the subjunctive in Latin. most cases, where there is a logical relation between the two clauses, so that the force of the relative clause would be lost by
it

taking

out of

its

connection with the former, the subjunc-

tive is required in Latin.

because, since,

introduced in English by N. B. Clauses expressing cause inasmuch as take the subjunctive only in special

idiomatic uses (see 321).

70
c.

Latin Composition.

The most common

uses of the subjunctive in clauses of

the kind above referred to are to express


that, that, to, in order to, that, so as to.

purpose

and the

like

or result

in order so that,

2.

Learn

'>

317

with 318 (clauses of Purpose)


;

319
3.

with a

b (clauses of Result)

320 and

a,

e,f

(clauses of Characteristic).

In English, relations of purpose and result are

often expressed

by the

Infinitive,

which must never be


Purpose

used in
a.

this

way

in Latin.

The most
in

general

way

of expressing
is closely

is

by ut

(negatively ne), unless the purpose


o?ie
1.

connected with some

word,

which case the

relative is

more common.

Thus

Arria gave her husband a sword in order that he might kill himself, Arria gladium dedit tnarito ut se interficeret. Arria gave her husband a sword to

2.

Arria gladium dedit marito quo


b.

kill himself with, se interficeret,

The Gerundive

constructions of Purpose are usually limited

to short concise expressions,

where the
is

literal translation

of the

phrase, though not the English idiom,


or strange.

nevertheless not harsh

c. The Supine in this construction is used only with verbs of motion and a few idiomatic expressions (see 302). The Future Participle of Purpose should be avoided.

d.

kind of purpose

is

expressed idiomatically by the Gerun-

dive used passively after particular verbs (see 294. d).


e.

In the greater

number of cases Result


relative being less

is

expressed by ut

(negatively ut non), the

common (compare

examples
/.

in 319).

The use of

the

Subjunctive in clauses of Characteristic

(see 320) can only be learned by practice and comparison of examples. But compare what is said above of Relative clauses in
general.

g. Expressions such as "

He

is

too honest to deceive," "

It is

too distant to be seen," and the

like,

which are very common

in

Purpose and Result,

71

English, are in Latin to be rendered by a clause of Result with

quam

ut following a Comparative:

as,

Caesar was tior erat

too merciful to punish his adversaries, clemen-

Caesar quam, ut inimicos puniret,


Exercise 25.

i.

On

the reedy margin of the lake stood here and


;

there

some monuments

tombs,

it

was

said, 1 of ancient

Assyrian kings. As the royal galley, which Alexander steered himself, passed near one of them, 2 a sudden gust of wind carried away his cap into the
water, and lodged 7 the light diadem which circled
it

on one of the reeds which grew out of the tomb. One of the soldiers immediately swam out to recover it; 2 and, to keep it dry, placed it on his own head. Alexander rewarded him with a talent but at the same time ordered him to be flogged for the thoughtlessness with which he had assumed 3 the ensign of royalty. The diviners, it is said, took the matter more seriously, and advised the king to 4 inflict death on the offender,5 in order to avert the omen.
;

2.

Socrates

recommends

to

Alcibiades,

in

order

that he

might have a model for his devotions, a short prayer which a Greek poet composed for the use of
his friend in-the-following-words
6
:

"

Jupiter

give

us those things which are good for us, whether they


are such things as

we pray

for or

such things as

we

do not pray

for

which are

hurtful,

and remove from us those things though they are such things as we

pray for." 3. Polybius also learned the


attained to that
their

Roman tongue, and knowledge of their laws, their rights, customs and antiquities, that few of their own
dicebatit.
4
2

Relative.
6

3
6

Subjunctive.
7

ut,

with subj.

homo.

ita,

demitto*

72
citizens

Latin Composition,
understood them
better.

the noblemen of

Rome
more

their

own
in

So that he taught municipal laws and


;

was accounted
Pictor, a

skilful

them than Fabius

man

of the senatorial order,

who wrote

the

transactions of the Punic wars.

He who

neglected

none of the laws of history was so careful of truth that he made it his whole business to deliver nothing to posterity which might deceive them and by that diligence and exactness may be known to be studious of truth and a lover of it. 4. The Pompeians were too much dispirited to make any resistance. Shivered once more at the first onset, they poured in broken masses over hill and plain. But Caesar was not yet satisfied. Allowing
;

a part of his troops only to return to the

four legions in hot pursuit

camp, he led by a shorter and better

road, and drew them up at a distance of six miles

from the

field

of battle.
1

qua

diligentia ac cura.

Lesson 27.
Conditional Sentences.

Read

carefully pages 214-226, including

all

the

sub-sections,

and committing

to

memory

the types of

conditional expressions on pages 216, 217.


a.

The

learner should notice carefully the precise nature of the

condition which he wishes to render into Latin, because the use of


the tenses in English
is

not uniform.

Thus,

"

If

he

is

alive

now"
tion,

a present condition, to be expressed in Latin by the " If he is alive next year " is a future condiPresent Indicative
is
;

and would be expressed by the Future Indicative. "If he were here now " is a present condition contrary to fact, and would be expressed by the Imperfect Subjunctive " If he were to see me thus " is a future condition, to be expressed by the Present
;

Subjunctive.


Conditional Sentences.
b.

73
it

In cases where the Condition

is

omitted,

must be mentally

supplied in order to determine the form of the condition.


c.

The

conditional phrases of Comparison, as

if,

as though,

require in Latin the present and perfect subjunctive, not the imperfect and pluperfect, as in English (see

Remark under

312).

d. For the Concessive expressions, although, granting that, even if, which require idiomatic constructions in Latin, see 313.

For Provisos

provided

that, only

let,

&c.

see

314-

Exercise 26.
1.

Among

the savages, to display undaunted fortiis

tude in torments

the noblest triumph of a warrior.

by a voluntary death is deemed infamous and cowardly. If any one betrays symptoms of timidity, they often despatch him at once with contempt, as unworthy of-being-treated 1 like a man. 2. If we see a friend in distress, and give him all

To

avoid the

trial

the consolation
friendship,
tion of the

we

are able,

we perform

the duties of

which pays more

attention to the disposigift.

heart than to the value of the

small present

may

There
can
I

is

offer

no good I toward it.


If

be the testimony of a great love. do not wish you, and this is all I I wish this little treatise may be
it

of use to you.
shall,

should not answer

my

hopes,

however, be secure of pardon from your


to

friendship.
3.
I

am come
to

inform

you of a

secret

you must

impart

Pausanias alone.
I

From

remote antiquity, I

am

of Grecian lineage.

am

solicitous for the safety

of Greece.

Long

since, but for the auguries,

would

longer, he will attack

Mardonius have given battle. Regarding you early in the morning. Be prepared. If he change his purpose, remain as you are. He has provisions only for a few days more.
these no
1

See

320.

/.

See

287. a.

74

Latin Composition.
will

Should the event of the war prove favorable, you


but

deem

it

fitting to

make some

effort for the inde-

pendence of one who exposes himself to so great .peril for the purpose of apprising you of the intentions I am Alexander of Macedon. of the foe.
4. After

a short interval, Charles, turning to Philip,

who
:

stood awaiting his


" If

commands, thus addressed

him the vast possessions which are now bestowed on you had come by inheritance, there would be How much more, abundant cause for gratitude. when they come as a free gift in the life-time of your father! But however large the debt, 1 1 shall consider it all repaid if you only discharge your duty to your
subjects.

So

rule over

them

that

and not censure me


5.

for the part I

men shall commend am now acting."


where every one
lies

We
a

are here as in a theatre,


to

has a part allotted

him.

The

great duty which

upon

man

is to

act his part in perfection.

We may 2

suit us, and that we But this is not our business. All that we are concerned in is to excel in the 3 part which is given us. If it be an improper one, the

indeed say that our part does not


could act another better.

fault is not in us, but in

Him who
posswnus.

has cast our several


8

parts,
1

and

is

the great disposer of the drama.


2

beneficium.

Plural.

Lesson 28.
Substantive Clauses.
i.

Read

carefully

with a,

b, c, d,

e,f

329, with Note; 330, 331, (substantive clauses of Purpose)

332, with a,

b, c, d,

g, h (clauses of Result)

333, and

Substantive Clauses.
b (clauses with quod).

75

Compare

270, 271, and

notice the general schedule of substantive clauses

on

page 239.
2.
is

In English, one action depending upon another

in

almost any case expressed indiscriminately by


or by the Infinitive.

form of expression will depend on the meaning of the dependent words or clause. This meaning can usually be
In Latin the

that

determined by the following Rules

a. If the words can be put in an independent form as the words of some person in the Indicative, it is Indirect Discourse, and requires the Accusative with the Infinitive (see examples
in 33o).

b.

If they

can be put

in

an independent form as a Question,

they require the Subjunctive as Indirect Questions (see examples


in 334).

If they can be put in an independent form as the words of some person in the hnperative, or can be conceived as a Result, The Infinitive is used in many they require the Subjunctive.
c.

expressions of this class, either optionally or exclusively

(see

examples

in 331, 332).

d. If they could be expressed independently in the Indicative, but as a fact, and not as the words of some other person, they regularly require quod with the Indicative (see examples in
333)-

clause,

English noun must often be rendered by a substantive on account of the scarcity of abstract terms in Latin, or Thus the want of a corresponding idiom.
e.

An

1.

2.

He was accused of treason against his country, accusatns est quod patriam prodidisset. A value beyond all estimation, pretium majus quain
ut aestimetur,
f.

the

by and is usually rendered in Latin by the Accusative and Infinitive ut with the The meaning of the particular exsubjunctive is more rare. pression must be carefully noticed. Thus
In English a real substantive clause
is

often introduced
;

common

expression for with the Infinitive

76
1.

Latin Composition.

2.

For a dying father to bequeath an empire to his son is a deed -worthy of gratitude, patrtm, inoHentem, filio imperium legare factum est gratia (lignum. The next thing is for me to speak of the -war against the pirates, reliquum est ut de hello dicam piratico* Note. The forms of Indirect Discourse were developed in

Latin into a very complex system, which, for the sake of fuller
practice, will

be exhibited

in the

two succeeding Lessons.

Exercise 27.
1.

But before Caesar allowed


to

his tired soldiers to

enjoy the fruits of the victory of Pharsalia he required

complete the conquest. The pursuit was continued during the remainder of the day and on the

them

morrow.

But the task was easy. 1


ail

The clemency

of

the conqueror induced

to submit.

When
"

Caesar

entered the camp, and saw the dead bodies of

Romans
have
2.
it

lying

about, he

exclaimed,

many They would

have laid down our arms would have sealed our doom."
so.

To

The

soldiers of Viriathus recognized their general


tall

simply by his

figure,
all

and by

his striking sallies

of wit, and above

every one of his


toil.

men

by the fact that he surpassed in temperance as well as in


to

3.

The

sailors

were willing

do as he wished.

But they were

afraid that the vessel could not stand

the beating of the waves, and as Marius also

was

much troubled with sickness, they made for land. They wandered about without any definite object,
seeking merely
worst of
sea also
2

to

escape from the present

evil

as

all,

of fortune.
;

and putting their hopes on the chances For the land was their enemy, and the and they feared 2 to fall in with men, and
1

Lit.

" not difficult."

Notice construction of verbs of fearing ( 331. f).

Intermediate Clauses.
feared also not to

77

fall in with men, because they were After some time they met want of provisions. with a few herdsmen, who had nothing to give them in their need. But they recognized Marius, and advised him to get out of the way as quick as he could. 1 4. Griselda, it is now time for you to reap the fruit of your long patience and that they who have reported me to be cruel, unjust, and a monster in nature, 2 should know that what I have done has been all along with a view to teach you how to behave as a wife, and lastly to secure my own ease and quiet as long as we live 3 together, which I feared might have been endangered by my marriage. Therefore I had a mind i to prove you by harsh and injurious treatment and not being aware that you have ever transgressed my will, either in word or deed, I now seem to have met with that happiness I desired. I intend then to restore in an hour what I have taken away from you in many and to make you the sweetest recompense for the many bitter pangs I have caused you to suffer.

in

Subjunctive.
4

ingenio.

Subjunctive.

mihi propositum habui.

Lesson

29.

Intermediate Clauses.

Learn
clauses).

340, 341. a, b, c, d; 342 (Intermediate

Compare

336, and b (Subordinate clauses

in Indirect Discourse).

Remark.
some
found

Besides

the constructions of dependent clauses

already mentioned (which for the most part are suggested by


particle or
in Latin,

some construction

in English), another is
:

which has no English equivalent whatever namely, that of a clause subordinate to another which is itself

78
suborditiate.

Latin Composition.
This

is especially to be observed when any one and Subjunctive expressions which have been treated under the head of substantive clauses itself the subject or object of some leading verb has another clause depending on it. In this case, the verb of the latter

of

the

Infinitive

is

almost invariably in the subjunctive.

But, in

applying
:

the rule, the following conditions must be observed


a.

When

subjunctive, so that
sion, its verb

a subordinate clause depends on an infinitive or it becomes logically a part of the same expresin the

must regularly be

Subjunctive (see examples

in 342).

N. B. This rule does not apply to the case of a simple relative


clause following a complementary infinitive, which will generally

come under
b.

the following head.

If the subordinate clause is inserted for

mere

definition or

explanation
tive (see c.

so that

it

may be regarded
it

the connection in which

stands

its

as true independently of verb will be in the Indica-

examples under

336. b).

When

a clause, though not depending on an infinitive or


is

represented as containing the words or thought of any other persoti than the writer or speaker, so that it becomes informal indirect discourse, the verb must be in the Subjunctive (see examples under 341).
subjunctive,

Note.

This

construction

is

especially

common

in clauses

expressing a reason or motive, which otherwise do not take the


subjunctive.

d.
the

subordinate clause in a Conditional sentence will have


tense of the principal verb.
Exercise 28.

mood and

i.

Sulla, encouraging his soldiers,

men
fell

well armed, led them to

who were 35,000 Rome. The soldiers

on the tribunes whom Marius had sent and murdered them. Marius also put to death many friends of Sulla in Rome, and proclaimed freedom to the But it is said that slaves if they would join 1 him.
only three slaves accepted the
1

offer.

See

c,

above.

Intermediate Clauses.
2.

79

The

next day Marius, compelled by hunger, and

to make use of his remaining strength before he was 1 completely exhausted, went along the shore, encouraging his followers, and entreating them not to abandon the last hope, for which he reserved 2 himself on the faith of an'old prediction. For when he was quite a youth, and living in the country, he caught in

wishing

garment an eagle's nest as it was falling down, 3 with seven young ones [in it] which his parents wondering at, consulted the soothsayers, who told them that their son would become the most illustrious of men, and that it was [the will of] fate that he should receive the supreme command and magistracy seven times. 3. His attendants advised him to wait until he had made preparations of men and money. To which he only returned, "They that love me will follow me." In a few days he drove the enemy from before the city, and took the count prisoner; who, raging at his defeat and calamity, exclaimed, "that this blow was from fortune but valor could make reprisals, as he should show, if he ever regained his liberty." 4. When with infinite toil they had climbed up the greater part of that steep ascent, Balboa commanded his men to halt, [and] advanced alone to the summit, that he might be the first who should enjoy a spectacle which he had so long desired. 4 As soon as he beheld the South Sea stretching in endless prospect below him, he fell on his knees, and, lifting up his hands to heaven, returned thanks to God, who had conducted 5 him to a discovery so beneficial to his country and so honorable to himself.
his
; ;
1

See

a,

above.
4

*
c,

See

b,

above.
6

ad terrain.

See

above.

See

b,

above.

8o

Latin Composition*

Lesson 30.
Indirect Discourse.

335-339, throughout (Indirect Discourse), noticing carefully the Remark on page 248.

Read

Remark.

1.

The

Indirect

Discourse

in

Latin corre-

sponds to the common reporting of speeches, &c, in the newspapers and elsewhere, in which the pronouns and the tenses of the verb are changed, and the whole quotation is usually introduced by that, following a verb of saying, &c
This form of discourse
in
is

developed in Latin than in English, and


rendering the
difficulties

much more common and highly may often be used


direct

English

narrative

or

quotation.

Many

and obscurities are avoided

in Latin

by the

use of the reflexive pronoun, to refer to the speaker, and of


the Indicative

The
a

rule
:

follows

defining the

and Subjunctive moods as given in 336. employment of these moods is as

The main

clauses

(statements)

have their verbs

in

the

Infinitive

with the subject in the Accusative, as substantive


of saying, &c.

clauses dependent on the verb


6.

Dependent clauses, introduced by relatives, relative or conand the like, have their verbs in the Subjunctive, as INTERMEDIATE CLAUSES.
ditional particles,
c.

Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive.


special indirect forms see 337, 338.

N. B. For
d. The

Subject of the verb must regularly be expressed in

indirect discourse,

though a pronoun omitted

in the direct.

Refer-

ences to the speaker must be made by the reflexives se and suua.


e. in

Repetitions of

some verb of

saying,

&c, which

are

common

English for the sake of keeping up the form of indirect dis-

course, should be omitted in Latin.


/.

Particular attention should be given in translating the afio-

dosis contrary to fact,

which

is

done by the future participle with

fuisse (see examples in 308. d).

Indirect Discourse,
fj.

81

Sequence of Tenses

is

very often violated in indirect dis-

course for the sake of greater vividness, by the use of primary


instead of secondary tenses,

but

never

in

a narrative clause

with cum.
2.

An

Indirect Question includes

all

interrogative clause, or one introduced

where an by an interrogative
the cases

word (who

where ? whether, and the

ject or object of a verb or of

most interrogatives, both in same form with the relatives, care must be taken to distinguish them by noticing whether there is an Antecedent, expressed or implied, which is the distinguishing mark of the
Relative.

like) is made the subsome equivalent phrase. As English and Latin, have the

N. B. For other

interrogative forms see 210-212.

Exercise
i.

559.

When

came

to the foot of the hill, I

a very aged man,

who asked me what


him
that
I

met with was and


"

whither bound.

I told

was

a pilgrim going

to the celestial city.

Then

said the old

man,

Thou
to

lookest like an honest fellow.

Wilt thou be content

wages that I shall give thee?" Then I asked him his name, and where he dwelt. He said his name was Adam the first, and that he dwelt in the town of Deceit. I asked him then what was his work, and what the wages that he would give. He told me that his work was many delights, and his
dwell with
for the

me

wages, that I should be his heir at last. He 2. His resolution was immediately formed. rose and called together the officers of Proxenus, and addressed them. After 1 having pointed out the magnitude of the evils which they had to apprehend, unless some provision were made without delay for their defence, he dexterously turned their attention to
1

cum.
6

"

82

Latin Composition.

a more animating view of the situation.

"Ever

since

they had concluded the treaty with Tissaphernes, he

had observed with envy and regret the rich possessions of the barbarians, and had lamented that his comrades had bound themselves to abstain from the good things which they saw within their reach, except l so far as they were able to purchase a taste 2 of them at an 3 expense which he had feared would soon exhaust their scanty means."
3. I

fancy, Cephalus, that people do not generally not your character but your great wealth that

acquiesce in these views of yours, because they think


that
it is

enables you to bear with old age.


is

For the
w

rich,

it

said,

have

many

consolations.

True," he said,

and they are partly right, though not so right as they suppose. There is great
they will not believe
;

"

me

truth in the reply of Themistocles to the Seriphian,

who

tauntingly-told -him 6 that his reputation


'

was due

not to himself but to his country.

should not have

become famous if I had been a native of Seriphus, neither would you if [you had been] an Athenian.' 4. I will tell you [a tale of] what happened once to a brave man, Er, son of Armenius, a native of Pamphylia. His story was,4 that when the soul had gone out of him, it travelled in company with many others, till they came to a mysterious place, in which were two gaps adjoining one another in the earth, and exactly opposite them two gaps above in the heaven. Between these gaps sat judges, who, after passing
sentence,
right,

commanded

the just to take the road to the


;

upwards through the tieaven while the unjust were ordered to take the road downwards, to the left.
1

praeterqiiain quae.
* dico.
6

pauca.
exprobare.

tantus.

Certain Special Constructions.

83

Lesson 31.
Certain Special Constructions.
i.

Read
;

clauses)

carefully 332. c, and 274 (Exclamatory 332. d (tantum abest ut, etc.) ; 332. e, com-

paring 288. kabco)


317.

/
c,

{facere ut)
;

{quin, quominus)
;

292.

332. g, and 319. c, d (Perfect Participle with


(disguised Purpose)
;
;

with

Remark

211, with a, b,

d (Double Questions)

308. b,

c,

d;

307. d; 311. c (Indicative used in conditions instead

of the Subjunctive).

which belong logically under the preceding heads have special idiomatic uses in Latin. Such are the following
2.

Some

constructions

a.
that
!

The English
" " That
!

exclamations,

"The

idea that!"

"To

think

something which has actually happened, are expressed by the Accusative and Infinitive, usually with the enclitic ne. When referring to something anticipated or to a mere idea, by ut with the subjunctive, usually also
like, referring to

"

and the

with -ne
1.

as,

To think

2.

me What
b.

te
!

you should have fallen into such grief for in tantas aerwmnas propter me incidisse ! interrupt you ? egone ut te interpellem ?
that

English expressions, like " Far from," or " So far from,"

with a following clause, are rendered in Latin by

tantum
is

abest,

followed by two clauses with


the latter
clause, as
c.

ut

The former

clause

always the
;

subject of abest, which has not a personal subject, as in English

clause
it

always one of Result, not an independent often is in English (see examples in Grammar).
is

Such phrases as " To allow one's

self to,"

" manage to,"

doing a thing," are expressed in Latin by facere or committere, with an ut-clause as object. So also where verbs want the future infinitive, fore (futurum esse) ut is used.
in

" act in any

way

84

Latin

Corn-position.

d. Expressions implying Hindrance, usually (but not always) from with the participial noun, take in Latin a subjunctive clause with quominus (rarely ne). If the hindering is negatived, quin may be used instead. The same
followed in English by
construction
like "
is

used

in Latin

with verbs of refusing.

Expressions

Not to doubt that {but that) " are regularly followed by quin. The accusative with infinitive is to be avoided. " To doubt
whether," introduces an Indirect Question, and is so to be treated. " To hesitate " is expressed by the same verb (dubito), but with

a different construction
e.

the simple

Infinitive.

with a participle, is sometimes a mere corresponding to the Perfect in Latin. Sometimes, however, it retains a slight notion of possession, and is then to be
auxiliary,

The English have,

translated literally, with


1.

habeo

or teneo.

Thus

I have guarded the prisoners, captivos custodii.


I

But

2.

have the prisoners guarded (under guard), captivos

habeo custoditos.
To be brief," " To say no speak," are really expressions of Purpose, and are to be so treated in Latin as,
/.

Parenthetical expressions, like "

more,"

"So

to

Not

to be tedious, the enemy were beaten and put to ne longus sim, hostes pulsi et fugati sunt,
this

flight,

N. B. As
is

expression

is

elliptical,

the sequence of tenses

disregarded.

g.

For the treatment of Double or Alternative Questions, conforms


in the

sult the

Grammar

( 211).

h. In stating the propriety, possibility, and the like, of a future been performed at all, Latin employs the Indicative, expressing it (as it were) as a general truth, where English uses the Potential, treating it as a particular case. For example
action, or one that has not

1.

It

would be tedious

to follow

up the matter, longum est


we do
not),

rem
2.

persequi.
befit

It

would
lugere.

us to mourn

(but

nos decebat

3.

How much
fuerat

better

would

it

have been! Quanto melius

Certain Special Consti'uctions.

85

Exercise 30.

do not doubt that you fully agree with me the motives and the consequences of I, for my part, cannot avoid feeling Caesar's murder. both sorrow and indignation, whether 1 I consider the
i.
I

regarding

victim or

the assassins in that great crime.

What-

ever

may have been

the ambitions or the vices of his the most

earlier public or private life, they cannot prevent us

from regarding his death


serious calamity to the

at this

time

as

Roman

people, or from con-

demning and execrating the infamous conspiracy that slew him. Not to speak of the glory and empire won to Rome by his victories, he was the first conqueror in civil war who refused to make it an occasion of massacre and revenge. Far from following the example of violence which the partisans of Pompey had threatened, he had 2 disciplined and controlled
his

forces,

so as

effectually

to

check the fury of

slaughter or the lust of plunder.


to his

At

least, his

mercy

have 3

enemies, after the victory at Pharsalia, should forbidden all thoughts of private resentment.

[To think] that Marcus Brutus, whom he not only had spared on the field of battle and in the hostile camp, but even called his son, should strike the deadliest blow against him that Cicero, who had so
!

his pardon 5 of Marcellus, should with yet greater fervor have gloried

lately extolled with fulsome praise

in the

liberty, or

manner of his death Was it the hope of real was it jealousy of his more vigorous genius and more dazzling glory?
!
1

sive.

habeo.
5

debuerat.

effusis laitdibus efferre.

Clause with quod.

86
2.

Latin Composition.

But the death of Caesar could not cause 1 true and lasting freedom to exist in a city which had beheld the murder of Gracchus, the massacres of
Marius, the proscriptions of Sulla, the profligacy of Catiline, the violence of Clodius The wicked act 2 of his enemies did not hinder Rome from becoming
!

subject to the tyranny of a Caesar

it

did prevent

it

from enjoying a firm peace and an enlightened rule under the ancient forms of the commonwealth. It kindled again the fury of civil war. It destroyed the

remnant of those ancient families and the authority of


the Senate, which had

made

the glory of
all

Rome.

It

extinguished the freedom of debate, and

confidence

among men.
lic

It

committed the destiny of the Repub-

hands of Mark Antony and Octavianus. It removed the mighty Julius, to prepare the way for Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero.
to the
1

Lit.

" bring

it

to

pass that," &c.

facinus.

VOCABULARY.
Note.

In

using this Vocabulary,


all

it

here given are not in

cases the best or even the ordinary equivalent of the

should be borne in mind that the Latin terms English

words, but such as appear to be best suited to the passages where these occur. They need not, therefore, prevent the use of such other terms as may be preferred. In selecting the right word, where several are given,
lexicon.
it

will often

be necessary to consult the Latin

For numerals, reference should be had

to the

Grammar.

Where numbers
full,

occur, they

may be written

in

Roman

numerals, but should always be read in

as

Latin words.

The

small figures

mark the conjugations of the


nouns
is

verbs.

In general, the gender only

of the less usual forms of

given, and in verbs only those principal parts which

are required.

Adjectives in us,

when

not otherwise marked, are to be declined like bonus.

accuse, accuso. 1

accustomed, to be, soleo? solitus.


A,
an, usually omitted
;

a cer-

achieve, gero, 3 gessi.

tain, quidam (p. 18). abandon, relinquo, amitto

acquiesce, consentior* sensus.


(lose).

Acron, Acron,
act
{n.),

onis.

abide,

maneo? mansi.
to

across, trans (ace).


act, ago* egi;

make, habito. 1 [circa. about (here and there), passim; above, supra (ace), insuper above all, maxime. abroad, to get, emano. abstain, temperof se abstinere, abundance, abundantia, ae. abundant, satis (with gen.).
;

abode,

a agere, tueri;
A da mis,
f

factum /acinus,
,

oris.

part,

partes
pro.

as, esse

acting, actio in scena.

actor, actor, oris ; histrio.

Adam,

i.

add, addo*

addition of

territory, fines

pro-

abuse (v.), abutor, 3 usus. academy, academia, ae.


accept, accipio? cepi.

moti, propagati.

adj oining, conjnnctus, proxim us.

address, adloquor 3 appello.


1

accompany, comitor. account (v.), fiabeo, 2 existimo.


account, on
(ace.)
;

admire, ?niror.
1

of

of,

it is

ob,
,

propter

interest (see
p. 29).

advance, progredior 3 gressus. advantage, utilitas, atis ; I have of, me adjuvat quod. the

50, 4. d).

(See

advise, hortor, moneo}


x

88
affair, res, rei (f.).

Latin Composition

ambition, ambitio, onis; cupiditas, atis (f


).

affection, amorj affections, animi.


afflicted, adflictus.

ambitious, a?nbiiiosus.

afraid, to be, timeo* ui.

among,

inter (ace.)

posts conj. postquam. afterwards, postea.


after,

expressed by dat. ancestor, proavus,


generis ;
pi.,

sometimes apud.
i,

auctor

again, iterum, rursus, postea.


against, contra, adversus (ace).

majores, um.
atque.

ancient, antiquus, vetus, eris.

Agamemnon, Aga?nemnon,
on is, ace. ona.
age, aetas, atis
(f.).

and,

et,

-que

(enclitic),

anger, ira

(visit with,

persequi).
(f.)
;

animal

(wild), /era,

ae

the

aged, confectus (provectus) aetate,

lower animals, bestiae.

longaevus.

animating, laetus.

agitate, co7mnoveo? movi.

ago, abhitic.

answer, respondeo? di, sum. annual, annuus, sollemnis.


Antipater, Antipater,
tri.

agree, adsentior^ (dat).

agreeable, gratus,
aid, auxilium,
i.

a,

um.

antiquities, antiquitas, atis

(f.).

anxiety, sollicitudo, inis

(f.).

air (music), cantus, us.

anxious,

sollicitus.

alarm, terreo?

ui.

any, ullus, ullo modo;

8)
;

one,

alarmed, territus (abl.), sollicitus; for, metuens (dat.).

quisquam, quivis(p. any ? num quis f

does
(sc.

alas,

vae!
is.

Apennines,
mons), i

Apenninus
(m.).

Alcibiades, Alcibiades,
all,

omnis, e (whole), totus, solus

apparel, vestitus, us; in funeral

(gen. ius).
all in

sordide vestitus.

a body, universi.

appear, appareo? ui; videor.*

allied, conjunctus.
allot, trib?to,* ui,

appease, lenio* placo}

utum.

allow, potestatem dare (dat).


ally, socius,
i.

apply (for aid), se conferre,peto. apprehend, metuo?


apprise, doceo.*

almost, fere, paene.


along, praeter.

alone,

appoint, praeficio (ace,


solus.

dat.).

appointed
tus daius.

(to head), praefec-

along with, una cum. already, jam.


also, quoque.
altar, ara, ae.

approach

(n.),

adventus, us.
ae.
i.

approval, gratia,
arbitrator, arbiter,

arbitration, arbitrium,
tri.

although, quanquam.
altogether, omnino.

always, semper.

archbishop, archiepiscopus, arduous, arduus.


i.

i.

ambassador,

legatus,

Argos, Argi, orum.

; ;

Vocabulary.
aristocracy, nobilitas,
atis.

89

attendant, socius, comes.


attention, to pay, specto y
turn,
l

arm

armo. 1 arrasd, armatus.


(v.),

to

animum

revocare (ad).

arms (weapons), arma, orum.


army,
exercitus,
iis.

attitude, status, us.

attractive, juc undus.

arrival, adventus, us.

arrive, perve/.io* advenio.

4,

audacious, audax, augury, augurium,

acis.
i.

arrogance, arrogantia,

ae.

authority, auctoritas, atis

(f.).

arrow,

sagiita, ae.

art, ars, tis (f.).

artificial, artijiciosus.

avenge, ulciscor 3 ultus. avert, averto, ti, stem} avoid, fugio 3 fugi, evito;

artisan,

opifcX,

icis.

Aruns,
as,
ttt',
. .

A runs,

Aruntis.

cannot non possum non. await, exspecto},

(when), cum, pro.

awake,
ac.

somno

excitare.

as as

as, tarn

if,

as

it

quam, aeque were, tanquam.

aware,

to be,

animadvertere.

away,

to be, abesse.

ascent, ascensus, us.

awhile, aliquamdiu.
axe, securis,
is (.).

ashamed,

to be,
c).

pudere (impers.

50,

4.

aside, se- (verb-prefix).

ask, rogo, 1 quaero, peto


assassin, sicarius,
i.

(ad).

assassinate, interficio? occido?


assistance, auxilium,
i.

babe, infans,
expel7o. 3

tis.

banish, pello 3 pepuli,

pulsumj

assume, sumo? adrogo. 1 assumed, simulatus. Assyrian, Assyrius.


at,

bank, ripa, ae. bar (v.), claudo. 3


barbarian,
bai'bartis.

with

name of town,
in),

see p. 41

near (not
at

apud,

ad ;

as

barbarously, saeve.

cause (as " alarmed at


all,

"), abl.

barren
(abl.).

of,

to

be,

careo?

ui

omnino j at once, statim. Athenian, Atheniensis, e. Athens, Athenae, arum. attached to, conjunctus cum.
attack, aggredior, 3 opptigno}
attain, adsequor. 3

battle, proeliu?n, i (n.)

pugna,

ae

(f.)

field

of battle, acies,

ei (f.), locus ubi pugnatur.

bay, sinusj

us.

be, su?n (see paradigms of com-

attempt attempt

(v.),

conor}
conatus,
l

pound tense)

(n.),

attend, comitor j

to

the ses-

iis (m.).

habere;

able posse.
ui.

to be so, ita se

beach,

litus, oris (n.).

sion of the Senate, in Sena-

hear, fero,ferre, tuli, latum.

tum

ire.

bear up, sustineo?

9
bear no relation
tinere ad.

Latin Composition
to, nihil at-

bitterly, vehementer.

blame, culpa,
ae.
(f.).

ae.

beard, barba, ae.


beast, wild,

bland, blandus.
blast,
(M.).

fera,

of music, clangor,

oris

beating, vis, vis

beautiful, pulcher, a,

beauty, species, because, quia.


before,
ante,

ei,

um. forma,

blow
ae.

(a blast

of an instrument),

edo?

blow,
passive).
(f.),

ictus,

us

(m.);

plaga, ae

become, fio, fieri (or


quam.

vulnus, eris
1

(n.).

antehac,

ante-

boar, aper, apri.


boast, glorior, praedico
1

de.

begin, incipio? cepi; coepi.

beginning, initium,
behalf,
in,

i.

pro

(abl.).

bodily gifts, bona corporis. body, corpus, oris (n.) of men, agmen, inis (n.).
;

behave,

se gerere.

bolster-up, subvenio
se-

(dat.).
(f.).

behind, post;

go behind,

quor? behold, contueor, video, conspicio.


believe, credo
3

bondage, servitus, utis book, liber, bri (m.).


booty, praeda,
borders, fines,
ae.

(dat).
dat.)

ium

(m.).

belong, esse (with gen. or


Pertineo,

born, natus; to be

nascor. 3

ui {ad).

both, uterque, utraque, utrumque, gen. utriusque; both


.

bench, subsellium, i. beneath, subter, sub.


beneficent, beneficus
per!).

and, et

et.

(use

su-

bound, obligatus ;

to

be going

anywhere, tendere.
e.

beneficial, utilis,

bow
(adv.).

one's head, se inclina?'e.


eri.
e.

besides, praeter, praeterea


besiege, oppugno. 1
besiegers, obsidentes.
best,

boy, puer,

brave, fortis,
optime,

break, frango? fregi, fraction.

optimus;

(adv.)

break up,
breathe,

confringo.
1

maxime ;

(of two)

magis.
3

exspiro;

animam

bestow, dono. x betray, prodo* ostendo


better, melior, us.

ejfiare, to breathe one's last.

(show).

breathing, spiritum ducens.

breeze, aura,

ae.

between, infer
bind, obligo}
bird, avis, is

(ace).

bid, jubeo? jussi.

bribe (v.), corrumpo,* rupi, ruptum, bribes (n.), dona, orum.


bribery, a?nbitus, us (m.)
bridge, pons, pontis
bright, clarusj
(m.).
.

(f.).

birth, by, natu.


bite, niordeo?

momordi.

distinctions,

bitter, acerbus.

praeclara.

Vocabulary.
brilliant,

91
i.

clarus,

insignis,

e,

campaign, bellum,

splendidus.
bring, adfero,
irr.,

can, possum, posse, potui.


porto, x duco,
confi-

perduco ;
cio ;
3

candidate, to become
sul), co?isu latum

(for

con-

to

an end,

petere.

to pass, efficio?

cap, pileus, i

(m.).
i.

broken, fractus, turbatus.


brother, frater, tris (m.)
law, uxoris frater.
;

capitol, capitoiium,

in-

captain, dux, ducis.

captivated, captus.
(f.).

brutality, immanitas, atis

capture

(v.),

capio?
(f.).

brute, bestia, ae
build, aedifico; roads,
x

(f.).

capture, expugnaiio, onis


care, cura, ae.

military works,

&c, munio.*
i.

careful

of,

studiosus (gen.).
1

building, aedificium,
bull, taurus,

carry, porto, fero, deicio?

bulk, magnitudo, inis


i.

(f.).

Carthage, Carthago, inis


cast, p7'oicio ;
3

(f.).

Carthaginian, Carthaginiensis.
si.

burn

(v.),

ardeo, 2

the parts of a
3

burst,

inrumpo}

play, disti'ibuo.

business, negotium, res;


one's

make

it

operam ponere in. but, sed, autem ( 43, 3. b), tamen; but if, sin, quod si ;
,

cast, jactus (part, of jacid).


cat, fe'lis,
is.

catch, excipio;

at,

cap to}

Catiline, Catilina, ae.

buy, emo. 3

[for,

nisi (with verb).

Cato, Cato, onis.

by

(near),

ad;
;

(with passives)

Caudine Forks, Furculae Caudiiiae.

ab,

(abl.)

means, ablative
28)
;

alone

(see p.

by

far,

cause to
cause,

suffer, aliqtia re adji-

longe; be by (near), adesse.

cere ; efficere ut.


res,

rei ; causa, ae; res

(plur.).

cavalier, eques,

itis.

cavalry, eques,

itis, pi.

Cadiz, Gades, htm


rianus.

(f.).

celebrate, celebro}
celestial, caelestis,
e.

Caesar, Caesar, aris; adj., Caesa-

censor, censor, oris ; one


(of),

Caenina
call,

Caeninensis,
1

e.

has been

who
10).

censorius (p.

calamity, calamitas, atis


appello, 1

(f.).

censure, reprehendoj*
chain, vinculum,
chair, sella, ae
i.

advoco;
l

mind, co?nme7Jiorare ;
(for opinion),

upon
of the

to

(f.).

\tor.

gare; together, camp, castra, orum


camp, militarise

sententiam roconvoco.
(n.)
;

champion,

defensor,

propugna"

chance, occasio oblata ; casus,


us (m.) by chance, forte. change, rnuto}
;

e.


92

Latin

Corn-position*
college, collegium,

character, indoles, mores

(pi.),

i.

charge, accusatio, crimen.


Charles, Carolus,
i.

colony, colonia,

ae.

come,
(F.).

venio,*

venij

chariot, curv us, us (m.).

transeo,

ire;

across, forward, ex4

chase, venatio, onis


chastise, verbero.
1

sistoj
Jla7'e ;
3

in (of wind), ad pervenio ad, ac3

to,

check,

reprimo. z

cedo

ad.
ae.
i

cheer, recreo, 1 hortor}

comeliness, forma,
office),

cherish hate, odium gerere. chief, dux, cisy princeps, ipis.


chief- town, caput gentis.
chiefly, ?naxime.

command (w.),jubeo,
praeessej
(n),
,

jussij

(in

be master

of, i?npero. x

command
e.

child, puer, ij adj. puerilis,

supreme

children, liberi; young

,pueri,

imperatum, i;

imperium, i; by

jussu.

orum, infantes.
childless, orbus.

commander, imperator, oris. commanding, dux, ducis (gen.)


as descriptive
adj.,

chink, rim a, ae.

augustus.

choose, delego 3 gi; (of officers)


3 facio, feci; cteo
1

(p. 122,

dd).

commend, laudo. 1 \committo. commit (an act), facio, efficio,*

Cicero, Cicero, onis.


circle, circuius

common
nis,
e.

(in

common), commuis (f.).

(v.) circa esse.

circumstance,
citizen, civis,
city,
(f.)

res, rei.

common
atis

people, plebs,

is.

commonwealth,
civitas,
,

res publica.

urbs,
;

urbis,

of the

urbanus.

civil, civ His, e.

communicate, impertio.* community, populus, i. companion, socius, i.


compare, comparo.
x

claim, vindico. 1
class, ordo, inis (m.).

claw, unguis,

is (m.).

cleft, fissus (part,

of Jindd).

clemency,

cle?nentia, ae.
tis.
3

in with, una cum. complete, adfinem perduco* completely, plane. compelled, coactus (cogo).

company:

client, c liens,

climb, scando, 3 adscendo

close

(v.),

claudo, 8

si,

close

to,

prope

(ace.)

closed, clausus. closely,

sum. prope

compose, concipio, scribo. s compulsion, under, coactus. comrade, comes, itis.


ab.

conceal, celo

(two ace), occulo?


refert
(

arte.

concerns,

it,

40,

4.

d).

clothed, vestitus.
coast, litus, oris
coil,
(n.).

conclude (make), facio. condemn, damno, 1 reprehendo


condition, condicio fortunae
fortutiae,

volvo

cold, algor, oris (m.).

arum.
duco
3

colleague, collega^

ae.

conduct

(v.),

deduco.

Vocabulary.
conduct
(harsh), asperitas.
(n.).

93

controlled, frenatus.

confederation, foedus, eris

convict, co/iviuco, 6 damno. 1


corner, an^ulus,
i.

confer on, defero ad, confero

in.

confidence, fiducia, ae, fides. in, conconfidence, to have


3 fido (dat. or abl.). conical, coni (gen.).

conjure,
[obsecro.

counsellor, to have, in consili-

um
count
itis.

adkibere.
(a
title

of rank), comes,

connect, conjungo. 3

countless, innumerabilis,

e.
,

connected, conjunctus. conquer, vinco, 3 vici, victum j conquest, victoria. devinco. conqueror, victor, oris. consequences, exitus, us (sing.).

country,
people,
tici,

regio,

onis; terra ae;


turn,
,

(one's native), patria, ae j


agrestes,
in the

rustego. 3

orum;

court, aula, ae.

ruri. cover,
(f.)

consider, existimo,

considero.

covered, tcctus
(here

cobpertus;

consideration,

res, rei (f.).


3

and

there, as with dwell-

consistent, to be, congruo


onis

ings), sparsus.

consolation, solatio, consolatio,


(f.).

cowardice, ignavia, cowardly, ignavus.


cradle, area, alveus.

ae.

conspicuous,

to be, emitieo. 2

conspiracy, conjuratio, onis.


conspirator, conjuratus,
i.

crafty, dolostts, callidus.

crawl, serpo. 3
create, creoj 1 facio, 3 feci ; con-

conspire, conjuro. 1

consul, consul,

iilis ;

(one

who
;

stituo

has been), consularis.


consulship, consulatus, us (m.)
appos. with name.
consult, consulo, 3 ui
(

credit credit

(v.),

confido

(n.),

laus, dis
ontis.

(f.).

in one's consulship, consul, in

Creon, Creon,
crisis,

crime, scelus, eris


51, 2.

(n.).

'discrimen, inis (n.).

cross, transire.

consume, consumo 3 contempt (with), fastidiens, lis. contend (as with difficulty),
lab or
l

crowd, comitatus,
ae.

us,

turba,

(abl.).

crown, corona,ae; (royal power), imperium, regfium.


cruel, crudelis,
e.

content,
(abl.)
;

contented,
wilt

contentus

thou be

satin

cry, clamo ;

out, clamo,
x

ex-

habes ?

continue, persequor, 3 secutus;

clamo, vocifero. cultivated, cultus.


curious, 7nemorabilis,
curule, curulis,
e.

in
tari.

pursuit,

hostes

consec-

e.

contrary

to,

contra (ace).
(f.).

custom, mos, moris (m.),


cynic, cynicus.

control, 7iioderatio, onis

94
D.
"

Latin Composition
demand, postulo, flagito?Demosthenes, Demosthenes,
1

is.

danger, periculum,

i.

deny, nego}

dangerous, gravis, e. daughter, filia, ae. day, dies, diei (m.), (rarely
in singular),

depose
F.

(a king),

regno

spolio. 1
x

deprive,
voice,

orbo,

privo ;

of

vocem eripere

(dat.).
(f.).

deputation, legatio, onis

dazzling, clarus.

dead

(slain), occisus.

descended, genitus (with descend, descendo. 3


descent, genus, eris
(n.).

abl.).

deadliest, gravissimus.

dearly, care, carissime.

desert
to
b),

(n.),

deserta,

orum.

death, mors,
,

damnare capitis
terficere.

tis j

condemn
(

deserted, desertus.
desire, cupio? ivi (with ace. or
infin.),

50, 4.

morte multarej put to


debar, prohibeo, 2
ui,

in-

jubeo. 2

itum.

cupido, inis (f.). desire despatch, co?ificio? interficio.*


(n.),

debase, depravo. 1
debate, sententias dicere.

despise, contemno,* psu


despoil, spolio}
p. 74.

debt (kindness), see note,


deceit, fallacia, ae.

despotism, dominatio, onis


destiny, fortunae, arum.

(f.).

deceive, decipio. 3

destroy,

deleo, 2 evi,

etum,

decemvir, decemvir, viri. decide the contest, decerto. 1


decision, judicium,
x

destroyer, perditor, oris.


destruction, exitium, pernicies,

i.

detected, detectus.

declare, nuntio, adfirmo}

determine, statuo

3
;

on, ca-

dedicate, dedico}

pere

(p. 65).

deed, factum,

i.

detestable, nefandus.

deem, puto. 1
deeply, vehe?nenter.

devoid, expers,

tis (with gen.).

devotions
(gen.).

(of

),

precatidi

defeat (v.), supero} defeat (n.), calamitas, clades.

dexterously,

sollerter,

defend, defendo; defence, salus. degree (to what quo. ),

diadem, diadema, a tis


dictator, dictator, oris.

(n.).

delay, ?nora, ae.


deliberate, delibero}

dictatorship, dictatura, ae.


die, morior, 3

mortuus.
ae.

delight

(v.),

delecto}

die out, exstinguor?


i; delec-

delight
tatio,

(n.),

gaudium,
;

die

(n.),

a lea,

onis (f.)
i.

oblectamen-

dignity, dignitas, honos.


difficult, difficilis, e.

tum,

deliver, liberv, 1 trado. 3

dinner, cena, ae
dip, tingo
3

(f.).

deliverer, liberator, oris.

tinxi, tineturn.

Vocabulary.
direct,

95

viam monstrare.
3

disappear, evanesco
disaster, clades, is
1

ui.

drama, fabula, ae. draw up, subduco;


copias iustruo.
3

troops

(F.).

discharge, praesto, fungor.


disciplined, coercitus
(p. 85).

drink

(n.),

potio, onis (f.).

drive, pello, 3 pepuli,

discontinue, abrogo. 1

drowned
rire.
),

to be

pulsum. aqua pe-

discourse (v.), disputo. 1* discovery (conduct to


cere ut inveniret.

effi-

dry, siccus.

dry
(f.).

(up), exsicco. 1

discredit, infamia, ae

due, to be, deberi.

disease, morbus, i (m.).

duly,

rite.
i.

disgrace, ignominia, dedecus.

display, praebeo*
di spirited, fractus animo.
displease, displiceo, ui (dat).

duty, munus, erisj officium, dwell, habito.


1

disposer, rector et moderator.


disposition, voluntas, atis.

disregard, neglego, xi.


dissatisfied,

eagerness,

earnestness,

studi-

non contentus.
oris.
(f.).

um, ij

eagerly, avide,

dissembler, simulator,
distinguish,

eagle, aquila, ae,


earlier, prior, oris.

dissolution, solutio, onis

laudibus

ornarej

early,

mane.
in

with distinction, honorifice.


distress, res adversae.

early-ripe, maturus.

earnest

serio.

distribute, distribtco. z
distrust, diffidentia, ae.

earth, terra, ae; surface of

expressed by omnis.
(f.).

disunion, dissensio, onis


divide, divido, 3
divine, aivinus.
diviner, haruspex,
icis.
si,

ease, tranquillitas, atis

(f.).

sum.

East, oriens,

lis

(m.)

of the

canum).
civitas,

Asiaticus.

divinity, natura divina.

easy facilis, e. educate, educot l erudio.*


,

do, facio 3 feci, factum.

education, disciplina, ae,


effectually, penitus.

dog, cam's,

is (gen. pi.

dominion
atis
(f.).
:

(subjects),

effeminacy, mollities, ei

(f.).

doom

to seal

pernicies at-

make, nitor. 3 Egypt. Aegyptus, i (f.).


effort, to

que exitium
door, fores,
(f.)
;

esse.
(f.)
;

elder,

major

(natu).
3

ium

porta, ae

elect, creoj * facio feci,

factus.

out of doors, foras.


deorsu?n.

election (as consul),


tus,

consula-

doubtful, dubius.

us

(m.).

downward,

elegy, elegia, ae.

a ,

96

Latin Composition.
i.

elephant, elephantus,

envenomed, venenatus.
ae.

eloquence, eloquentia, emblem, signum, i. eminent, illustris, e. empire, imperium, i.

envy, invideo ; invidia (noun).


Epidaurian, Epidaurius.
Epirots, Epirotae, arum.
equal, par, part's.

employ, ulor,8 usus, adhibeo. empty, mam's, e.


enable, facere ut possim.

equally, non minus, aeque.


establish, conloco. 1
estate,

praedium,
(v.),

i.

encounter

(v.), confligo *

cum.

esteem

aestimo. 1

encourage, cohortor. 1

Etruscan, Etruscus.
at

end

iy.),finio.
(f.

end, finis,
cio,
3

or m.)

an
,

fijiitus; bring to

an

feci ;

even, etiam j not


,

dem j
(M.).

ne

qui-

as, ut.

confi-

event, factum, ij eventus, us


ever,

of,

extremus.

endanger, in periculu?n adducere.

unquamj (always), semper.


omnis, unusquisque
(p.

every, everybody, quisque, quilibet,


i

endless, sine fine.

endowed, praeditus.
endure, fero (perferd), tuli; capable of enduring, patiens,
tis.

9). everywhere, ubique, ubivis. evil, malusj (n.),incommodum,


exactly, plane.

i.

enemy,

hoslis, is (" the


;

enemy,"

usually plur.)

a personal
i.

exalted, excelsus.

inimicus,

i.

example, exemplum,
ui,

i.

energy, stadium,
engage, adhibeo?

except, praeter (ace),


itum.

nisi.

excess,

nimium

excel, excello.

engage

in, inire.

excited, concitatus.

engaged, occupatus.
English, Angli, orum.

exclaim, clamo. 1
execrate, exsecror. 1

enjoy

(fruit),

percipio. 3
rule,

exercise
sa~

(v.),

exerceo,* ui, itum.


exercitatio,

enlightened

imperium

exercise

(n.),

onis

pienter administration.

(use plur.).

enmity, odium,

i.

exert, exerceo* ui.


is.

Enna (man

of),

Hennensis,
is (n.).
i?ieo,

exertion, labor, oris (m.).

enrich, locupleto}

exhaust,
ire;

conficio, z exhaurio.*
(f.).

ensign, insigne,
enter,

intro;

exigency, necessitas, atis exile, exsilium, i; to be


exsulo;
1

in

ship, conscendo. 3

an

exsul, ulis.

enterprise, conatus, us
entire, totus (gen. ius).
entitle, inscribo. 3

(m.).

expel, expello, 3 puli, pulsum.

expense, pretium, i. experience (v.), obire


exploit, res gesta.

(ace.).

entreat, obsecro. 1

Vocabulary.
expose, obicio? jeci; offero. exterminate, exstirpo.
1

97

fatigue, labor, oris (m.).


fault, culpa, ae.

extinguish, restinguo? nxi.


extirpate, exstirpo. 1
extort, extorqueo, 2 torsi.

favor
favor

(v

),faveo?favi, fautiun.
beneficium,
i.

(n.),

favorable, secundus j prove


bene succedere.
fear
(v.),

extraordinary, extraordinarius.

extremely, express by superl.


eye, ocuius, i (m.).

timeo? metuo? vereor*


timor, oris j metus, us.
4

fear

(n.),

feeble, exiguus.
feel, sentio,

sensij adficior (with

F.
face, vulius, us (m.).
facilitate, adjuvo, x juvi.
failings, vitia,

abl.).

fellow, vir, viri.

ferment, agitatio, tumultus.


fervor, studium,
i.

orurn.

festival, festus dies.

fair share, jus ta pars.

few, aliquot, pauci, ae, a.


field, ager,

fair-speaking, blandiloquus.
faith
:

gri (m.), arvum,

i.

on the

of,

fntus

(with

fierce, acer,

feroxj

fiercely dis-

abl.).

puted victory, acerrimis pugnis paria victoria.


fig,

faithful, fidus.

Falerian, Falernius.
fall,

cado,* pereo;

of

or
,

to the lot

fig-tree, ficu s

i (f.).

of, obtingo, tigi (of office,

use

fight

(v.),

pugno ;
pugna,

battle,

rather obti?iere,

the

man
in

committere proelium.
fight
(n.),

chosen);

with, occurroj

on

vadere

; upon, in; down, decido


let
,

deicio

ae.

in3

figure, species, ei (.), statura.


fill,

compleo, i?npleo?

one's knees, in

genua

find,

invenio* video?

procumbere.
false, falsus.

finish,

perago. z

fire, ignis, is (m.).


tis.

faltering, vacillans,

firm, firmus.
first,

fame, fama, ae. family familia,


,

prim tis ; at

primo;
,

(be-

ae.

forehand), ante.
fitting, to be, decere.
Z
(f.),

famine, fames,

is (f.).

famous, clarus. fancy, opinor} far, by far, longe ;


farewell, vale.
fate, fatum, i ;

&2L,figO.
{late.

flame, flamnia, ae
(m.).
flee, fugio, z fugi ;

ignis, is

far

and wide,
ae.

confugio.

Fortuna,

fleet, classis, is (f.).


flight, /oga, ae.

father, pater, tris ; parens, tis ;

of the fathers, patrius.

flock, pecus, oris (n.).

98

Latin

Co?nfiosition
free,
liber,

flog, fustibus caedere or virgis.

era,

umj

flow, flu o, A xi,

xum.

gift),

gratuitus;

(as a town, muliber tas.

foe, host is, is (c).

nicipium; freedom,
friend, amicus,

fold, situts, us (m.).

ij intimate

follow, seqi/or, 3 insequor, imitor.

familiaris.
friendly, to be,faveo, 2 favi.

follower, comes,
food, cibus,
foot, of
hill,

itis.

i (m.).

foot, pes. imus


collis;
;

friendship, amicitia, ae.


fringe, praetexo
3

(in-

ui.

fantry), pedes, itis (pi.).

from

often pro (abl.) by dative ( 51, 7. r.), or by ace. of place. for, nam, enim, etenim ( 43, 3. d) (instead ot), in loco.

for (prep.),

ex ; (away from), ab; (by reason of), propter


(out of), (see p. 33).

expressed

frugal, parcus.

frugally, frugaliter.
fruit, fructus, us.
full,

forbid, veto} ui.


forces, copiae,

plenus;

measure, summus
(n.).

arum.

fully, bene, plane.

forest, silva, ae.

function, munus, eris

forfend:

heaven

di

omen

furious, ferox, ocis.

avertant.
forget, obliviscor, 3 oblitus ( 50,
4. a).

further

(adj.),

reliquus.
ae,

fury, saevitia,
(M.).

furor, oris

forgetting, oblitus (gen.).

future, futurus.

forgive, ignosco, 3 novi.


fork, /urea, ae.

G.
(political)

form form

s (v.),facio, capio.

(n.),

forma, aej
i.

Gabinian law, Gabinia


gain
(v.),

lex.

institutum,

pario, 3 peperi,

par-

former
forth
:

(the),

ille, a,

ud.

turn ; sibi conciliare.

forsaken, desertus.
to

go

egredi.

gain (n.), quaestus, us. gain over, concilio}


gallant, fortissitnus.
(F.).

fortify,

munio.*

fortitude, fortitu do, inis


fortress, castellum, i
(n.).

galley, navis, is

(f.).

games,

ludi,

orum.

fortune, fortuna.

gap, hiatus, us (m.).

forum, forum, i. forward to come,


:

garment,
exsistere.

vestis, is (f.).
(f.).

a colfound, condo, 3 didi; to ony at, coloniam deducere


(with ace. of

gate, janua, porta, ae

gather, carpo, 3 psi.

Gaul

(the

land),

Gallia,

aej

name of

town).
(f.),

(the people), Galli,

orum.

franchise, civitas, atis

jus,

gay, laetus.

juris

(n.).

general

(n.),

imperator, oris.


Vocabulary.
generally, fere
VUlgO.
(see u

99

men

"),

ground, terra; on the group, agmen, inis (n.).

humi.

genius

(intellect),

ingenium,

i.

grow
guard

up, adolesco, 3 evij

out,

German, Germanus.
get, adipiscor;

provenio. A
effugio.
(n.),

away,

custos, odis.
iis (m.).

getting round, circumfusi.


gift,

gust, flatus,

donu?n, ij munus, eris.


bona, orum.
lis,

gifts,

gigantic, ingens,
give, do, 1 dedi,
2

immanis,
3

e.

adhibeo ;
cessi;

back, reddoj

datum;

tribuo, 3

habitation, domicilium,
hail, appello. 1 hall, aula, ae.

I.

up, depono j

place, cedo

to one's self ,sumo?


1

glory
glory
(f.),

(v.), glorior.
(n.),

halt, consisto?

gloria, ae, laus, dis

hand, manus, us
in

(f.)

holding

decus, oris (N.),fama, ae.

ipse

manu

tenensj
(f.)

go, eo, ire, ivi,

facio; sequor; 3
iter

cedo

on behind, egredi exadire, exire ; up


3

itum; pro cedo?


3

(power), potestas, atis

out,

to,

accedere; so goes, ita se habet.

Hannibal, Hannibal, dlis. happen, accido, 3 evenio. happiness, felicitas, atis (f.). happy, felix, icis. harbinger, praenuntia, ae.
harbor, portus,
iis (m.).

goat, caper, pri (m.).

god, dens,
sare ;
(dat.).

i (

10, 4. /).

hardship, labor, oris

(m.).

good, bonus ; make


be

compen-

hardy, durus.

for,

convenire

harsh
atis

treatment,
(.).

crudelitas,

goodness, virtus, utis (f.). governor, praefectus, i. grandson, nepos, otis.


gratitude, occasion
res grata.
of,

Hasdrubal, Hasdrubal,
hasten, propero. 1
hastily, temere.

dlis.

gratum,

hateful, odiosus.

hatred, odium,

i.

great,

magmis, itnmanis.

greatly,

multumj so

tantum,

haughty, arrogans, tis. have, habeo? ui, itum ; (take to


one's self), adhibeo
2

magnijice.

(see p. 84).

Grecian, Greek, Graecus.


greeting, salutatio, onis
grief, luctus,
(M.).
(f.).

head

us (m.)

dolor, oris,

caput , itis (n.). head-quarters, castra ; appointpraefectus, with gen. ed to


(n.),
,

health
its (m.). (F.).
e.

(state of), valetudo, inis

groan, gemitus,
gross, gravis,

hear, audio.

4.

IOO
heart, animus,
i.

Latin Composition,
hostile (of the enemy), hostilis,

heat, calor, oris (m.).

ej

(actively hostile), infensus.

heaven, caelum,
heir, heres, edis.

i.

hostilities, bellum.

heifer, juvenca, ae.

help, auxilium,

i.

herald, fetialis,

is.

herdsman, pastor, oris. and there, passim. here, hie J

memento temp oris. house, domus, us (f.). how, quamj much, quantum, quantoj interrog., quomodo. however, tamen, vero, quam,

hour, hora, ae ; in an

hereditary, paternus.
heritage, hereditas, atis
(f.).

visj large, quantum human, humanus.

vis.

Hesiod, Hesiodus,
highest,
hill,

i.

high, alius, excelsus.

humble, humilis, demissus. humbled, fractus.


humiliation, molestia,
ae.

smnmus, maximus.
collis (m.).

mons,

humility, with, demissis verbis.

hinder, impedio*

hunger, fames,
i

is (f.).

hindrance,
(N,).

impedhnentum,
ejus;

hunter, venator, oris.

hurry
his),

(v.),

propero. 1

his

(of

reflexive,

hurtful, to be, noceo, 2 ui.

suus.
history, historia, ae.
out, propono. hold, teneo y 2 holiday, dies est us.

husband, maritus,

i.

home, domus,
i; at

iis ;

domicilium,
I,
i.

domi.
boni,

ego;

for

my

part, ego

vero

Homer, Ho?ncrus,
honest men,

(or equidem).

orum.

ides, idus,

uum

( 84).

honesty, probitas, atis (f.). honey, mel, mellis (n.).

idleness, socordia, ae.

if, si.

ignorance,
(n.)

inscitia, ae.

honor honor

(v.),

colo? ui, cultum.

ignorant, ignarus.
;

(n.),

decus

oris
;

ill,

male.

honor,

oris
;

(m.)

dignitas,

illustrious, darns, praeclarus.

atis (f.) with hones te. honorable, honorifiens. hope (n.), spes, spei(F.) voiwn, i.
, ;

Illyrians, Illyrii,

orum.
{.).

image, imago, inis


imitate, imitor}

hopeless, inutilis,

e.

imitation, imitatio, onis

(f.).

Horace, Horatius, i. Horatian, Horatius. horn, cornu, us (n.).


horse, equus,
i;

immediately, statim, illico. immortal, sempitemtts, immor-

war-horse,

immovable, immobilis. [talis. impart, communico cum.


*

equus militaris.

impatient, impatiens,

tis.

Vocabulary,
impend, i?npendeo?
implore, oro. 1
instructed, ceriior /actus.
insult
(n.),

ipi

contumelia, ae.

important, potens, tis. impression, see memory.

insurgents, use seditio.


intelligence, intehigentia, ae.

improper, minus aptus.


in, in,

intend, in animo esse {habere).


intention, consilium,
i.

de

(abl.).

increase
sive).

(v.

a.),

adaugeo*

xi,

intercede, deprecor. 1
interest, to be

ctutn (in neut. sense, use pas-

one's

inter

esse (gen. 50, 4. d).


us.

increasing, major, indeed, quidem.

interests, utilitates et

commoda.

independence,
indifference
onis
(f.)

libertas, atis (f.).

interregnum, inter?-egnum, i. interrupt, interrumpo? rupi.


interval, te?npus, oris
(n.).

to,

contemptio,

(with gen.).

intimate

(adj.

or noun), famili-

indignation, ha, ae, hidignatio,


onis (F.).

aris,

is.

into, in (ace).
ae.

indolence, ig?iavia,

intolerable, intolerabilis,

e.

induce, iuduco. 3

introduce, induco, 8 duxi.


e,

infamous, turpis,

nefandus.
ae.

invade, invado

si,

sum.
(f.).

infamy, ignominia,
infinite,

invaders, hostes inrumpentes.


invasion, inruptio, onis
invent, invenio.*

inferior, inferior, us.

summits.

inflict

death on, morte multare.

invention, inventa, orrwt


inventress,
(F.).

(n.).

influence, to have, gratia valeo}

inventor, inve?itor, ton's (m.).


invenirix,
tricis

influenced, adfectus.

inform, certiorem facio. inhabit, habito}


inherit, accipio
3

inviolable, inviolatus
invite, invito,
1

oro. x

inheritance, hereditas, atis (f.). injury, injuria, ae ; do no

irritated, moleste fere?is.

island, insula, ae.


Italian, Italicus.

nihil nocere (dat.).

insolently, insolenter.
inspiration, spiritus, afflatus.
inspire,

Italy, Italia, ae.

ivory, ebur, oris


eburneus.

(n.)

of ivory,

animum
,

gods

dare ;

may

the

di duint.

instance,

for,

quidem.
J.

instantly, staiim.

instead

of,

pro
J

(abl.);

in loco

(with gen.).
instil, instillo

jealous, invidus (gen.).


(ace.
3

and

dat.).

jealousy, invidia, ae.


jest, jocus, ij pl.joca.

institute, constituo

instituo. 3

102
join
in,

Latin Composition.
accedere ad, jungere se
;

lamp, lucema,
land, terra, ae.

ae.

(dat.)

in

a military sense,
aliquo.

militare

cum

language, oratio, onis ; verba.


large,

joined
3y

to,

conjunctus cum.

magnus.

[tri. gaudium, i. judge (n.), judex, Zeis, arbiter, judicial power, judicium, i.

lasting, diuturnus.
last,

duro. 1

last (adj.), ultimus; at

tan-

Jugurtha, Jugurtha, ae ;

(adj.),

dem, extremum.
lastly, denique.
latest,

Jugurthinus.
Julian
(adj.),

Julius, a,

um.

supremus.
(of),

Jupiter, Juppiter, Jovis.


just, Justus.

lastly, denique.

Latium
P. 13).

Latinus,

a,

um.

just

now, nunc maxime.

latter (the), hie, haec, hoc (see

justice, aequitas, tatisjjustitia,


ae.

law,
lay,

lex, legis (f.).

impono; 8

hand on, tango.


3

lay hold, teneo? tango? lay down, deponere.


keep, servo;
kind, comis,
x

silence, taceo?

kill, interjicio, 3
e,

occldo?

benevolus.

kindle, incendo?

away, abduco. leader, dux, ducis. leap into, ui; over,


ductum ;
3

lead

(v.),

duco, 3 adduco

duxi,

insilio, 4

kindly, comiter, blande.

transilio, 4 ui.
i;

kindness, benejicium,
(f.), benevolentia, ae.

as a

learn, disco, 3 didici.

quality, comiias, facililas, atis

learned, doctus.at least, saltern.


leathern, ex pellib us /actus.
leave, relinquo, 8 liqui; (go from),

king,'rur, regis; (adj.), regius.

kingdom, ngnuin,
knee, genu, us
(n.).
i.

i.

egredi; (proceed), projicisci.


left (hand), sinistra, ae.

knife, cultellus,

legion, legio, onis (f).

knight, eques, His.

length,
3

at,

tandem, nunc demum.


us j minus.

know,
lego ;

scio,* nosco,
3

novi ;

intel-

less, inferior,

(be aware), sentio. 4


scientia, ae.

let i3l\ u de7?iittere.


let loose, libero. 1

knowledge,

lethargy, stupor, oris (m.).


letter, epistola (ula), ae.

levy, conscribo?
liar,

mendax,

acts.
i.

labor, labor, oris (m

).

libation, libamentum,
liberate, libero}

lake, lacus, us (m.).

lament, moleste ferre.

liberator, liberator, torts.

, ,

Vocabulary
liberty, libertas, tatis
liberties, jura (n.).
(f.).

103

mad scheme or conduct,furor.


magnitude, magnitude
magistrate, magistratus, us.
(gen.).

Libyan, Libycus.
liefaceo,* ui;
life,
3

upon, esse
[vivus
e.

maintain, defendo?

vita, ae ; in the life-time of,

make,

lift, lollo,

sustuli.

(abl.).

light

(adj.),

lev is,

good, compenso; way, peto? cedoj


l

facio, 8 conficio ; reddo;*


3

for (seek),
inis,

lighted (illuminated), inlustratus ; (kindled), accensus.

man, homo,

vir,

i (m.)

like

(adj.),
;

similis,

(gen. or

magna pars hominiun; a man who, is qui.

men

generally,

dat.)

(adv.), velut, ut.

lineage, genus, eris.


linger, moror. 1
lion, leo, onis (m.).

manner, mos, moris (m.). many, multi, plurimij so


tot ;

very

plerique.
,

March,

(of),
(v.),

Martins.
proficiscor? profec-

listen

(to),

audio.*

march
arum.
tus
(adv.),

literature, litterae,
little,

paulum; how
11011

progredior? gressus j iter


(n.), iter,

facere.

qua??i

live

margin, ora. market-place, forum, long, longus, diuturnus ; marriage, matrimonium, i; since, jamdudum ; as as, give in quamdiu ; no longer, nonjam. with, conubiumj
(v.),

j distance,

paulum.

march

itineris (n.).

vivo, 8 vixij habito. 1

mariner, nauta.

i.

to

look
loose
lord,

out, prospicioj like, videor.


(let),

libero, x

emitto*
acis.

nuptum marry (of


(sc.

dare.

loquacious, loquax,
doi7iinus,

in

ij

to

be

potior x (gen. 54,6. d).


lose, amitto?
loss,

detrimentum,
(n.),

i.

rem in nubo* nupsi (with dat.). Mars, Mars, Martis. Marsian, Marsus.
;

the man), duco, 3 duxi matrimonium, or uxoappos.) of the woman,

loudly, vehementer.

martial, bellicus.
(m.)
;

love
tas,

amor, oris
(f.)
;

cari-

atis

lover,

amans.

marvellous, minis. mask, persona, ae.

lower, inferior, us.


lust, cupido, in is (f.).

mass

(of troops), caterva, ae.

luxuriously, luxuriose.

massacre (v.), trucido} massacre (n.), caedes, is; datio avium.


master, dominus,
i.

truci-

M.
Macedonian, Macedo7iicus ; a
Macedonian,
Macedo,
dnis.

matron, matrona,

ae.

possum. mean-time, interea ; means, opes measure, consilium, *'(n.).


licet (impers.),

may,

104

Lathi Composition.
(f.).

mediation, deprecatio, onis


tus, invenio.*

meet, occurro? nanciscor, 3 nac-

memorable, memorabilis,

e.

memory,

?nemoria,

ae ;

our

mountain, mons, tis (m.) ; montanus. mountaineer, montamis. mourning, luctus, its (m.). mouth, os, oris (n.) of
;

(adj.),

river,

memories excited by our impressions, animis memoria plenis recenti earum rerum quas sensibus percepi?nus. men (soldiers), milites, um.
menial, servus,
i.

ostium,

i.

move, moveo, 2 movi. moved, permotus. movement, motus, us (m.). moving, incedens, tis. much, multum, multo, magni.
multiply, multiplico}

mercy, dementia,
merit, virtus, utis

ae.
(f.).
i.

multitude, multittido, inis

(f.).

message, ?nandatum,

midst

of,

medius.

Mulvian, Mulvius. municipal law, jus

civile.

mighty, magnus ille. might, possim (subj.). Milan, Mediolanum, i.


military, bellicus, militarise
e.

murder murder

(v.),
(n.),

occido? trucido. 1
caedes, is.

mutter, summissa voce dicere.

my, meus,

a,

um

(voc. M. mi).

mind, mens, tisj animus, mine, cuniculi, orum. mingle, misceor*


misery, miseria, ae.
misuse, pravus usus.

i.

myself, ego (ipse).

mysterious, secrelus.

Mithridatic, Mithridaticus.

N.

model, exemplum, i. moderate, modicus. modern, hodiernus. monarchy, imperium,

name
i.

(appoint), creo. 1

name, nomen; in the verbis. narrow, tenuis, e j angustus, a,


,

money, pecunia,

ae.
e.

umj

narrow pass, angustiae.

monstrous, immanis,

nation, gens, tis; nalio, onis.

monument, monumentum.
morass, pa/us, udis (f). more, plus, ampiius, magis. morning, in the mane (n.)

nature, natura, ae.


naval, navalis,
e.

e.

near, vicinus ; (prep.), prope


;

(adv.), juxta,

haud procul
[i.

(adj.),

matutinus.
dies.

nearest relatives, proxi?ni.


nearly, paene.
d).

morrow, posterus
mortal, mortalis,

necessary, opus
(adv.),

(in pred. 54,

most

(men),

plerique ;

need, requiro
esse (dat.

to

have
;

opus
in

maxime. mother, mater.

and

abl.)

to

be

motive, causa.

egere.

Vocabulary.
neglect, neglego?

i5

obliged, coactus (part, of cogo).


i.

negligence
uni.

(act of), delictum,

observe, animadverto?
obstacle, difficultas.
obtain, adsequor,
consequor, 3
secutus ; adipiscor* adept us.

neighbor, vicinus, Jinitimus,

a,

neighborhood,
cinum,
i.

vicinia, ae,

vi-

occasion, occasio, tempus.


occux, Jio,Jieri, /actus.

negligence, negligentia, ae.


nest, ?iidus, i (m.).

ocean, oceanus,
odious, invisus.
of,

i (m.).

never, nujiquam.
nevertheless, nihilo minus.

usually expressed

by gen. or

new, novus. next (of two), posterus ; of


several,

possessive (see p< 35).


offensive, odiosus.
offer
(v.),

proximus.
(f.)
;

\noctu.
at

offerre, polliceri,

prae-

night,

nox, noctis

no-

stare, imponere.

no

(adj.),

nullus ;

(adv.), nihil.
(f.).

offer (n.), condicio, on is


office,

(f.).

nobility, nobilitas, atis

magistratus, us; dignitas


i.

noble, nobilis, e

(to

emphasize
;

officer, praefectus,

quality, use superlative)

often, saepe.
oil,

bles (as a party), nobilitas.

olemn,

i.

noblest,
not,

summus.
nej
if

old, vetus, erisj (of age), natus

minus. nothing, nihil, nee quicquam.


to,
,

non; as question, nonne

si

old age, senectus, tutis old man, senex, senis.


older, ?najor.

(f.).

now, nunc;

(already), /#//// (of

omen, omen,
on, in
(abl.)
;

inis

(n.).

past time), turn; (emph.), hie

de.

[sus.

nunc ; (at this age), hoc aetatis. number, numerus, ij great


numbers, multitudo.

quondam; one, unus (gen.


once,
.
. .

more, rurthe
.

ius);

numerous, magnus. Numidian, Numida,

alter.

at

the

other,

alter

once, stathn.
solus
(gen.
ius),

ae.

only

(adj.),

unicus; tantum.
O.
oath, jusjurandum
d).

(adv.),

modo, solum,
(m.).
si,

onset, impetus, us

open
( 14, 2.

(v.),

recludo, 3

sum.

opinion, sententia,

ae.

obedience, obedientia ; unconditional

opportunity
on is.

(favorable), occasio,

obed.

omnium

re-

rum.
obey, ftareo?
silium,
i.

oppose,
ui,

resisto, 8 stiti.

itum.

object, causa, ae; (definite) con-

in war, opposed, contrarius ; adversus aliquem pugjiare. opposite, contra, alter, a, um.

io6
,

Latin Composition

opposition (p. 44) vis. oppression in one's province,


repetundae.

Pamphylia, Painphylia, ae;


(ad j
.

),

Pamphyliensis.
(m.).

pang, dolor, oris


e.

oppressive, gravis,
or, aut,

velj (as altern.) an, -ne


2).
i.

pardon pardon

(v.), ignosco,

novi (dat).

(n.), venia, ae.


tis.

( 71,

parent, parens,

oracle, oraculum,

part, pars, tis(F.), (meaning duty,


(f.).

oration, oratio, onis


orator, orator, oris ; torius.

&c, use
ora-

plur.)

for the

(adj.),

most

?nagna ex parte.

partisan, fautor, oris.

order
order,

(v.),

jubeo, 2 jussi.

mandatum, ij by

partly, aliqua {magna) ex parte.


of,

party, pars,
plur.)
;

tis (f.)

(generally

jussu;

(rank), ordo, inis.

factio,
supe7'o, x
;

onis.

other, alius, a,
alter ; the

udj
ceteri,

(of

two),

some

pass a law, legem ferre;


over,

reliquij

praetergredi,

aliquis.

praeterferri

(time),

ago?
a tis

ought, debeo, 2 op orlet (impers.

passion
(f.)

(for),
;

cupiditas,

with ace).
our, noster, tra, trum.
out, ex (in compos.),

(gen.)

passions, pertur-

bationes animi.

patience, patientia, ae.


esse.

outlive

(to have),

supers tes

patrician, patricius.

outside

(prep.), extra.

patron, patronus,

i.

over, supra, trans (ace.)

pay, solvo?
peace, pax,
cors, dis.

overcome, supero.
overhear, excipio. z

pads ;

in

con-

overflowed, superfusus.
overflow, overrun, se effundere

peaceful, quietus.
peculiar, proprius.

per

(ace).

overturned, eversus.

Penates, Penates, ium (m.). penetrate, penetro}


peninsula, peninsula, ae.
people, populus,
(f.),

overwhelmed, confectus. owe, debeo? ui.

i (m.), plebs, is

own
in

(often omitted), gen. of ipse

homines.
in, perfecte.

appos.

with

possessive

perfection,

proprius.

perform, ago, 3 fungor. 3


peril,

periculum,

i.

perish, pereo,

ire, ii.

perpetual, sempiternus.

Perses, Perses,

is.
2

painstaking, diligentia, ae.


Palatine, Palaiinus,
i.

persuade,
friendly

persuadeo

(dat

persuasion,

arnica

palm-tree, pahna,

ae.

verba.

Vocabulary.
Fharsalus, Pharsa 7us, i;
Pharsalicus.
Philip, Philippics,
i.

107

(adj.),

populace, vulgus, * (n.). population, multitudo homi-

num.
oris,

Philometcr,
ace. ora.

Phito metor,

position, locus,

i (pi. loca).

philosopher, philosophus,

i.

possession, possessio, onis, ager, gri. posterity, posteri (pi.).

Physcon, Physcon,
pillar,

onis.

posted, collocatus.

pilgrim, peregrinator, oris.

columna, ae.

pour (neut.), sefundere. poverty, egestas, atis (f.)


power,
2

pipe, tibia, ae.

potestas, atis (f.)

(do;

on, ?nisereor (gen. person). place impono* depono /*


pity
(v.),

pirate, firaedo, onis.

minion),

imperium,
(f.).

(n.)

have

potentia, ae
praise

powerful, potens,
(v.),

lis.

(v.),

laudo. 1
(f.).

at the head, praepono 3 (dat.). place (n.), locus, ij pi. loca, orum. play (on instrument), canoj 3 a part, partes agere.

praise (n.), laus, dis


pray, precor. 1

prayer, carmen precationis.

precede, anteeo,
preparations, to

ire.

prediction, vaticinatio, onis (f.).

player, histrio, onis.

pleasant, commodus.
please, placeo? ui, itumj (wish),
volo.

make

military

copias parare.
4,

pleasure, voluptas, atis (f.).

pleasure-grounds,
cati.

horti

deli-

prepare (a way), munio. prepared, paratus. present (n.), munus, eris (n.). present (adj.), praesens, lis.
preserve, conservo. 1
preserver, conservator, oris.
prevail, vinco?

plebeian, plebeius.

pledge, polliceor.*
plot, conjuratio, onis
(f.).

prevent, imped.*
priest, sacerdos, oiis, pontifex,
icis.

plunder, praeda, ae. plunge, i?iicio, z jeci.


poet, poeta, ae (m.).

principal,
(plur. M.).

maximus.
i.
i,

poetry, versus, tmtn point out, indico. 1


poison, venenum,
i.

prison, career, eris (m.).


prisoner, captivus,

private

(citizen),

privatus,

polished, excultus.
pollution, violare (ger. p. 69). Pompey, Pompeius, ij (adj.),
-anus.

privation, inopia

omnium
i.

re-

rum. prize, praemium,


produce,
efficio?

proceed, progredior*
professed, apertus.

poor, miser, era, unij pauper,


eris.

io8
professions
missa.
profit
(v.),

L at in

Composition

(verbal), verba, pro-

quarter (district), vicus, quickly, celeriter.


quiet, quies, etis (F.).

i (m.).

fructum

capere.

profligacy, Jlagitia, orum.

quiet, quietus, placidus j remain

promise

(v.),

promitto? polliedico.
3

quiesco? evi.

ceor,* itus;

quietly, quiete.
quit, relinquo? reliqui.
i.

promise (n.), promissum, i. promontory, promuntorium,


proof, testimonium,
i.

quite,

admodum.
the
first

quoth, inquit (after


tion).

property, bona, orum. propose, fero,ferre (of a law). proscribe, proscribo* [(f.).
proscription, proscriptio,
onis

word or words of the quota-

R.
rage, ira.

prosecute, persequor*

prospect

(in),

ante oculos.

raging, iratus,furens,
raise, tollo, 8 sustuli,

tis.

prostrate, prostratus.

rags, squalor, oris (m.).

proud, superbus. proudly, superbe.

sublatum.

rank, ordo, inis


ae.

(m.).
i.

prove

(try),

experior. k

rascal, improbus,

province, provincia,

rather, potius.

1 provision, to make, provideo."

reach, mantis,

uum

(f.).

provisions, commeatiis, uu?n.


public, publicus.

read

(aloud),

7'ecito. 1

reader,

lector, oris.

Punic, Punicus. purchase, emo, z emi, emptum. pure, purus.


purple, purpureus.
[

ready, paratus ad.


real, verus.

reap

(fruit),

capere, percipere.
(f.), res,

qua

re.

reason, ratio, onis


(F.).

rei

purpose, consilium, i; for what pursue, persequor; 3 celeriter ad


consectandtan, in hot pursuit.

reawaken, denuo
recall, revoco}

conciio. 1

push (against), trudo. z put, pono? posui, positum ;


an end
to, finio
3 4

receive, accipio* (excipio), cepi,

interficio ; vere navem.

ceptum.
recognize, agnosco, 3 novi; (hold
valid),

to death,

off (shore), sol-

ratum (justum) habere.


com?jiendo}

recollection, recordatio.

recommend,
tio,

recommendation,
onis
(f.).

commenda-

recompense,
quaestor, quaestor,
oris.
(f.).

to

make, compen-

sare.

quality (good), virtus, utis

recount, memoro, commemoro}

, ,

Vocabulary,
recourse, to have, se conferre
ad.

109
(a

repay

kindness), referre.

repent, paenitet.
repeat, iterum with verb,
(p. 65).

recover, recupero?recovering, experrectus

reply, respondeo? di, sum,


reply, responsum,
i.

redeem, compenso. 1
reed, arundo, inis
(f.)

report, nuntio, 1 dico. s

reedy, arundinibus praetextus.


refinement, humanitas,
atis{.).

represented, expressus.
representative, exemplum,
reprisals, to
i.

refuge, perfugium, i; take

make, compensare.
(

confugio*
refusal, recusatio, onis.

republic, respublica
require, postulo. 1

14,

2. d.).

reputation, fama, ae.


rescue, servo, eripio.
1

refuse, recuso}

regain, recipio*

regard (think), exist!mo ; for, studium (gen.) pay rationem habere, respicere;
y


re-

resentment, simultas, atis


iracundia, ae.

(f.),

reserve, reservo;

to one's

regret, dolor, oris,

[gardin^, de.

own
resign

use, sibi adservare.


i.

reign

(v.), regno. 1
(n.),

residence, domicilium,
i.

reign

regnum,

(office),

abdicoy

(power),

reject, recuso, 1 eieio, 3 jeci.

depono?
resist, resisto, s stiti.
\.%^ x '\

relation, to bear, atiineo*


relative, propinquus.
relief, opts (gen.), e?n (f.).

resistance, contendere

(inf.

or

resolution, consilium,
resolve, conslituo. 3
rest-of, reliquus.

i.

rely on, confido

(dat. or abl.).

relying, fretus (abl.).

remain, ma7ieo? mansi.

restless, inquietus.
re-

remainder
liqaus.

of,

remaining,

restore,

renovo, 1

restituo, z

reddo?
retire, abeo, ire (abl.).

remark, animadverto? remarkable, insignis, e.

return,

revertor, z

regredior, z

remember, recordor
a, R.).

50,

4.

redeo, respondeo;

rediens, tis ;
onis.

thanks, agere
on
his

remembrance, recordatio, remind, moneo? ui, itum. remnant, reliquiae, arum.


remote, ultimus.

return (n.), reditus, us. [gralias. revenge, ultio, onis (f.). revive
(neuter),

renascorj

(trans.),

restituo?
(m.).

remove, averto? amoveo. 2 renounce (allegiance to), imperium abicere.


renovate, renovo. x

revolution, civilis motus

reward, praemium, ij
as

to give

donare.
itis,

rich, dives,

opimus.

renown,

laus, dis (f.).

riches, divitiae,

arum.

no
right,
rectus,
a,
;

Latiri Composition.

um;

rights,

sake

for the

jura,

um

(n.)

to think

of,

causa,

fol-

recte sentire.

right hand, dextra, ae.

lowing a gen. sallies of wit, facetiae, arum. same, idem, eadem, idem.
sanctuary, aedes,
satellite, safeties,
is.

ring (signet-ring)', anulus,


ortus ; surgo, z surrexi.
rival,

i.

rise, orior* (infin. oriri), coorior,

itis.

satisfied, contentus.

aemulus,

i.

savage, barbarus.
save, servo}
say, dico, 3 aio,

river, flumen, inis (n.).

road,

iter, itineris (n.).


1

inquam

(Gr. p.

rob, spolio.

81); absol. loquor.


is (f.).

robe, toga, ae, vestis,

scarcely, vix.

scanty, exiguus.
;

roll (for writing), tabellae,

arum.

Roman, Romanus. Rome, Roma, ae; (as Romani j (as state),


Ro7?iana (respublica).

schooled, adsuefactus. scorn, ludibrium.


sea, ma7'e, is (n.)
(adj.),

people),
civitas

marinus.

sea-shore, ora, ae.

season, tempus, oris


seat, sedes, is (f.).

(n.).

room, cubiculum,
root, radix, icisj
rose, rosa, ae ;
roseus.

i.

and branch,
full

[radicitus.

seated, sedens,

tis.
(f.).

of roses,

secession, secessio, onis

round, circum.
i.

second, secundus,

alter.

roving, vagus.
royal, of royalty, regius.
ruin, exitium,

second time, iterum.


secret, res occulta;
sodalitas, atis
(F.).

society,
-

rule over, impero. x


ruler, princeps, ipis.

secretary, scriba, ae

(m.).

rumor, rumor, fama. run, curro* cucurri. rush, procurroj* upon, inruo?

secure secure

(v.),
:

occupo. x

to

be

non dubia?n

spem habere j
tiorem reddere.

to

make

tu->

security, securitas, atis


sedition, seditio, onis
see, video, 2 vidi, visum.

(f.)

(f.).

S.

seek, peto? cupio, % adpeto. z seem, vidcor? visus.


self-same, idem, eade7n, idem*
seize,

Sabine, Sabinus.
sacred, sacer, era, um.
sacrifice,

prehendo

di,

suntj

mac to.

eripio. 3
sell,
(f.).

safe, tutus.

vendo, 3 didi.
(m.)
;

safety, salus, utis


sail (v.), navigo.
1

senate, senatus, us

house,
sailor, nauta.

curia, ae.
-ius.

sail (n.),

velum j

senator, senator, oris; adj.

, ; ,

Vocabulary.
send, mitto, 3 mist, missum.
sense, sensus,
tis (m.).

in
after,

shortly

paulo post.

sensible, prudens, tis. sentence, to pass, judicium


ferre.

should, &c, see p. 63. show, demonstro}


shrink, abhorreo*
sick, to be, aegroto}

separate, separo}

sickness (sea-sickness), nausea,


ae.

separate (his own), proprius. sepulchre, sepulcrum, i.


serious, gravis,
e.

side (party), pars,


the

tis (f.)

on

a parte (often

plural),

seriously, in seriiun.

siege, for the siege of,


;

ad oppug-

Seriphus, Seriphus,
Sertphius.

i (f.)

(adj.),

nandum.
sight, conspectus, us (m.), spec-

servant, servus,
serve, servio;
x

i.

taculmn,
well or
ill,

i.

sign, signal,

signum,

i.

bene aut male rnereri de.


servile, servilis,
e.

signify, significo. 1

silence,

silentium,

i;
to

in

session, consessus, us (but may-

silentio,

iacite j

keep

be omitted;
venire).
set,

as, in

Senatum
3

silere, tacere.

\jncdo.

simple,
%

inconditus ;
;

simply,

pono

cepi,

ceptufn;

cor? fectits

on incipio, out, prqficis; navigo.


foot,
sail,
1

since, post (ace.

ever

jam hide
,

see p. 40) aj postea.

singular, mirus.
sister, soror, oris.
sit, sedeo, 2 sedi.

several, phi res,

ium;

singulis

severe, severus.

situation,
(ge n
.

res.

severely, saeviter.
severity, severitas, atis
(f.).

s kilful,

perit us

skill, ars, artis (f.).

shade, umbra,
shaft, telum,

ae.

slaughter, caedes,
slave, servus, i;

is (f.).

jaculum.
ae, dedecus,

shame, ignominia,
oris (n.).

servioj
naliiun.
slay,

market,

to

be a

grex vefectwn,

share share

(v.),

participo. 1

inter'ficio? feci,

(n.),

pars,

tis (f.).

caedo, s cecidi, caesus j


cruelty, t?-ucido. x

with

she, ea,

ilia.

she-wolf, lupa, ae.


shelter, lego, 3 texi, tectum,

slayer, interfector, oris.

slight,

parvus.

shepherd, pastor,
ship, navis, is
(f.).

oris.

sloth, ignavia, ae.

small, parvus.

shivered, pulsus.
shore, litus, oris (n.)
in terram egredi.
;

smite, percutio* cussi.

go on

snake, anguis,
(m.).

is,

serpens, tis

short, brevis,

e.

snatch, eripio

ui.

112
so, sic, ita ;

Latin Composition

<

as, ita

ut,

state, civitas, atisj res publica


(F.)-

great, tanius J
ut;
will

tarn

quamj many,
that,

tot;

adeo

stately, procerus.

have

it

so, sic velle.

statue, statua, ae.


stature, siatura, ae.

soldier, miles,

itis.

solicitous, so Ilicitus.
solid, Jirmus.

steep, arduus.
steer,

guber no. 1
ae.

some,

aliquid, nonnullus
thing,

aliquid;

dum; ... others, alii.


son, filius, ij
eri.

aliquamdiuj

(p. 18)

time,

step aside, decedo. z stepmother, noverca,


stick (n.),fuslis, stifle, exstinguo?
still,

times, inter.
.

is (m.).

alii.

in-law, getter,

etiam turn, etiam nunc,

adhuc.
stir up, excito. 1

song, carmen, inis (n.).

soon, brevi tempore; (presently),

mox;

post ; as

stone, saxum,
stop,

i.

after,

paulo

moror}

as, ut primum.
icis.

storm, violent,
tas.

magna

tempes-

soothsayer, haruspex,

sorrow,

dolor, oris (m.).

story, fabula, ae.


straggle, vagor. 1

soul, animus, ij anima, ae.

sound, sanus.
south, meridionalis (adj.).

stranded, in terram delatus.


strange, novus.

Spain,

Hispania,

ae;

(adj.),

stream, Jlumen, inis


strength, vires,

(n.).
(f.).

Hispanicus.
spare, parco, z peperci; (refrain),

ium

strengthen, confirmo. x
stretching, patens,
tis.

tempero. 1 Spartan, Spartanus.


speak, loquor, 3 locutus ;

of,

strict, severus, exactus.

commemoro.

strictly, severe.
i.

spectacle, spectaculum,
spectre, species, ei
(f.).

strike, percutio ;
[cere-

do;

a blow,

down, caeinferre.

speculator, to be
spirit,

a,

quaestumfa(m.).

striking (keen), argutus.


stroke, mulceo? mulsi.
strong, validus.

speech, sermo, onis

animus,

i (m.), (pi.).
(f.).

sport, lusio, onis

stronghold, praesidium,
strongly, vehementer.

i.

spot, locus, i; plur., loca.


spring, ver, veris
(n.).

studious, studiosus.
stupidity, stultitia, ae.

square (of a city), platea, ae. staff, baculum, i. stand, sto; x steti, statum;
aside,
(bear),

de

via decedere;
esse.

subject, to be, servire. subjects, cives, ium.

ferre; (be),

submission, obsequium, submit, se dedere.

i.

Vocabulary.
subterranean, subterraneus succeed, succcdo, 3 cessi. success, prosperus eventus,
successes,

113

swim, no, nato, trano. 1 symptom, indicium, i.


Syracuse, Syracusae, arum Syracusan, Syracusanus,
(f.).

us

(if.).

a,

successful, felix,

icis.

um.
Syrian, Syrus,
a,

succor

(help),

subvenire (dat.).

um.

suckle, lac to. x

such, talis e; is, ea,id; sudden, subitus.


i

tarn.

[subito.

T.

suddenly

(on a sudden), repente,

suffer, fero, tulij patior. 3

take, capio
3

cepi, captuin.porto, 1

sufficiency, satis,

[consciscere.

suicide, to commit,
suit, convenio.*

mortem

sibi

suitable, idoneus.

summer,

aestas, atis (f.)

(adj.),

aestivus.

summit, summus mons. summon, co?n>oco.


x

sun,

sol, solis (m.).

claim one's adrogare prisoner, cape re ; refuge, confugerej up arms, anna cap ere; by the hand, manu arripere; sequi ;
part in,
for

duco; (enjoy), fruor z j away, adirno, 8 emi, emptiun


in

charge,

accipio ;
x

communico ;
self, sibi

(follow),

superior, superior, meliorj absolutely, opti?nus.

seriously, in

serium vertere.
(n.).

task, opus, eris

support, confirmo. 1 suppose, puto. 1

talents, ingcnium, i (use sing.).


tall,

procerus.

supreme, supremus, summus.


surely, profecto.

taunt, obicio, 8 exprobro. 1

teach, doceo, 2 ui.

surface of earth, omnis terra.

teacher, doctor, oris.

surmount, surpass, supero. 1 surrender (v.), dedo, 3 dedidi. surrender (n.), deditio, onis (f.). surrounded, stipatus.
survive,

tear away, detraho


tear
tell,
(n.),
x

xi,

ctum.
3

lacrima, ae.
le7nperantia,

nuntio, 1 narro, dico

temperance,

ae,

superesse,
with dat.

superstes
di,

continentia, ae.

(itis) esse

tempest, tempestas, atis

(f.).
(f.).

suspend, suspendo, 3 suspense, cura, ae.

sum.
(f.).

temple, templum, i, aedes, is terms, condiciones, tun (f.).


terrify, terreo, 2 ui, itum.

swallow (n.), hirundo, inis swamp, palus, udis (F.).


swear, juro;
juro. 1
l

together, con-

testimony, testimonium,
than, quam, (or abl.).

i.

thanks, grates, gratiae, arutn.


e.

sweet,

dulcis,

that,

tit,

sweetly, jucunde.
8

quod

(see pp. 54, 7$)

not,

ne ; but

quin.

ii4

Latin Composition,
tile.

the, often expressed by

too, nimis ; or express

by com-

theatre, scena, ae. thence, hide.

parative J (also), quoque.

then, ttun, inde, deinde, igitur.


there,
ibi.

tooth, dens,

lis (m.)

their, eorum, suus.


qua de causa.
(f.).

grip of

morsus, us

(m.).

therefore, itaque,
thing, res, rei

torch, fax, facis (f.).

torment

(n.),

tormentum, i; cru-

think, puto, x reor? ratus.


this, hie, istej often qui.

ciatus, us.

this day's, hodiernus.

thong, lorum, i. though, quamquam, etia?n


(F.).

si.

torture (n.), tormentum, i. towards, ei'ga (ace), ad, versus. town, tnunicipium, i; oppidum, ij (village), vicus, i (m).
trace, duco. 3
traitor, proditor, oris.

thoughtlessness, temeritas, a/is


thought, consilium,

i.

tranquillity, tranquillilas, atis


i.

thousand, mille
of a

18,

e);

one

(F.).

unus de multis.
'

transaction, res, rei (f.).


(dat.

threaten, minor, minitor


of person)
;

transgress,
(dat).

minus

obediens esse

impendeo

(dat).

thronged, refertus. through, per, propter, or by abl. throw, jacio, 3 jeci, jactutn;
off,

travel, iter facere. traveller, viator, oris.

traverse, transire.

abicio? jeci.

treachery, perfidia,

ae.
(

thrown
thus,

(down), dejectus.

treason, majestas, atis


4;

50,

ita.

b).
i.

Tiber, the river, Tiberis, is (m.)


the river-god, Tiberinus,
till,
i.

treasury, aerarium,
treat, tracto ;
l

donee.

timidity, formido.
(n.)
;

as

a son, in

filii loco habere.

time, tempus, oris


,

tired,
(

aliquamdiu ; from interdum; from that the same jani inde; tamen, nihilominus. fessus ; to be taedet
to
forth,

for

some

treatise, liber, bri.

treaty, indutiaes
tree, arbor.

arum.

trial, tortnenta.

at

tribe, tribus, us ; gens, lis (f.).

tribune, tribunus,

i.

50,

4. c).

[dative.
;

minimus. tripod, corUna, ae.


trilling,

[dis (f).

to,

ad

(ace.)

often

sign

of

to-day, hodie, nunc.


together, una.
toil, labor, oris (m.).

triumph, triumphus, i; laus, triumphal, triumphalis e.


,

troops, milites, um.


trouble, res adversae
(plur.).

tomb, sepulcrum, i. [crastinus. (adj.), to-morrow, eras; of

troubled, to be, laborare.

tongue, lingua, ae.

Troy, Troja, ae j of janus, a, um.

Tro-

Vocabulary.
true, verus, a,
trust, confido?

"5
(as living

umj
ae.

quidem.

upon

),

ex.

upward, sursum.
urge, suadeo
(F.).
2

trumpet, tuba,

(dat.).

truth, Veritas, atis

turf, caespites, urn (plur.).

turn, verto, 1

ti,

avertor j

sum/

away,

use use

(v.),
(n.),

utor, 3 usus.

usus, us (m.).
e.

useless, inutilis,

out-of-doors,

utmost

(adj.),

maximus.
vox.

foras

eicio. 3
tis (m.).

utterance

(n.),

tusk, dens,

two, duo ; where only ambo. tyranny, domitiatio, onis (f.).


,

tyrant, tyrannus,

i.

vast, ingens,

tis.

vainly, fr us tr a, nequicquam.

Valerian, Valerius,
valor, virtus, utis

a,

um.

(f.).

Ufentine, Ufens,

its.

value, pretiwn,

i.

unambitious,
osus.

minime ambitii.

Veians, Veientcs, ium.


vein, vena, ae.

uncle, avunculus,

vengeance,
gerund.

uncover, detego. 3 undaunted, invictus. under, sub (ace. or abl.). understand, recte aestimo,
teneo. 2

of vessel, navis
ulcisci
;

use

(F.).

venture, audeo? ausus.


very, per, in compos.
x

d)

same,

17,

5.

ipse, a,

um; gra-

viter; often by superl.


vice, vitium, i.flagitium, i (n.).

undertake, adgredior, suscipio. undoubtedly, sine dubio.


unfeeling, durus.

victim, hostia, victima, ae

(F.).

victor, victorious, victor, oris


(m.)
;

ungrateful, ingratus.

victrix, icis (F.).

unjust, injustus.

victory, victoria, ae.


integer
incol-

unimpeached,
umisque.

view,

cogitatio, onis (f.)

sen-

ten tia,
era,

ae; to be with a

unhappy, miser,
unless, nisi.

wn.
e.

pertinere ad.

universal, communis,

vigorous, acer, cris j nervosus.


violence, vis
(f.).

until, donee.

unprincipled, improbus.
unprofitable,
ifiutilis, e.

violent, violentus.

violently, vehementer, vi.


virtue, virtus, utis
(p.).

unrighteous, in/quus.

unworthy, indignus.
upbraid,
obicio, 8 j'eci.

voluntary, voluntarius.
vote, sententia, ae.

upper

classes, nobiles.

vow, votum,

i.

n6
W.
-wages, merces, edis

Latin Composition.

who?
17).
(f.).

(interrog.)

quis (see p.

wait,

maneo? mansij
1

for,

whole, totus (gen. ius). wholly, plane, omnino.

exspecto.

why,
;

cur,

quam

ob rem.

wall

(of house), paries, etis (m.)

wide, latus j
latitudinem.

(of measure), in

(of city), ?nurus, moenia.

wander, vagor.

wicked,
(dat.

sceleratus.

want
in

to,

opus esse
of,

of per;

wife, uxor, oris.

son and

abl. of thing)

to

be
of

wild, ferus, immanis,


beast, /era;

indigere

(gen.

e;

fig,

caprificus.

thing).

will, volo, velle, volui.

war, bdlum, /(n.). war-horse, equus militaris.


warlike, bellicosus. warrior, virfortis.

willing, paratus

ad (p.
tis.

76).

willingly, volens,

win, concilia

warn, moneo; 2 warning, monitus. wasted, confectus. watch, observo. 1


water, aqua,
ae.

1 pario; 3 umph, triumphum ago? wind, ventus, i.

tri-

window, fenestra,
winter
(v.),

ae.

hiberno}
i.

wisdom,

consilium,

xva.ve,fluctus, us (m.).

way,

via,

ae ; a good

ali-

wish, volo, cupio 3 op to} with, cum; with me, meewn;

quantum.

himself, &c, secum.


often expressed
p. 40).

weaken,

debilito. 1

within, intra, inter; of time,

wealth, copiae, aru?n. wealthy, locuples, tis. wear, gero 3 gessi, gestum.
well, bene.

by

abl. (see

without, sine;
(see p. 60).

doing a thing
;

what ? quid?

sort

qualis?

wolf, lupus, i (m.)


,

lupa, ae

(f.).

whatever, quod, with

indie.

when, ctwi, ubi, ut (p. 6y). whenever, cum (with indie). where, ubi, quo, qua ( 41,
a.).
.
.

woman, mulier femina. wonder (n.), ?niraculum,


2.

i.

\_sive.
. .

whether, utrum an, sive which, rel., quod; qualis, e; int, while, cum. [quis, uter (p. 17).
white, albus.

wont, to be, soleo, 2 solitus. woodpecker, picus, i. word, verbum /. work, 7ninisterimn, i. world, orbis terrarum; homines, um. worn out (by age), aetate con,

whither, quo.

fectus.

who, qui j whoever,


quicu?nque, siquis.

quisquis,

worship, colo, z colui, cultum. worst, pessimus.

Vocabulary.
worthy, dignus
-would,
(with abl.).

117
is;

young, juvems,

i.

man,
is

&c,

see p. 63.

wound, vulnus, eris (n.). wounded, vulneratus.


wretched, miser,
write,
era,

of birds, pullus,
younger, niinor,

adulescens, tis j juvenis,

oris.

um.

your

(of sing, subject), tuns, a,


(.of

scrifro, 3 ft si,

ptum ;

urn; vester
yourself, ipse

plur.).

down, conscribo. 3 wrong, pravus.

(tu), te.

yourselves, iftsi, vos. youth, puer, eri ; juventus, i liyoung man, adulestis (f.)
;

cens, tis.

year, annus,
nus.

1.

yesterday, heri ; of
yet, ta?nenj not

hester-

[etiam.

no7idum

Zama

(adj.),

Za?nensis,

e.

you

(sing.),

tay

(plur.), vos.

zeal, alacritas, atis (f.).

PART SECOND.
INTRODUCTION.
The
Exercises given in Part
I.

have been chosen chiefly

and the proper words and phrases have been given in a special Vocabulary. In those which are to follow, the student is expected to make the selection of words and phrases for himself, and must rely on his general knowledge of the language, or on a general
to illustrate the constructions of Latin syntax,

Lexicon.

An

English-Latin

lexicon

should,

however, be
real

used only for the suggestion of words which do not occur to


the

mind from a knowledge of the language.


it,

The

guide

should be the Latin Lexicon, in connection with passages


cited in

or else remembered.

few points should be put clearly before the mind at

starting.

I.

Choice of the
in
all

Word or

Phrase.

Single

words,

languages,

single ideas, but groups of ideas.

commonly express not They cover, as it were,

not points, but

su?-faces.

The

surface thus covered by parallel

words

is

very often
not

quite different in different languages.

Words do

coincide,

but

only
is

partly

overlap

and

hardly any word in one language

exactly equivalent in

meaning to the apparently corresponding word in another. Thus the English bold and boldness correspond most nearly to the Latin audax and audacia; but these often have an idea of blame, which is not in the English words homo
:

120
audax
is

Latin Composition.
a

man bad

as well as bold.

On

the other hand,

the verb to lie in English implies a moral offence, while


the corresponding Latin mentior conveys no such opprobrium,

though

it

may be conveyed by
to lex,
;

the context.

The word law


is

answers most nearly


written or statute law

which, however,

limited

to

so that the abstract expression law) would have


similar phrase.
to

the

law

(including

common
or

be rendered

by jura atque

leges,

some

Besides this difference in the original meaning of words,


their derived or figurative
different.

meanings are often very widely

Thus

the English

noun form may mean

things

so different as shape (jigura), mariner {modus), vain


(simulatio),

a hare's

show ceremony (ritus), a bench at school (scamnum), or The adjective right may be bed (Jatibulum).

aeqitus (a right decision), aptus (a right selection), or dexter

(on the right hand).


lift),

The verb to raise may be

tollo,

levo (to
(to

augeo (as of wages), stnco (of buildings),

cieo,

moveo

raise pity,

&c),

conscribo (of troops), colo (of grain

and

fruits).

On

the other hand, the Latin

take away, weigh (anchor), destroy ;

tollo may mean to lift, exalt, signum is a mark or sign,


;

signal, standard, statue, constellation

gravis

is

heavy, weighty

(dignified or influential), burdensome, offensive, sickly.

This difference

is

especially to be noted in

the case of
likeness,

English words derived from Latin.


is

The apparent

one of the commonest sources of error. in such cases, Usually the corresponding Latin words are much the more energetic and forcible, since they are the growth of roots still living and vigorous in the language. Thus the Latin
; deprimere (" depress "), to sink, opprimere (" oppress "), to overwhelm, or The smother; supprimere (" suppress "), to trample down.

labor

is toil

or hardship
;

as a ship in battle

judicious selection of a Latin term will thus frequently restore


to life a

term
tive

such often given English by a Latin may require be rendered Latin by some ing phrase. Hence,
as
is

dead or fated metaphor


in

while a vague or general


derivaqualify-

to

in

in translating into Latin,


Part II.
Introduction.

121

a. Notice carefully the exact shade of meaning in which the English word is used, and see that the Latin word covers the

ground.

In securing

this, it is often

necessary to notice the other


often be rendered by

words
but
if

in the sentence.

Thus drown may

submergere, because the rest of the sentence shows what


not, then the idea of death

is meant by drowning must be brought out

by some explanatory word or phrase.


b. Observe the cases

not recognized in English.


collection of streets,

town), or civitas (a

where Latin makes distinctions of Thus, city may be either houses, &c), oppidum (a fortified or political community). An enemy
(a public foe).

meaning
tubs (a
garrison

iniimcus (a personal enemy), or hostis

may be Glory may

be either fama (reputation in common talk), decus (outward splendor or distinction), laus (the approval and praise of men), or gloria (the more general word).
of cases, English makes distinctions For example, society, participation, association, partnership, alliance, and several other words, are If it is not clear from the represented by the Latin societas. context which is meant, some descriptive or limiting word must be
c.

In a far greater

number

not recognized in

Latin.*

added

as,

societas

generis humani,

societas

et

cojnmunicatio,

societas et foedus,

and so on

(see e, below).

cc. In general, the Latin prefers to make a person subject rather than a thing, a thing rather than an abstraction, so that an idea is often expressed in Latin from a point of view different from our

own.

Thus,

Caesar stationed the auxiliaries ... so that they might make a display, alarios constituit . . . ut ad speciem alariis uteretur.

So
the

to serve

for any thing may often be rendered by uti, governing noun which expresses the English subject (but compare Gr.

233).

d. In

many

expressions

we

find an English phrase of


;

two or

more words rendered in Latin by a single term as, a sense of a feeling of shame, pudor presence of mind, duty, officium animus (alone, but also with praesens or praesentid).
; ;

* English employs, roughly, about five times as large a vocabulary as Latin, with a far
smaller proportion of regular derivatives.

122
dd. As
in
all

Latin Composition.
languages,
there
are in

Latin

many

technical

or semi-technical expressions, which

Such a word or phrase


a regular derivative.

will often

must be carefully noticed. be suggested by some word in the


it

English expression from the Latin equivalent of which

is

often

English which have no natural These must be analyzed, and expressed by phrases often substituting special and concrete words and oftener putting the force of an for general and abstract ones
e.

There are many words

in

equivalent whatever in Latin.


;

adjective into a verb, or noun, or adverb.


i.

Thus,

Accomplice, scelerum {consiliorum) conscius.


Art, artes

2.

fingendi

et

pingendi.

3.

Conscience, conscius
Historian,

4.
5.

animus. rerum gestarum scriptor.


dlvinus

Inspiration,

quidam

adflatus,

6.
7.

Lawgiver, qui leges ponit.


Panic, res trepida.
Patriotism,

8.
9.

Rhetoric,

studium rei publicae, rhetorum praecepta.

and the

like.

(Stereotyped expressions, however, of this kind, should be avoided.)


/. Latin generally prefers to express in concrete ternis what English gives in abstract (compare i). Thus, strength, vigor, energy, pungency, may be expressed by sanguis, lacerti, nervi, aculei; expression or sentiment by vox. So, too, the phrases,

1.

do not

fear a

bad man's

anger,

improbum iratum

non metuo.
2.

3.

The assassination of Caesar seemed to many a glorious act, occisus Caesar multis pulcherrimum /acinus videbatur. Every evil at its birth seems harmless, omne malum

nascens innocuum videtur.


4.

5.

The world hates ingratitude, omnes immemorem beneflcii oderunt, There is a wide difference between learning and ignorance,

6.

plurimum interest inter doctum et rudem. Firmness and dignity are characteristics of true courage, constantem et gravem eum esse volumus quern fortern dicimus.


Part
7.

II

Introduction,

123

He had read no poetry, and knew nothing of oratory, nullum poetam legerat, nullum oratorem noverat.
especially abstracts, are less

ff. Nouns, in English.


ject,

common

in

Latin than

Hence

abstract qualities,

if

connected with the sub;

must often be rendered by adjectives or participles if conNames of actions (verbal nected with the predicate, by adverbs. abstracts) are expressed by verbs, colored if necessary by adverbs
or adverbial phrases.

g. Even the few abstract nouns found in Latin are constantly made concrete, especially by using them in the plural as, 1. The life of all, vitae omnium. 2. The immortality of the soul, aeternitas animorum, 3. The cold of the winters, frigora hibema.
:

4.
5.

Some

cases of superiority,
in

quaedam
(of

eoccellentiae.
persons),

Sharing
h.

misfortune

several

societates

calamitatum.
The two languages
often differ in their

modes of express-

Thus, as much or equally is often rendered by no less ; and conversely, less by not so much, more by so much as ?io other, and the like, according to convenience of
ing the Degree of a quality.

expression in the particular case.


i.

ing the object as


the thought.
1.

Certain literal forms of speech are frequent in Latin, presentit appears to the eye or comes at first hand before

Thus,

They
cibo

refresh themselves

with food and

sleep,

corpora

somnoque curant.
from superstition or disease, aut rellgione
levare.

2.

To

relieve one

animos aut corpora morbis


3.
4.

In the face of the world, ante

omnium

oculos,

A
I

musical ear detects very slight discords, aures vel minima dissona sentiunt.

musicorum

5.

never lose sight of him,


deicio.

So

numquam

ab eo oculos

7.

The tribunes were especially alarmed, praecipuus pavor tribunos invaserat. (Here the personification adds to the
vigor of the expression
ii.
;

so, contemptor

animus,

tiro exercitus, &c.).

second ?ioun (" hendiadys

a where English uses an adjective, a Thus. phrase, or a compound (compare Part I. p. 5).
to

The same tendency

literalness is seen in the use of

"),


124
i.

Latin

Co?nf>osition.

Rational instruction, ratio et doctrina,

2.

An

eye-witness, spectator et testis,

3.
4.

shameful disaster,

Art-culture,

ignominia et calamitas. artificium et expolitio.

rhetorical expressions J. English abounds in effete metaphors (noun or verb) which have lost their force and become mere conventional phrases these must often be expressed by some simple word, or wholly omitted, and the bare substance of the thought given in Latin (compare I, m, below). Thus,

1.

Homer

flourished

many
(also,

years before,
floruit),

Homer us

multis

ante annis fuit


2.

Virtue in solitude could not reach its highest development, virtus solitaria ad ea quae sunt non

summa
object,

potuit pervenire.
Examples may be found
in

such nouns as

point, feature,

circumstance, instance, capacity, person, expression, elements ; in

the verbs observe, remark, manage, continue, discuss, avail one's


self,

assure, represent, allude, qualify, enhance, convey, embrace,

exist, constitute, deliver,

succeed

in,

manage

to; and particularly in


(OB,

adverbial and prepositional phrases, such as regarding, concer?iing,

with the view of (ux), in reference to (ad), on account of propter), in spite of all that (tamen), &c.
ft.

Latin often prefers an abstract noun to an adjective

thus
it.

making the
Thus,
1.

quality the

main thing, and (as

it

were) embodying

Isocrates had many pupils of high rank, Isocrates nobilitate discipulorum floruit.
It

2.

takes

much water

mae aquae
3.

Orators are est semperque fuit paucitas.

to quench a furious blaze, via flammultitudine opprimitur. and always have been few, magna oratorum

4.

A gloomy winter was followed by a sickly summer, tristem


hiemem pesfibus aestas excepit. "Weak men were overcome with superstition (i.e. because they were weak), superstitio homitium imbecillitatem
occupavit.

5.

6.

"When the pleasant spring-time is past, then come summer and autumn, praeterita verni temporis suavitate, aestas venit et auctumtius.

Part II.
I.

Introduction.

125

The
to

simplicity of Latin requires that force or color shall be

given

once, whether in subject or predicate and that neutral or unemphatic phrases shall be used in other Thus, parts of the clause (compare / and h).

an expression but

1.

Immense

indignation prevailed, indlgnatio

ingens erat.
!

2.

3.

But how vast the privilege, for the soul to live At Mud quanti est, animum vivere! In both cases he acted with dignity, utnimque egit
graviter.
All incidents of
nature,
life

4.

which happen

in

accordance with

5.

For even sunt honovabilha.

omnia quae secundum naturam fiunt. these tributes are honorable, haec enim ipsa

To the same habit of mind may be referred the frequent use of such colorless words as ars, genus, locus, ratio, res, sententia,
studium, vis ;
(see
II.
afficio,

ago, capio, facio, habeo,

possum, sum, versor

Lexicon under these words).

English sentence is often filled out with words not necessary to the sense, but inserted for fulness or rotundity In general, it is unclassical to express any thing of expression. which is obvious from the context, or to repeat what has once been
strictly

An

said in other

words

in the

same clause or phrase (compare

I).

alluding to an idea or person


;

abounds in varied descriptive phrases once expressed: these must be omitted in Latin or, if something is necessary to prevent ambiguProper names are repeated, but not ity, a simple pronoun is used. Thus, the words italicized in the following so often as in English. extract (recounting the death of the elder Pliny) would be omitted in a Latin version of the passage, or else expressed by pronouns
English
narrative
:

m.

" As the shades of evening gathered, the brightness of the flames became more striking but, to calm the panic of those around him, the philosopher assured them that they arose from cottages on the slope, which the alarmed natives had abandoned to the descending flakes of fire. The sea was agitated, and abandoned by every bark. Pliny, wearied and perplexed, refused to stir farther while his companions, all but two body-slaves, fled in terror. Some, who looked back in their
;
. .

flight,

affirmed that the old


fell

man

rose once with the help of his attendants,


it

but immediately
vapors."

again, overpowered, as

seemed, with the deadly

126
n. But
if

Latin Composition.
the allusive or descriptive
it

to be conveyed,

word must be given outright

is

essential to the idea

in

a clause or special

expression

as,

But the veteran could not be deceived: ille uutem ut qui esset rei bellicae peritiasunus illudi non potuU.
-

o.

The tendency

in Latin to a direct

form of statement requires


directly in the

that the

main idea should be asserted


is

main clause,

and not hidden


v).

in a relative clause, participle, or

adverb (compare

The necessary emphasis

example,
i.

to

be given by position.

For

fresh

blow came,

that crushed the city, eludes

novu

civitutem
2.

udftijcit.

It is these that delight in flattery,

hos delectut adsenfor,

tutio,
3.

You

are the very

man

was looking

te

ipsum quue-

rebum.

II.

Structure of the Sentence.

The

best English writers give a connected story or argu-

ment in short clear sentences, each distinct from the rest, and saying one thing by itself. In Latin, on the contrary, the story or argument is viewed as a whole and a logical
;

relation

among

all its

parts

is

carefully indicated, so that the

whole forms a compact group.


But gloomy silence and voiceless sorrow had paralyzed the minds of the inhabitants. For very dread they forgot what they were leaving J behind, what they were carrying 7 n with them. With no fixed idea, , and inquiring every man of his neighbor, they were at one moment standing at their thresholds, at another wandering restlessly through their homes to see the end.
.
.

For example,
Sed silentium

triste

ac tacita maes-

Mia
.

ita deflixit

omnium
.

animos,

ut,

prae metu
,

obliti

quid reiinquerent
, r . dejiciente con-

r quid secum ferrent,


.,.
.

srfio,

roritantesque 2 6

am

...

,.

altos,

nunc

in liminibus starent,

nunc errabundi
>

domos suas

>

ultimum illud visuri

pervagarentur.

p. In particular, so much of a statement as can be so


with
its

treated,

attendant circumstances, modifications, &c,

is

put into a

Part II.
single

Introduction

127
s)-

Thus,

complex sentence, called a Period (346. a-d; compare


circa fiuitimos populos legationibus terra

Qui cum, multis

marique nequic-

quam
est,

missis, nisi

quod ex Etruria haud


fecisset
et
;

ita
et,

multiwi frumenti advectum


revoiutus

nuilum momentum auno/iae


fraudandoque parte diurni

ad dispensationem
et obiciendo

tuopiae, profiteri cogendo


esset,

frumentum

vendcre quod usu menstruo super-

cibi servitia,

criminando hide

irae populi frumentarios, acerba inquisitione aperiret magis

quam

levaret

inopiam

multi ex plebe spe amissa potius

quam

ut cruciarentur trahendo

animam,

capitibus obvolutis se in Tiber im praecipitaverunt.

Here the

principal fact expressed in the

main clause
it is

is,

that

many

of the people drowned themselves rather than submit to slow


;

starvation

while the cruel policy that drove them to


In English
it

described
:

in subordinate clauses.

might be told as follows

by land and sea to the surrounding nations, but effected no result beyond the importation of an insignificant amount of corn from Etruria, and produced no movement in the market. On applying himself to the administration of the meagre supplies, he compelled people to make a report of the corn they held, and to offer for sale all that exceeded the necessary supply of their wants for a month. He robbed the slaves of part of their daily rations, and proceeded to libel the corn-merchants, and expose them to the fury of the
sent a
of embassies

He

number

he revealed rather than lower orders, in utter despair, bandaged the eyes and threw themselves into the Tiber, rather than
populace.
this galling inquisitorial policy

By

relieved the distress.

Many

of

the

endure the torment of a prolonged existence.


q.

Even when long periods

are not used,

still

the logical connec;

by the use of connecting Relatives (see 201. e) or (qq) by Correlative words and Particles, especially idem, itaque, autem, enini, vero, quidem.
tion is indicated

r. But, in coordinate clauses, the copulative

conjunctions are

omitted oftener than in English (asyndeton)

the connection being

made
s.

clear

by the Position of words and by Antithesis.


coordinate clauses with and,
the
less

Of two
in

important

is

merged
phrases.
t.

by the aid of participles and subordinate In such cases a change of subject should be avoided.
the other

change of subject should be marked by the introduction if the new subject has been already mentioned in the preceding sentence. But (tt) the needless use of pronouns may be avoided by change of structure.
of a pronoun,

128
u

Latin Composition.

noun should be kept

in the

same case

if

possible.

In illustration of these points, compare the following examples


i.

Then he

called

waited a

little,

them together, and having and led them out with him.
universally approved, and
its

briefly

addressed them Tunc convocatos" cum

breviter admonuisset, paulisper moratus


2.

secum eduxit.
execution was intrusted

The plan was

to the consul.
3.

Cunctis rem approbantibus* negolium consult datur.

This matter was soon accomplished, and the legions returned to

winter-quarters.
4.

Eo

celeriter confecto negotio," in

hiberna legiones redierunt.

Midas the Phrygian was a child, and asleep, some ants piled grains of corn upon his lips. Midae Mi Phrygio? cum ptier esset, dormienti formicae in os tritici grana congesserunt. He received the ambassadors 5. They came to the king at Pergamus. kindly, and conducted them to Pessinus. Pergamum ad regent venerunt,
qui* legatos comiter exceptos Pessinuntem deduxit.
6. If I

When

cannot crush the pain,


the barbarians

I will

hide

it.

Dolorem

M si

non potero

frangere, occultabo.
7.

When

saw that he had escaped the


eminus emissis interfecerunt.

flames, they

hurled darts at him from a distance, and killed him.


incendiui?i effugisse viderunt, telis
8.

Quern9 ut barbari

professed to be able to read every one's character from his outward appearance, had at a party made a large
catalogue of moral defects to reproach Socrates with, the rest laughed to scorn ; but Socrates came to his assistance. Cum multa in conventu vitia collegisset in eum Zopyrus, qui se naturam ctijitsque ex forma

When

Zopyrus,

who

him

perspicere projitebatur, derisus est a ceteris, ab ipso autem vatus u


9.

Socrate suble-

For they believe that these divinities were born in the realm, and was first discovered in their land and that Libera, whom they also call Proserpine, was carried off from the grove of Enna. It is
that grain
;

said that Ceres, in the course of her anxious search for her daughter,

kindled her torch at the


ing
it

fires that blaze

from Etna's summit

and, hold-

before her, wandered over the whole world.

Nam et natas esse has

in Us locis deas, et fruges in ea terra

raptam
ne??iore.

esse

Liberam,

primum repertas esse arbitrantur, et quam eamdem Proserpinam vocant, ex Hennensium


sibi

Quam cum

investigare et conquirere Ceres vellety q dicitur inflarn-

masse taedas Us ignibus qui ex Aetnae vertice erumpunt ; quas praeferrett orbem omnem peragrasse terrarum.

cum

ipsa

v. In turning loose sentences into periods, be sure to get the

main idea

in the

proper relations

main clause, and keep the other clauses in their (compare ). In general, the main subject or

Part
object

II.

Introduction.

129

Thus
1.

must be put

in the

main

clause, not in the subordinate ones.

When

Hannibal had reviewed

his auxiliary forces,

he set out for


est.

Gades.
2. is

Hannibal,

cum

recensuisset auxilia, Gades profectus


is

The augur

Tiresias

described by the poets as a philosopher, and

never represented as bewailing his blindness.

Augurem

Tiresiam,

quern sapientem Jingunt poetae, nu?)iqicam inducunt deplorantem caecitatem

suam.
that, now they were severed from every other hope in prolonging the conflict. In addition to other disadvantages, they had engaged on a spot ill adapted for fighting, and worse for flight. Cut to pieces on every side, they abandoned the contest and cried for quarter. After surrendering their commander and delivering up their arms, they passed under the yoke; and with one garment each were sent to their homes, covered with disgrace and Volsci exiguam spent in armis, alia undique abscissa, cum tendefeat. tassent, praeter cetera adversa, loco quoque iuiquo ad pugnam congress/', iniquiore ad fngam, cum ab omni parte caederentur, ad preces a certamine
3.

The Volscians found


little

hope, there was but

versi, dedito

imperatore traditisque armis, sub

jugum

missi,

cum

singulis

vestimentis, ignominiae cladisque pleni dimittunturp .

Here the main thought is the return of the Volscians: the circumstances of the surrender, &c, are put in the several subordinate
clauses.

vv. The clauses should be arranged in the natural order of time cause before result; purpose, manner, and (There are, however, many exceptions to the like, before the act. this rule, from the tendency to put the more important first or else
or logical sequence,

last.)

w.

Latin has a great fondness for antithesis and sharp contrasts,

setting one

word phrase or clause against another.

This tendency

will often control the

order of words, phrases, or clauses.


:

x As to the order of words put at the beginning (see Part


of the clause or

let

the

I. p. 2).

main word be seized and By this means the drift


indicated in

sentence

may almost always be

advance.
often rendered in Latin by the change of subject, or to secure a personal or concrete subject rather than an impersonal or abstract one (compare cc, with Lesson 20).

y.

A verb in

the active voice

is

passive,

and conversely,

to avoid

130
z.

Latin Composition.
There are many idiomatic phrases which are
to

be rendered
:

by

Particles in Latin, especially in colloquial expressions, such as

well now,

atque ; to be sure, by the way, in fact (also why!), quidem; for, you see, elenim ; and after all, atque; considering, ut ; I SAY, igitur. Yes may be given by etiam,

maxime, vero, with a pronoun, or by repeating the verb NO by ii7imo, 7ion, minime, or, repeating a word with the negative (see Grammar, 212. a). These can only be learned by practice with
;

the Latin particles.

III.

Idiomatic Phrases.
include

The

following examples

most of the idiomatic

usages which have already been explained, together with some


others, brought together here for convenient reference
1.
I I
:

2. 3.

come to help you, adjutor tibi venio (Part remember when a boy, puer memint.

I.

page

3).

Fabius in his second consulship, Fabius consul iierum.

4.
5.

continued series of events, continualio et scries rerum


slain,

(p. 5).

Both consuls were

uterque consul occisus est

(p. 7).

6.
7. 8.

He came against his will, invitus venit. He was the first to see, primus vidit (p.

8).

9.

10.
11.

The rest of the crowd, reliqua multitudo. All men praise bravery, omnes fortia laudant The fight at Cannae, pugna Cannensis.
Another man's house, aliena domus.
I

(p. 9).

12.

prefer the art of arte?n

memory

to that of forgetfulness,
(p. 12).

memoriae
exer-

quam

oblivionis

malo

13.

The army
citus

of Caesar defeated that of


vicit.
is

Pompey, Caesaris

Pompeianos
that,

14.

That

[just

mentioned]
&c.,

a great argument, but this

is

greater,

hoc
etc.

magnum
(p.

est

argumentum, ilhid

atitem maj'us, quod,


15
16.
17.

13).

It is just three years, tres

anni

ipsi sunt.

The book you gave me,

liber quern

mihi

dedisti (p. 15).

Caesar the conqueror of Gaul, Caesar qui Galliam vicit.

18.

class, of

which there

is

great lack, cujus generis

magna

est

paucitas.
19.

Those

evils which we suffer with many seem to us lighter, quae mala cum multis patimur ea nobis leviora videniur.

Part II.
20.

Introduction.
tot

131
erant

There were as many opinions as men, quot homines


sententiae (p. 16).

21.

What can happen


Each army was

to

any [one] man can happen

to

any man

[whatever], cuivis potest accidere


22.

quod cuiqua?n potest.


uterque utrique erat
est

in sight of the other,


(p.

exercitus in conspectu
23.

19).

The

boy's

name

is

Marcus, puero novien

Marco

(p. 26).

24.
25. 26.

It is the

part of wisdom, est sapientis.

In silence, tacite (or silentio), p. 30.


I

esteem Plato very highly, but the truth more, Platonem permagni sed veritatcm pluris aestimo.

27.

28. 29.

You have robbed me of my property, bona mihi abstulisti. Much more rich than wise, multo divitior quam sapientior. The more virtuously one lives the less he will injure others,

30.

means of guarding against

quanto quis vivit honestius tanto mimes nocebit aliis. troubles, cautio incojnmodorum.
sapientiae.

31. Jealousy of the Senate, invidia senatoria (p. 35).

32.

33.
34.

More learning than wisdom, plus doctrinae quam You ought to have gone, te ire oportuit.

Within four days after this was done, the matter was reported to Chrysogonus in Sulla's camp at Volaterrae, quadriduo quo haec gesta sunt res ad Chrysogonum in castra L. Sullae

Volaterras defertur (p. 41). fight on horseback, ex equo pugnare (p. 43). 36. He would often play with his children, saepe cum pueris hide35-

To

bat (p. 46).


37.
38.
I

begin to

feel like
is

dancing, jam lubet saltare.


relieved, imperatori succeditur (p. 49).

The commander

39.

Men do

not gather grapes from thorns, ex sentibus uvae non

percipiuntur.
40. Socrates

was put
is

to death

by

his fellow-citizens,

Socratem cives

sui interfecerunt
41. Crassus

(p. 50).

not envied for his wealth,


(p. 51).
?

Crasso divitiae non

invidentttr
42.

What
It

is

creation

Quid est

creare ? (p. 53).

43.

was reported that Caesar's house had been attacked (or, An attack on Caesar's house was reported), oppugnatio Caesaris

domus 7iuntiabatur
45.

(p. 55).

44. In the following winter, ea

quae secuta
its

est

hieme

(p. 57).

Any

crushed at facile opprbnitur (p. 57).


evil is easily

birth,

omne malum nascens

132
46.

Latin Composition.
is

Your being here


est (p. 60).
I

agreeable,

quod ades

(or, te

udesse) gratu?n

47.

dissuaded him from going, ne iret dissuasi.


should like to go, ire velim
(p. 63).

48. 49.
50.

I I

could wish he were here, vellem adesset.

What was

51. Caesar

Quid facerem? I to do ? was too merciful to punish his adversaries, clementior

erat Caesar
52.

quam

ut initnicos puniret

(p. 71).

He

was accused of treason against


(p. 7$).

his country, accusatus est

quod ftatriam prodidisset


53. I

have yet to speak of the war against the pirates, reliquum est ut de bello dicam piratico (p. 72). 54. An inestimable value, pretium ?najus qua?n ut aestimetur. 55. To think that you should have fallen into such grief for me te in tantas aerumnas propter me incidisse / (p. 83). I interrupt you ? egone ut te interpellem ? 56. What 57. I do not doubt that he will come, non dubito quin venturus sit.
!
!

58.
59.

Not
It
I

60.

61. 62.
63.
64. 65.

to be tedious, ne longus sun. would befit us to mourn, nos dccebat lugere. fear he will come, vereor ne veniat. fear he will not come, vereor ut veniat.

And besides, accedit quod{?N\\\i indie). To utter many falsehoods, multa mentiri.
It is

He

says he has not done

worth while, operae pretium est. it, negat se fecisse.


defeats they have sustained, eludes quas

66.

The many

plurimus

Passi sunt. 67. To have a prosperous voyage, ex sententia navigare. 68. Such is his self-command, quae est ejus continentiaj
est continentia..

or,

$uu

69.
70.

So
I

far as

know, quod scio

(scia?n).

never heard him without admiration,

numquam eum

uudivi

71. 72.

J 3.
74.
75.

quin admirarer. I cannot but believe, non possum quiti credam. Nothing prevents your reading the book, nihil obstat quominus librum legas. How many are there of you ? Quot estis f
I

made him

retire, effect

ut se reciperet.

deserves to be loved, dignus est qui a?netur. 76. For many years he has been in my debt, multi stmt atini
in nosiro aere est.

He

cum

Part II,
Jj.
I

Introduction,

133

congratulate you on your influence with Caesar, gratulor tibi

quod tantum apud Caesarem


78.

vales.

He was
quod

accused of having betrayed the king, accusatus est


regent prodidisset.
pluri7Jii

79.

Many men

admire poems without understanding them, carmina mirantur neque ea intelligunt.


is

80.

Instead of reading he
debeat.

playing

ball,

pila?n agit cu?n legere

81.

He makes He He
is

it

his object to serve the country, id agit ut patriae

inserviat.
82.

kind in allowing you to depart, benignus est qui


too strong to be subdued, fortior est

te prqfi-

cisci patiatur.

83.

is

quam

ut (quam qui)
te stetit

devinci possit.
84. It

was owing to you minus ve7iirem.


at a revolution,

that

did not come, per

quo-

85.
86.

To aim To the
Love

novis rebus studere.

great danger of the state,

cum siunmo

rei publicae

periculo.
87.
for Cicero,

Ciceronis
88.

amor Ciceronis j amor fraternus (or,

Cicero's love of his brother,


in fratrem).

He

(that
89.

spoke so that no one heard, ita locutus est ut nemo audiret no one might hear, ne quis audiret).
heard, nee

And no one
intellegit.

quisquam audivit.

90.

One understands

in this way, another in that, alius alio

modo

91.

Both public and private buildings, both sacred and profane, ana. aedificia publica, privata, sacra, prof

had reached the temple of Vesta, ventum erat ad Vestae. brief, quid multa ? quid plura f 94. I find great pleasure in doing this, hoc gratis simum facio. 95. I am far from being cruel, procul abest quin saevus sim. 96. He lost one of his eyes, altero oculo captus est. 97. You are the very one I was looking for, te ipsum quarebam. 98. Not only not of citizen's, but not even of Italian blood, non modo civicae sed ne Italicae quidem stirpis. 99. We are so far from admiring our own matters, that, &c, tantum abest ut nostra miremur, ut, etc. 100. We seem to have advanced so far that even in fulness of words we are not surpassed by the Greeks, tantum profecisse videmur ut a Graecis ne verborum quidem copia vinceremur.
92.
93.

We

To be

Latin Composition

INDEX
TO THE POINTS CONSIDERED IN THE FOREGOING
INTRODUCTION.

I.

Choice of the Word.


PAGB
in the English

a.
b.
c.

Shade

of

meaning

Distinction expressed in

word Latin words

121 121

Distinction expressed in English words

121
121

Opposite point of view d. English phrase equivalent to Latin word dd. Use of Technical words
cc.
e.

121
*
.

122
122 122 123

No

Latin equivalent to the English word


in

f.
ff.

Concrete form of expression Use of abstract terms


Abstracts

Latin

g.
h.
i.

made

concrete in the plural

123

Change

it.

/.
k.
/.

form in expressing Degree Literal forms of expression Pairs of words (hendiadys) Effete metaphors in English Abstract noun used for adjective
of

123 123
123

124
124
125

Color to be given to the expression but once //. Words unnecessary to be expressed in Latin m. Descriptive or allusive expressions n. Phrase used for descriptive epithet
o.

125
125

126

The main

idea to be put in the leading clause


II.

126

Form of the Sentence.


126
127
127

p.
q.

Periodic structure of the sentence

qq.
r.
s.
/. tt.

Use Use

of Relatives as connectives,

&c

of autem, enim, quidem, vero, idem Connective omitted in coordinate clauses Coordinate clause made subordinate

127
127

u.
v.

Pronoun, to mark change of subject Repetition of Pronoun avoided by change of structure The Noun to be kept in the same case

Use

of

127
.
.

127

128 128

Main idea

in the

main clause

vv.

Clauses to follow the natural or logical order

129
129

w. Use of Antithesis

Emphatic position of the Main Word y. Change of Voice z. Use of Idiomatic Particles
x.

129 129 130

Exercises in Translation.

135

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION. Note. In the following Exercises, the small


letters

refer to

the
the

Notes on Words and Constructions given on pages Jigitres, to the Notes at the foot of the page.

121-130;

I.

Death of Epaminondas.

Epaminondas v had conquered the Lacedaemonians at Mantinea, and at the same time perceived that he was dying of a mortal wound, as soon as he
could
safe,
11

When

When
and q

he asked whether his shield were safe. weeping comrades answered that it was he inquired whether the enemy were routed; when he heard that question also answered
see, 1

his

11

11

according

to

his

wish,

he ordered the spear, with

which he was transfixed, to be drawn out. And so, drenched with blood, he expired in the midst of joy and victory.
1

dispicere {a).

ut

citpiebat.

II.

The Ring of Gyges.


when
d

Gyges,

a shepherd of the king,

the earth

had

of rain, descended and perceived a brazen horse, in whose side there were doors. On opening these, q he saw a body a of unusual size, with a gold ring on its Then finger this q he drew 8 off and put on his arm. he betook himself to the assembly of the shepherds. There, when he had turned round the bezel of the ring to the palm of his hand, he became invisible, 6 while qq he saw every thing himself; when he q turned the ring back to its place, he was once more visible.
into the aperture,
;
1

parted asunder after heavy storms

136
III.

Latin Composition.

Cyrus the Younger.

Lysander v the Lacedaemonian had come to to Cyrus the Younger, at Sardis, 1 and had brought him presents from the allies, Cyrus x treated him with great courtesy and kindness in other matters, and in particular showed him a 2 piece of ground fenced in and carefully planted. Whilst q Lysander was admir11
1

When

ff

ing the tallness ff of the trees, the straightness g of their rows, and the fragrance of the perfumes which were

wafted 3 from the flowers, he remarked that he admired the ingenuity no less than* the industry of the
j

man who had measured out and designed all these And Cyrus answered him, Well now, 2 I made all the measurements you4 speak of; they are my x rows, my designing many even of these trees have been planted by my own hand." Then Lysan3"

things.

tf

der, beholding his kingly robe, the comeliness of his

person, and his attire resplendent with

much
is

Persian

gold and

many

jewels, said,

"They

rightly call

happy, Cyrus, since in you 5 good fortune with moral d excellence."


1

you combined 6
341.
c.

Lesson 17,
4

h.

Rem.
7, 5.

Lesson

9, 2. a.
6

Lesson

5 tua.

See Grammar, Lesson 20, 4.

IV.

Xenophon's Sacrifice.
the customary

Whilst Xenophon v was performing


sacrifice,
3

his

he two sons, named Gryllus, had fallen in the battle He did not, however, consider this a at Mantinea. dd cc worship sufficient reason for omitting the appointed
1

received the intelligence that the elder of

of the gods, but


sacrificial
d

deemed

it

sufficient to lay aside his

crown.
1

He

then inquired 8

how he had met

Lit.

"should be omitted on that account."

Exercises in Translation,
his death,

137.

and was

told that

he had fallen while fight-

He therefore replaced ing with the utmost bravery. the crown upon his head, calling the gods, to whom
he was sacrificing,
received
1

to

witness that the

pleasure he
the grief

at the valor of his son

exceeded

occasioned by his death.


1

Lesson 22,

2.

V.
1.

The Sibylline

Books.

An
to

old

woman, who was

quite

unknown

to

him,

Tarquinius x Superbus, the seventh and last king of Rome, bringing with her nine books, which she declared to be the oracles of the gods she said

came

she was willing to


;

Tarquinius inquired s the price the woman m asked an extravagant and enormous sum. The king laughed, thinking the old
sell

them.

woman
with

in

her dotage.
it

ff

Then she

placed a brazier

fire

in

before him, and burnt up three books


;

out of the nine


price.

he were ready

and then inquired of the king whether buy the remaining six at the same Tarquinius laughed still more, and said that
to

beyond
2.

a doubt2 the old

woman was

out of her senses.

The woman

immediately, on the spot, consumed

more books, and once more quietly made the very same request of the king, namely, to purchase the remaining three at the same price. Tarquinius, struck by the strangeness of the affair, concluded that such persistency and boldness were not to be trifled with
three
1

same

and purchased the three remaining books at just the price that had been asked for all the nine. The
then
left
8

woman
1

the presence of Tarquinius, but 3

report says
quasi.

was never seen


2

afterwards.
3

The
3. c.

three

plane.

Lesson 22,

138

Latin Composition.
1*

books were deposited in the receptacle dd for sacred things, 4 and were called the Sibylline Books. Certain priests consulted them as they would an oracle, whenever the

Romans
*

considered that the gods should be


5 publice.

consulted on behalf of the state. 5


sacrarium.

VI.

Hannibal and Antiochus.


his

When
went
passed

Hannibal on
1

expulsion 8 from Carthage

to stay

with Antiochus, x king of Syria, the king

him in review 1 immense bodies d of troops, which he had equipped with the view of making war 2 against the Roman people. He showed him an army decorated with gold and silver ornabefore

ments he also brought on the field scythed chariots and elephants with towers, and cavalry glittering with their bits, housings, collars, and breast-trappings. And then the king, elated at the sight of an army so great in numbers and so splendidly equipped, turned to Hannibal and remarked, "Do you think this army can be matched with that of the Romans? and do you think all this will be enough for the Romans?" To this Hannibal, jeering at the cowardice and weakness of his soldiers, though so splendidly equipped, replied, "It is my belief all this will be enough, quite enough, for the Romans, however greedy they may be." Nothings certainly, could have been said more smart or cutting the king had put the question 8 with respect" to the number of the army, whether it would be a match for thatu of the Romans Hannibal's answer8 had reference to the booty the Romans" would acquire.
11

ff

11

Lit.

"

showed

to

him

in the field."

Participle in rus.

Exercises in Translation*
VII.

130

The Talking Crow.


who

After
came
11

the victory of Actium, amongst those 1

Augustus* there approached him" a certain man, having with him a crow, which he had taught to say, Hail, Ccesar, conqueror, emperor!
to

congratulate

Caesar, struck with the cleverness ff of the bird, bought


it

for

a like

twenty thousand sesterces. Being greeted in manner by a parrot, he ordered it to be pur-

chased.

He was amused
8

in the

same way with

a
1

magpie, and it also he bought. These instances induced 7 a ppor shoemaker to teach a crow a similar salutation. Often, when 1 wearied with his task, he q would say to the bird, when 1 it did not give the required answer, " I have lost my time and my trouble." At length, however, the crow learned to speak the address. Then he brought the bird to Augustus. He, however, upon hearing the crow's greeting, remarked,-' "I have plenty of such saluters at home." Whereupon the crow added, very opportunely, "I have lost my time and my trouble." At this Augustus laughed, s and ordered the bird to be bought at a still higher price than he had hitherto given for the others.
11 11

Participle.

VIII.

Hannibal
p
;

in

the Alps.
11

Arnold.
1

Day dawned
camp,
x

the main
to

army broke up from


the
defile
;

its

and began
at first
to

enter

while qq the

natives,*

finding aj their

positions 2

occupied
j

by the

enemy,

looked on quietly, and offered no dis-

turbance ff

But when they saw the long narrow line of the Carthaginian army winding 7 along the steep mountain side, and the cavalry and
the

march/

11

With moveo

{i,y).

arx

(/).

140
baggage-cattle
difficulties
1

Latin Composition,
struggling
1

at

every
5

step, 3 with
1

the

of the road, the temptation


;

to

plunder4

was

too strong to be resisted


6

and from many points

of the mountain, above

the road, they rushed

down 7
;*

upon the Carthaginians. The confusion was terrible k 8 for 8 the road or track was so narrow that the least crowd 9 or disorder pushed y the heavily loaded bagu and the horses, gage-cattle down the steep below wounded by the barbarians' missiles, and plunging 10 about wildly 10 in their pain and terror, increased the
1

mischief. 11
3

Relative with insistere


6

(/).

Lesson 15, a (/).


8

5 9

Impersonal.
siquid.

imminens.
10

Imperfect.

quippe.
i).

With

fur 0.

strages (a,

IX.
h

The Embassy of
in another
j

Philip.

Arnold.
Romans

Fortune
no
less
after

quarterj served the


qq

The Macedonian ambassadors, effectually having y concluded their treaty with Hannibal at
3

Tifata,
p

made their way back into Bruttium in safety, and embarked to return to Greece. But their ship was taken, off the Calabrian coast, by the Roman
11

squadron
with
all

on 1 that

11

station

and the ambassadors,


ff

were sent prisoners to Rome. which had been of this company escaped the Romans, 3 and informed 4 the king what had happened. He was obliged, therefore, to send a second embassy to Hannibal, as the former treaty had never reached 17 him and although this second mission 5 went and returned 5 safely, yet the loss of time was irreparable, and p nothing could be done till the followtheir papers,
2

vessel

ing year.
1

6
2 unus (cf. Lesson 8, 3). (as opposed to the rest). * defero {dd). "out of the hands of," &c (z). 5 Participle. 6 Lit. " done this year."

Rel. clause
8 Lit.

Exercises in Translation.

141

X.
1.

Hannibal near Rome.


Nor
11

The

next day, Hannibal, crossing the Anio,


his forces in order of battle. dd

drew out

all

did

The Flaccus and his consuls decline the contest. troops on both sides having been drawn up to try the
chances of a 1
battle, in

which the

city of

Rome was

to

be the conqueror's prize, a violent shower mingled with hail so disordered both the lines, that the troops,
to hold their arms, retired into their camps, with less h apprehension of the enemy than of any thing else. On the following day, also, a similar storm separated the armies marshalled on the same ground. After they had retired to their camps, an extraordinary calm and tranquillity arose. This cir-

scarcely able

11

cumstance was held providential 2 among the Carthaginians and an expression of Hannibal's is said to have been heard, "That at one moment* the inclina1"

tion, at

another the opportunity, 3 of becoming master


not allowed 4 him."
j
1

of

Rome, was
2.

Other contingencies also, the one important, the The imother insignificant, diminished his hopes. portant one was, that, while he was encamped 5 under arms near the walls of the city, he heard that troops
1

had marched out with colors flying, as a reinforcement for Spain while qq the less significant circumstance was that it was discovered, from one of his prisoners, that at this very time the very ground on which he was encamped had been sold, with no
11

11

diminution 11 of price on that account.

Indeed,
at
*

it

appeared so great an

insultg

and

indignity

that a
for

purchaser should have been discovered


*

Rome
fortuna.

See Lesson
4

7, 1.

Note.
(z).

With

religio (dd).
5 seder e (i).

dare

142
the

Latin Composition.
very
ff

soil

which he possessed and held as the

prize of war, that, calling instantly for a crier, he ordered that the silversmiths' shops, which then were

ranged around the


j

Roman Forum,

should be put up

for sale. dd

XL Young
1.

Scipio.

At Rome,
1

after the

recovery 11 of Capua, the people was fixed upon


1

attention

of the Senate and

Spain as much as h upon Italy


that the

and

it
1

was resolved dd

army
1

there should be recruited, and a general


It

despatched.

was

not,

however, so clear
he

whom

they should send, as that, since two great generals

had

fallen within thirty days,

who was

to

supply dd

their place should

be chosen with extraordinary care.


others another,
it

As some named one man,


last

was

at

determined that the people should hold an assembly to elect dd a pro-consul for Spain and the consuls proclaimed a day for the assembly. At first they had expected that those who believed themselves worthy
;

of so

important a

command would
expectation

give in dd their

names. sorrow
2.

As
for 2

this q

the disaster

was defeated, their sustained was renewed, and

also their regret for the generals lost.

Accordingly, the people sorrowfully, and almost 3 at a loss what to decide upon, descended into the Campus Martius on the day of the election; and,
11

turning towards the magistrates, looked round upon

men, who were 4 anxiously gazing at each other, and murmured that their fortunes were so fallen, and such despair was felt for the state, that no one ventured to accept the
the countenances of their leading
11"

cura.

Lesson 15,

a.

consilium (dd).

Lesson 22,

3. a.

Exercises in Translation.

143

command

in

Spain

son of that Publius


candidate,
dd

when suddenly Publius Cornelius, who had fallen in Spain, then


dd
1

11

about twenty-four years of age, declaring

himself a

took his station on an eminence whence

he could be seen. The eyes of the whole assembly were 8 directed towards him, and by acclamations and tokens of favor d they augured a happy and prosperous

command.
XII.
1.

Hannibal's Exile.
the only

Hannibal was
at

that he was aimed was only allowed


j

by the

man who Romans and


;

perceived 1
that peace

the Carthaginians on the under-

standing that a remorseless war should be maintained 2


against himself alone.

He
he

therefore resolved to sub;

mit to the
the

crisis

and

to his fate

and, having prepared


publicly appeared 3 in

every thing for

flight,

first

forum on that day

in order to avert suspicion,


fell, j

but, p as soon as darkness

departed in his out-offf

doors^ dress, with two attendants ignorant of his design. Horses being in readiness at the spot where they had been ordered/ he passed 8 through Byzacium by night, and arrived on the following day on the seacoast, between Adolla and Thapsus, at a castle of his own. There* a vessel prepared and manned with rowers received him. Thus did Hannibal leave Africa, pitying the fate of his country oftener x than his own. 2. The same day he crossed into the isle of Cercina. Finding 4 there several 5 Phoenician merchantships^ in harbor, with their freights, 6 and a concourse of people having flocked together to welcome him as
1

fat/o,

with negative.
2.

mattere

(/').

obversari
6

(s).
(*).

Lesson 22,

Lesson

9, 2. a.

merx

144

Latin Composition.

he 7 disembarked from the vessel, he ordered that all who 7 inquired should be informed 00 that he had been sent as ambassador to Tyre. Apprehensive, however, 5 that one of their ships, sailing by night for Thapsus or Adrumetum, might announce that he had been seen at Cercina, he commanded a sacrifice to be prepared, and 8 the captains of the vessels and the merchants to be invited also giving orders that the sails, together with the yard-arms, should be brought together from the ships, that they might enjoy 8 the shade for it happened 9 to be v midsummer while supping on the shore. 3. So far as circumstances and time permitted, the banquet was duly prepared 10 and celebrated on that day, 11 and the feast was protracted with a profusion of wine to a late hour of night. Hannibal, as soon as he found an opportunity of escaping the notice of those who were in the harbor, unmoored his vessel. The rest, having at length arisen from their deep slumber, on the following day, full of the fumes d of wine, spent several hours in carrying back and setting
1

in order the tackle of their ships.


4.

At Carthage,

too, there

was a concourse of

the

people, accustomed to frequent the house of Hannibal,


at the vestibule of his

mansion.

As soon
to

as

it

was

generally

known 12
1

that he

was not
x

be found, 13 a

crowd of
state,

citizens, 11 in quest of the chief

man

in the

flocked to the forum.

Some

spread a report
11

that

he had taken to flight, as 14 was really the case others that he had been assassinated by the
;'

treachery of the. Romans;


7
10

and you might observe


(cc).
9 forte.

Lesson 22,

3. a.

Withyfo
(cc).

With noun
12

in adverbial phrase (compare/).


13

n Lesson

15,

a.

vulgari.

comparere

id quod.

Exercises in Translation,
various countenances, as
tated
15

145
a
state

is

natural

11

in

agi-

by the intrigues of partisans supporting


making
it
:

different

factions.
15 discors,

different {alius alius) parties

more personal lit. " of men supporting and agitated," &c. (compare z).

{favere)

XIII.

The Tale of Atalanta.

Bacon.
1

Atalanta, who was exceeding fleet, contendedx with Hippomenes in the course, x on condition that, if Hippomenes won, he should espouse dd her, or forfeit The match was very unequal, for p his life if he lost.
Atalanta had conquered7 numbers
tion.
1

to

their destruc-

had recourse 8 to stratagem. He procured three golden apples, and purposely carried them with him. They started. 7 Atalanta outstripped him soon then Hippomenes bowled one of

Hippomenes
8

therefore

1 his apples before her, across the course, in order not 7 her out of the only to make her stoop, but to draw
11
1

11

path.

She, prompted by female curiosity, 2 and the beauty of the golden fruit, starts from the course to
11

take up the apple.


11

Hippomenes,

in the
;

mean
lost

time,

holds on his way, and p steps before her

but she, by

her natural swiftness, soon fetches up her

and leaves him again behind. by rightly timing 3 his second and third throws, length won the race, not by his swiftness, but by
1"

ground, Hippomenes, however,


ff

at

his

cunning. x
1

eo consilio ut.

studium

(/).

jactare

ad tempus.

XIV.
1.

Assassination of Caesar.
1

Plutarch.
c.

When
1

him" honor,

dd

Csesar x entered, the Senate rose to do and some of the party 2 of Brutus stood
3. a.

Lesson 22,

Lesson 15,

146

Latin Composition.
at the

around his chair

back, and others presented


if

themselves before him, as

purpose * was to Tillius Cimber on behalf of his support the prayers of exiled brother and they all joined in entreaty, followtheir
1

ing Cassar as far as his seat.

When

he had taken his

and as they seat, and was urged 3 him still more strongly, began to show displeasure towards them individually, Tillius, taking
rejecting their entreaties,
ff

hold of his toga with both hands, pulled

it

downward

from the neck, which was the signal for the attack." Casca was the first to strike him on the neck with his sword, a blow neither mortal nor severe for, q as was natural at the beginning ff of so bold a deed, he was confused, and q Caesar m turning round seized 8 the blade
;

and held
2.

it

fast.
it

And

happened
111

that at the

same moment* he
1

who was struck cried out in the Roman language, "You villain Casca, what are you doing?" and he who had given the blow cried out to his brother in
1

Greek,

"

Brother, help

"

Such being

the beginning,

those who were not privy to the conspiracy were prevented by consternation and horror at what was going on either from flying4 or going to aid, and they did
not even venture to utter a word.
the conspirators bared
8

And now qq
;

each of

sword and Caesar being whatsoever direction he turned meeting blows and swords aimed against his eyes and face, driven about like a wild beast, was for it was caught in the hands of his enemies arranged that all of them should take a part in and
his

hemmed

in

all

round,

in

taste of the
3.

deed of blood. Accordingly also Brutus gave him one blow


1

in

the

groin.
3

It

is

said
3.

by some
*

authorities,
2. d.

that

he

Lesson 22,

Lesson 31,

Exercises in Translation.

147
his

defended himself against the


thither,

rest,

moving 7 about
;

and calling out, till he saw body hither and when 5 he pulled that Brutus had drawn his sword his toga over his face and offered no further resistance/ having been driven either by chance or the conspirators to the base on which the statue of Pompey And the base was drenched with blood, as if stood. Pompey was directing the vengeance upon his enemy, who was stretched beneath his feet, and writhing36 under many wounds for he is said to have received 7 Many of the conspirators three and twenty wounds. were wounded by one another, while they were aiming so many blows against one body.
;

11

5 turn vero.

XV.
1.

Death of Marcus Antonius.


Marcus Antonius, found
still

The

orator,

a faithful

friend in these dangerous times, but

he did not

This friend, m though a poor man and of the lower class, received in his house one of the most illustrious" of the Romans, and wishing to entertain him as well as he could, sent a slave to one of the neighboring wine-shops to get some wine. As the slave was more curious than usual in tasting it, and told the man to give y him some better wine, the merchant asked what could be the reason that he did not buy the new wine, as usual, and the ordinary wine, but wanted some of good quality and high price. The slave replied in his simplicity/ as he was speaking to an old acquaintance, that his master was entertaining
escape.
11
11

ff

ff

Marcus Antonius, who was concealed at his house. The wine-dealer, m a faithless and unprincipled wretch,

11

148

Latin Composition.
left

him, hurried off to Marius, who was at supper, and having gained admission, told him he would betray Marcus Antonius to him. 2. On hearing 1 this, q Marius is said to have uttered

as soon -as the slave

and to have clapped his hands with deand he was near2 getting up and going to the place himself, but his friends stopped sy him, and he despatched Annius with some soldiers with orders to bring him the head of Antonius immediately. On reaching 3 the house, Annius waited 8 at the door, and the soldiers mounting the stairs entered the room but, on seeing Antonius, every man began to urge some of his companions, and push him forward to do the deed instead of himself. And so persuasive was the charm of his eloquence, when Antonius began to speak and plead for his life, that not a man of them could venture to lay hands on him or look him in the face, but they all bent 8 their heads down and shed tears. As this q caused y some delay, Annius went up stairs, where he saw s Antonius speaking, and the soldiers awed and completely softened by his eloquence on which p he abused them, and running up to Antonius, cut off his head with his own hand.
a loud shout,
;

light

11

11

11

11

Lesson 22,

3. b.

Lesson 31,

2. b, d.

Lesson 22,

2.

XVI.
1.

Destruction of Carthage.
yielding7 to famine, the most resolute to the temple, Hasdrubal could not
;

But when,
fire
j

of them set

endure to face death alone qq he ran x forth to the vicIt tor, and falling upon his neck pleaded for his life. was granted y but when his wife, who with her children was amongst the rest on the roof of the temple, saw him at the feet of Scipio, her proud
;
11

Exercises in Trans la lion.

149

heart swelled 3 at this disgrace brought on her-beloved

words bidding her husband be careful to save his life, she plunged first The strugher sons and then herself into the flames. The p joy in the camp w and at end. gle was at an Rome was boundless x the noblestp of the Romans alone were s in secret ashamed of the most recent achievement of the nation.
perishing home,
1

and with

bitter

2.

The

senate ordered the general to level the city

and the suburb of Magalia with the ground, and to do the same with all the places which had held by Carthage to the last and thereafter to pass the plough over the site of Carthage, so as to put an end in legal form dd to the existence**" of the city, and to curse the soil and site for ever, that neither house The q nor corn-field might ever reappear on the spot. command was punctually obeyed. The ruins burned
of Carthage
;
1

for

seventeen days.

Recently,
11

when

the remains of

the city wall were excavated, they were found to be

covered with a layer


deep,
filled

of ashes from four to five feet

with half-charred pieces of wood, d frag-

and projectiles. Where qq the industrious Phoenicians had bustled and trafficked for five hundred years, Roman slaves henceforth pastured the
ments of
iron,

herds of their distant masters.

XVII.
1.

Xenophon at the Sea.


crossed 1 the plain to the foot of the
1

They had
8

in the dark, during the last watch of the night, and p found the passes 2 unguarded. But qq the people fled from the villages at their approach, and though the Greeks at first spared 7 their property could not
hills
j
,

pervenire with trans.

Insert quidem (qq).

150
be induced
to

Latin Composition.
listen
to

But having recovered from their first surprise, and 8 collected a part of their forces, they fell upon the rear of the Greeks, and with their missiles made some slaughpacific
overtures.1

any

ter

among

the last 3 troops"


n

which issued

in the

dusk of
In the

the evening" from the long and narrow defile.

nightqq

the watch -fires of the Carduchians were seen


hills
;

blazing 4 on the peaks of the surrounding 5


nals 3 which
to

sig-

warned the Greeks be attacked by the collected

that they

might expect6

forces of their tribes.

2.

On

the

fifth

day, as 7 the army was ascending


j

Mount Theche, a lofty ridge distinguished by the name of the Sacred Mountain, Xenophon and the rearguard observed a stoppage and an unusual clamor in the foremost ranks, which had reached the summit, and they 8 supposed at first that they saw y an enemy before them. But when Xenophon rode up to ascerff
11

tain

the cause, the

first

shouts that struck

his

ear

were, The sea, the sea!


till
it

The

glad sound ran quickly


all

reached the hindmost, and

pressed forward

to
its

enjoy the cheering spectacle.

The Euxine qq spread 00


to

waters before their eyes

waters which rolled on

the shores of Greece, and which

washed

the walls ot

many Greek
3 6

cities

on the nearest coast of Asia.


4

In relative clause.
Part in dus{y).
7

Infinitive.
2. b.
8

Lesson
(J>
).

8, 3.

Lesson 25,

adeo ut

XVIII.

Vercingetorix.
all

Merivale.

Vercingetorix, with

the gallant gayety ff of his

nation, 1 clad s himself in his most splendid armour,

and mounted his noblest charger. Csesar qq had drawn 8 up his troops, and had seated himself to receive his
1

ut fere Galli {/).

Exercises in Translation.
captives.

151

The Gaul m caused


to
8

11

the gates of his enforth into

campment

bethrown wide, and galloped

the open space, in the attitude of a warrior charging. 2

Having approached
the

close to the proconsul's chair, he

dexterously wheeled round, and again returning to

same spot, sprang to the ground, and laid his arms at the feet of the conqueror. The army p was 8 touched with a sense d of admiration akin to compassion, but Caesar himself remained cold and unmoved.
1

With arma.

XIX.

Story of Wolves.

one dangerous place to pass, and our guide told us, if there were more wolves in the country we should find them there q and qq this was a small It was plain surrounded with woods on every side.

We
j
,

had

within half an hour of sunset

the wood, and a little after sunset plain: we met with nothing in the first wood, except that we saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed one after another, as if they had been in chase ff of some prey and had it in view they took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight in a few moments. Upon this, our guide, who, by the way, 2 was but 3 a faint-hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready posture, for he believed there were more wolves a-coming. We kept our arms ready and our eyes about us but we saw no more wolves till we came through that wood, which was near half a league, and entered the plain. As soon as we came into the plain we had
:
1

when we entered when we came into

the

Lesson 20,

2. c.

quidem.

sane.

152
3

Latin Comfositio
:

occasion enough to look about us

the

first

object

we

met with was a dead horse which the wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them at work picking
his bones.

XX.

Death of Socrates.

Plato,

1. When he had thus spoken, Socrates arose and went into another room that he might wash himself, and Crito followed him u but Qq he ordered 8 us to wait
s
;

for

him.

11

We

waited therefore accordingly, discours-

ing over and reviewing

among

ourselves what had

been said; and sometimes speaking about his death, how great a calamity it would be to us and sincerely
;

thinking that we, like those


tion of orphans. d

who

are deprived of their

fathers, should pass7 the rest of our life in the condi-

But when he had washed himself, were brought to him (for he had two little ones, and one older), and the women belonging to his family likewise came in to him butq when he had spoken to them before Crito, and had left them such
his sons
11 ;

injunctions g as he thought7 proper,

boys and
to us.
2.

women
it

to depart,

he ordered 7 the and he himself returned


11

was now near the setting of the sun for he had been away in the inner room for a long time. But when he came in from bathing he sat down, and
;

And

did not2 speak

much

afterwards

for then the servant

came in, and standing near him, said, do not perceive that in you, Socrates, which I have taken notice of in others I mean, that they are angry with me and curse me, when being compelled by the magistrates I announce to them that they must
of the Eleven
n
I
1
1

dd

11

lotus.

2 nee.

Exercises in Translation.
drink y the poison.
But, on the contrary, 3
d

153
I

have found
into this

you

to

the present time


all

to

be

11

the most generous,

mild, and best of

the

men

that ever

came

place

and therefore I am well convinced that you are not angry with me, but with the authors 4 of your
;

present condition, for you


therefore, for

know who
I

they are.
to tell

Now

you know what


to

came

you, fare-

well

and endeavor

bear

this necessity as easily

as possible." d

At the same time bursting into tears, and turning himself away, he departed. But Socrates, looking after him, said, "And thou, too, farewell; and we shall take care to act as you advise." And at the " How courteous," he said, same time, turning to us, * is the behavior During the whole of that man time of my abode here, he has visited me, and often conversed with me, and proved himself to be the best of men and now how generously he weeps on my account! But 2 let us obey him, Crito, and let some
3.
11

ff

ff

one bring the poison


the

if it is
11

bruised
bruise

and,

if not, let

man whose
*
still
1

business

it is

it."

4.

But, Socrates," said Crito,

" I

think that the

hangs over the mountains, and is not set yet. z And at the same time I have known others who have drunk the poison very late after it was announced to them ; who 5 have supped and drunk abundantly. Therefore do not be in such haste, for there is yet time enough." Socrates replied, " Such 6 men, Crito, act fitly in the manner which you have- described, for they think to derive some advantage from so doing a and I also with propriety shall not act in this manner. For I do not think I shall gain any thing by drinking
sun
11
"

11

quod contra.

Rel. clause (Lesson 8, 3).


6 isti.

6 Participle.

154
it

Latin Composition.
except becoming 7 ridiculous
live,
it

later,

to

myself through
life,

desiring to

and being sparing of


2

when

nothing of
quest."
5.
11

any longer

remains.

Go

therefore,"

said he, " be

persuaded, 8 and comply with

my

re-

gave a sign to the boy that stood near him and the boy m departing, and having stayed for some time, came back with the person that was to administer the poison, who brought it pounded in a cup. And Socrates, looking at the man, sain, " Well, 9 my friend, as you are knowing in these matters, what is 10 to be done?" "Nothing," he said, " but 11 after you have drunk it to walk about, until a heaviness comes on in your legs, and then to lie down And this is the manner in which you have to act." at the same time he extended the cup to Socrates.
Crito,

Then

hearing 5
;

"

this, Q

And
as his
at

Socrates
ff

taking

it

and,

indeed,

with

great

cheerfulness, neither trembling nor turning color, but


the man

manner was, looking


"

sternly

under

his

brows

What

say you," he said, "to making a

from this? may I do it or not?" 6. " We can only bruise as much, Socrates," he replied, "as we think sufficient for the purpose." z "I understand you," he said, " but it is both lawful and proper to pray to the gods that my departure from hence to another world may be prosperous which I
11
:

libation x

entreat

them

to

grant

may be

the case."

And

so say-

ing, he stopped

and drank the poison very readily and thus far the greater part of us were 13 12 but well able to refrain from weeping; tolerably when we saw him drinking, and that he had drunk it, we could no longer restrain our tears. And from me,
pleasantly.

And

With
11

ut.

8 credere.
ut.
12 satis.

quid est.
13

10 oportet.

quam

Lesson 31,

2. d.

Exercises in Translation.
in spite of

155

my

efforts, 3

they flowed, and that not drop


in

by drop

so that

wrapping y myself

my
I

mantle,

bewailed, not indeed for his misfortune, but for

my
be

own, considering what a companion


deprived
of.

should

XXI.
So
ing
x

Hannibal

in

the Apennines.
him 1 (while)
cross-

furious a tempest attacked

the

Apennines,

that

it

almost surpassed

the

horrors of the Alps.


halted, because
v

The

rain

and wind together 2


first

being 3 driven directly 4 against their faces, they


either

they were obliged

to

drop

their arms, or, if 5 they struggled against the storm,

round by the hurricane, and 5 dashed upon the ground n afterwards, as 6 it took away their breath, and did not allow them to respire, they sat down for a short time with their backs 7 to the wind. Then, indeed, the sky resounded 8 with the loudest thunder, 9 and lightnings 10 flashed amid the terrific peals deafened 11 and blinded, they all became 12 insensible with fear. At last, the rain having spent itself, and the violence of the wind having been redoubled 13 upon that account, it was held requisite to pitch their camp on the very spot whereon they had been overtaken by the storm. But this was like 14 a
they were whirled
1

11

fresh

commencement
that

of their
1

toils.

For they could


l :

neither spread their canvas, nor fix their poles

nor

had been fixed remain, the wind tearing every thing to shreds 15 and hurrying it away and soon after, when the water which 5 had been raised
; 1

would any thing

Hannibal.

2
3.

mixtus
6

(/).

3 7

Lesson 22,
(i,

2.

ipse (/).

Lesson 22,
sonus
13

a
ignis.

cum.
ll

aversus
15

y).
Vi

Infinitive.
toj'pere.

(/).

10

captns>
velut.

with nouns.

With

magis accensus.

By

prep, in compost

156
aloft

Latin Composition.

icy summits poured down such a torrent of snowy hail, that the soldiers, throwing every thing away, fell down upon their faces, 15 rather smothered 16 than covered by their clothes. And such an intensity of cold succeeded, that, whenever any one endeavored to raise and lift himself up from this miserable prostrate mass 17 of men and cattle, he was long unable, because, his sinews stiffening with the cold, he was hardly capable of bending his joints.

by the

gale,

had been frozen on the


it

of the mountains,

16

obruere.

17

strages.

XXII.

The Gauls at Rome.


seeing 1 from the citadel the city
11

The Romans,
of the enemy,

full

some new

disaster continually arising

on every 2 side, were unable not only to realize f it, but even to command 3 their senses. 4 Wherever the shouts of the foe, the lamentations of women and children, the crackling of fire, and the crash of falling roofs,
called 5 their attention, 11 terrified at every sound, they
1

turned their thoughts, faces, and eyes, as


6
ff

if

stationed

by fortune to be spectators of the ruin of their country, and left to protect7 no part of their property, except their own persons so much more 8 to be pitied than others that have ever been besieged, inasmuch as 9 they were at once invested and 8 shut out from their country, beholding all their effects in the power Nor was the night which sucof their enemies. 10 ceeded a day so miserably spent more tranquil x day1 l :

Lesson 22,

2.

alius atque alius ; so as to present the actual picture


3

more

vividly

(cf. /).

5 avertere. Express by the organs of sense (/). 8 ante. 9 Lesson 28, 2. d. 1 vindex ( y). spectaculum {cc).

constare.

10

exripere

(cf. k).

Exercises in Translation,
light then followed a restless night
11

157

nor was there any

moment which was free from the spectacle of some ever 12 new disaster. Nevertheless, burdened and overwhelmed by so many evils, they abated 13 not x their
courage, determined, 14 although they had beheld
things levelled by conflagration and ruin, to defend,
their valor, the hill
all

by

which they occupied, ill-provided

and narrow as

it

was, 15 yet the refuge 16 of freedom.

And

at last, as the

same things happened every day,


if
v

they had abstracted their thoughts, as


lamities,
1

inured to ca;

from

all

sense of their misfortunes

gazing

only upon the arms, and the swords in their hands, as


the sole remnants of their hopes.
11

ccssare (a), to give a

more intense personal character than the


ordinary words.
18

12
15

semper.

fleeter e.

14

quin (/).
16

The phrase may be omitted

(cf. //),

or with quamvis.

relietus (ee).

XXIII.
1.

Murder of Marcellus.
was purposing 1 Posthumius came
I

The day

following, as

to set
to

out from Athens, his friend

me

about four 2

in the

morning, and informed


11

me

Marcellus

had been stabbed 3 the night before by Magius Cilo, whilst they were sitting together after supper that he had received two wounds from a dagger, one of which was in his breast, and the other under his ear but that neither of them, he hoped, was mortal. 1 He added, 5 that Magius, after having committed this barbarous action, immediately killed himself; and that Marcellus had despatched y him in order to give me this account, and. likewise to desire that 1 would direct my physicians to attend him. This I instantly did
;
1

11

11

11

hi

ammo

habere.

Lesson 17,
{ee, i).

e.

3 fei-ire,

pugitoU
1.

icere.

Lit. "

hoped he could live"

Lesson 30,

{11).

158

Latin

Corn-position,
1

and followed them myself as soon as it was light. But when I had almost reached cc Piraeeus, I met cc a servant of Acidanus with a note to acquaint me that our friend m expired a little before day -break. Thus m did the noble Marcellus unworthily fall 6 by the hand and he whose life his very of a villanous assassin enemies had spared, in reverence to his illustrious virtues, 7 mety with an executioner at last in his own
j ;
3

friend
2.

v
! :

However, I proceeded to his pavilion wherer I found only two of his freedmen and a few slaves the
;

rest, I

was told/ having


11

fled in

apprehension of the
3

which they might be involved by I was obliged to place this murder of their master. 9 the body of Marcellus in the same sedan that brought7 me, and to make 10 my chair-men carry it into Athens where I paid him all the funeral honors that city could which indeed were not inconsiderable. But supply 11 with the Athenians to suffer 12 him I could not prevail
consequences
8

in

to

be buried within their walls


5

privilege,-

they

assured

me, which

their religious ordinances

would

by no means admit. They granted me, however, what was the next honor, and which they had never permitted to any stranger before they allowed me to deposit his ashes in any of the Gymnasia I should think proper. Accordingly I fixed upon a spot belong11 11
:

ing to the Academy, one of the noblest colleges 13

in the

whole world. In this place I caused a funeral pile to be erected, and afterwards persuaded the Athenians d dd at the to raise a marble monument to his memory dd Thus have I paid to my relation public expense.
6 9

acerbissima morte afficere

(i).

dignitas.
abl. (j).
l3

Clause with quod.

Simply

is.

10

With instrum.

impetrare.

12

locum dare.

gymnasium.

Exercises in Translation.

159

and colleague, 14 both during


from me.
Farewell.
14 15

his

life

and

after

his

death, every friendly office he had a right to expect 15

Express by pro with abstract noun

(cc).

With simple possessive pronoun

(/).

XXIV.
1.

Story of Cinctnnatus.

Arnold.
all

Then
man

the Master dd of the people and the Master

of the horse went together into the forum, and bade

every

to
dd

shuty up his booth, and stopped dd


1

causes at law,
Field of

and ordered that every man who was

of an age to go dd out to battle should be ready in the

Mars d before

him
the

victuals for five

and 8 should have with days, and twelve stakes and the
sunset,
11
;

older

men
;

dressed the victuals for the soldiers, whilst


1

went about everywhere 2 to get their stakes and they cut them where they would without 3 any hindrance. So the army was ready in the Field of Mars at the time 4 appointed, and they set forth from the city, and made such haste, that ere the night was half spent they came to Algidus and when they perceived that they were near the enemy, they made
soldiers "
ff ff
11

a halt. dd

Then Lucius rode on and saw how the camp of enemy lay 5 and he ordered his soldiers to throw down all their baggage into one place, but to keep each man his arms and his twelve stakes. Then they set out again in their order of march as 6 they had come from Rome, and they spread themselves round the camp of the enemy on every side. When this was
2.

the

11

11

11

done, upon a signal given they raised a great shout,

and
1

directly every
4

man began
5

to

dig a ditch just where


3

Indef. Rel.

2 dis- in

composition.
situs.

ad edictum.

With

Lesson 23, 2. Lesson 8, 7.

c.

160

Latin Composition.

he stood, and to set in his stakes. The shout rang through the camp of the enemy, and filled them with and it sounded even to the camp of the Romans fear
;

who were
that
7

shut up in the valley, and the consul's


at

men
for

said one to another,


is

"Rescue is 7 surely the shout of the Romans." 8


8

hand,

Lesson 30.

Use

civis,

for facility in

making an

adjective.

XXV.

Princely Generosity.
1
11

Feltham.

Diogenes asked Plato x for a glass of wine, and q he presently sent him a gallon. When next Diogenes* met him, he said to him " I asked you how many were two and two? and you have answered, twenty." There are some of so noble a disposition, that, like trees of 2 ripe fruit, by degrees they drop away all that they have they would 3 even outdo the demands of all their friends, and would give as if they were
:
;

gods, that could not be exhausted

they look not so


or their

much
ability,

either
4

at

the

merit of others,
ff

own

as the satisfaction
I

of themselves from their


01

own
as
if

bounty.
j

find not a higher genius this

than glowed

in the victorious
all

Alexander.

He

way, 5 warred
if

he coveted

things,

and gave away as


;

he

cared for nothing.

You would

think he did not con-

quer for himself, but his friends and that he took, only that he might have wherewith to give so that one might well 6 conclude the world itself was too
;

little 7

for

either his ambition or his bounty.


that

When

he would be pleased to give him a portion for his daughters, he immediately commanded him fifty talents. The modest beggar told
Perillus

begged

5 Lit.

Lesson 22, 3. a. " no greater example

onustus.

3 volo. 6 facile. 7

4 copiae.

in this kind."

parum

sufficere.

Exercises in Translation.

161

him ten would be enough.


plied
:

To which

the prince re-

"

Though

they might be enough for him to

receive,

yet they

were not enough

for

himself to

bestow."

XXVI.
1.
1

Defeat of Varus.

Creasy,
11

Fatigue and discouragement now began


themselves in the

to

Their line betray became less steady; baggage-wagons were abandoned from the impossibility of forcing them along 1 and, as this happened, many soldiers left their ranks and crowded round the wagons to secure the most valuable portions of their property each busy about and purposely slow in hearing the his own affairs, d word of command from2 his officers. Arminius now
ranks.
ff
1

Roman

11

11

gave the signal


shouts of the of
the
forests,

for

a general-

attack. ff
1

The
the
1

fierce
ff

Germansx pealed through


and
in

gloom

thronging

multitudes

they

assailed the flanks of the invaders, pouring in clouds


3 of darts on the encumbered legionaries, as they strug-

gled up the glens or floundered in the morasses. 2. Arminius, with a chosen band of personal re1

tainers .round

him, cheered on his countrymen

11

by

voice and example.

He

11

and

his

weapons
cavalry

11

particularly at the horses of the

men aimed their Roman


11

The wounded animals, q slipping about in the mire and their own blood, threw their riders, and plunged among the ranks of the legions, disordering
round them. 3. The bulk of the Roman army fought steadily and stubbornly, frequently repelling the masses of the assailants, but gradually losing the compactness of
all
ff

Lesson 22,

3. b.

Lesson 15,
11

a.

Lesson 22,

2.

62

Latin Composition,

their array.

the

At last, in a series of desperate attacks column was pierced through and through, two
j

Roman host, which on the yester morning had marched forth in such pride and might, now broken up into confused fragments, either4 fell fighting beneath the overpowering numbers of the enemy or4 perished in the swamps and woods in unavailing efTorts at flight.
8 of the eagles captured, and the
ff
1

11

ff

partim.

XXVII.
wall
6

Siege of Syracuse.
1

Arnold,
by a constant

Marcellus brought up

his ships against the sea-

of Achradina, and endeavored

discharge ff of stones and arrows to clear the walls of


so that his men might apply their and mount to the assault. These ladders 00 2 together broadside to rested on two ships, lashed broadside, 3 and 8 worked as one by their outside oars. But Archimedes had supplied the ramparts with an artillery so powerful, k that it overwhelmed 7 the Romans before they could get within the range 4 which their missiles could reach u and qq when they came
their defenders,

ladders,

11

closer, they

found that
j
1

all

the lower part of the wall

was loopholed
and who shot
they
ders,
still

and
his

their

men were
11

struck y

down
see,,
ff

with fatal aim 5 by an


11

enemy whom they could


arrows
11

not

in perfect security.

If

persevered, and attempted

to fix their lad-

on a sudden enormous stones or huge masses 6 of lead were dropped upon them, by which their ladders were crushed to pieces, and their ships were almost sunk. At other times, machines like cranes were
1

Lesson 22,

3. b.

jungere.
at

Result-clause with applicare.


e

* teli conjectus.

5 Lit.

"aimed

from a hidden [place J."

pondus.

Exercises in Translation.
thrust8 out over the wall
11

163

and the end of the lever, with s an iron grapple affixed to it, q was p lowered upon the ships. As soon as the grapple q had taken hold, the other end of the lever was lowered by heavy weights, and the ship raised 3 out of the water, till it was madey almost to stand upon its stern then the grapple was suddenly let go, and the ship dropped 7 into the sea with a violence which either upset7 it, or filled 7 it with water. With equal h power was the assault on the land side repelled, till Marcellus in despair put v a stop to his attacks and it was resolved merely to blockade the town, and to wait for the effect of famine upon the crowded population within.
;
55

11

11

ff

ff

11

affligo

00

XXVIII.
1.

Battle of Metaurus.

Arnold.
ff
1

From
11

the

moment
cc

that Nero's

march from the


1

had been heard of at Rome, intense anxiety possessed the whole city. Every day the senate sat dd from sunrise to sunset and not a senator was absent every" day the forum was crowded from morning till evening, as each hour might bring some great tidings n and every man 2 wished to be among the first to hear them. A doubtful rumor arose, that a great battle had been fought, and a great victory won 3 only two days before two horsemen of Narnia had ridden off from the field to carry the news to their home it qq had been heard and published in the camp of the reserve 4 army, which was lying at Narnia to cover the approach to Rome. But men dared not lightly believe what they so much wished to be true and how, they
south
ff
;
11

11

11

11

Lesson 17,

h.

pro

se quisque (h).
4

Compress the two

clauses,

making

battle

a modifier.

in subsidiis.

164
said,
11

Latin Composition.
could a battle fought in the extremity ff of
1

Umbria
1

be heard of only two days after at Rome? Soon, however, it was known that a letter had arrived from L. Manlius Acidinus himself, who commanded the army at Narnia the horsemen had certainly arrived
:

there from the field of battle, and brought tidings ff of


a glorious victory. ff

The

letter
dd

was read
fugitives

first in
dd
;

the

senate, and then in the forum

some
field

still

refused to believe
j

from the rostra but from a battle-

might carry
;

idle tales of victory to hide their

own

shame
suls,
2.
it

till

the account

came
it.

directly from the con-

was rash
last,

to credit
11

At

rank

in the

word was brought consul's army were on


8

that officers 6 of high


their

way

11

to

Rome

that they bore a despatch from Livius m and Nero. Then the whole city pouredy out of the walls to meet them, eager to anticipate the moment which was to confirm all their hopes. For two miles, as far as the Milvian bridge over the Tiber, the crowd formed an uninterrupted mass and when the officers appeared,
1
l

they could scarcely


multitude thronging

make

their

way

to the city,

11

the p

around them, and overwhelming* them and their attendants with eager questions. As each man learned the joyful k answers, he made haste " The enemy's army is deto tell them to others c stroyed the general slain c our 7 own legions and both
ff
11

11

the consuls are safe."


;

crowd re-entered the city and the three officers, all men of noble names, L. Veturius Philo, P. Licinius Varus, and Q^Metellus, still followed 7 by the thronging" multitude, at last
the
11 11

So

reached the senate-house.


s

6 It is

more

strictly Latin to
7

be paraphrased.

With Jides. name the office (legati); but here it may Romanas ; on account of indir. discourse.

Exercises in Translation,
3.

165

people pressed after them into the senatehouse itself: but even at such a moment' the senate
1

The

crowd was forced back and the consul's despatch was first read to the senators alone. Immediately afterwards the officers came out into the forum there L. Veturius again read the despatch and, as its contents were short, he himself related the particulars of what he had seen y and done. The interest 00 of his hearers grew more intense with every word 9 till at last the whole multitude broke 00 out in a universal cheer, and then rushed 7 from the forum in all directions to carry the news to their wives and children at home, or 10 ran to
forgot not
;

its

accustomed order

the

11

11

11

the temples to pour dd out their gratitude to the gods.

The

senate ordered a thanksgiving of three days

the

praetor

announced dd

it

in

the forum
;

days every temple was crowded wives and mothers, dd in their gayest dresses, took their children with them, and 8 poured forth their thanks to all the gods for this great deliverance.
11

and for three and the Roman


;

ff

mos

et institnta.

magis magisque.

lw alii

alii.

XXIX.
1.

Inundations of the Tiber.


her situation,
1

Gibbon.
s
11

exposed to the danger of frequent inundations. Without excepting the Tiber, the rivers w that descend from either side of the Apennines have iz a short and irregular course ap p irregular shallow stream in the summer heats an
11

From
11

Rome

is

torrent, 1

when

it is

swollen in the spring or winter, by

the

fall
8

of the rain, or the melting ff of the


is

snows.

When
1

the current
h).

repelled from the sea


in
2

by adverse 2

This clause requires a verb


(cf.

Latin to express precisely the picture

alluded to

Lesson 22,

3. b.

1 66

Latin Composition.

winds,

when

the ordinary bed

is

inadequate

11

to the

height of the waters, they rise above the banks, and overspread, without limit or control, the plains and
cities

of the adjacent country.


ff

Soon h

after the tri-

Punic war, the Tiber was increased by unusual rains; and p the inundation, surpassing all former measure-of-time-and-place, 3 destroyed all the buildings that were situate- below the hills of Rome. According to the variety of the ground, the same q mischief d was produced y by different means and the edifices were either swepty away by the sudden impulse, 4 or dissolved 7 and undermined by the long conof the
first
11
1

umph

tinuance 5 of the flood.


2.

Under

the reign of Augustus, the


11

same calamity

was renewed

the lawless 6 river overturned the palaces


1

and temples on its banks and, q after 7 the labors of the emperor in cleansing and widening the bed, that was encumbered with ruins, the7 vigilance of his successors was exercised by similar dangers and designs. 8 The project of diverting into new channels the Tiber itself, or some of the dependent streams, was long opposed by superstition and by local 9 interests cc nor did the use compensate the toil and cost of the tardy and imperfect execution/ The q servitude 10 of rivers is the noblest and most important victory which man has obtained over the licentiousness of nature and if q such were the ravages 11 of the Tiber under a firm and
;

By memoria.

Insert "the river," as the actual agent (h).

Insert "stagnant water," as the actual agent (h).

6
7

Personify more directly

Co-ordinate clauses with


privatus.

8 Lit. 9
10

"spurning the curb." et (compare h). "as much care as possible was taken against a similar danger."
:

et

Divide the clause for greater precision

"as

in other

so," &c.

(see dd^ff).

n Make

precise with a verb, and

append the

result in

an adverbial phrase.

Exercises in Translation,
active

167

government/ what could oppose, 7 or who can

enumerate, the injuries 5 of 12 the city after the fall of remedy was produced 7 by the Western empire?

ff

the evil itself: the accumulation of rubbish and the

washed down from the hills is have elevated the plain of Rome, fourteen or fifteen feet perhaps, above the ancient level and the modern 13 city is less accessible 14 to the attacks
earth that has been

supposed 7

to

of the river.
12

Lesson 15,

a.

With adverb

(<r).

"

Lit. "sufficiently safe

"

(cc).

XXX.
1.

First Acting at Rome. and

The

pestilence continuing during both this

the following year, in which 1 Caius Sulpicius Pasticus

and Caius Licinius Stolo were consuls, nothing memorable


1

was transacted
2

only 2 that, for the purpose of

soliciting

the favor
j

of the gods, the lectisternium

was

performed the third time since the building of the city. But as the disorder received 1 no alleviation/ either from human wisdom g or divine aid, the strength d of
the
people's minds

became s almost overpowered by


is
1

superstition,

and

it

said that, on this occasion, 11

other devices' for appeasing the wrath of heaven, scenic plays were introduced, 3 a new thing to a warlike people for hitherto there had been only
;

among

the shows of the circus.


1

However,

this

kind of per1

formance was, as in general all beginnings are, but a trifling matter, and even that4 borrowed from abroad. 2. Actors were 8 sent for from Etruria, who, though without any poetical language, d or any gestures correspondent 8 to such language, yet regulating 5 their
1

Lesson 22,

3. b.

2 5

exposcere

instituere.

* is ipse.

imitari (with relative).

1 68

Latin

Corn-position,

motions by 6 the measures of the music, 7 exhibited, dd in

Tuscan manner, something 8 far from h ungraceful. The younger citizens soon began to imitate x these throwing out, at the same time, among each other,
the
11

ludicrous expressions in coarse verses, and with' ges1

tures adapted
r

00

to the

words

this

kind of performance
11

then being received with approbation,


of frequent practice gained

in the

course
9

much improvement.
;

The

native performers were called 10 Histriones, from 11 the

Tuscan word

Hister, signifying a player

and q they did

not, as formerly,

pronounce

in dialogue, 12 without re-

gard to order, 13 verses like the Fescennine, artless 14 and unpolished, but represented comic medleys, composed 15 in regular metre, with the several 16 parts of the performance properly adjusted to the music the delivery of the words and the gesticulation being performed in concert with the music.
11 11

3.
first

Several years" after


11

this,

11

Livius,

who was
to
all

the

that ventured to lay aside


plot,

17

medleys, and

weave

were at that time, the actor of his own pieces; and, having broken his voice by 18 being obliged to repeat them too
a story into a regular

being also, as

11

11 often, after requesting the indulgence of the public,

placed 8 a boy before the musician to chant, while


himself performed
19

the gesticulations.

And

this

11

he he

executed

11

with

much

freer20 action, because

disen-

gaged from
8

attention to the
6 saltare ad.

management
7

of his voice. 21
put
in

tibicen (cc).
is

motus
11

as the verb
9 excitari.

is

a general one, the color


10

the noun.

Lit.

nomen indere (dd). "because a player was called by a Tuscan word "
Vi

(h).
(cc).

12 alternis.

temere.

14

incompositum.

15

impletus

"the song being adjusted (describere) to the musician, and the 17 Simple abl. with ab. movement corresponding " (/). 20 vigens. 19 Lit. "acted the song." 18 Lesson 22, 2. 21 Lit. "because the use of the voice did not hinder" (cc, //, i).
16 Lit.

Exercises in Translation.

169

Hence

originated the practice of the chanting being


1

performed by another to the gesticulation of the actors, whose voices were eased cc of all butcc the dialogue.

When, by

this regulation,
11

the scenic

11

business

was

directed 22 to other

objects

11

than laughter and intem1

perate mirth, and the

converted into an
professed
11

art,

amusement was by degrees the younger citizens leaving to


1

of plays began, according to the ancient practice, to throw out alteractors the exhibition
1

nately ludicrous jests,

comprised 23 in verse, which


of cxodia, or interludes, and
1

thence

11

goty the
24

name

were collected
22

principally out of the Atellan farces.


23 intexo.
2*

avocare

(cc).

conserere.

1.

XXXI. The Fire of London. While the war continued without any
ff
11

decisive

success on either side, a calamity happened in

Lon-

don, which
tion.

threw cc the people into great consternaall

Fire, breaking out in a baker's house near the


sides with such rapidity,
3,

bridge, spread 2 itself on


that

no

efforts

could extinguish

it,

till it

laid in ashesj

a considerable part of the city.

The
ff

inhabitants,
j

without 3 being able to provide 4 effectually


relief,
;
1

for their

were reduced- to be spectators of their own b ruin and s were pursued 7 from street to street by the flames, which 5 unexpectedly gathered 7 round them. Three days and nights did the fire advance and p it was only by the blowing-up of houses that it was at The king and duke used their last extinguished.
;
11

utmost endeavors ff
but
all

to stop the
11

progress of the flames

their industry
streets

was unsuccessful.
thirteen

hundred
reduced
1

and
1

About four thousand houses were


ut qui. b (v).
4

to ashes.
2. c.

Lesson 23,

pervagari.
5

adhibere (ace).

Lesson 22,

3.

170

Latin Composition.

2. The causes of this calamity were evident. The narrow streets of London," the houses built entirely of wood, b the dry season, and a violent k east wind these were so many concurring cirwhich blew, cumstances, which rendered it easy to assign the reason of the destruction that ensued. But the y not satisfied with this obvious account.people were Prompted by blind rage, some ascribed the guilt to the republicans, others to the catholics, though it is not easy to conceive the burning f of London could

11

serve the purposes of either party.


j

3.^

The

conflagration

was
;

so universale

and r the

people so astonished, that from the beginning they


to quench it so that there was nothing heard or seen but crying g out and lamentation/ running 7 about like distracted creatures, without at all

hardly stirred 6

Such a strange was8 upon them, as it burned, 00 both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, hospitals, monuments, and ornaments, ieaping v after a prodigious manner from house to house, and
attempting
to

save even their goods.


ff

consternation there

one from the other of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every
street to street, at great distances

for

the

heat,

with a long set

thing.
4.

Oh

the miserable
j

as haply the world

and calamitous spectacle such had not seen since the foundation
!

of

it.

like.

God The
ff

grant dd
noise

my

eyes

may
ff

never behold the


of the

and cracking
fall
7
ff

impetuous
the

flames, the

shrieking of

women and
Lesson 22,
2.

children,

hurry
6

of people, the
(cc).

of houses and churches,


8

manum vertere

Pluperfect.

Exercises in Translation.

171

was
it
:

like 9 a

hideous storm, and the air

all

about so hot

and inflamed, that at last one was not able to approach so that they were forced 10 to stand still and let the flames burn on, which they did for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds 11 of smoke were s dismal, and reached, upon computation, near
11

ff

fifty

miles in length.
11

burning, a
9

Thus I left resemblance of Sodom,


is

it

this afternoon

or the last day.

London was, but


speciem praebere.
10

no more.

11

Part, in dus.

ll

in nubes tristes volutus (/).

XXXII.
1.

The Earthquake at
11

Lisbon.
fatal
I

on the morning of this between the hours 1 of nine and ten, that
It

was

day,
set

was

down

in

my

apartment, just finishing a


I

letter,

when

was writing on began to tremble with a gentle motion, which 4 rather surprised 00 me, as I could not perceive a breath of wind d stirring. Whilst I was reflecting with myself what this could be owing cc to, the house I was in shook y with such violence, that the upper stories immediately fell, and though qq my apartment (which was on the first floor) did not then share cc the same fate, yet every thing was thrownx out of its place, in such a manner that it was with no small h difficulty I kept my feet, and p
the papers and 3 table
11

11

11

expected nothing less than


death,
11

to
11

be soon crushed
to

to

as the walls continued rocking

and

fro in

manner, opening in several places; large stones falling down on every side from the cracks, and the ends 5 of most of the rafters starting out from To add6 to this terrifying scene, the sky in the roof.
frightful
1

Lesson 17, e. 5 Lesson

jam.

cum.
. .

4
.

quod quidem.

5,

i.

6 accedit

quod.

172
a

Latin Composition.
so

moment became

gloomy
j
;

that I could

now

distin-

guish no particular object


to the prodigious
j j

it

was an Egyptian 7 darkfelt


;

ness indeed, such 8 as might be

owing, no doubt,

clouds of dust and lime raised from

so violent a concussion, ff and, as

some reported,

to
;

sulphureous exhalations, but qq this I cannot affirm however, it is certain I found myself almost choked 9 for near ten minutes. 6
j

2.

had

still

presence*1 of
1

mind enough
1

left

11

to put

on a pair of shoes' and a coat, the first that came in my way, which 10 was every thing cc I saved, and in this dress I hurried down stairs, and made directly to that end of the street which opens 11 to the Tagus. 3. In the midst of our devotions, the second great shock came on, little less violent than the first, and completed the ruin of those buildings which had been already much shattered. You may judge of the force of the shock, when I inform 12 you it was so violent that I could scarce keep on my knees but it was attended 13
j

ff

ff

ff

with some circumstances


former.
sea
is
14

still

more dreadful than the


ff

On

a sudden
in,

heard a general outcry


shall

"

The
this,

coming

we

be

all

lost."

Upon

turning
is

my

eyes towards the river, which in that place

near four miles broad, I could perceive it heaving and swelling in a most unaccountable 15 manner, as no wing was stirring. In an instant there appeared, at

some distance, a large body of water, rising as it were like a mountain. Itp came on foaming and roaring, and rushed y towards the shore with such impetu11

osity, that

we
;

as possible
7
10

immediately ran for our lives as fast many were p actually 16 swept away, and
all
j

Use cimmerius.
quae qui'detn.
14

Express by mood.
specto.
15
12

animam
16

intercludere.
13

ex eo quod.

habeo (j).

Indir. disc.

mirabilis.

quidem.

Exercises in Translation,

173

the rest above their waist in water at a good distance

from the banks. For my own part, 2 1 had the narrowest escape, and q should certainly have been lost, had I not grasped a large beam that lay on the ground,
ff

till

the water returned to

its

channel, which

it

did y

almost at the same instant, with equal rapidity.


there

now appeared 00
ff

at least as
I

sea cc as the land, and


for shelter,
I

scarce

As much danger from the knew 17 whither to retire

took a sudden resolution of returning


clothes all dripping, to the area of St.

back, with
Paul's.
4.

my

The new
18

scenes of
;

horror d

met with here

exceed

all

description
;

nothing could be heard but

sighs and groans

did not meet with a soul j in the

passage
all

who was
;

not 19 bewailing the death ff of his


11

nearest relations and dearest friends, or the loss ff of


his substance
19

could

hardly take a single step,


:

without

treading on the dead or the dying

in

places'1 lay coaches, with their masters, horses,


riders, almost crushed in pieces
;

some and

here mothers, with


richly

infants
priests,

in their
friars,

arms

there

ladies

dressed,
in

gentlemen, mechanics, either

the
their

same 20
breasts

condition, or just expiring;

some had 21

backs or thighs broken, others vast stones on their


;

some lay almost buried


to the

in the rubbish,

and,

crying out in vain


left to

passengers for succour, were


pre-

perish with the rest.


as
it

5.

As soon
j
:

grew dark, another scene


11

shocking than those already n described the whole city appeared in a blaze, 22 which was so bright that I could easily see to read by
sented
itself little

less

it.

23

It
habeo.

may be
18

said without exaggeration 24


deficere.
19
'

it

was on

17

verba

quin.

20

Explain particulars.

174
fire at least in

Latin Composition.
a hundred j different places at once,
j

and

thus continued burning for six days together, without


intermission, or 25 the least attempt being
its

made

to stop

progress.6.
It

went on consuming every thing the earthquake had spared, and 26 the people were so dejected and courage enough to terrified, that few or none had any part of their substance venture down to save every one had his e}'es turned towards the flames, and p stood looking on with silent grief, which was only interrupted 7 by the cries and shrieks of women and children calling on the saints and angels for
j
1

11

11

11

succour.
f

dum

(p).

26

Lesson 22,

3. b.

XXXIII.
1.

Character of Trajan.
j

Gibbon.

as

Trajan 1 was ambitious of fame; and, 2 as long mankind shall continue to bestow 3 more liberal

applause upon their 4 destroyers than upon their benefactors, the thirst of military glory will ever be the 5
vice of the most exalted 6 characters.1

The

praises of

Alexander, transmitted by a succession of poets and historians, had kindled a dangerous emulation in the mind of Trajan. 7 Like 8 him, the Roman emperor undertook- an expedition ff against the nations of the East; but 9 he lamented, 10 with a sigh, that his advanced age scarcely left y him any hopes of equalling the renown of the son m of Philip.
1

1 The proper name should in strictness be omitted, unless opposed to some other person, when it would be introduced by aiitem. 2 denim 3 prosequi /). (qq)> 4 With homo, because it is not the same persons who are destroyed.
(

proprium.

eximius

qttisque, to specialize the expression.

With With

hie:

"had kindled him


:

to."
et vero.
9

clause

introduce with

Lesson 22,

3. a.

i(i

queri.

Exercises in Translation,
2.

175

Yet the success 00 of Trajan m however transient, was 11 rapid cc and specious. The qq degenerate Parthians, broken by intestine discord, fled before his He descended 12 the river Tigris in triumph, arms.
1

ff

from the mountains of Armenia to the Persian Gulf. He enjoyed the honor 13 of being the first, as qq he was
the last, of the
that remote sea.

generals who ever navigated His fleets ravaged 7 the coasts of Arabia; and Trajan vainly flattered himself 14 that he was approaching towards the confines of India. Every 15 day the astonished senate received the intelligence of new names and new nations, that acknowledged his sway. They were informed that the kings
of Bosporus, Colchis, Iberia, Albania, and even the

Roman

Parthian monarch himself, had accepted their diadems


tribes of the

from the hands of the emperor that the independent Median and Carduchian hills had im; ;

plored his protection and that the rich countries of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, were reduced
into the state of provinces.
11

14

l3 Lit. "by a singular fortune," &c. 12 devehi. utor {y ). 15 identidem. Lit. " rejoiced, being deceived by a false hope."

XXXIV.

Character of Cato.
1

Middleton.

In his private able, banishing


ff

life

he was severe, morose, inexorthe softer affections as natural 1

all

enemies to justice, and as suggesting false motives* In public from favor, clemency, and compassion. had but one rule of policy, affairs he was the same 3 regard to to adhere 2 to what was right, without 4 times or circumstances, or even to force that could
11 ;

With

natura.
4

amplecti.

Lesson 23,

2. c.

New

clause with adeo ut.

176
control

Latin Composition.

him

for instead 5 of

managing
6

the great so as to mitigate the

ill,
it

power dd of or extract any good


the
to acts
ff

from

it,

he was always urging


g
;

of violence

by a perpetual defiance
tion in the world, j

so that, with the best inten-

he often did great harm to the This was his general behavior republic. yet from 7 above, it appears some particular facts explained
ff
:

that his strength 7 of

mind was not impregnable, but


11

had
zeal,

its

weak
point,
11

places 8 of pride, ambition, and party


9

which, when encouraged

certain

would
ff

betray
of his
1

10

and flattered him sometimes

to

into

measures contrary
truth.

to his

ordinary rule of right and


life

The
1

last act

was agreeable

to his

nature and philosophy.

When

he could not longer


1

be what he had been, and when the ills of life overbalanced 7 the good (which, by the principles of his

an end to and resolution which would make one imagine that he was glad to have found an occasion of dying in his proper character. d On the
sect,
1

was a

just cause for dying), he put


spirit

his

life

with 11 a

whole, 12 his
fit
5 8

life 13

was rather admirable than amiable,


6

to

be praised rather than imitated. 14


Clause with
10

Rel. clause with decere.

si

(//).

constantia.

With

aditus (#).
11

9
vi

finis.

abdiuere, with personal subject.


ut.
13

usus.
14

Clause with

With

verb.

With exemplum proponere.

XXXV.
i.

Of

Studies.

Bacon.
;

Studies
ability.

serve for delight, for ornament, and


ff

Their q chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring for ornament, is in discourse and for ability, is in the judgment** and disposition dd of business for expert men can execute, and perhaps
for
;

Exercises in Translation.
;

177

judge of particulars one by one but the general counsels, and the plots 1 and marshalling 2 of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too

much
for

time in studies,
is is

ornament,
their rules,

affectation

by

the

to use them too much make judgment wholly humor of a scholar. They peris

sloth
;

to

11

fect nature,

and are
1 ;

perfected

by experience

for

natural

abilities*

are like natural plants, 4 that need

pruning by study
forth

and studies themselves do give

directions too
in

much

at large, 5

except they be

bounded
studies,
;

Crafty men contemn by exper ence. simple men admire them, and wise men use
;

them for they 6 teach not their own use but7 that is 8 a wisdom without them and above them, won by observation.*
2. Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested that is, 9 some books are to be read only in parts 10 others to be read, but not curiously and some few to be read wholly, 11 but with dilligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others but that would be only in the less important arguments 12 and the meaner sort of books else distilled 6 books are like common distilled waters, flashy 13
11

11

11

things.
3.

11

Reading maketh y a

ready
1

man
vitis

and writing
2

man u an exact man


full
;

conference a
;

and, q there-

ratio.

ordo.

Insert ipse for the antithesis.


5

Use

or

some
1

particular

word

*').

remissus ac solutus.
9

6
10

ut qui.

qui quidem.

nascor ex.
12 loci.

quod
13

dieit.

percurrere.

n per in comp.

vapidus.

178
fore, if a

Latin Composition.

he had need have a great memory if he confer little, he had need have a present wit and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. Histories make men wise poetry, witty the mathematics, subtile; natural philosophy, deep; moral, grave logic and rhetoric, able to contend Abcunt studia in mores ; u nay, there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit
write
little,
; ;
1

man

studies.
14

Insert ut aiunt to

show the proverb.

XXXVI.
1.

Antony
all at

in

Defeat.
upon
;

NortKs Plutarch.
overthrow,
fell
1

Antonius,

flying

this

into

once but the chiefest want of all Howother, and that pinched him most, was famine. cc of such a strong nature, that by patience beit, he was he would a overcome any adversity and v the heavier fortune lay upon him, the more constant shewed he
great misery
55

Every man that feeleth want or adversity knoweth by virtue and discretion what he should 2 do
himself.

but

when indeed they

are overlaid

with extremity,
1

and be sore oppressed, few have the hearts to follow 3 that which they praise and commend, and much less but rather3 to avoid that they reprove and mislike 2 to the contrary, they yield to their accustomed easy b life, and, through faint heart and lack of courage, do b change their first mind and purpose. And therefore to the soldiers, to see it w as a wonderful example Antonius, v that was brought up in all fineness and superfluity, so easily to drink puddle-water, and to
;

ff

51

11

excipere (cc).

optimum factu.

non modo

sed etiam.

Exercises in Translation.
eat wild fruits

179
it

and

roots.

And moreover

is

re-

ported, that even as they passed the Alps, they did


eat the barks of trees,

and such beasts as never man

tasted of their flesh before.


2.

Now

their intent

was

to join

with the legions

were on the other side 4 of the mountains, under whom Antonius took to be his Lepidus' charge friend, because he had hdlpen him to many things at When he was Caesar's hand, through his means. come to the place where Lepidus was, he camped hard by him and when he saw that no man came to him to put 5 him in any hope, he determined to venSince the ture himself, and to go unto Lepidus. overthrow he had at Modena, he suffered his beard to grow at length, and never dipt it, that it was marvellous long, and the hair of his head also without combing and besides all this, he went in a mourning dd gown, and after this6 sort came hard to the trenches Then he began to speak s unto the of Lepidus' camp. soldiers, and many of them their hearts yearned 7 for
that
11 ;
1

pity to see

him

so

poorly arrayed, and some also


1 :

through his words began to pity him insomuch that Lepidus began to be afraid, and therefore commanded
all

the trumpets to sound together to stop the soldiers'

ears, that they should not


3.

hearken
2

to

Antonius.

This notwithstanding, the soldiers took s the more pity of him, and spake secretly with him by Clodius' and Laelius' means, whom they sent unto him disguised in women's apparel, and gave him counsel that he should not be afraid to enter into their camp, for there were a great number of soldiers that would receive him, and kill Lepidus, if he would say the
4

With

transgredi.
1

confirmare.
t

miser

(i,

v> x).

commovere \i

s).

; ;

;:

180

Latin Composition.
Antonius would not suffer them
at a little river that

word.
a ford,

to hurt
to

him,

but the next morning he went with his

army

wade
;

ran between them


that took

and
that

himself was the foremost


get over, seeing a

man

the river to
1

number of Lepidus' camp,


him
1

gave him
flat 8

their hands,

plucked up the stakes, and laid


into their

the

bank of

their trench to let

camp.

he was come into theif camp, and that he had all the army at his commandment, he used Lepidus very courteously, embraced him, and called him father: and p though indeed Antonius m did all, and ruled the whole army, yet he always gave Lepidus the name and honor of the captain.
8

When

complanare.

XXXVII.
I

Speech of Antony.

Shakespeare.
:

Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them The good is oft interred with their bones So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious
If
it

were

so,

it

was a grievous

fault
it.

And

grievously hath Caesar answer'd

Here, under leave of Brutus and the

rest,

For Brutus is an honourable man So are they all, all honourable men,

me

Come

I to

speak

in Caesar's funeral.

He was my

friend, faithful

and

just to

But Brutus says he was ambitious And Brutus is an honourable man.

He
Did

hath brought

many

captives

home
?

to

Rome,

Whose ransoms

did the general coffers

fill

this in Caesar

seem ambitious

When

that the poor have cried, Caesar hath

wept

Exercises in Translation,
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff Yet Brutus says he was ambitious ; And Brutus is an honourable man. You all did see that on the Lupercal I thrice presented him a kingly crown, Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition ? Yet Brutus says he was ambitious And, sure, he is an honourable man. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am, to speak what I do know. You all did love him once, not without cause
:

181

What cause withholds


judgment, thou

you, then, to

mourn

for

him

art fled to brutish beasts,

And men have

lost their

reason

Bear with me

My
i

heart
I

is in

the coffin there with Caesar,

And
2

Cit.

must pause till it come back to me. Methinks there is much reason in
If

his sayings.

Cit.

thou consider rightly of the matter,

Caesar has had great wrong.


3
1

Cit.

Has he
come
Mark'd ye
'tis
it

not, masters

fear there will a worse

in his place.
;

4
i

Cit.

Therefore
Cit.

If

? He would not take the crown was not ambitious. be found so, some will dear abide it.

his

words

certain he

Cit.
Cit.

Poor soul

his eyes are red as fire with weeping.

There's not a nobler

man

in

Rome

than Antony.

4 ; Ant. But yesterday the word of Caesar might


Cit.

Now mark

him

he begins again to speak.

Have

stood against the world

now

lies

he there,

And none so poor to do him reverence. masters, if I were dispos'd to stir Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, 1 should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, Who, you all know, are honourable men. I will not do them wrong: I rather choose To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you, Than I will wrong such honourable men.

!:

!;

182

Latin Composition.

But here's a parchment with the seal of Caesar,


I

found

it

in his closet,

'tis

his will

Let but the commons hear this testament,


(Which, pardon me,
I

do not mean

to read,)

And And

they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds,


dip their napkins in his sacred blood

Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,

And, dying, mention


Bequeathing
it

it

within their wills,

as a rich legacy

Unto
4

their issue.

read it, Mark Antony. The will, the will we will hear Caesar's will. Ant. Have patience, gentle friends I must not read it It is not meet you know how Caesar lov'd you. You are not wood, you are not stones, but men
Cit.

We'll hear the will

Citizens.

And, being men, hearing the


It will inflame you,

will of Caesar,

it will make you mad. good you know not that you are his heirs ; For, if you should, O, what would come of it 4 Cit. Read the will we'll hear it, Antony ;

'Tis

You
I

shall read us the will,

Caesar's will
?

Ant. Will you be patient? will you stay awhile

have o'ershot myself,

to tell

you of

it.

I fear I wrong the honourable men Whose daggers have stabb'd Caesar I do fear 4 Cit. They were traitors honourable men Citizens. The will the testament The 2 Cit. They were villains, murderers.
;
:
!

it.
!

will

read the

will!

Ant.

You

will

compel me, then, to read the


that

will

Then make

a ring about the corpse of Caesar,

And

let

me show you him

made

the will.

Shall I descend?

and will you give me leave? Citizens. Come down. 2 Cit. Descend. [He comes down. 3 Cit. You shall have leave.
4
Cit.

ring

stand round.

Exercises in Translation.
1

183

Cit. Cit.

Stand from the hearse

Antony most noble Antony stand far off. Ant. Nay, press not so upon me room bear back. Citizens. Stand back Ant. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. You all do know this mantle I remember The first time ever Caesar put it on ; 'Twas on a Summer's evening, in his tent, That day he overcame the Nervii.
2

Room

for

stand from the body.


!

Look, in

this place

ran Cassius' dagger through


:

See what a rent the envious Casca made

Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb'd And, as he pluck'd his cursed steel away,

Mark how the blood of Caesar As rushing out of doors, to be


If

follow'd
resolv'd
;

it,

Brutus so unkindly knock'd, or no For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar lov'd him This was the most unkindest cut of all For, when the noble Caesar saw him stab,
Ingratitude,

more strong than traitors' arms, Quite vanquish'd him then burst his mighty heart And, in his mantle muffling up his face, Even at the base of Pompey's statua, Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell. O, what a fall was there, my countrymen Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
:

Whilst bloody treason flourish'd over


O,

us.

now you weep


:

and,

perceive,

you

feel

The dint of pity these are gracious drops. Kind souls, what, weep you, when you but behold Our Caesar's vesture wounded ? Look you here, Here is himself, marr'd, as you see, with traitors.
1

Cit.

Cit.

3 Cit.

Cit.

O O O O

piteous spectacle

noble Caesar
woeful day
!

traitors, villains

184
1

Latin Composition.
Cit.
Cit.

O most bloody sight We will be reveng'd.


Revenge,
let

Citizens.
slay,

about,
!
!

seek,

burn,

fire,

kill,

not a traitor live

Ant. Stay, countrymen.


1

Cit.
Cit.

Peace there

hear the noble Antony.

We'll hear him, we'll follow him, we'll die with him.
let

Ant. Good friends, sweet friends, To such a sudden flood of mutiny.

me

not

stir

you up

They What

that have

done

this

deed are honourable

private griefs they have, alas, I


;

know

not,

That made them do't they're wise and honourable, And will, no doubt, with reasons answer you. I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts I am no orator, as Brutus is But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man, That love my friend and that they know full well That gave me public leave to speak of him. For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, To stir men's blood I only speak right on I tell you that which you yourselves do know
:

Show you sweet

Caesar's wounds, poor, poor

dumb

mouths,

And And

bid them speak for

me

but were

Brutus,

Brutus Antony, there were an Antony


ruffle

Would

up your

spirits,

and put a tongue

In every

wound

of Caesar, that should

move

The

stones of

Rome

to rise in mutiny.

INDEX.
A
or

an

(indefinite article), 18.

Cum

or

dum

clause with, used in57, 58.

Ablative as Object, 21 ; of Separation, 32 ; with Comparatives, 32 ;


of Time, 39
;

stead of participle,

Dates,

how

expressed, 40.
;

Ablative Absolute,

use

of, 58.

Dative of indirect object, 21 ous uses of, 25-27.


Depriving, expressions

vari-

Abstract term, expressed by subof, clause, stantive 75 ; use

of, 32.

Bum,

clause with, used instead of

avoided in Latin, 121, 122. Accusative as Object, 21.


Adjective,
position
of,

participle, 57, 58.

Each, 19
agree"

Either, 18

Every,

19.

Exclamation, forms

of, 86.

ment, 6 ; special uses, 8 ; used as noun, 8 ; as abstract, 9 ; for the possessive, 9 ; with Cases,
23
;

Far from " (with participial noun), how to be expressed, 83.


(with participial noun), ex-

"From"

for genitive, 35.


l8.

FEW, Or SEVERAL,

pressed by quominus or quin, 84. General Precepts, how expressed


in Latin, 64.

Allusive expressions (in English),


often omitted in Latin, 125.

Genitive,
21
;

its

position, 2

as object,

Antecedent noun in relative clause, preceding the demonstrative, 15. Any (" any one who " ), 18. Apposition, examples of its use, 3.

of value, 30; special uses of,


35.

34; partitive uses,

Gerundive constructions
participial noun), 60.

(English

As

(correlative), 16.
of,
;

Have,
20-44; as as modifyCause,

its

uses as auxiliary, 84.


in Latin use, 5, 123.

Cases, constructions
ing Adjectives, 23
lations,

Hendiadys,

objects of Verbs, 20
;

Historical Infinitive, 46.

indirect re-

25

expressing

Hour

Historical Present, 45. of the day, 40.

tion

Means, and Quality, 28 ; Separathe and Comparison, 32


;

Imperative forms of expression, 63.


Indirect Discourse, 80. Indirect Questions, 81.
Infinitive, its uses,

Genitive, 34 ; use of Two Cases, 27 ; of Time and Place, 39 ; with Prepositions, 43.

53-56

historical,
;

Cause and Occasion, 29


of, 69.

clauses

as abstract noun, 53 in Indirect Discourse, 54.

46

forms

"In respect to"


of, 70.

(specification), 24.

Characteristic, clauses

Compound Verbs, regimen of, 43, 44.


Concessive expressions, 73. Concrete terms preferred in Latin,
122.

Intermediate Clauses, yy, 78. yam, to express beginning of an


action, 46.

"Law," expressions
120.

for, in Latin,

Conditional Sentences, 72.

Literal forms of speech, 123.

86
position
of, 2, 129.

Index.
Relative Clause,
its position, 2, 15; the relative not to be omitted, 15 ; used for other constructions,

Main Word,

"Manage

to,"

&c, how expressed

in Latin, 83.

Modifying word, position of, 2. Months, names of, 40. Must, &c, expressed by Gerundive
(always passive), 49. Object Cases, 20, 21 ; indirect, 26,
verbs, 43, 44. OJficium, equivalent to "sense of
.

15;
as to

as Connective,
its

16;

caution

use, 126 (0), 128 (v).

Result, Clause of, 69. Saying, &c, Verbs of, followed by

37

after

compound

Sentence, form

Indirect Discourse, 54, 80. of, 126-129.

Separation, &c, 32.

duty," 121.

Several,
1-3.
49.

18.

Order of Words,

Societas (the Latin word), 121.

Ought, &c. (Gerundive),

Subject, to be expressed in indirect


discourse, 80
;

Parenthetical expressions, " to be brief," " so to speak," &c, 84.


Participial

is

a person rather

than a thing, a thing rather than

Noun

(-ing),

how

ex-

an abstraction, 121.
Subjunctive
(English),

pressed in Latin, 60; Constructions, 57.

how
74-76
of,
;

ren-

Participles

agreement
;

of, in

com-

dered in Latin, 63. Substantive Clauses,


abstract noun, 75. Tenses, narrative, use

for

pound

tenses, 7

substituted by
;

temporal clause, 57
fiers, 58.

as modi-

45,

46;

Passive Voice, uses


of cases with, 51.

of, 49,

50

use

perfect and imperfect, 45 ; present as perfect, 46 ; sequence of, in


indirect
if,

discourse,

81

with as

Periodical structure, 126.


Place,

and similar phrases, yy


as preventing repetition, 12;

names

of,

and

their

con-

That,

struction, 41.

as introducing indirect discourse,

Point of View in Latin often differs

from that

in English, 43, 121.

various clauses with, 75. 54, 80 Time, expressions of, 40 ; relations


;

Position expressed by ab, 43. Possessives, n, 12.


Potential

of, 66.

Mood

(English),

how

ex-

To or for, 24, 25, 26. "To be brief," "so to


similar phrases, 84.

speak," and

pressed in Latin, 63. Prepositions (Latin), use

of,

42; in

Too

to, expressed

by com70, 71.

Compounds,
Pronoun, use
11;
tive,

43, 44.

parative with

qnam

tit,

Price and Value,


of,

how
5,

expressed, 30.
10
;

Two

Cases following a verb, 37.


of, 30.
4,

Reflexive,

Value, expressions

Demonstrative,
14;

13;

Rela-

Verb, agreement
45-64-

of,

uses

of,

Interrogative,

17; In61

definite, 18.

When,
Gerundive,
;

expressions signifying, 66
;

Purpose,

with
of,

meaning whenever, 67
since, 67.

meaning

Clause
Quality,

69, 70.

how

expressed, 29.
84.

Quin or quominus, clause with, Reflexive Pronoun, 11.

Without, followed by Participial Noun, how expressed in Latin, 61.

Word

or Phrase, choice

of,

10-126.

INDEX
TO THE SYNTAX OF ALLEN AND GREENOUGH'S LATIN GRAMMAR, WITH

PARALLEL REFERENCES TO GILDERSLEEVE'S GRAMMAR.

A.

&G.
I

G.
192
>

A.&G.
48
3

G.

A.

&G.
c

G
376
11

50
617
618, 622

2
3

a
b
c

284, 326

d
e

381, 382

4
5

474
475, 612 201, 202

d
R
I

6
7

202, 319
I

49

e 4 5

318
i97i 324 319 412 R 2 319 R 2 359 202, 285 324 281 286 281 Exc. 2 282 202 R X 202 R s 616 R 3 202 R 2

R
I

622 618 616 R 2 612 R I 613 R I 202 319 R 1


28
11
r

51
N
I

389 R2 405 R3 418 end 343

R
344

a
b c
2

&

.,

R 2
2
I 1

a
b
c

a
b c

23 3

R 202 R

348 345
11

a
R R 2 R 3
J c

N
R
I

d
2

a
b c

a
b c

50
1

281 Exc. 194 198 199 R 3 688, 200 357 360


1

347
>i

Ri

345
346, 344

d
R R
I

330
346 344 R 2
11

a
b
c

d
e

365
i

R3
R
1

2 e

d
R
e

f
3

195

N a
b c
4

M
293 R 2

f
i
i

M R2,3 367 R 359 364

/
g
3

n R
379
37* 366 369 368 37i

208 345 R 3 344 R 3 388 R I 349


i>

284 R 440
195
'

R
<z

R2

R
2

a
b
c

R2

a
b c

3 4

d
M
5

202 R 4 423 535


195

d
e

371
i>
.1

R2

3 f

346 322 206 353 352


11

R4
1

R7
R5
2

350
11

360 R

R
6

a
b c 6
7

363
11

R 2

R3
R
1

370 R 2 368 R 2
361 R 36l

356
,1
1

&R
R3 R2
R
11

a
b
c

324

R6

R 4
3

11

314
11

a
b c

a
b
8

357 R 1 373, 374 374 R 2


,.

d
e
7

11

287 R 306 616


616
1.

R3
R

355
343
11
,.

R4

4
R
4

356 R
361

N a
1
c

R 2

N
I

2
rt

R3

a
*

354

375
II

K 1,2

d
R

R
35i

619 618

377
1

&

R3

R2

52

344 327

Parallel References.
A.

&G.
R
I

G.
207 329 207 329 R 331 329 R

A.

& G.
3
8

G.
40I

A.

&G.
n
c
5

52

54
1

&R

57

a
R

a
b c

b
I

d
e

330 696
333 334 33o R 333

9 10

404 379 380 379 397 387


47 373

R
6
7

a
R
l

a
b

/
2

a
b

N
1

d
55
1

d
3

R 2 & R 2
33i
5 >

403 83 408-9 408 R 438 R2 384. 392 392, 337


>

R
tf

d
8

>

M a
b
c

a
b
c

>

332

N a
b
3

R
4

R2
34 527 335-8
194 R 3

392 R 2 335 328 364 R 335


342, 384, 388

d
N
e

N
R R
I

a
b
c

N a
b

413 411

53
a
b

R
C

410 436
412 39 R 412 R

f
R
I

H
324 R 338
1

R
</

54
N
I

N
388-9 388

f
R
4
1

R3
R2
3, I

jT

385-6, 384

a
b
c

410 R
411 R

58

N A
1

M
i

d
R
e

39

56

387 4'3
)>

a
b c

H
389 R 2 373 R 6 394 395
>

a
b c

R
2

a
R

d
e
2

417 418 419 384 R 419


11

d
e
I

/
3

b
c

396

&

R
I

d
3

f
g
R 2

Appendix
418

N a
b
c

a
b
5

N a K
I
C

406-7 383 398 R 2 407 R I R 37 2 403 205 R I 403 399 397

a
*
f

end 416 R App'x; 356 r 4 418 R


,,

d
e 4
5

&

d
3

417 R 416 R 566, 576 403


>

a
b c

d
R
6
7

N
6

311 R4 399 R 1 401, 403


391,

3" R R 399 R

57
1

2
l

a
3

414 R 245 R 246 247 250-258 597-599

R
8 9
'

10

509, 469, 562

a
b c

a
R
b
c

401*403 346 R 2, 348


1

N
3

R
</

389 & R 373 R 6 405 400


402
,

N a
b c

256 266 R 2 266-7 266 R 2


575

R
</

d
4
b

R
7

266 R 3 253, 255


253

/
i
11

254

Parallel References.
a.

&

g.
b
c

A.
277 530 274 27S

&G.
N
b K
1

A.
582
581 582

&G.
I

G.
253-4 254 R 3 256 266 264 546 R I 655 626
628
632 633 634
636, 637

58

&

62

68
R
R

B
2

d
R
e

R3
c

?>

579> 574

59

f
i

240 S90 m
S9i

d
e

577-9 574-5 587


589 538

&R
R

69

&R3
63

2
[l)

N
b
2

628 59 596*

539. 587

A a
b
c

54i

a
b

*K
a
b

c 3

568-9 596* 596 597


,,

64

636 587 544 545

d
e

582

a
545.2
688 R 484 R 2 546 2 544 R 1 553, 554 543, 558 R 4 547. 549
b

509
,,

599

70
R
I

N
<r

d
e

f
4

R R 246 R 599 R

2 3
3, 5

&

507 526 507


527. 533

65

a
b c

528

n R
652 R 2 527 R 3 546

a
b c

d
e

f
5

a
b c

60
i

597-8 597 598 236 R 3 597-8 195 R 6 598 R 1 596* 597 R 3 569 R 2 246 R 4 594
>> ,,

550, 55i

d
3

633

a
634 633 3i3 629 R 637 556 R 2
i
c

532
,,

&R

d
e

608 424 546 200

&

R 2

66

509 3, 4 59, 2

547, 549

f
K

a
b c 2

509,3
54i

600
>>

s
R
4

a
b c

602 613 R 2 602 252 R I 246 R 1-3


>

539 S4i

ri

a
b
c

666 665

552 546 R 3 547 R 2 532 R4 557 558 647 R4 560

M R
558 R 557 559
55'.
1

67

651
1,

d
R
1

^
61
I

653

f
^

604 604
51

foil.

424 R
527

R2

g
R

R
2 3

606
575

foil.

a
b c

592 592 R

597

R4 R4

2, s

d 62
i

499 606-10 6l2 R 2


56l

644 630 R I, 2 638, 644 659 R2 654 R I R 2 469, 654 454


5i4, 5i5 R 3 654 R 2 470 469 R 3

h N
5

a
b

2 M 546 R 2 M 525 R 2 542, 533

71
I

451

foil.

a
I

N a
R R
I

563 568-9 522, 2 582 R 563 564-5 563 R 582

R
C

R
I,

d
2

633

>)

R2

462, 603

R a
b
c

655 664

456-8 455 462 469 454 460 459 R 460 461 460 459 461 R

Parallel References.
A.

&G.
d
3

G.
460, 463

A.

&G.
b c

A.
39 23O
537

&G.
428
427 R 1 429 tell. 429 .& R

71

72

73
275, 2

473

R3

a
b

n
278
1

comp.

72

d
373

536, 524

a
b

279
239. 073 599 R 3 243 439 243

c
2

a
t c

278 R 572 R, 586 438 439

a
b
5

430 433

&R

43 ?. 434

f K C

24a
,

n R
428 R 43 427
.,

74

d
3

435 436

667

73

R 2

1,

426

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ALLEN'S LATIN READER:

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ALLEN'S LATIN SELECTIONS.

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first 134 G.'s Latin Gram-

ALLEN'S LATIN COMPOSITION. An

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ALLEN'S SHORTER COURSE OF LATIN PROSE.


Consisting chiefly of the Prose Selections of Allen's Latin Reader (to p. 134), the Notes beiug wholly rewritten, enlarged, and adapted to Allen & Greenthe Manilian, the ough's Grammar accompanied by Six Orations of Cicero, four Catilines, and Archias. With Vocabulary. 12mo. Half morocco. 543 pages
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First Book of Latin for 12mo. Cloth. 182 pages This is designed for the use of scholars of a younger class, and consists of thirty Lessons arranged so as to give a full outline of the grammar, with briet Rules of Syntax, Tables of Inflection, and interlined exercises tor practice in reading, compiled from Histories Sacrce. The reading selections which follow include Dialogues from Corderius and Erasmus (with translation), narratives, nursery songs, mediaeval hynins, etc., being made up in great part lrom modern Latin writers.
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ALLEN'S LATIN LEXICON


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Allen & Greenough's Latin Grammar. Melrose High School. Revised Edition.

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The Lessons have been entirely rewritten, considerably simplified, and more careWith each lesson, definite directions have been given in regard to the of the grammar to be learned. By decreasing the exercises to be translated into English, space has been given to increase correspondingly the amount to be put into Latin. Some instruction on the formation of words has been given, and the references to the grammar on that subject largely increased. The vocabularies
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amount

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Carefully revised by College. 12mo. Half morocco. 517 pages book of the very highest authority in Latin Syntax, and admirably adapted to the wants of Teachers and College Classes.

MADVIG'S LATIN GRAMMAR.


Thomas A. Thacher, Yale

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NEW

LATIN METHOD

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of the

N. B. This portion of the book can be used independently Grammar, and is sufficient for a course of about a year's study 2 Con* structions of Syntax symmetrically grouped, with full references to the Grammar,

each topic being illustrated by numerous examples, with exercises to be rendered into Latin, so as to make a full elementary manual of Latin Composition. 3. On Reading Latin brief sections on the Latin Sentence with examples of analysis and translation the Derivation of Words and Reading at Sight. 4. Reading Lessons, with Vocabularies, and Tabular List of Synonymes.
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PARALLEL RULES OF GREEK


TAX FOR USE

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LATIN SYN-

IN SCHOOLS. Prepared by Instructors in the Classical Department of Williston Seminary, at Easthampton, Mass Cloth. 33 pages The object oi this little pamphlet, prepared by two instructors in Williston Seminary, is to put clearly before their pupils the correspondences and the differences in Greek and Latin Syntax.

THE LATIN VERB.


Parkhurst.
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Illustrated
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WHITE'S JUNIOR STUDENT'S LATIN-ENGLISH


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WHITE'S JUNIOR STUDENT'S LATIN-ENGLISH


AND ENGLISH-LATIN
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the Rev. J. T. White, D D., of Ludgate, London. Revised Edition.

"The present work aims at furnishing in both its parts a sufficiently extensive vocabulary for all practical purposes. The Latin words and phrases are in all ca* es followed by the name of some standard Latin writer, as a guaranty of their authority ; and as the work is of a strictly elementary character, the conjugation of the verbs and the genders and genitive cases of the substantives are uniformly added. In the preparation of this portion of the book, Dr. Wh^te has had the assistance of Guardian. some of the best scholars both of Oxford and Cambridge."

WHITE'S JUNIOR STUDENT'S ENGLISH-LATIN


LEXICON. Square 12mo. Sheep. 392 pages We have contracted with Messrs. Longmans, Green, &
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WHITON'S SIX WEEKS' PREPARATION FOR


READING CjESAR. With References to Allen & Greenough's, and Harkness's Grammars. 18mo. Paper cover

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GREEK.
GOODWIN'S GEEEK GRAMMAR.
By William W.
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GREEK MOODS AND TENSES. Goodwin, Greek William


By
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The Sixth

Edition.

12mo.

Eliot Professor of Cloth. 264 pages

Literature in Harvard Uni-

much enThis work was first published in 1860, and it appeared in a new form in 1865. In the present edition the whole has larged and in great part rewritten been again revised \ some sections and notes have been rewritten, and a few notes have been added. The object of the work is to give a plaiu statement of the princithe most imples which govern the construction of the Greek Moods and Tenses, portant and the most difficult part of Greek Syntax.

GOODWIN'S GREEK READER.


;

Consisting of Extracts

from Xenophon, Plato, Herodotus, aud Thuc.ydides being the full amount of Greek Prose required for admission at Harvard. With Maps, Notes, Keferences

GOODWIN'S GREEK GRAMMAR, and parallel References to CROSBY'S and HADLEY'S GKAMMAKS. Second edition, edited by Professor \Y. \v\ Goodto
. win, of Harvard College. 12mo. Half morocco. 384 pages revised edition contains the first and second books of the Anabasis (in place of the third and fourth books of the former editions) with copious notes, the greater part'bf the second book and an extract from the seventh of the Hellenica, with the first cnapter of the Memorabilia, of Xenophon ; the last part of the Apology, and the beginning and end of the Phaedo, of Plato selections from the sixth, seventh, and eighth books of Herodotus, and from the fourth book of Thucydides.

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Parallel

AND HERODOTUS.

With Notes adapted

References to Crosby's and Edited by Professor VV. W.

THE FIRST FOUR BOOKS OF THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON. with copious Notes Goodwin's References
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LEIGHTON'S GREEK LESSONS.


Goodwin's Greek Grammar. By R. 12mo. Half morocco. 264 pages
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This work contains about one hundred lessons, with a progressive series of exer(both Greek and English), mainly selected from the first book of Xenophon's Anabasis. The exercises on the Moods are sufficient, it is believed, to develop the general principles as stated in the Grammar. The text of four chapters of the Anabasis is given entire, with notes and references. Full vocabularies acconipaav the book.

LIDDELL & SCOTT'S GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON.


of Proper

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LIDDELL & SCOTT'S GREEK-ENGLISH LEXIsixth Oxford


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PLATO'S APOLOGY OP SOCRATES

AND

CRITO.

Edited by .John Williams White, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Greek in

Harvard Duiversity. The basis of this work will be the German edition of Dr Christian Cron. (Platons Vertlieidigungsrede des Sokrates und Kriton. Sechste Auflage. Leipzig, Teubner, 1875.) To the matter contained in Dr. Cron's edition there will be added notes by the Editor and from other sources, analyses, and extended references to Goodwin and lladley. The book will be tor the class-room, and ali matter not of direct value
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CEDIPUS TYRANNUS OF SOPHOCLES. THE with an Introduction, and explanation of metres, by


ited,

EdJohn

Notes,

full

the

Williams Whit*, Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Greek in Harvard University. 12mo. Cloth. 219 pages

OP EURIPIDES. THE MEDEA Frederic D. Allen, Ph. by


an Introduction,
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Edited, with Notts and


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D., Professorirfrthe University of


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4*

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PftOoE COMPOSITION.

GREEK

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series of seventy-five lessons with progressive Greek-English and English-Greek exercises. Followed by a series of additional exercises on Forms, and complete

vocabularies.

WHITON'S SELECT ORATIONS OP LYSIAS.

Com-

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YONGE'S ENGLISH-GREEK LEXICON.


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481

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