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Revision ANSWERS (44 Marks) Topic 2: Cells 2.4 Cell Membranes 2.

5 Cell Division The following questions are revision for the topics listed below. When revising use the OBJECTIVES and ensure you understand each one. Instructions

Answer all questions on lined paper. Hand draw diagrams using pencil where required.

Paper 1: Multiple Choice (15 marks) Instructions Answer all the questions.

For each question, choose the answer you consider to be the best. Simply record the letter. 1. A. B. C. D. 2. A. B. C. D. 3. A. B. C. D. 4. A. B. C. D. What is an important part of the structure of a cell membrane? a phospholipid layer a phospholipid bilayer a protein layer a protein bilayer Endocytosis is: the process by which the cell takes up a substance by surrounding it with membrane the process by which the cell takes up a substance by osmosis the process by which the cell takes up a substance by diffusion a disease of single celled animals In the cell cycle, the interphase is: a passive phase between two active phases an active phase during which DNA replication and many other processes occur a period when mitosis occurs a period when cytokinesis occurs. Replicated DNA molecules (chromosomes) are moved to opposite ends of the cell by: diffusion osmosis the nucleus spindle fibres

5. The passive movement of water molecules, across a partially-permeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration is known as: A. diffusion B. osmosis C. dilution D. extraction

6. A. B. C. D.

The nuclear membrane disappears during the: prophase telophase anaphase interpahse

7. Which phases of mitosis are shown in diagrams I and II?

I I metaphase metaphase anaphase anaphase II prophase telophase prophase metaphase

II

A. B. C. D.

8. Which of the following processes take place during interphase? I. Respiration II. Active transport III. Protein synthesis IV. Replication of DNA A. I only B. I and II only C. I, II and III only D. I, II, III and IV 9. What is the product of mitosis in plant cells? A. Four daughter cells with genetically different nuclei B. Four daughter cells with genetically identical nuclei C. Two daughter cells with genetically different nuclei D. Two daughter cells with genetically identical nuclei 10. Which of the following are associated with mitosis? I. Tissue repair II. Chiasmata III. Asexual reproduction A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II, and III

11. What is essential for diffusion? A. A concentration gradient B. A selectively permeable membrane C. A source of energy D. A protein 12. What is facilitated diffusion? A. The passive movement of a particle through the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane. B. The passive movement of a particle across a cell membrane via a channel protein. C. The movement of a particle down a concentration gradient helped by active pumping. D. The movement of a particle up a concentration gradient helped by active pumping. 13. Which pair of characteristics are correct for the cellular processes of exocytosis and endocytosis? Exocytosis Endocytosis A. Secretion of cellular materials Vesicles are moved away from the plasma membrane B. Cell membranes fuse Vesicles are moved towards the plasma membrane C. Infolding of plasma membrane Vesicles are moved away from the plasma membrane D. Vesicles moved towards the Plasma membrane increases in size plasma membrane 14. Membrane proteins are critical components of nerve function. Which process in nerves does not require a membrane protein? A. Diffusion of neurotransmitter B. Active transport of sodium C. Propagation of an action potential D. Binding of neurotransmitter 15. During endocytosis, what change will most likely occur in the plasma membrane of a cell? A. It will form two phospholipid monolayers. B. It will become electrically charged. C. It will partially dissolve. D. It will form vesicles.

Paper 2: Section A: Short Structured (19 marks) Instructions Number each question clearly. Leave at least two lines between each question. Short concise bullet point answers are best. 1. According to cell theory all cells arise from pre-existing cells. The following diagram shows the cell cycle of a eukaryotic (body) cell of a diploid organism.

(a)

Define the term diploid. (1) two sets of chromosomes / each chromosome represented twice; pairs of homologous chromosomes; Do not accept haploid number, having 46 chromosomes, 2n Identify the parts of the cell cycle labelled A and B. (1)

(b)

Both A and B must be correctly identified for [1]. A: interphase / G1, S, G2; B: mitosis / phases of mitosis;
(c) State three activities that occur during part A of the cell cycle. (3)

Any three of the following [1] each. protein synthesis / translation DNA replication / chromosome replication; cell growth / increase in cell volume; organelle doubling; microtubule formation; respiration / glycolysis; increase energy stores; transcription / mRNA production; Accept first three answers only.
(d) Outline the differences in cytokinesis in animal and plant cells. (2) *OLD question, has been removed from syllabus animal cells: pinching of cell membrane / form cleavage furrow; centrioles; plant cells: cell plate formation;

cell wall built (during cytokinesis); (e) Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in relation to the cell cycle (3) "A" part of cycle / interphase involves DNA synthesis replication of DNA requires complementary base pairing / A-T, G-C; produces two identical copies of DNA / sister chromatids; sister chromatids split at anaphase; each new cell gets a copy of each DNA molecule / genetically identical wrong base pairing causes mutations; mutations can lead to cancer (by uncontrolled cell division) (a) Distinguish between diffusion and osmosis. (1) Must have both for [1]. diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; osmosis is the diffusion of water across a partially permeable membrane; (b) Explain how the properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of the cell surface membrane. (2) hydrophillic head groups point outward; hydrophobic tails form a lipid bilayer; forms a (phospholipid) bilayer; ions and polar molecules cannot pass through hydrophobic barrier; helps the cell maintain internal concentration and exclude other molecules; (a) List the functions of membrane proteins. (4) h hormone binding sites; e enzymes; e electron carriers; c channels for (passive) transport; ( (pumps) for active transport; c cell to cell recognition; receptors for neurotransmitters; (b) Potassium can move across the membrane by passive or active transport. Distinguish between active transport and facilitated diffusion of ions. (2) active transport requires energy, facilitated diffusion does not; a active transport moves substances against a concentration gradient,facilitated diffusion cannot; Paper 2: Section B: Extended Questions (10 marks) Instructions Number each question clearly. Leave at least five lines between each question. 1. Draw diagrams to show the four stages of mitosis in an animal cell with four chromosomes.(5) prophase showing spindle fibres; prophase showing condensed chromatin;

2.

3.

prophase showing replicated chromosomes; metaphase showing replicated chromosomes lining up at the equator; anaphase showing chromatids moving to opposite poles; telophase showing nucleus reforming; telophase showing cytokinesis occurring; 5 max The four diagrams must have the name of the phase, otherwise award [3 max]. The four stages must be included to receive [5]. If correct number of chromosomes is not shown award [4 max]. 2. Draw and label a diagram to illustrate the fluid mosaic model of biological membranes.(5) Award [1] for any of the following clearly drawn and correctly labelled. phospholipids (bilayer); hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails; intrinsic / integral proteins / protein channels; glycoproteins / receptor proteins / glycolipids on outside; cholesterol embedded in membrane; extrinsic / peripheral proteins; thickness size 10 nm (0.1 m);