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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION: In mobile and spatiotemporal databases, monitoring continuous spatial queries over oving objects is needed innumerous applications such as public transportation, logistics, and location-based services. Fig. 1 shows a typical monitoring system, which consists of a base station, a database server, application servers, and a large number of moving objects (i.e., mobile clients). The database server manages the location information of the objects. The application servers gather monitoring requests and register spatial queries at the database server, which then continuously updates the query results until the queries are deregistered. The fundamental problem in a monitoring system is when and how a mobile client should send location updates to the server because it determines three principal performance measures of monitoringaccuracy, efficiency, and privacy. Accuracy means how often the monitored results are correct, and it heavily depends on the frequency and accuracy of location updates. As for efficiency, two dominant costs are: the wireless communication cost for location updates and the query evaluation cost at the database server, both of hich depend on the frequency of location updates. As for privacy, the accuracy of location updates determines how much the clients privacy is exposed to the server. In the literature, very few studies on continuous query monitoring are focused on location pdates. Two commonly used updating approaches are periodic update (every client) reports its new location at a fixed interval) and deviation update (a client performs an update when its location or velocity changes significantly). However, these approaches have several deficiencies. First, the monitoring accuracy is low: query results are correct only at the time instances of periodic updates, but not in between/them or at any time of deviation updates. Second, location updates are performed regardless of the existence of queriesa high update frequency may improve the monitoring accuracy, but is at the cost of unnecessary updates and query reevaluation. Third, the server workload using periodic update is not balanced over time: it reaches the peak when updates arrive (they must arrive simultaneously for correct results) and trigger query reevaluation, but is idle for the rest of the time. Last, the privacy issue is simply ignored by assuming that the clients are always willing to provide their exact positions to the server. Some recent work attempted to remedy the privacy issue. Location cloaking was proposed to blur the exact client positions into bounding boxes. By assuming a centralized and trustworthy third-party server that stores all exact client positions, various location cloaking algorithms were proposed to
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build the bounding boxes while achieving the privacy measure such ask-anonymity. However, the use of bounding boxes makes the query results no longer unique. As such, query evaluation in such uncertain space is more complicated. A common approach is to assume that the probability distribution of the exact client location in the bounding box is known and well formed. Therefore, the results are defined as the set of all possible results together with their probabilities However, all these approaches focused on one-time cloaking or query evaluation; they cannot be applied to monitoring applications where continuous location update is required and efficiency is a critical concern. 1.1 OBJECTIVE: This framework proposes two fundamental issues of monitoring moving objects accuracy and privacy when locating the updates in the server with safe region techniques. 1.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION: In our framework clients aware of location being updated in the server, for the case of efficiency we derive a rectangular region called safe region to avoid the periodic update. The Location Updater, which helps to compute the safe regions and update the query. Here, privacy is implemented when clients location as been updated in the Database server. To protect against it, most existing work suggests replacing accurate point locations by bounding boxes to reduce location resolutions In our monitoring system architecture will be based on the client, application server and database server. The application servers gather monitoring requests and register spatial queries at the database server, which then continuously updates the query results until the queries are deregistered. 1.3 Existing System: The accuracy is low since the query results are correct only at the time instances of periodic updates, but not in between them or at any time of deviation updates. The updates are performed regardless of the existence of Queries a high update frequency may improve the monitoring accuracy, but is at the cost of unnecessary updates and query reevaluation. The privacy issue is simply ignored by assuming that the clients are always willing to provide their exact positions to the server. 1.4 Disadvantages Monitoring accuracy is low: query results are correct only at the time instances of periodic updates, but not in between them or at any time of deviation updates.
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Location updates are performed regardless of the existence of queriesa high update frequency may improve the monitoring accuracy, but is at the cost of unnecessary updates and query reevaluation.

Server workload using periodic update is not balanced over time: it reaches the peak when updates arrive (they must arrive simultaneously for correct results) and trigger query reevaluation, but is idle for the rest of the time.

Privacy issue is simply ignored by assuming that the clients are always willing to provide their exact positions to the server.

Some recent work attempted to remedy the privacy issue. Location cloaking was proposed to blur the exact client positions into bounding boxes. By assuming a centralized and trustworthy third-party server that store all exact client positions, various location cloaking algorithms were proposed to build the bounding boxes while achieving the privacy measure such as k-anonymity. However, the use of bounding boxes makes the query results no longer unique. As such, query evaluation in such uncertain space is more complicated. A common approach is to assume that the probability distribution of the exact client location in the bounding box is known and well formed. Therefore, the results are defined as the set of all possible results together with their probabilities. However, all these approaches focused on one-time cloaking or query evaluation; they cannot be applied to monitoring applications where continuous location update is required and efficiency is a critical concern. Previous work proposed, a monitoring framework where the clients are aware of the spatial queries being monitored, so they send location updates only when the results for some queries might change. Our basic idea is to maintain a rectangular area, called safe region, for each object. The safe region is computed based on the queries in such a way that the current results of all queries remain valid as long as all objects reside inside their respective safe regions. A client updates its location on the server only when the client moves out of its safe region. This significantly improves the monitoring efficiency and accuracy compared to the periodic or deviation update methods. However, this framework fails to address the privacy issue, that is, it only addresses when but not how the location updates are sent. 1.5 Proposed System: In our approach to maintain safe region we have object index, Query index, the query processor and location manager. As for efficiency, the framework significantly reduces
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location updates to only when an object is moving out of the safe region, and thus, is very likely to alter the query results. The safe region is computed based on the queries in such a way that the current results of all queries remain valid as long as all objects reside inside their respective safe regions.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW: In mobile and spatiotemporal databases, monitoring continuous spatial queries over moving objects is needed in numerous applications such as public transportation, logistics, and location-based services. A typical monitoring system consists of a base station, a database server, application servers, and a large number of moving objects. The database server manages the location information of the objects. The application servers gather monitoring requests and register spatial queries at the database server, which then continuously updates the query results until the queries are deregistered. The fundamental problem in a monitoring system is when and how a mobile client should send location updates to the server because it determines three principal performance measures of monitoringaccuracy, efficiency, and privacy. Accuracy means how often the monitored results are correct, and it heavily depends on the frequency and accuracy of location updates. As for efficiency, two dominant costs are: the wireless communication cost for location updates and the query evaluation cost at the database server, both of which depend on the frequency of location updates. As for privacy, the accuracy of location updates determines how much the clients privacy is exposed to the server. Periodic Update and Deviation Update Two commonly used updating approaches are periodic update (every client reports its new location at a fixed interval) and deviation update (a client performs an update when its location or velocity changes significantly). 2.1 Functional Requirements: The main purpose for preparing this document is to give a general insight into the analysis and requirements of the existing system or situation and for determining the operating characteristics of the current system.Functional requirements specify which output should be produced from the given input. They describe the relationship between the data and the methods to obtain the output. In this project the following are user requirements. 2.2 FEASIBILITY STUDY: The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system
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analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company. For feasibility analysis, some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential. 2.2.1 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system. 2.2.2 ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY: This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the customized products had to be purchased. 2.3.3 SOCIAL FEASIBILITY The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism, which is welcomed, as he is the final user of the system.

CHAPTER 3
3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: To be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer. These pre-requisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system requirements: minimum and recommended. With increasing demand for higher processing power and resources in newer versions of software, system requirements tend to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest that this trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than technological advancements. 3.1 Hardware Requirement Specification: The most common set of requirements defined by any operating system or software application is the physical computer resources, also known as hardware, A hardware requirements list is often accompanied by a hardware compatibility list (HCL), especially in case of operating systems. An HCL lists tested, compatible, and sometimes incompatible hardware devices for a particular operating system or application. The following sub-sections discuss the various aspects of hardware requirements. Process Ram Hard Disk Input device Output device : Any Processor above 500 MHzs : 128Mb : 10 GB : Standard Keyboard and Mouse : VGA and High Resolution Monitor

3.2 Software Requirement Specification: Software Requirements deal with defining software resource requirements and prerequisites that need to be installed on a computer to provide optimal functioning of an application. These requirements or pre-requisites are generally not included in the software installation package and need to be installed separately before the software is installed. Operating System Pages developed using Techniques Web Browser Data Base : Windows Family. : Java Server Pages and HTML. : Apache Tomcat Web Server 5.0, JDK 1.5 or higher : Microsoft Internet Explorer. : Access

CHAPTER 4
4 SYSTEM DESIGN The system design is also called as bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is generated by the system. 4.1 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

Fig: 1 System architecture

PAM FRAMEWORK OVERVIEW:

4.2 MODULES Privacy-Aware Location Model. Object Index Query Index


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Query Processor and Location Manager. Spatial Relations

Safe Region Evaluation: In this safe region is assumed as a rectangle change of object inside the rectangle would not affect spatial query in the database. The safe region is computed based on the queries in such a way that the current results of all queries remain valid as long as all objects reside inside their respective safe regions. Client updates its location on the server only when the client moves out of its safe region based on the location of client. The safe region ring is based on the rectangle of the centric. Object Index and Query Index: Object index is the server side information about spatial query range and used to evaluate safe region. Query Index as the following parameter query point, current query result and the quarantine area. The quarantine area is used to identify the queries whose results might be affected by an incoming location update.The number of objects is some orders of magnitude larger than that of queries. As such, the query index can accommodate all registered queries in main memory, while the object index can only accommodate all moving objects in secondary memory. Query Processing: In the PAM framework, based on the object index, the query processor evaluates the most probable result when a new query is registered, or reevaluates the most probable result when a query is affected by location updates. Obviously, the reevaluation is more efficient as it can be based on previous results. Location Updater: The each time a client detects the genuine point location, it is wrapped into a bounding box. Then, the client-side location updater decides whether or not to update that box to the server without any other knowledge about the client locations or moving patterns, upon receiving such a box, the server can only presume that the genuine point location is distributed uniformly in this box.

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CHAPTER 5
5.12 DATA FLOW DESIGN The DFD is also called as bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is generated by the system. 5.12.1 Data Flow diagrams (DFD): In the DFD, there are four symbols A square defines a source(originator) or destination of system data. An arrow identifies data flow. It is the pipeline through which the information flows A circle or a bubble represents a process that transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flows. An open rectangle is a data store, data at rest or a temporary repository of data

5.12.2 Constructing a DFD: Several rules of thumb are used in drawing DFDS: Process should be named and numbered for an easy reference. Each name should be representative of the process. The direction of flow is from top to bottom and from left to right. Data traditionally flow from source to the destination although they may flow back to the source. One way to indicate this is to draw long flow line back to a source. An alternative way is to repeat the source symbol as a destination. Since it is used more than once in the DFD it is marked with a short diagonal. When a process is exploded into lower level details, they are numbered. The names of data stores and destinations are written in capital letters. Process and dataflow names have the first letter of each work capitalized. A DFD typically shows the minimum contents of data store. Each data store should contain all the data elements that flow in and out.Questionnaires should contain all the data elements that flow in and out. Missing interfaces redundancies and like is then accounted for often through interviews. 5.12.3 SAILENT FEATURES OF DFDS The DFD shows flow of data, not of control loops and decision are controlled considerations do not appear on a DFD.

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1.

The DFD does not indicate the time factor involved in any process whether the dataflow take place daily, weekly, monthly or yearly.

2.

The sequence of events is not brought out on the DFD.

5.12.4 TYPES OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS a) Current Physical b) Current Logical c) New Logical d) New Physical a) CURRENT PHYSICAL: In Current Physical DFD process label include the name of people or their positions or the names of computer systems that might provide some of the overall systemprocessing label includes an identification of the technology used to process the data. Similarly data flows and data stores are often labels with the names of the actual physical media on which data are stored such as file folders, computer files, business forms or computer tapes. b) CURRENT LOGICAL: The physical aspects at the system are removed as much as possible so that the current system is reduced to its essence to the data and the processors that transforms them regardless of actual physical form. c) NEW LOGICAL: This is exactly like a current logical model if the user were completely happy with the user were completely happy with the functionality of the current system but had problems with how it was implemented typically through the new logical model will differ from current logical model while having additional functions, absolute function removal and inefficient flows recognized. d) NEW PHYSICAL: The new physical represents only the physical implementation of the new system. e) RULES GOVERNING THE DFDS No process can have only outputs. No process can have only inputs. If an object has only inputs than it must be a sink. A process has a verb phrase label.

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5.12.6 DATA STORE Data cannot move directly from one data store to another data store, a process must move data. Data cannot move directly from an outside source to a data store, a process, which receives, must move data from the source and place the data into data store A data store has a noun phrase label. 5.12.7 SOURCE OR SINK The origin and /or destination of data. Data cannot move direly from a source to sink it must be moved by a process A source and /or sink has a noun phrase land

5.12.8 DATA FLOW A Data Flow has only one direction of flow between symbols. It may flow in both directions between a process and a data store to show a read before an update. The later is usually indicated however by two separate arrows since these happen at different type. A join in DFD means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or more different processes data store or sink to a common location. A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leads. There must be at least one other process that handles the data flow produce some other data flow returns the original data into the beginning process. A Data flow to a data store means update (delete or change).

Level-0 Data Flow Diagram:

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Level-1Data Flow Diagram:

Level-2:

5 UML DIAGRAM The unified modeling language allows the software engineer to express an analysis model using the modeling notation that is governed by a set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rules. A UML system is represented using five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective. Each view is defined by a set of diagram, which is as follows. User Model View This view represents the system from the users perspective. The analysis representation describes a usage scenario from the end-users perspective. Structural model view In this model the data and functionality are arrived from inside the system. This model view models the static structures.
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Behavioral Model View It represents the dynamic of behavioral as parts of the system, depicting the interactions of collection between various structural elements described in the user model and structural model view. Implementation Model View In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the system are represented as they are to be built. Environmental Model View In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which the system is to be implemented are represented. UML is specifically constructed through two different domains they are UML Analysis modeling, which focuses on the user model and structural model views of the system? UML design modeling, which focuses on the behavioral modeling, implementation modeling and environmental model views. Use case Diagrams represent the functionality of the system from a users point of view. Use cases are used during requirements elicitation and analysis to represent the functionality of the system. Use cases focus on the behavior of the system from external point of view. Actors are external entities that interact with the system. Examples of actors include users like administrator, bank customer etc., or another system like central database. 5.1 Class diagram: In software engineering, a class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, and the relationships between the classes. The class diagram is the main building block in object oriented modeling. They are being used both for general conceptual modeling of the systematic of the application, and for detailed modeling translating the models into programming code. The classes in a class diagram represent both the main objects and or interactions in the application and the objects to be programmed. In the class diagram these classes are represented with boxes which contain three parts: A class with three sections: The upper part holds the name of the class
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The middle part contains the attributes of the class The bottom part gives the methods or operations the class can take or undertake In the system design of a system, a number of classes are identified and grouped

together in a class diagram which helps to determine the statically relations between those objects. With detailed modeling, the classes of the conceptual design are often split in a number of subclasses.

5.2 USECASE DIAGRAM: A use case diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a type of behavioral diagram defined by and created from a Use-case analysis. Its purpose is to present a graphical overview of the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors, their goals (represented as use cases), and any dependencies between those use cases. Use Case diagrams are formally included in two modeling languages defined by the OMG: the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the Systems Modeling Language (SysML).

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A use-case diagram is a graph of actors, a set of use cases enclosed by a system boundary, participation associations between the actors and the use-cases, and generalization among the use cases.

SAFE REGION

Location Change

Location update USER

Query processing

Fig 3: use case diagram

5.3 SEQUENTIAL DIAGRAM A sequence diagram in Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a Message Sequence Chart. Sequence diagrams are sometimes called event diagrams, event scenarios, and timing diagrams. A sequence diagram shows, as parallel vertical lines (lifelines), different processes or objects that live simultaneously, and, as horizontal arrows, the messages exchanged between them, in the order in which they
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occur. This allows the specification of simple runtime scenarios in a graphical manner. it is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the tine ordering messages.

Fig:5 Sequential diagram

5.4 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM: Like sequence diagrams, collaboration diagrams are also interaction diagrams. collaboration diagrams convey the same information as sequence diagrams, but focus on object roles instead of the times that messages are sent. A Collaboration diagram is very similar to a Sequence diagram in the purpose it achieves; in other words, it shows the dynamic interaction of the objects in a system. A distinguishing feature of a Collaboration diagram is that it shows the objects and their association with other objects in the system apart from how they interact with each other. The association between objects is not represented in a Sequence diagram. A Collaboration diagram is easily represented by modeling objects in a system and representing the associations between the objects as links. The interaction between the objects is denoted by arrows.

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Fig: 6 Collaboration diagram

5.5 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM: Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise activities and actions with support for choice, iteration and concurrency.. An activity diagram shows the overall flow of control.

Fig: 7 Activity Diagram

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CHAPTER 6
6 .1 WATER FALL MODEL: It was being chosen because all requirements were known beforehand and the objective of our software development is the computerization/automation of an already existing manual working system.

Client

Changed Requireme nts

Requiremen ts Engineering

Informatio n Client side Configurat Design ion Backup Sender Destinatio n Configurat ion Routing Acyclic File
Programmi ng Design Specificat ion Executabl e Software Modules Integrate d Software Product Delivered Software Product

Maintenan ce

Integratio n

Delive ry

Fig:9. Water Fall Model

6.2 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION:


Informatio Software Environment n

Java Technology Java technology is both a programming language and a platform. 6.3 THE JAVA PROGRAMING LANGUAGE: The Java programming language is a high-level language that can be characterized
Backup Sender Destinatio n Configurat ion Client side

by all of the following buzzwords: Simple

Architecture neutral Object oriented


Configurat ion Routing Acyclic
Requireme

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Portable Distributed High performance Interpreted Multithreaded Robust Dynamic Secure

With most programming languages, you either compile or interpret a program so that you can run it on your computer. The Java programming language is unusual in that a program is both compiled and interpreted. With the compiler, first you translate a program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes the platform-independent codes interpreted by the interpreter on the Java platform. The interpreter parses and runs each Java byte code instruction on the computer. Compilation happens just once; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. The following figure illustrates how this works.

Fig: 6.2 java interpreter and compiler You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). Every Java interpreter, whether its a development tool or a Web browser that can run applets, is an implementation of the Java VM. Java byte codes help make write once, run anywhere possible. You can compile your program into byte codes on any platform that has a Java compiler. The byte codes can then be run on any implementation of the Java VM. That means that as long as a computer has a Java VM, the same program written in the Java programming language can run on Windows 2000, a Solaris workstation, or on an iMac.

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Fig: 6.2.1 Java platform independent 6.3.1 The Java Platform: A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. Weve already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000, Linux, Solaris, and MacOS. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that its a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. The Java platform has two components: The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) Youve already been introduced to the Java VM. Its the base for the Java platform and is ported onto various hardware-based platforms. The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities, such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. The Java API is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces; these libraries are known as packages. The next section, What Can Java Technology Do? Highlights what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide. The following figure depicts a program thats running on the Java platform. As the figure shows, the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware.

Fig:6.2.1.1 java development kit

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Native code is code that after you compile it, the compiled code runs on a specific hardware platform. As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code. However, smart compilers, well-tuned interpreters, and just-intime byte code compilers can bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability. 6.3.2 What Can Java Technology Do? : The most common types of programs written in the Java programming language are applets and applications. If youve surfed the Web, youre probably already familiar with applets. An applet is a program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java-enabled browser. However, the Java programming language is not just for writing cute, entertaining applets for the Web. The general-purpose, high-level Java programming language is also a powerful software platform. Using the generous API, you can write many types of programs. An application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform. A special kind of application known as a server serves and supports clients on a network. Examples of servers are Web servers, proxy servers, mail servers, and print servers. Another specialized program is a servlet. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side. Java Servlets are a popular choice for building interactive web applications, replacing the use of CGI scripts. Servlets are similar to applets in that they are runtime extensions of applications. Instead of working in browsers, though, servlets run within Java Web servers, configuring or tailoring the server. How does the API support all these kinds of programs? It does so with packages of software components that provides a wide range of functionality. Every full implementation of the Java platform gives you the following features: The essentials: Objects, strings, threads, numbers, input and output, data structures, system properties, date and time, and so on. Applets: The set of conventions used by applets. Networking: URLs, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Data gram Protocol) sockets, and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. Internationalization: Help for writing programs that can be localized for users worldwide. Programs can automatically adapt to specific locales and be displayed in the appropriate language.
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Security: Both low level and high level, including electronic signatures, public and private key management, access control, and certificates. Software components: Known as JavaBeansTM, can plug into existing component architectures. Object serialization: Allows lightweight persistence and communication via Remote Method Invocation (RMI). Java Database Connectivity (JDBCTM): Provides uniform access to a wide range of relational databases. The Java platform also has APIs for 2D and 3D graphics, accessibility, servers, collaboration, telephony, speech, animation, and more. The following figure depicts what is included in the Java 2 SDK.

Fig:10 Java 2 S.D.K 6.3.3 How Will Java Technology Change My Life? : We cant promise you fame, fortune, or even a job if you learn the Java programming language. Still, it is likely to make your programs better and requires less effort than other languages. We believe that Java technology will help you do the following: Get started quickly: Although the Java programming language is a powerful objectoriented language, its easy to learn, especially for programmers already familiar with C or C++. Write less code: Comparisons of program metrics (class counts, method counts, and so on) suggest that a program written in the Java programming language can be four times smaller than the same program in C++. Write better code: The Java programming language encourages good coding practices, and its garbage collection helps you avoid memory leaks. Its object orientation, its

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JavaBeans component architecture, and its wide-ranging, easily extendible API let you reuse other peoples tested code and introduce fewer bugs. Develop programs more quickly: Your development time may be as much as twice as fast versus writing the same program in C++. Why? You write fewer lines of code and it is a simpler programming language than C++. Avoid platform dependencies with 100% Pure Java: You can keep your program portable by avoiding the use of libraries written in other languages. The 100% Pure Java TM Product Certification Program has a repository of historical process manuals, white papers, brochures, and similar materials online. Write once, run anywhere: Because 100% Pure Java programs are compiled into machine-independent byte codes, they run consistently on any Java platform. Distribute software more easily: You can upgrade applets easily from a central server. Applets take advantage of the feature of allowing new classes to be loaded on the fly, without recompiling the entire program. 6.3.4 ODBC: Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard programming interface for application developers and database systems providers. Before ODBC became a de facto standard for Windows programs to interface with database systems, programmers had to use proprietary languages for each database they wanted to connect to. Now, ODBC has made the choice of the database system almost irrelevant from a coding perspective, which is as it should be. Application developers have much more important things to worry about than the syntax that is needed to port their program from one database to another when business needs suddenly change. Through the ODBC Administrator in Control Panel, you can specify the particular database that is associated with a data source that an ODBC application program is written to use. Think of an ODBC data source as a door with a name on it. Each door will lead you to a particular database. For example, the data source named Sales Figures might be a SQL Server database, whereas the Accounts Payable data source could refer to an Access database. The physical database referred to by a data source can reside anywhere on the LAN. The ODBC system files are not installed on your system by Windows 95. Rather, they are installed when you setup a separate database application, such as SQL Server Client or
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Visual Basic 4.0. When the ODBC icon is installed in Control Panel, it uses a file called ODBCINST.DLL. It is also possible to administer your ODBC data sources through a stand-alone program called ODBCADM.EXE. There is a 16-bit and a 32-bit version of this program and each maintains a separate list of ODBC data sources. From a programming perspective, the beauty of ODBC is that the application can be written to use the same set of function calls to interface with any data source, regardless of the database vendor. The source code of the application doesnt change whether it talks to Oracle or SQL Server. We only mention these two as an example. There are ODBC drivers available for several dozen popular database systems. Even Excel spreadsheets and plain text files can be turned into data sources. The operating system uses the Registry information written by ODBC Administrator to determine which low-level ODBC drivers are needed to talk to the data source (such as the interface to Oracle or SQL Server). The loading of the ODBC drivers is transparent to the ODBC application program. In a client/server environment, the ODBC API even handles many of the network issues for the application programmer. The advantages of this scheme are so numerous that you are probably thinking there must be some catch. The only disadvantage of ODBC is that it isnt as efficient as talking directly to the native database interface. ODBC has had many detractors make the charge that it is too slow. Microsoft has always claimed that the critical factor in performance is the quality of the driver software that is used. In our humble opinion, this is true. The availability of good ODBC drivers has improved a great deal recently. And anyway, the criticism about performance is somewhat analogous to those who said that compilers would never match the speed of pure assembly language. Maybe not, but the compiler (or ODBC) gives you the opportunity to write cleaner programs, which means you finish sooner. Meanwhile, computers get faster every year.

6.3.5 JDBC: In an effort to set an independent database standard API for Java; Sun Microsystems developed Java Database Connectivity, or JDBC. JDBC offers a generic SQL database access mechanism that provides a consistent interface to a variety of RDBMSs. This consistent interface is achieved through the use of plug-in database connectivity modules, or drivers. If a database vendor wishes to have JDBC support, he or she must provide the driver for each platform that the database and Java run on.
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To gain a wider acceptance of JDBC, Sun based JDBCs framework on ODBC. As you discovered earlier in this chapter, ODBC has widespread support on a variety of platforms. Basing JDBC on ODBC will allow vendors to bring JDBC drivers to market much faster than developing a completely new connectivity solution. JDBC was announced in March of 1996. It was released for a 90 day public review that ended June 8, 1996. Because of user input, the final JDBC v1.0 specification was released soon after. The remainder of this section will cover enough information about JDBC for you to know what it is about and how to use it effectively. This is by no means a complete overview of JDBC. That would fill an entire book. 6.3.6 JDBC Goals: Few software packages are designed without goals in mind. JDBC is one that, because of its many goals, drove the development of the API. These goals, in conjunction with early reviewer feedback, have finalized the JDBC class library into a solid framework for building database applications in Java. The goals that were set for JDBC are important. They will give you some insight as to why certain classes and functionalities behave the way they do. The eight design goals for JDBC are as follows: SQL Level API: The designers felt that their main goal was to define a SQL interface for Java. Although not the lowest database interface level possible, it is at a low enough level for higher-level tools and APIs to be created. Conversely, it is at a high enough level for application programmers to use it confidently. Attaining this goal allows for future tool vendors to generate JDBC code and to hide many of JDBCs complexities from the end user. SQL Conformance: SQL syntax varies as you move from database vendor to database vendor. In an effort to support a wide variety of vendors, JDBC will allow any query statement to be passed through it to the underlying database driver. This allows the connectivity module to handle non-standard functionality in a manner that is suitable for its users. JDBC must be implemental on top of common database interfaces:

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The JDBC SQL API must sit on top of other common SQL level APIs. This goal allows JDBC to use existing ODBC level drivers by the use of a software interface. This interface would translate JDBC calls to ODBC and vice versa. Provide a Java interface that is consistent with the rest of the Java system: Because of Javas acceptance in the user community thus far, the designers feel that they should not stray from the current design of the core Java system. Keep it simple: This goal probably appears in all software design goal listings. JDBC is no exception. Sun felt that the design of JDBC should be very simple, allowing for only one method of completing a task per mechanism. Allowing duplicate functionality only serves to confuse the users of the API. Use strong, static typing wherever possible: Strong typing allows for more error checking to be done at compile time; also, less error appear at runtime. Finally we decided to precede the implementation using Java Networking. And for dynamically updating the cache table we go for MS Access database. Simple Architecture-neutral Object-oriented Portable Distributed High Performance Interpreted Multithreaded Robust Dynamic & Secure. Java is also unusual in that each Java program is both compiled and interpreted. With a compile you translate a Java program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes the platform-independent code instruction is passed and run on the computer. you can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). Every Java interpreter, whether its a Java development tool or a Web browser that can run Java applets, is an implementation of the Java VM. The Java VM can also be implemented in hardware. Java byte codes help make write once, run anywhere possible. You can compile your Java program into byte codes on my platform that has a Java compiler. 6.4 TCP/IP stacks: The TCP/IP stack is shorter than the OSI one.Tcp is a connection-oriented protocol; UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol

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Fig: 11 TCP/IP Stack 6.4.1 IP datagrams: The IP layer provides a connectionless and unreliable delivery system. It considers each datagram independently of the others. Any association between datagram must be supplied by the higher layers. The IP layer supplies a checksum that includes its own header. The header includes the source and destination addresses. The IP layer handles routing through an Internet. It is also responsible for breaking up large datagram into smaller ones for transmission and reassembling them at the other end. 6.4.2 UDP: UDP is also connectionless and unreliable. What it adds to IP is a checksum for the contents of the datagram and port numbers. These are used to give a client/server model see later. 6.4.3 TCP: TCP supplies logic to give a reliable connection-oriented protocol above IP. It provides a virtual circuit that two processes can use to communicate. 6.4.3.1 Internet addresses: In order to use a service, you must be able to find it. The Internet uses an address scheme for machines so that they can be located. The address is a 32 bit integer which gives the IP address. This encodes a network ID and more addressing. The network ID falls into various classes according to the size of the network address. 6.4.3.2 Network address: Class A uses 8 bits for the network address with 24 bits left over for other addressing. Class B uses 16 bit network addressing. Class C uses 24 bit network addressing and class D uses all 32. 6.3.3.3) Subnet address: Internally, the UNIX network is divided into sub networks. Building 11 is currently on one sub network and uses 10-bit addressing, allowing 1024 different hosts.

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6.4.3.4 Host address: Bits are finally used for host addresses within our subnet. This places a limit of 256 machines that can be on the subnet. Total address:

Fig: 12 the 32 bit address is usually written as 4 integers separated by dots. 6.4.3.5 Port addresses: A service exists on a host, and is identified by its port. This is a 16 bit number. To send a message to a server, you send it to the port for that service of the host that it is running on. This is not location transparency! Certain of these ports are "well known". 6.4.3.6 Sockets: A socket is a data structure maintained by the system to handle network connections. A socket is created using the call socket. It returns an integer that is like a file descriptor. In fact, under Windows, this handle can be used with Read File and Write File functions. #include <sys/types> #include <sys/sockets> int socket(int family, int type, int protocol);

Here "family" will be AF_INET for IP communications, protocol will be zero, and type will depend on whether TCP or UDP is used. Two processes wishing to communicate over a network create a socket each. These are similar to two ends of a pipe - but the actual pipe does not yet exist. 6.5 JFree Chart JFreeChart is a free 100% Java chart library that makes it easy for developers to display professional quality charts in their applications. JFreeChart's extensive feature set includes: A consistent and well-documented API, supporting a wide range of chart types; A flexible design that is easy to extend, and targets both server-side and client-side applications; Support for many output types, including Swing components, image files (including PNG and JPEG), and vector graphics file formats (including PDF, EPS and SVG); JFreeChart is
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"open source" or, more specifically, free software. It is distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), which permits use in proprietary applications. 6.5.1. Map Visualizations Charts showing values that relate to geographical areas. Some examples include: (a) population density in each state of the United States, (b) income per capita for each country in Europe, (c) life expectancy in each country of the world. The tasks in this project include: Sourcing freely redistributable vector outlines for the countries of the world, states/provinces in particular countries (USA in particular, but also other areas); Creating an appropriate dataset interface (plus default implementation), a rendered, and integrating this with the existing XYPlot class in JFreeChart; Testing, documenting, testing some more, documenting some more. 6.5.2. Time Series Chart Interactivity Implement a new (to JFreeChart) feature for interactive time series charts --- to display a separate control that shows a small version of ALL the time series data, with a sliding "view" rectangle that allows you to select the subset of the time series data to display in the main chart. 6.5.3.Dashboards There is currently a lot of interest in dashboard displays. Create a flexible dashboard mechanism that supports a subset of JFree Chart chart types (dials, pies, thermometers, bars, and lines/time series) that can be delivered easily via both Java Web Start and an applet. 6.5.4. Property Editors The property editor mechanism in JFreeChart only handles a small subset of the properties that can be set for charts. Extend (or re implement) this mechanism to provide greater end-user control over the appearance of the charts.

Profile 1: KJava KJava is Sun's proprietary profile and contains the KJava API. The KJava profile is built on top of the CLDC configuration. The KJava virtual machine, KVM, accepts the same byte codes and class file format as the classic J2SE virtual machine. KJava contains a Sun-specific API that runs on the Palm OS. The KJava API has a great deal in common
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with the J2SE Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT). However, because it is not a standard J2ME package, its main package is com.sun.kjava. We'll learn more about the KJava API later in this tutorial when we develop some sample applications. Profile 2: MIDP MIDP is geared toward mobile devices such as cellular phones and pagers. The MIDP, like KJava, is built upon CLDC and provides a standard run-time environment that allows new applications and services to be deployed dynamically on end user devices. MIDP is a common, industry-standard profile for mobile devices that is not dependent on a specific vendor. It is a complete and supported foundation for mobile

application.Development. MIDP contains the following packages, the first three of which are core CLDC packages, plus three MIDP-specific packages. java.lang java.io java.util javax.microedition.io javax.microedition.lcdui javax.microedition.midle

6.6 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION Implementation is the stage of the project when the theoretical design is turned out into a working system. The implementation stage involves careful planning, investigation of the existing system and its constraints on implementation, designing of methods to achieve changeover and evaluation of changeover methods.

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CHAPTER 7
7 CODING NODE.java import java.awt.Color; import java.awt.Font; import java.awt.event.ActionEvent; import java.awt.event.ActionListener; import java.awt.event.MouseEvent; import java.awt.event.MouseListener; import java.awt.event.MouseMotionListener; import java.awt.peer.*; import java.util.Random; import javax.swing.BorderFactory; import javax.swing.ImageIcon; import javax.swing.JFrame; import javax.swing.JLabel; import javax.swing.JOptionPane; import javax.swing.JPanel; import javax.swing.JScrollBar; import javax.swing.JScrollPane; import javax.swing.JTextArea; import javax.swing.JTextField; import javax.swing.JWindow; import org.apache.axis.client.Call; import org.apache.axis.client.Service; import javax.xml.namespace.QName; public class Node implements MouseListener,MouseMotionListener { int val=0;

int x,y,x1,y1; int localx=100; int localy=100;


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String rnum=""; JFrame fm; JLabel pn,exit; JLabel request,update,search,iupdate,isearch,region; JLabel namel,namelv,place,query,content; JTextField placev,queryv; JTextArea contentv; JScrollPane sp; SelectRegion sr=new SelectRegion(); public Node() { x=y=x1=y1=0;

Random rr=new Random(); rnum="PN"+(rr.nextInt(10))+""+(rr.nextInt(10))+""+(rr.nextInt(10)); fm=new JFrame(); pn=new JLabel(new ImageIcon("aa.jpg")); pn.setLayout(null); fm.addMouseListener(this); fm.addMouseMotionListener(this); exit=new JLabel(".",0); exit.setBounds(10,10,10,10); exit.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.CENTER_BASELINE,15)); exit.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.orange,4)); exit.setToolTipText("Switch Off"); exit.setForeground(Color.red); pn.add(exit); exit.addMouseListener(this); request=new JLabel(""); request.setBounds(125,169,10,10); request.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.MAGENTA)); pn.add(request); update=new JLabel("");
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update.setBounds(195,169,10,10); update.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.MAGENTA)); pn.add(update); search=new JLabel(""); search.setBounds(85,190,10,10); search.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.MAGENTA)); pn.add(search); iupdate=new JLabel(new ImageIcon("update.png")); iupdate.setBounds(45,120,30,30); iupdate.setToolTipText("Update"); iupdate.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.darkGray)); pn.add(iupdate); iupdate.addMouseListener(this); isearch=new JLabel(new ImageIcon("search.png")); isearch.setBounds(95,120,30,30); isearch.setToolTipText("Search"); isearch.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.darkGray)); pn.add(isearch); isearch.addMouseListener(this); namel=new JLabel(""); namel.setBounds(34,20,253,1); namel.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.DARK_GRAY, 2)); namel.setForeground(Color.YELLOW); pn.add(namel); namelv=new JLabel(rnum,0); namelv.setFont(new Font("Century",Font.CENTER_BASELINE,10)); namelv.setBounds(34,1,253,20); namelv.setForeground(Color.black); pn.add(namelv); place=new JLabel("Distance"); place.setBounds(35,30,60,20); place.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.PLAIN,10));
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place.setForeground(Color.YELLOW); pn.add(place); placev=new JTextField(); placev.setBounds(35,50,100,15); placev.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.BOLD,10)); placev.setBorder(BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder()); pn.add(placev); query=new JLabel("Query"); query.setBounds(35,70,60,20); query.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.PLAIN,10)); query.setForeground(Color.YELLOW); pn.add(query); queryv=new JTextField(); queryv.setBounds(35,90,100,15); queryv.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.BOLD,10)); queryv.setBorder(BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder()); pn.add(queryv); content=new JLabel("Content"); content.setBounds(155,30,60,20); content.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.PLAIN,10)); content.setForeground(Color.YELLOW); pn.add(content); contentv=new JTextArea(); sp=new JScrollPane(contentv); sp.setBounds(155,50,125,60); contentv.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.BOLD,10)); contentv.setEditable(false); sp.setBorder(BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder()); pn.add(sp); region=new JLabel("",0); region.setBounds(165,125,100,25); region.setToolTipText("Safe Region"); region.setFont(new Font("verdana",Font.CENTER_BASELINE,10));
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region.setBorder(BorderFactory.createLineBorder(Color.GRAY,5)); region.setForeground(Color.CYAN); pn.add(region); fm.setUndecorated(true); fm.setLocation(localx,localy); fm.add(pn); fm.setSize(320,255); fm.setVisible(true); } public static void main(String args[]) { new Node(); } public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent arg0) { if(arg0.getSource()==iupdate) { String s=""+Callme(); } else if(arg0.getSource()==isearch) { String ss=""+Callme(); if(ss.equals("true")) { String gr=""+region.getText(); if(gr.equals("") || gr.equals("null") || gr.equals(null) || gr.equals("No Region")) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, " First Update Region for Server"); } else {
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//contentv.setText(new Search().Search(queryv.getText())); try { System.out.println("ffff"); String servlocation="http://localhost:2011/PAMS/Search.jws"; Service service1 = new Service(); Call call1=(Call) service1.createCall(); call1.setTargetEndpointAddress(new java.net.URL(servlocation)); call1.setOperationName(new QName("Search")); contentv.setText((String)call1.invoke(new Object[]{queryv.getText()})); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } }

else if(arg0.getSource()==exit) { System.exit(0); }

} public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent arg0) { // TODO Auto-generated method stub } public void mouseExited(MouseEvent arg0) { } public void mousePressed(MouseEvent arg0) { x=arg0.getX();
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y=arg0.getY(); val=1;

} public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent arg0) { if(val==1) { x1=arg0.getX(); y1=arg0.getY(); localx=(localx+(x1-x)); localy=(localy+(y1-y)); fm.setLocation(localx,localy); val=0; }

} public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent e) { if(val==1) { x1=e.getX(); y1=e.getY(); localx=(localx+(x1-x)); localy=(localy+(y1-y)); fm.setLocation(localx,localy); } } public void mouseMoved(MouseEvent e) { } public String Callme() {
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String gh="false"; String s=""+placev.getText(); if(s.equals("") || s==null) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "Enter Integer Value"); gh="false"; } else { String tem=sr.RegionV(Integer.parseInt(s)); if(tem.equals("")) { region.setText("No Region"); } else { try { region.setText(tem); // new

Update().LocUpdate(rnum,tem,sr.RegionN(Integer.parseInt(s))); String servlocation="http://localhost:2011/PAMS/Update.jws"; Service service1 = new Service(); Call call1=(Call) service1.createCall(); call1.setTargetEndpointAddress(new java.net.URL(servlocation)); call1.setOperationName(new QName("LocUpdate")); call1.invoke(new Object[]{rnum,tem,sr.RegionN(Integer.parseInt(s))}); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }
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} gh="true"; } return(gh); } }

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CHAPTER 8
SCREEN SHOTS:

8.1 Addition of Nodes: We can add Nodes based on Requirement. The Nodes information is monitoring the Server.

Screen shot 1:Addition of Nodes 8.2 Data given for Calculation Location: We can find the location of the given range with the help of the available information in Server.

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Screen shot 2: Data given for Calculation Location 8.3 Information displayed based on given data: The Server produce information Based on given information.

Screen shot 3: Information displayed based on given data

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8.4 Content based Display Information: With the help of Distance and query information for finding the relavent content in the Server.

Screen shot 4: Content based Display Information 8.6 Node Map: The information displayed based on providing information in nodes and search information in the Server.

Screen shot 5: 8.6 Node Map


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8.6 Displays the Search Count for Locations: When searching more than one time for the same location it will diplays the count of the search operation

Screen shot 6: Displays the Search Count for Locations:

8.7 Application Server Monitor: The Server Contains node, Region and Region Coverage Information.

Screen shot 7: Application Server Monitor

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CHAPTER 9
9 SYSTEM TESTING The purpose of testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub assemblies, assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. There are various types of test. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement. 9.1 TYPES OF TESTS 9.1.1) Unit testing: Unit testing involves the design of test cases that validate that the internal program logic is functioning properly, and that program inputs produce valid outputs. All decision branches and internal code flow should be validated. It is the testing of individual software units of the application .it is done after the completion of an individual unit before integration. This is a structural testing, that relies on knowledge of its construction and is invasive. Unit tests perform basic tests at component level and test a specific business process, application, and/or system configuration. Unit tests ensure that each unique path of a business process performs accurately to the documented specifications and contains clearly defined inputs and expected results. 9.1.2) Integration testing Integration tests are designed to test integrated software components to determine if they actually run as one program. Testing is event driven and is more concerned with the basic outcome of screens or fields. Integration tests demonstrate that although the components were individually satisfaction, as shown by successfully unit testing, the combination of components is correct and consistent. Integration testing is specifically aimed at exposing the problems that arise from the combination of components. 9.1.3) Functional testing Functional tests provide systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements, system documentation, and user manuals. Functional testing is centered on the following items: Valid Input identified classes of valid input must be accepted.
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Invalid Input Functions Output

identified classes of invalid input must be rejected. identified functions must be exercised. identified classes of application outputs must be exercised.

Systems/Procedures: interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked. Organization and preparation of functional tests is focused on requirements, key functions, or special test cases. In addition, systematic coverage pertaining to identify Business process flows; data fields, predefined processes, and successive processes must be considered for testing. Before functional testing is complete, additional tests are identified and the effective value of current tests is determined. 9.1.4) System Test System testing ensures that the entire integrated software system meets requirements. It tests a configuration to ensure known and predictable results. An example of system testing is the configuration oriented system integration test. System testing is based on process descriptions and flows, emphasizing pre-driven process links and integration points. 9.1.5) White Box Testing White Box Testing is a testing in which in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings, structure and language of the software, or at least its purpose. It is purpose. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level. 9.1.6) Black Box Testing Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings, structure or language of the module being tested. Black box tests, as most other kinds of tests, must be written from a definitive source document, such as specification or requirements document, such as specification or requirements document. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated, as a black box .you cannot see into it. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works. 9.1.7) Unit Testing Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle, although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases. 9.2 Test strategy and approach Field testing will be performed manually and functional tests will be written in detail.

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9.2.1 Test objectives All field entries must work properly. Pages must be activated from the identified link. The entry screen, messages and responses must not be delayed.

9.2.2 Features to be tested Verify that the entries are of the correct format No duplicate entries should be allowed All links should take the user to the correct page.

9.2.3 Integration Testing: Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications, e.g. components in a software system or one step up software applications at the company level interact without error. 9.2.4 Test Results: All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully. No defects encountered. 9.2.5 Acceptance Testing User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any project and requires significant participation by the end user. It also ensures that the system meets the functional requirements.

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CHAPTER 10 10 FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS


To characterize future traffic as belonging to a certain application, say, to identify prohibited traffic on nonstandard ports. In the Quiver setting, each contributing network includes a proxy. A coordination site acts as the server (root of the tree), and the traffic classifiers being constructed are the objects. The proxies perform update and read operations on the traffic classifiers. To update a particular classifier using new records, the contributing networks proxy migrates the classifier to itself and updates the classifier using its data. The algorithms for incrementally updating the classifier require the updates to be serialized, an important property achieved through Quiver. Furthermore, this strategy distributes the computational load of updating the classifiers to all the networks and does not require any network to reveal its raw data to any other Entity. 10.1 CONCLUSION This paper proposes a framework for monitoring continuous spatial queries over moving objects. The framework is the first to holistically address the issue of location updating with regard to monitoring accuracy, efficiency, and privacy. We provide detailed algorithms for query evaluation/reevaluation and safe region computation in this framework. We also devise three-client update strategies that optimize accuracy, privacy, and efficiency, respectively. The performance of our framework is evaluated through a series of experiments. The results show that it substantially outperforms periodic monitoring in terms of accuracy and CPU cost while achieving a close-to-optimal communication cost. Furthermore, the framework is robust and scales well with various parameter settings, such as privacy requirement, moving speed, and the number of queries and moving objects. As for future work, we plan to incorporate other types of queries into the framework, such as spatial joins and aggregate queries. We also plan to further optimize the performance of the framework. In particular, the minimum cost update strategy shows that the safe region is a crude approximation of the ideal safe area, mainly because we separately optimize the safe region for each query, but not globally. A possible solution is to sequentially optimize the queries but maintain the safe region accumulated by the queries optimized so far. Then, the optimal safe region for each query should depend not only on the query, but also on the accumulated safe region.

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CHAPTER 11
11 BIBLOGRAPHY Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books, we have them in Our Department Professional Java Network Programming Java Complete Reference Data Communications and Networking, by Behrouz A Forouzan. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, by James F. Kurose. Operating System Concepts, by Abraham Silberschatz

Joris Claessens, Bart Preneel Combining and Joos Vandewalle World Wide Web and wireless security, Feb2002. 11.1 ONLINE RESOURCES www.jsptags.com www.java.sun.com/products/jsp/resources.html www.roseindia.net www.softlandindia.com/java.html http://www.java.sun.com http://www.sourcefordgde.com http://www.networkcomputing.com/

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