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Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran


Habib Ahmad a; Shujaul Mulk Khan a; Sajidul Ghafoor b; Niaz Ali1 a a Department of Botany, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan b Department of Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan Online Publication Date: 01 January 2009

To cite this Article Ahmad, Habib, Khan, Shujaul Mulk, Ghafoor, Sajidul and Ali1, Niaz(2009)'Ethnobotanical Study of Upper

Siran',Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants,15:1,86 97


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Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 15:8697, 2009 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1049-6475 print/1540-3580 online DOI: 10.1080/10496470902787519

Journal 1540-3580 1049-6475 WHSM of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants Vol. 15, No. 1, February 2009: pp. 131 Plants,

Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran


HABIB AHMAD,1 SHUJAUL MULK KHAN,1 SAJIDUL GHAFOOR,2 and NIAZ ALI1
1 2

H. Ahmad et al. Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran

Department of Botany, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan Department of Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan

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The Siran Valley, District Mansehra, Pakistan, a part of the internationally recognized Western Himalayan Province, contains more than 143 plant species directly used by local communities. Of these plants, 89 have a therapeutic use. This report details the common uses of 29 species and the conservation status of 22 species, concluding that the Panjul Forests need special care for the rehabilitation of flora and fauna and the recovery of the Western Tragophan region. Effective management can be expected to improve deteriorated conditions of the ecosystem, including plants and large mammals, and protect the diversity of medicinal plants in the Siran Valley. KEYWORDS biosphere, conservation, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Pakistan

INTRODUCTION
The Siran Valley covers an area of 641 km2 occupying the north eastern part of the catchment of the Siran River, Mansehra District in Pakistan. The upper Siran, an internationally recognized biodiversity hotspot (Ecoregion-176) (20), has preserved the immense biodiversity of the Himalayan region and is a precious natural resource of Pakistan, contributing immensely to ecosystem services, irrigation, drinking water, timber, medicinal, and non-timber forest products. Though much of the biodiversity remains unexplored, the area is known to include 383 species of plants and 135 species of animals.

Received 26 February 2008. Address correspondence to Shujaul Mulk Khan, Department of Botany, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan. E-mail: shuja60@gmail.com 86

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The diversity of vegetation, which is predominantly Sino-Japanese (6), is supported by varying geoclimatic regimes associated with the 100- to 4,000-m altitudes within the area. The Siran Valley contains two ethnic groups, the Gujars and Swatis. The Gujars are descendents of the ancient Kushan dynasty (17) and form the major population segment of the area (4). The Swati represent a population that came from Swat Valley and inhabited the Siran Valley 300 to 400 years ago. Both groups exploit the same ecology but are specific to their inherent niches and share the resources symbiotically. The irrigated plains of the valley are mostly occupied by Swati and used for cultivating crops. The Gujars, concentrated in the up-hills where they cultivate rain-fed slopes, mostly occupy the forest and associated lands and are generally more aware of traditional knowledge of plant use and local ecology (15). Realizing the vital role of traditional health care services in the global scenario, the Traditional Medicine Program of the World Health Organization decided that the traditional healing system must play a part in providing health services globally. To effectively use these plant materials in medical treatments, however, the ethnobotany of the traditional knowledge systems must be understood. For this reason, this study investigated the structural relationships between the society and the environment in the Siran Valley, using socio-anthropological methods (9,11,13,16) to determine the motivating factors for conservation and sustainable use of plant resources in medical treatments (13).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


An ethnobotanical study of the Siran Valley was conducted during the last quarter of 2006 using extensive and intensive surveys in accordance with specific procedures for the locality (5,12,14). To gain an overview of the area, transect walks were made across the study area from the second week of September through the last week of October, 2006. During these transect walks, geophysical, climatic, and biological factors were examined, and the affects of these factors on the distribution of natural vegetation were recorded. Traditional knowledge of people from different socioeconomic backgrounds within the study area, including herdsmen, plant collectors, hakims, social activists, traditional healers, and market dealers, was collected. The dynamics in distribution and frequency of non-timber forest products and distribution of fauna was elucidated through discussions of the experienced elders. Discussions were held with key professionals involved in developing or protecting nature and used as a tool for gathering insight into the effects of anthropogenic activities of the area.

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For gathering ethnobotanical information, visits were made to settlements within the study area, including Dadar, Jabbori, Jacha, Mandagucha, Panjool, Kund Bangla, Nawaz Abad, Shaheed Pani, Jabbori, Bakki, Khori, Musa-ka-Musallah, Baffa, Shinkiari, and Dhodial. Confirmation of the field information was done through the traditional drug markets, such as Mansehra and Shinkiari, and included the establishments known as Haq Bhao Pansar, Irshad Pansar, Aladin Pansar and General Store, Ilyas Pansar Store, Zakir Pansar, and Manshera Homeopathy. Vegetation zones were designated in accordance with Champion et al. (10). Phytogeographical information and the range of indicator species was verified with the help of the Global Positioning System, and the information was incorporated into the report. Species of economic and ecological importance were collected and identified according to Nasir and Ali (18) and Ali and Qaiser (6). The data gathered on traditional uses of plant material were supplemented with the secondary information from Baqar (8) to establish a sound database for further studies. An inventory of general information obtained regarding plant use pattern was also prepared. Based on field experience and data analysis, recommendations for further extension of the study were prepared. Conservation status of the species was evaluated in accordance with the IUCN Criteria (Table 3).

RESULTS
The preliminary ethnobotanical survey indicated that more than 383 species of higher plants can be observed in the Upper Siran River Valley. Of these species, 143 are known to have immediate benefits to the communities in the Siran Valley and used during daily life (Table 1). Furthermore, 89 plant species were reported to be used in traditional healing practices in the Upper Siran (Table 2). Most people of the Siran Valley, particularly those who reside in the forest vicinity, are aware of plant resources of the Valley. The existing aboriginal communities of the area with a traditional system of health care exhibited a vast amount of knowledge on plant use and ecology. For the area to be self-sufficient in natural resources, management patterns and wise uses have needed to be addressed properly. The market survey revealed that the local communities were getting an inequitable share of the natural resources, mostly through benefits going to the middlemen and the end processors. The plant collectors were deliberately kept ignorant and merely involved to keep a supply for trade available.

DISCUSSION
As part of the internationally recognized Western Himalayan Province (19), the Upper Siran area is rich in floral diversity generally and medicinal plants

Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran TABLE 1 Common Uses of Plants in Siran Valley Botanical name Abies pindrow Royle Achillea millefolium L. Achyranthus aspera L. Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf Acorus calamus L. Adiantum incisum Forsk. Adiantum venustum D. Don Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambl.) H.K.f Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Ajuga parviflora Benth. Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthus viridis L. Andrachne cordifolia (Dene) Muell. Anagallis arvensis L. Apluda mutica var. aristata (L.) Hack. Arisaema flavum Schott. Artemisia scoparia Walds & Kit. Artemisia vulgaris L. Artemisia biennis Willd. Asperugo procumbens L. Astragalus anisacanthus Boiss. Atropa acuminata Royle ex Miers Berberis lycium Royle Berberis vulgaris L. Bergenia ciliata (Haw)Sternb. Bistorta amplexicaule D. Don Boerhavia diffusa L. Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedtsch. Buxus wallichiana Baill. Calendula arvensis L. Caltha alba Camb. Cannabis sativa L. Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Cedrela serrata Royle Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lamb.) G. Don Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium botrys L. Chenopodium murale L. Cichorum intybus L. Clamatis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. Colchicum luteum Baker. Convolvulus arvensis L. Conyza canadensis Conquist. Local uses

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Timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal associated with local myths Medicinal after processing, poisonous in raw form Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal Medicinal and potherb Medicinal Medicinal and potherb Fodder and forage Poisonous in raw, medicinal after processing Medicinal, antimycotic Medicinal and insect repellent Medicinal and insect repellent Medicinal Medicinal Poisonous in raw, medicinal after processing Poisonous in raw, medicinal after processing Poisonous in raw, medicinal after processing Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Condiment, medicinal Poisonous in raw Medicinal Potherb and medicinal Narcotic and medicinal Medicinal Poisonous, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal, furniture, construction, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal, potherb Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, potherb Medicinal, poisonous Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, fodder (Continued)

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90 TABLE 1 (Continued) Botanical name

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Local uses Mythological, medicinal Medicinal Mythological, medicinal Forage, fodder Forage, fodder Medicinal Edible fruit, fuel wood, fodder Medicinal and aesthetic value Forage, fodder Medicinal Medicinal, edible fruit, furniture, construction, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal, potherb Medicinal, edible fruit Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal Poisonous Medicinal, edible fruit, furniture, construction, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal, edible fruit Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, fodder Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, fodder Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal, narcotic Medicinal, antidepressant, antioxidant Medicinal, pottery, hedging, roofing, fuel wood Medicinal, edible fruit, furniture, construction, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils Medicinal, edible as potherb in combination with other herbs Fodder, potherb Fodder, potherb Medicinal, fodder Medicinal, fodder, potherb Medicinal, fodder, potherb Medicinal, condiment Medicinal, condiment Medicinal Medicinal, condiment Medicinal, condiment Medicinal (Continued)

Corydalis govaniana Wall. Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & Mey. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Cymbopogon stracheyi (Hk. f.) Raizada & Jain. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Daphne mucronata Royle Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk) Hepper & Wood. Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thoms. Dicanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Diospyros lotus L.
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Dryopteris juxtapostia Christ Elaeagnus umbellata Wall. ex Royle Ephedra gerardiana Wall. Ex. Stapf Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & Meyer Euphorbia prostrata L. Euphorbia wallichii Hook. f. Ficus palmate L. Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita Fritillaria roylei Hook. f Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley Galium aparine L. Geranium collinum Steph. ex Willd. Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet. Hedera nepalensis Koch. Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum perforatum L. Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex. Brand. Juglans regia L. Lamium album L. Lathyrus aphaca L. Lathyrus sativus L. Lespedeza juncea (L.) F. Persoon Malva sylvestris L. Medicago polymorpha L. Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Mentha spicata L. Micromeria biflora (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) Benth Morchella conica L. Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.ex Fr. Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC.

Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran TABLE 1 (Continued) Botanical name Nasturtium officinale R. Br Olea ferruginea Royle Onopordum acanthium L. Onosma bracteatum Wall. Onosma hispida Wall ex G. Don. Origanum vulgare L. Oxalis corniculata L. Paeonia emodi Wall. ex Hk.f. Papaver somniferum L. Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. Pimpinella stewartii (Dunn) Nasir Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson Pistacia integrrima J. L. Stewart ex Brand. Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago major L. Plectranthus rugosus Wall ex Benth. Podophyllum emodi Wall. Polygonatum verticilatum All. Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonum barbatum HM ex Meissn. Populus alba L. Potentilla nepalensis Hook. Primula denticulata W.W. Smith Prunus armeniaca L. Quercus dilatata Royle Quercus incana Roxb. Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. Ranunculus aquatilis L. Ranunculus muricatus L. Rheum australe D. Don Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle Rumex alpinus. Rumex hastatus D. Don Salix tetrasperma Roxb. Salvia lanata Roxb. Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth. Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Muell. Arg. Saussurea lappa (Dene) Sch. Senecio chrysanthemoides DC. Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. Local uses

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Medicinal, potherb Medicinal, edible fruit, furniture, construction, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, utensils, mythological and sacred value Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, condiment Medicinal Medicinal, narcotic Timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood Medicinal Timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal Timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, construction wood, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood Medicinal, construction wood, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood Timber, construction wood, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal Timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, potherb Medicinal, potherb Construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood Medicinal, potherb Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, aesthetic value Medicinal (Continued)

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92 TABLE 1 (Continued) Botanical name

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Local uses Medicinal Medicinal, mythological Medicinal Medicinal, fodder Medicinal, potherb Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, edible fruit Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

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Silene vulgaris Garck Skimmia laureola (DC.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Walp. Solanum surattense Burm. f. Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder Stellaria media (L.) Cyr. Thymus linearis Benth. Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague Valeriana jatamansi Jones Valeriana pyrolifolia Decne. Verbascum thapsus L. Viburnum cotinifolium D. Don Viola betonicifolia Smith Viola biflora L. Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb.

in particular. The method of preparation and quantity of medicinal plant material used within the study area depended on a variety of factors, including the nature of the crude drug and disease and the age and physique of the patient. An exploration of the indigenous methods for collection and processing of the medicinal plants indicated that huge quantities of medicinal plant material were lost every year owing to lack of proper collection, cleaning, packing, and storage by local collectors. In addition, the ecosystem of the Siran Valley in which the medicinal plants grow, is as a whole acutely disturbed and under severe anthropogenic stress that is aggravated by the October, 2005, earthquake. Communities lack civic amenities, including roads, health, education, clean water supplies, gas, electricity, and telephones. These deprivations result in lawlessness and the destruction, such as repeated forest fires, of accessible natural resources for no reason. The provision of civic amenities could improve the living standards of the people and stimulate sustainable use of medicinal plants and other resources plus enhance ecological development of the area. In addition to the flora, the Panjul Forest preserves the best recoverable populations of important pheasant species (Koklass, Pucrasia macrolopha; Khaleej, Lophura leucomelana; and Monal Lophophorus impejanus) and provides refuge to the Western horned pheasant (Tragophan spp.) of the adjoining Choor forests. Other birds, such as the Eurasian partridge (Alectoris chukar, commonly known as Chakor in Udu) and black partridge (Melanoperdix niger), are found in the area along with large mammals, such as the common leopard (Panthera pardus), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), and several, more common smaller mammal species, such as the Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and the Kashmir gray langur Semnopithecus ajax (7).

Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran TABLE 2 Wild Plants Available with the Traditional Healers in Local Markets Botanical & (local name) Abutilon indicum (Kangi) Acacia modesta (Phulai) Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Achillea millefolium (Birangesif) Achyranthes aspera (Lainda) Aconitum heteropyllum (Patris) Acorus calamus (Warch) Adiantum capillus-veneris (Pershosha) Amaranthus viridis (Gunyar) Artemisia maritimia (Dugchao) Arundu donax (Nari/Tanda) Aesculus indica (Bankhore) Anethum sowa (Jangli soya) Aloevera (Kanwar) Apium graveolens (Amund) Artemisia absinthium (Chaw) Asparagus officinalis (Shahghandal/ Nanoor) Asparagus adsendens (Safid muesli) Asparagus racemosus (Shahghandal/Nanoor) Atropa belladonna (Cheela lubar) Bauhinia variegate (Kalyari) Berberis lyceum (Sumbal) Bergenia ligulata (But pewa) Boerhavia diffusa (Itsit) Bombax ceiba (Sambal) Calotropis procera (Aak) Cannabis sativa (Bhang) Capparris Spinosa (Karir) Carum carvi (Kango) Ethnomedicinal uses

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Expectorant, diuretic, oral contraceptive, abortifacient, anti-asthmatic Dental cavities, rheumatism, snake bite, diuretic, hemostat Cardiotonic, diuretic, skin diseases Toothache, tonic, dysentery Rheumatism, opthalmia Purgative, toothache, emetic, specific for guinea worms, rheumatism Tonic, astringent, febrifuge, hepatic, laxative, menorrhagia Demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, tonic, emmenagogue, febrifuge Emollient, scorpion sting & snake bite. Leaf decoction used to treat ague, fever, stomachache, jaundice. Rhizome decoction used as emollient, diuretic, & to stimulate menstrual discharge & diminish secretion of milk Fruit used to treat horses for colic; Seed oil applied for rheumatism. Carminative & digestive, flatulence. Psychotropic, stomachache, antispasmodic, epilepsy, convulsions, cough, cold. Tonic, diuretic, analgesic, antiseptic, used in bronchitis, asthma & spleen diseases Carminative, nocturnal pollution, chronic fever & anemia. Tonic, diuretic, cardiac dropsy & chronic gout. Aphrodisiac, galactagogue, demulcent, diarrhea, dysentery, & tonic. Refrigerant, diuretic, stomachache, fever, antiseptic & galactagogue Narcotic, sedative, diuretic, antidiabetic Expectorant, sedative, diuretic, hypnotic & pertussis Tonic, antiseptic, anticancer, antiviral, antiprotozoal & spasmolytic. Perfume, stomachic, diuretic, some toxic constituents, skin diseases, cardioactive Antidiabetic, hepatic, stimulant Antibacterial, for urinary & renal complaints, astringent, antidiabetic Dodder, purgative, anathematic, headache, jaundice, poultice for swelling Anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, antipyretic, antiemetic, diuretic, hypotensive Cathartic & anthelmintic, red dye, oral contraceptive, skin diseases Caster oil, purgative, contraceptive skin, antidote in food poisoning. (Continued)

94 TABLE 2 (Continued) Botanical & (local name) Cedrus deodara (Diar) Cichorium intybus (Hand) Cissampelos paperia (Ghora sum) Colchicum luteum (Qaimat-gula) Cuscuta reflexa (Akash bail) Cydonia oblonga (Bhai) Cymbopogon cirus (Baru) Cyperus rotundus (Muthar) Dalbergia sisso (Talhi) Eucalyptus globules (Gond) Ficus palmate (Phagwara) Fraxinus excelsior (Sum) Fumaria indica (Papra) Helianthus annus (Sorajmakhi) Geranium wallichianum (Rattan jog) Hedra nepalense (Arbambal) Hordeum vulgare (Jauo) Hyoscyamus niger (Ajwain) Juglans regia (Akhor) Justica adhatoda (Sanatha) Lactuca sativa (Dodal) Lactuca seriola (Dodal) Mallotus philippensis (Kambeela) Malva neglecta (Sonchal) Matricaria chammomilla (Babuna) Mentha arvensia (Podina) Mentha longifolia (Safid podina) Mentha piperita (Podina) Morus alba (Toot) Nepeta hindostana (Billilotan) Nerium oleander (Kaner) Origanum vulgare (Wal Ajwain)

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Ethnomedicinal uses Bitter, stomachic, anthelmintic, febrifuge Sudorific, stimulant, stomachic, carminative Demulcent, dyspepsia, antidiabetic Rheumatism, laxative, aphrodisiac, gout & diseases of spleen & liver. Rheumatic pain, indigestion, purgative. For fever & cough, relief of flatulence, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea Carminative, stimulant, emmenagogue Pulmonary infections, oil in toothache, rheumatism, oil carminative, stimulant Decoction is used in gonorrhea, boil eruption, leprosy, & vomiting. Antidiabetic. Purgative, antiseptic Antidiabetic, digestive disorders, etc. Diuretic, expectorant, poultice Diuretic, expectorant, bronchial, cough, laryngeal, pulmonary affection. Astringent, toothache, applied externally to the eye. Fever, pulmonary infections, antidiabetic, rheumatism, hypoglycemic Cathartic, purgative, freckles & pimples on face, urinary complain. Carminative, sedative, toothache, cough, hysteria & muscular pain. Antidiarrheal, demulcent, anthelmintic, Used in rheumatism. Antiseptic, cough, chronic bronchitis, asthma & rheumatism. Skin diseases, syphilis, rheumatism Applied to burns, poultice for rheumatism & gout, gonorrhea & urinogenital irritation Leaves used as demulcent, aphrodisiac, laxative; Bark used as astringent, diuretic; Seed used as expectorant, laxative Demulcent, aphrodisiac, laxative Intermittent fever, heat stroke, colic Emollient, operant, demulcent Cooling medicine, carminative stimulant; leaves used as tea Antidiabetic, carminative & gastric. Insect repellent, oil for burn, antiseptic, respiratory infection, antidiabetic Root used as diuretic, laxative, stomach ache; Leaf used as appetizer and laxative; seed used as carminative, tonic Antidiabetic, poisonous To treat colic, uterine disorders, epilepsy (Continued)

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Ethnobotanical Study of Upper Siran TABLE 2 (Continued) Botanical & (local name) Oxalis corniculata (Khat Kurla) Papaver sominferum (Poast) Pisticia integrimma (Kangar phalli) Plantago ovata (Chmchi pattar) Plumbago zeylanica (Chmchi pattar) Paeonia emodi (Mamekh) Portulaca oleraceae (Lunak) Punica granatum (Daruna) Rheum australe (Chotial) Riccinus communis (Arind) Salvia moorcroftiana (Kalizarri) Sassurea costus (Kuth) Smilax china (Bilgri) Solanum miniatum (Kachmach) Solanum surattense (Kindiari) Swertia chirayita (Chirita) Taraxcum officinale (Hand) Taxus wallachiana (Burmi) Thymus serpylum (Bazori) Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi) Valeriana jatamonsii (Mushk bala) Viola odorata (Gule banafsha) Vicia sativa (Rawari) Withania somnifera (Asgand) Woodfordia fructiocosa (Dhawi) Xanthium stramonium (Katula) Zanthoxylon armatum (Timar) Zizyphus vulgare (Unab) Ethnomedicinal uses

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Aperient, diaphoretic, diuretic, antidiabetic, anthelmintic Latex narcotic, analgesic, hypnotic, sedative, antispasmodic, abortifacient Asthma, antidote to snake venom & scorpion sting; galls used as tonic & expectorant Emollient, demulcent, laxative Diaphoretic, abortifacient, appetizer, diuretic, poultice Demulcent, antilumbago, refrigerant, antiscorbutic, diuretic, antiulcer, cardiovascular diseases Cholera, diarrhea, refrigerant; seed is demulcent, astringent & vermifuge. Astringent, tonic, fever, cough, dysentery Leaf paste is applied on wounds; root is used in diabetes. Anodyne, digestive, blood purifier, tonic, cough & cold Guinea worms, itches, dysentery, cold & cough. Used in bile problems, astringent Demulcent, cardiac tonic, expectorant, astringent Antiseptic, fever tonic, dyspepsia, skin infection, dental problems Root used to treat kidney stone, tuberculosis, liver problems; leaves used as hemostatic Anodyne, narcotic, mydriatic, diuretic, sedative Analgesic, astringent, Narcotic, antispasmodic, diuretic, laxative Decoction, expectorant Chest infection, rheumatism Tonic, astringent, adaptogen; leaves used as febrifuge Diaphoretic, febrifuge, infantile disorder, lung troubles. Tonic & fever. Antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, Rheumatism, gout, diuretic, Carminative, flatulence, Renal diseases, toothache, abortifacient, infertility Expectorant, styptic, fever, blood purifier, laxative, antispasmodic.

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Conservation of the medicinal plants and the biodiversity within the Siran Valley ecosystem will require sustainable management practices, beginning with establishment of databases, social organizations, building management capacity, range management initiatives, agricultural development and cottage industry programs, and women empowerment. To maintain a productive ecosystem, the establishment of a Himalaya Biosphere

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H. Ahmad et al. TABLE 3 Threatened Plant Species of the Upper Siran River Valley Plant Status Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Plant Species Podophyllum emodii Sussurea lappa Taxus wallichiana Colchicum luteum Dioscorea deltoidea Ephedra gerardiana Achillea millefolium Aconitum heterophyllum Artemisia roxburghiana, Berberis lycium Royle Bergenia himalaica Echinochloa crusgali Geranium wallichianum Hypericum choisianum Hypericum dyeri rehder Paeonia emodi Parroitiopsis jacquemontiana Rheum webbianum Sibbaldia cuneata Thalictrum elegans Thalictrum vaginatum Viola sylvestris

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Reserve on the area between the Indus and Kunhar catchment is imperative. The reserve would ensure conservation of Himalayan biodiversity and safeguard the livelihood of the communities.

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