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Copyright © 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. TO CELLULAR METABOLISM We start out as dietary nutrients. Proteins, fats, and carbo- hydrates enter the blood system on the road to cellular metabolism, Extracellular digestion of large BUA, macromolecules, Intracellular breakdown Anabolism energizes cell Catabolism function. releases energy. od 3 We Excretion guide the of waste nutrients Waste...NH3, urea, H20, and OO, Cellular metabolism is the chemical task of maintaining cellular function. Catabolism, Hummm, is there a dogabolism? ellular Metabolism Cellular Metabolism SIGNIFICANCE OF CELLULAR METABOLISM Cellular metabolism involves all of the chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular function. Metabolism provides the cell with the energy it needs to synthesize or produce cellular structures and includes two processes: (1) anabolism and (2) catabolism. ANABOLISM ¢ Energy uses the process of metabolism; it builds up organs and tissues. * Produces growth and differentiation of cells and increases in cell size, which involves the process of synthesis of complex molecules. « Examples include growth and mineralization of bone and increase in muscle mass, CATABOLISM ¢ Is an energy-releasing process of metabolism; breaks down organs and tissues. Involves dismaniling of structural proteins for recycling for other purposes that occur during starvation, stress, and illness. Examples include the breakdown of muscle protein, which uses amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis (similar to burning furniture in the house as fuel because the fireplace is out of firewood), and the breakdown of fat in adipose to fatty acids for fuel. FOOD AND THE PRODUCTION OF CELLULAR ENERGY 'HREE PHASE: Phase 1—Breakdown of large macromolecules to simple subunits Phase 2—Breakdown of simple subunits to acetyl CoA, accompanied by production of limited amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) Phase 3—Complete oxidation of acetyl CoA to HO and COz, accompanied by the production of large amounts of ATP and NADH in mitochondrion with excretion of waste products (H,O, CO;, NHs) Séiiousiifesthreatening implidations Important nursing implications Gominion clinical findings Patient teaching Copyright © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Elements of Genetics Many traits are caused by a single gene along a chromosome. The gene position is a locus. The genes take many forms based on their nucleotide Sequences._—Tet me introduce the falleles...each of which is a gene} and has its own nucleotide sequence. Few people Most people have have hemoglobin S, hemoglobin A, which which differs from is dictated by a A by a single amino single gene. acid substitute, When two genes are identical, the individual gene is homozygous...when they are not identical, hey are heterozygous. Don't you wear genes?