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Mai 2009

Piloting-Guidance: Flight Management System Guidance along the lateral flight path

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

FMS in Piloting - Guidance


Piloting function: allows to control the Aircraft movement around the Centre of Gravity (CG) => CDVE, inner loop of the Auto Pilot (AP) Guidance function:
allows to control the Aircraft on a pre-planned path

=> Outer loop of the AP , HPATH and VPATH modes of the FMS. Flight Management function:
allows to define an optimized lateral and vertical profile
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

=> FMS Navigation function:


aircraft position computation (Nav sensors), optimal nav sensors (or fusion of nav sensors) selection

=> FMS
Pilotage - Guidage FMS Mai 2011

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport
Each airport is identified by an ICAO code / four-letter
LF - FRANCE LFBO (TLS) Toulouse / Blagnac Airport LFPG (CDG) Paris / Charles de Gaulle Airport (Roissy Airport) LFPO (ORY) Paris / Orly Airport EG UNITED KINGDOM EGKK (LGW) London / Gatwick Airport
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

EGLL (LHR) London / Heathrow Airport


The three-letter code (IATA code) is more commonly known to the public.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure
A Departure procedure contains 3 optional elements :
- RWY (runway and runway transition) - SID (Standard Instrument Departure) - TRANS (SID enroute transition)

First point of enroute in reference F-PLN

Search downstream

Runway
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Runway TRANS

SID

SID enroute TRANS

Enroute

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure Engine Out procedure
Runway EOSID diversion point

An Engine Out procedure or EOSID is a standard procedure to use if an engine fails just after take off.
Search downstream
E 3000 A B C EOSIDA D

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

EOSIDB EOSIDD EOSIDC

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure Engine Out procedure Arrival procedure
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

An Arrival procedure contains 4 optional elements :


- APPR (Final approach including runway & missed approach) - VIA (Approach transition) - STAR (Standard Terminal Arrival Route) - TRANS (STAR enroute transition)
Search upstream Last point of enroute in reference F-PLN Search upstream

Runway

Search downstream

Approach TRANS (VIA)

Enroute

STAR enroute TRANS

STAR

Approach and missed approach

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure Engine Out procedure Arrival procedure Waypoints
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

5 means to identify a waypoint :


- An Ident ex : BEROK - A Latitude/longitude ex : 4409.9N/01021.1E - A place/bearing/distance (PBD) ex : BEROK/100/10 - A place-bearing / place-bearing (PB/PB) ex : BEROK-090/SIPLO-045 -A place-distance or Along Track Offset (ATO) ex : BEROK/10

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure Engine Out procedure Arrival procedure Waypoints
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

An Airway is a published route.

Airways

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS What Flight planning 3-2-1) Lateralis a Flight plan ?- What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :
Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure Engine Out procedure Arrival procedure Waypoints
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Due to traffic, the pilot may define holding pattern. The FMS includes the Holding pattern into the flight plan

HOLD
I N B C R S

A T

340
T U R N
R E V E R T T O

L
T I M E / D I S T

DATABASE 1.0
/ 4 . 0

Airways Holding pattern

L A S T U T C

E X I T F U E L

---ERASE

---.INSERT*

Navigation

May-June 2010

Page 9

FMS What is a Flight plan ? A F-PLN is a combination of elementary element :


Departure airport Arrival airport Departure procedure Engine Out procedure Arrival procedure Waypoints
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

An alternate airport is a stand-by destination used in case of non-landing on primary destination.

Primary Destination

Airways Holding pattern Alternate airport


Departure
Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Alternate F-PLN portion

Alternate Destination

Mai 2011

FMS Flight plan skeleton


After this initialisation a skeleton of the complete F-PLN is available Navigation Display (SA/LR) F-PLN page on MCDU (SA/LR)

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path 3 classes of legs are used :
Fixed path legs (1/2)
FA : Fix to an Altitude

These are characterized by the fact that their geographic location is perfectly fixed.

IF : Initial Fix

TF : Track to a Fix

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

CF : Course to a Fix PI : 045/180 procedure turn FM : From a fix to a Manual termination

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path 3 classes of legs are used :
Fixed path legs (2/2)
These are characterized by the fact that their geographic location is perfectly fixed.

RF : Constant radius Arc

DF : Direct to a Fix

HA/HF/HM : Holding pattern


AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

AF : Arc a Fix

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path 3 classes of legs are used :
Fixed path legs Heading legs
VA : Heading to an altitude termination

These are characterized by a heading to follow from the preceding leg. They end when given conditions are met.

VD : Heading to a DME distance termination

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

VR : Heading to a Radial termination

VI : Heading to an Intercept

VM : Heading to a Manual termination

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path 3 classes of legs are used :
Fixed path legs Heading legs Course legs
CR : Course to a Radial termination CI : Course to an Intercept

These are characterized by a Course to follow from the preceding leg. They end when given conditions are met.

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

CA : Course to an altitude termination

CD : Course to a DME distance termination

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path

Ex SID SAM3P on EGKK airport with 08R runway :


Leg type FA : From fix to an altitude CF : Course to a fix TF : Track to a Fix DF : Direct to a fix TF : Track to a Fix TF : Track to a Fix TF : Track to a Fix Fix 08R D265B D080C DET26 DET36 DET43 SAM Couse/Heading 80 80 Altitude 700A 1200A 2500A 3000 4000 Turn Direction

Left

TF DET36
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

TF DET43 TF SAM EGKK08R 08R FA TF CF

DF

DET26 Course 080

D080C D265B 700

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path Transitions between legs :


Transition between two leg is dependent of : - type of both legs - A/C parameters (Ground speed and Roll angle) - The course change between both legs
D015J TF Geometric path
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

D231L

IF TF DET36 TF CF FA

DF

DET26 080

D080C D265B 700

EGKK08R 08R

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path Transitions between legs :


No predictable and repeatable path is specified Optimum path varies with various parameters: - type of both legs - A/C parameters (Ground speed and Roll angle) - The course change between both legs - FMS manufacturer design for comfort and performance - Maximum Turn Anticipation Distance (TAD)
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

- Phi nominal (altitude, speed, .) - Phase of flight - Engine (engine out consideration) -

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Construction of the flyable lateral path Transitions between legs :


For fly-by transition, regulation defines predictable and repeatable boundaries of the transition area are defined (DO-236) The boundaries is defined with the following parameters: - Radius of turn (R) in NM :

- Turn Initiation Boundary Distance (Y) in NM :


Where : V+W is the maximum Groundspeed assumed for the transition in Kts. = track change, in degrees
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

is the maximum aircraft bank angle, in degrees. For Low altitude transitions (<FL195 ) (V+W) = 500 kts = min(/2 ; 23) . For High altitude transitions (>FL195) (V+W) = 750 kts = 5, by default. If 5 results in Y > 20 NM, then Y = 20 NM and R = 20/tan(/2) .
Pilotage - Guidage FMS Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function

En Route Phase

Destination Runway

Departure Runway

Departure Procedure (SID)

Arrival Procedure (STAR)

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Where am I?

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function Conventional sensors/means onboard AIRBUS aircraft

Autonomous Navigation

RADIO-NAVIGATION
Cruise :

- Time - Air Data -Inertia -Radio-altimetry

- ADF - VOR - DME - GPS Approach/Landing :

A/C Position computation


AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

ILS/MLS/DGPS/SBAS

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function Autonomous Navigation means


Inertial units : outputs :
Attitude Position : Latitude / Longitude Velocity

Radio-altimeter :
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function Radio-Navigation


ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) : Outputs : azimuth of ADF Navaid wrt aircraft axis.

Bearing

VOR (VHF Omni Range) : Outputs : magnetic radial of the navaid


AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Navaid direction

Nm

Heading Azimuth
Nm

VOR Navaid

Radial
Pilotage - Guidage FMS Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function Radio-Navigation


DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) : outputs : direct distance between A/C and the DME navaid

DME ground station

R
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Answer delay 50s

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function Position computation in FMS General principle IRS 1, 2, 3 Inertial Radio
/ position / position

DME VOR LOC


AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Navigation Function position FMS


POSITION
F M G E C 1 3 F M G E C 2 3 R A D I O I I

MONITOR

4610.2N/00618.3E
R S / D M E / D M E

4610.2N/00618.8E
R S / D M E / D M E

4610.1N/00618.2E
R S 1 . 4 N A

X I R

I S 0

4 6 0 9. 72 N / 0 0 6 1 8 . 0 E
I V R S 0 2 . 2 N A I V R S 0 S 3 . 4 E L

MMR GP(IR)S

FREEZE

NAVAIDS>

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function Navigation modes automatic/optimum selection


IRS Position Available + reasonable
Yes No NO NAV

GPS Position Available + reasonable


No

Yes GPS/INERTIAL

Radio Position
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Yes RADIO/INERTIAL

Available + reasonable
No INERTIAL ONLY

DME/DME

VOR/DME

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Navigation Function HMI Synthesis of Position computation function NAV mode
POSITION
F M G E C 1

MONITOR

4610.2N/00618.3E
3 I R S / D M E / D M E

F M G E C 2

4610.2N/00618.8E
3 I R S / D M E / D M E

Available positions

R A D I O

4610.1N/00618.2E 4 6 0 9.72N / 0 0 6 1 8 . 0 E
I R S 2 N A V 0 . 2 I R S 3 N A V 0 . 4 S E L

M I X

I R S

I R S 1 N A V 0 . 4

IRS drift
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

FREEZE

NAVAIDS>

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path


Flight planning : the path to follow Navigation : I know where Iam

Guidance along lateral path

En Route Phase

Destination Runway

Departure Runway
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Departure Procedure (SID)

Arrival Procedure (STAR)

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path Lateral guidance :


- is controlled by pilot or by FMS depending on lateral guidance mode. - is based on the Active leg (leg A/C is supposed to fly) of the Primary F-PLN. - takes into account a notion of F-PLN sequencing (leg switching when specific condition between two legs is reached)

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path Two lateral guidance mode are available
Managed mode
Managed mode is engaged by pushing the HDG/TRK selector knob on FCU Lateral guidance is controlled by the FMS to follow the trajectory as defined on MCDU (MFD).

Selected mode
Selected mode is engaged by pulling the HDG/TRK selector knob on FCU Lateral guidance is controlled by pilot selection on the FCU FCU on SA/LR
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

FCU on A380

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Lateral Guidance mode

SA/LR

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path


Managed modes Engagement logic
RWY

During TO up to 30 ft RA 3 submodes :

NAV

Heading (if Active Leg = Heading Leg) Track (if Active Leg = Course Leg) HPATH (if Active Leg = Course Leg) : roll command

APPNAV
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Depending on precision or non precision approaches

LOC LAND

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path In NAV Managed mode, depending on active leg type the FMS steering commands are :
- Roll targets for fixed path legs (TF, CF, DF, ) - Heading targets for heading legs (VD, VI, VM, ) - Track targets for course legs (CD, CI, CA, )
DET26

: HPATH Submode : HDG Submode : TRK Submode

D015J

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

DF DET36 D080C is the FROM wpt DET26 is the TO wpt DET 36 is the NEXT wpt D080C

Active leg

Command = Roll target

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

The HPATH Law


XTK TKE Phi target

HPATH law
Ground speed GS Phi command

GS*TKE

Desired course

TKE

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

XTK

Phi target

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

HPATH Law input


Phi target computation
Straight segment & final RAD => Curved segment & initial RAD =>

t arg et = 0

t arg et

GS 2 = signsegment arctan( ) g turn _ radius

RAD = Roll Anticipation Distance


AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

= distance from the termination of the leg at which the phi target is modified to reach the phi target of the next segment at the entry point = f(roll angle , roll rate, ground speed)

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

HPATH Law in FMS


Model construction
Aircraft position

Errors
Active Trajectory

XTK TKE Phi target

Segment

segment

computation

HPATH law

Phi command

sequencing Active & next Phi target


segment Aircraft position

computation
Ground speed

Ground speed

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Aircraft states

Navigation

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path


NAV guidance mode

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path


NAV guidance mode is armed (1/3)

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path


NAV guidance mode is armed (2/3)

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path


NAV guidance mode is engaged (3/3)

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path F-PLN Sequencing :


An automatic sequencing occurs when :
- A/C overflies TO waypoint or crosses with specific condition for fixed path legs. - conditions linked to the leg are met for heading and Course legs. In this example, A/C is in selected mode, ABADI has been passed with a Crosstrack error less than 5NM. TO waypoint is now BOKNO

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

XTRK error

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path F-PLN Sequencing :


When conditions for automatic sequencing are not met the F-PLN must be sequenced manually.

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

The FROM is cleared

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path F-PLN Sequencing :


When conditions for automatic sequencing are not met the F-PLN must be sequenced manually.

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

ABADI becomes the FROM WPT

A HDG/TRK is selected on FCU to intercept the active leg before TMPY F-PLN insertion
Pilotage - Guidage FMS Mai 2011

FMS Guidance along the lateral path F-PLN Sequencing :


When conditions for automatic sequencing are not met the F-PLN must be sequenced manually.

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

PNEP

Managed Mode is armed

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

Guidance Flight Technical Error Flight Technical Error (FTE) :


The navigation error introduced by the pilots (or autopilots) capability to utilize displayed guidance information to track the desired flight path is commonly referred to as flight technical error (FTE). In the RNP environment, the overall navigation performance must account for the contribution of FTE. During real time operation of the system, the FTE can be measured, however during the system certification, an estimated system FTE shall be established.

ED75 DO236B
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Minimum Aviation System Performance Standard : Required Navigation Performance for Area Navigation

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

Guidance Flight Technical Error Flight Technical Error (FTE) :

FTE should not exceed 1.0 nmi for en route, 1.0 nmi for terminal or approach transition, or 0.25 nmi (for equipment using GPS data) or 0.5 nmi (for equipment not using GPS data) for approach operating modes on a 95 percent basis.
FAA Advisory Circular AC20-130A: AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL OF NAVIGATION OR FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INTEGRATING MULTIPLE NAVIGATION SENSORS
AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

Example of use : RNP Operation RNP Concept: Navigation Performance DO-236 Definitions

DesiredPath Path DefinitionError(PDE) DefinedPath TotalSystem Error(TSE)


AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

PathSteeringError(PSE)orFlight TechnicalError(FTE)

PositionEstimationError(PEE)or NavigationSystemError(NSE)

Estimated Position TruePosition

Pilotage - Guidage FMS

Mai 2011

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Example of use : RNP Operation

Pilotage - Guidage FMS Mai 2011

Example of use : RNP Operation

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) approach

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits rservs. Document confidentiel.

Navigation accuracy :RNP values

RNP AR flight operations and Services presentation

November 2010

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