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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

These days, most people have to read greats reading of material just to keep

from getting buried in paper-at home, at the office, at school. Through reading, we

can inform ourselves about something we are interested in, or challenge our

knowledge on certain matters. In other words, to extend experience of the world in

which we live. In making contact with the text the readers choose to read, purpose

and motivation are the first items to be made up. Without purpose and motivation,

what the readers do may not be led well. Motivation is commonly thought of as an

inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves on to particular action. Therefore,

a student who does not get strategyand motivation in reading will be stuck to develop

their skill, while the strategy is a necessary part of skill development and motivation

asan effective way to get in.

Reading is a very important skill in learning a foreign language and reading

comprehension is claimed to be the main purpose of foreign language teaching in

schools. But acquiring and mastering this skill seems complex to many learners and

they often find it difficult to exploit this skill in their learning experience. On the

other hand, the findings of many ESL/EFL research projects have shown the positive

effect of learning strategy instruction on enhancing reading comprehension of

learners. But the point is that many individual differences such as age, sex, attitudes,
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motivation, setting, level of proficiency, etc, can influence the use of learning

strategies.

Reading is more than seeing words clearly, more than listening to pronouncing

words correctly. It is one of the basic communicative skills, but it is a very complex

process. It can be said that reading is a process in which reader find information given

by the writer in the written form. In this case reading can be said as an interactive

process. Because while reading someone guess, predict, check, and ask questions

about what the text about.

Based on the researcher’s observation at SMA Negeri 1 Bontonompo Selatan

Gowa on Monday January 5th, 2010, the students’ reading comprehension in reading

English texts at this school is generally still low. It can be seen from their final

examination which showed low scores with 50.00 average scores for English subject.

That’s why; their skills in English should be improved, especially for their reading

comprehension. Generally, some comprehension problems are found by the students

such as, they can’t understand the text well, they misread the text by totally changing

its meaning, and they also misread the text by taking words and phrases out of

context or under reading. The students lack of background knowledge about the text

given. Therefore, the students become frustrated and disoriented when they have to

respond questions of the reading test. The students also lack of strategies to be used in

their reading activity, the only one strategy they apply in their reading is translation

method using dictionary to translate unknown words. Besides, the teacher faces many
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problems in teaching, they also lack of strategies to be used in teaching.

Consequently, the results of the students are still unsatisfactory. It can be seen from

their class activities, their study evaluations in their school or in their national

examinations.

So that, some creative and innovative efforts are primarily needed by the

students in understanding the content of the text in their reading to become successful

readers. A cognitive reading strategy is one of the methods in good reading process

that the researcher will try to observe. A cognitive strategy serves to support the

learners develop their internal procedures that enable them to perform texts that are

complex. According to Luann (2007) reading comprehension is an area where

cognitive strategies are important. Instead, students search the text and combine

information as they generate questions; then they comprehend what they have read.

Clark and Silberstein in Simanjuntak (1998:15) design reading as “an active cognitive

process of interacting with printing and monitoring comprehension to establish

meaning. Rosenshine states that the act of creating questions does not lead directly to

comprehension. Instead, students search the text and combine information as they

generate questions; then they comprehend what they have read. The use of cognitive

strategies can increase the efficiency with which the learner approaches a learning

task. These academic tasks can include, remembering and applying information from

text, constructing sentences and paragraphs, editing written work, paraphrasing, and

classifying information to be learned.


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A teacher who teaches cognitive strategies well will connect learner and task,

especially for comprehending the reading passage. This strategy will be chosen

because it is the best strategy for both, the learner’s characteristics and the task and/or

content that needs to be mastered. By using necessary approaches, the teacher’s

attention turns to the knowledge of the students, so the learner’s characteristics will

be known and considered such as intellectual ability and interest in the subject and

their general motivation to learn. Cognitive reading strategies emphasize on the

importance of the readers’ background knowledge in the reading process, so the

readers make use of both the text and their background knowledge. Readers use pre-

reading information to make some predictions of a text and in this strategy while

reading is meant to be a process of decoding and repetition, identifying letters, words,

phrases, and then sentences in order to get the meaning then post reading, readers

check to see how this information employed by this strategy such as paraphrasing,

inferencing, summarizing and synthesizing to get the gist of a text, etc. Therefore,

interaction of background knowledge, making prediction and the others strategy with

the text are essential for efficient reading. William and Burden (1997;148) state that

cognitive strategies are seen as mental processes directly concerned with the

processing of information in order to learn, that is for obtaining, storage, retrieval or

use of information.
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Based on the discussion above, the researcher carries out a research under the

title “Applying Cognitive Reading Strategies to develop students’ reading

comprehension”.

B. Problem Statement of the Research

Based on the background above, the researcher formulates a research question

as follows:

“Does the application of cognitive reading strategies develop the students’ reading

comprehension of SMA Negeri 1 Bontonompo Selatan Gowa?”

Regarding to the problem statement above, it is divided into three kinds of

research questions relating to the level of comprehension, as follows:

1. Does the application of cognitive reading strategies develop significantly the

students’ literal comprehension?

2. Does the application of cognitive reading comprehension develop

significantly the students’ interpretative comprehension?

3. Does the application of cognitive reading comprehension develop

significantly students’ critical comprehension?

C. Objective of the Research

The purpose of the research is to find out whether the applications of cognitive

reading strategies develop the students’ reading comprehension which contains of:
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1. Whether or not the application of cognitive reading strategies develop

significantly students’ literal comprehension.

2. Whether or not the application of cognitive reading strategies develop

significantly students’ interpretive comprehension.

3. Whether or not the application of cognitive reading strategies develop

significantly students’ critical comprehension.


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D. Significance of the Research

The outcomes of this research are generally expected to give meaningful

contributions to linguistics development and particularly for the applied linguistics. It

is expected to provide not only theoretical significance, but also practical one for the

teachers of English, especially those who have great interest in teaching reading

comprehension.

Theoretically, this study is expected to support the theory of second/foreign

language learning in that adequate practice of reading and input to facilitate language

mastery. Besides, the practical significance of this study hopefully can provide the

teachers or lecturers with empirical data on using cognitive reading as strategies to

develop students’ reading comprehension. It is also expected to give contribution to

the students who have low comprehension level to develop their reading

comprehension and to be useful information for the teacher to enrich their teaching

strategies in reading by using cognitive reading strategies.

E. Scope of the Research

The study of this research is limited to the teaching and learning reading

comprehension by applying cognitive reading strategies in reading English texts. By

discipline, the research is under applied psycholinguistics. It is specified on the

implementation of cognitive reading strategies as a way to develop students’ reading

comprehension. By content, the research covers reading materials namely narrative,

hortatory exposition, and spoof English written text. By activity, the researcher
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employs cognitive reading strategies in comprehending English written text to

achieve three levels of comprehension, they are literal, interpretative and critical

comprehension using the guidance implementation of school-level curriculum

(KTSP). Cognitive reading strategies consist of fourteen strategies. However, in this

research, the researcher restricts in eight strategies. The strategies are making

connections, prediction, asking questions, visualizing, monitoring and clarifying,

summarizing and synthesizing, determining what’s important, and analyzing the

author’s craft. The researcher chooses those strategies above because it relevant with

the students materials at their school that generally just use short reading passage.

Besides that, those strategies can be as representation from the whole strategies of

cognitive reading strategies to be used in comprehending the English written texts.


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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Previous related studies

Studies of the effect of implementing a particular strategy in language

learning to improve students’ reading skill, especially to the reading comprehension

are varying based on the strategy used by the researchers.

In Indonesian context, there were still little studies deals with the use of

language learning strategies to improve students’ reading comprehension, and the

following three studies which were conducted by Indonesian researchers regarding to

the use of language learning strategies for improving the students’ reading

comprehension: “Improving reading comprehension through the directed activities

related to texts (DARTs) strategy” by Threes (2010), “Improving the reading

comprehension through STAD technique” by Kasman (2010), Improving students’

reading comprehension through Think-Pair-Share strategy” by Kamaruddin (2008).

a. The study conducted by Threes (2010)

The study conducted by Threes were intended to find out whether or not

DARTs strategy can improve students’ reading comprehension, and also to find out

students’ interest in learning reading comprehension toward the application of

DARTs strategy.
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Threes collected data using two kinds of instruments; the reading test for the

students’ reading comprehension and questionnaire of students’ interest which were

analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 and used by 60 students which belonged to two

groups; 30 students in experimental group and 30 students in control group. The

research method employed quasi-experimental research.

The findings of the research show that: (1) the application of directed activities

related to text (DARTs) has a significant effect in improving the reading

comprehension and also (2) the students’ interest in reading comprehension toward

DARTs is high.

Based on the study above, it has some similarity to this research in which

problem questions, population, and also objective of the research are to find the

reading achievement of students by using certain learning strategies (DARTs strategy

and Cognitive reading strategies). But in this research, the researcher specify his

research problem into what level of comprehension the students can achieve after

taught cognitive reading strategies.

b. The study conducted by Kasman (2010)

Study conducted by Kasman aimed at observing whether or not the use of

STAD technique can improve reading comprehension and also the students’ attitude

toward teaching reading through STAD technique. The method of the research was

quasi-experiment with nonequivalent control group design. The population of the

research was carried out at SMA Negeri 2 Bau-Bau, the sample consisted of 72
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students which were taken through cluster random sampling. The instrument of

collecting the data was reading test. Kasman collected the data through pretest and

posttest from both groups (experiment and control group) and the students’

achievement was analyzed using SPSS 17 version.

The result of the data analysis shows that the second year students’ reading

comprehension through STAD technique significantly improved.

The most basic different of this research to the study above conducted by

Kasman is these research uses reading test as an instrument but the test use for

measuring the students’ achievement applying for taxonomy bloom’s theory where

Kasman only used customary test. Bloom offers a "stair steps" description of the

levels of human understanding, by using kinds of bloom’s questions verbs;

researcherwill easily identify the levels of students’ understanding when they answer

the questions given by the researcher.

c. The study conducted by Kamaruddin (2008)

The problem of this study were the use of TPS (think-pair-share) strategy able

to improve the reading comprehension of the eleventh year students of SMA

Muhammadiyah Pangkep and also the students’ interest in learning reading through

TPS strategy.

The study employed pre-experimental method with consisted of 25 students in

the 2007/2008 academic year. Kamaruddin used purposive sampling technique and

one group pretest and post-test design. His research were collected by using objective
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test and questionnaire and analyzed with mean score and t-test formula. The

questionnaire was used to determine the students’ interest toward the reading material

and the application of TPS strategy.

The result of the study showed that the students’ achievement improve

significantly, it indicates that the use of TPS strategy in teaching reading

comprehension to the students of SMA Muhammadiyah Pangkep is able to improve

their reading comprehension, and in matter of students’ interest, it reveals that the

students are interested in learning through TPS strategy.

In this research, the writer applies quasi experimental method while

Kamaruddin used pre-experimental method. Besides that, this research adapt school

level curriculum (KTSP) as a basic guidance of senior high schools as an attempt at

planning the teaching and learning process as an important elements to gain better

improvement of higher education. Relating to this research, the writer expects

significant improvement for the students by adapting the school level curriculum used

by the teachers in schools.


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Table 1. Previous studies of improving reading comprehension by using certain


strategies.

Study Number
Class Level Research Method
of subject
1. “Improving reading
comprehension through
60 students Senior High School Quasi experimental method. Reading
the directed activities tests and questionnaire.
related to texts (DARTs)
strategy” by Threes
(2010),

2. “Improving the Quasi experimental method With


SMA Negeri 2
72 students non-equivalent control group design,
readingcomprehension bau-bau
Cluster random sampling technique.
through STAD Reading tests and questionnaire.

technique” by Kasman
(2010),

3. “Improving students’ SMA Pre-experimental method. Purposive


Muhammadiyah sampling technique. Objective test
reading comprehension 25 students Pangkep and questionnaire
through Think-Pair-Share
strategy” by Kamaruddin
(2008).

The previous table summarizes the studies conducted by, Threes, Kasman, and

Kamaruddin in terms of the use of reading strategies in improving the students’

reading comprehension by the learners of English in Indonesia.

Regarding to the researches above, it can be concluded that the use of strategies

in improving the students’ reading comprehension contributes much better

achievement to students’ reading skill. Therefore, this research is designed to achieve


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goal in reading comprehension using cognitive reading strategies. The researcher

convinces gaining better achievement in which this research suits to the school-level

curriculum, using applicable or easily applied strategies, preparing standardized tests

using Bloom’s taxonomy to ensure students’ comprehension and also by utilizing

quasi-experimental research design in order to eliminate or reduce errors in drawing

conclusions that will be made.

B. Some pertinent ideas

a. Learning strategies

The term 'learning strategies' refers to “special thoughts or behaviors that

individuals use to help them comprehend, learn, or retain new information”

(O’Malley and Chamot, 1990, p. 1)

1) Language learning strategies

Language learning strategy has been defined by many researchers. Wenden and

Rubin (1987:19) define learning strategies as "... any sets of operations, steps, plans,

routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of

information." Richards and Platt (1992:209) state that learning strategies are

"intentional behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning so as to better

help them understand, learn, or remember new information." Faerch Claus and

Casper (1983:67) stress that a learning strategy is "an attempt to develop linguistic

and sociolinguistic competence in the target language." According to Stern


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(1992:261), "the concept of learning strategy is dependent on the assumption that

learners consciously engage in activities to achieve certain goals and learning

strategies can be regarded as broadly conceived intentional directions and learning

techniques".

All language learners use language learning strategies either consciously or

unconsciously when processing new information and performing the learning

materials in the language classroom. Since language classroom is like a problem-

solving environment in which language learners are likely to face new input and

difficulty, language learning strategies will be their way to figure out those problems.

Language Learning Strategies have been classified by many scholars (Wenden and

Rubin 1987; O'Malley et al. 1985; Oxford 1990; Stern 1992; Ellis 1994, etc.).

a) Wenden and Rubin (1987) Classification of Language Learning

Strategies.Wenden and Rubin, who pioneered much of the work in the field of

strategies, makes the distinction between strategies contributing directly to learning

and those contributing indirectly to learning. According to Rubin, there are three

types of strategies used by learners that contribute directly or indirectly to language

learning. These are:

1. Learning Strategies

2. Communication Strategies

3. Social Strategies
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b) Oxford's (1990) Classification of Language Learning Strategies.Oxford

(1990:9) divides language learning strategies into two main classes, direct and

indirect, which are further subdivided into 6 groups. In Oxford's system,

metacognitive strategies help learners to regulate their learning. Affective strategies

are concerned with the learner's emotional requirements such as confidence, while

social strategies lead to increased interaction with the target language. Cognitive

strategies are the mental strategies learners use to make sense of their learning,

memory strategies are those used for storage of information, and compensation

strategies help learners to overcome knowledge gaps to continue the communication.

Oxford's (1990:17) taxonomy of language learning strategies is shown in the

following:

(1)Direct strategies

(a) Memory

1. Creating mental linkages

2. Applying images and sounds

3. Reviewing well

4. Employing action

(b) Cognitive

1. Practicing

2. Receiving and sending messages strategies


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3. Analyzing and reasoning

4. Creating structure for input and output

(c) Compensation strategies

1. Guessing intelligently

2. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing

(2) Indirect strategies

(a) Metacognitive Strategies

1. Centering your learning

2. Arranging and planning your learning

3. Evaluating your learning

(b) Affective Strategies

1. Lowering your anxiety

2. Encouraging yourself

3. Taking your emotional temperature

(c) Social Strategies

1. Asking questions

2. Cooperating with others

3. Empathizing with others


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c) O'Malley's (1985) Classification of Language Learning Strategies.O'Malley

et al. (1985:582-584) divide language learning strategies into three main

subcategories:

1. Metacognitive Strategies. It can be stated that metacognitive is a term to

express executive function, strategies which require planning for learning,

thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one's

production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is

completed. Among the main metacognitive strategies, it is possible to

include advance organizers, directed attention, selective attention, self-

management, functional planning, self-monitoring, delayed production, self-

evaluation.

2. Cognitive Strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they

involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself. Repetition,

resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking, deduction, recombination,

imagery, auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration,

transfer, inferencing are among the most important cognitive strategies.

3. Socio affective Strategies, it can be stated that they are related with social-

mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and question for

clarification are the main socio affective strategies (Brown 1987:93-94).


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d) Stern's (1992) Classification of Language Learning Strategies. According to

Stern (1992:262-266), there are five main language learning strategies. These are as

follows:

1. Management and Planning Strategies. These strategies are related with the

learner's intention to direct his own learning. A learner can take charge of the

development of his own program when he is helped by a teacher whose role

is that of an adviser and resource person (Stern 1992:263).

2. Cognitive Strategies. They are steps or operations used in learning or

problem solving that require direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of

learning materials. In the following, some of the cognitive strategies are

exhibited:

a. Clarification / Verification

b. Guessing / Inductive Inferencing

c. Deductive Reasoning

d. Practice

e. Memorization

f.Monitoring

3. Communicative-Experiential Strategies, such as circumlocution, gesturing,

paraphrase, or asking for repetition and explanation are techniques used by

learners so as to keep a conversation going. The purpose of using these


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techniques is to avoid interrupting the flow of communication (Stern

1992:265).

4. Interpersonal Strategies. They should monitor their own development and

evaluate their own performance. Learners should contact with native

speakers and cooperate with them. Learners must become acquainted with

the target culture (Stern 1992: 265-266).

5. Affective Strategies. It is evident that good language learners employ distinct

affective strategies. Language learning can be frustrating in some cases. In

some cases, the feeling of strangeness can be evoked by the foreign

language. Good language learners try to create associations of positive affect

towards the foreign language and its speakers as well as towards the learning

activities involved. Learning training can help students to face up to the

emotional difficulties and to overcome them by drawing attention to the

potential frustrations or pointing them out as they arise (Stern 1992:266).

2) Cognitive strategies in reading

Williams and Burden (1997, p.148) state that cognitive strategies are seen as

mental processes directly concerned with the processing of information in order to

learn, that is for obtaining, storage, retrieval or use of information. In this approach,

reading is meant to be a process of decoding; identifying letter, words, phrases, and

then sentences in order to get the meaning.


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Some of these cognitive reading strategies are modified by Ghonsooly (1997)

adapted from O’malley and Chamot’s theory (1990) as follows:

a) Using background knowledge: This strategy refers to using knowledge about

the world and the contents of the text that contributes to understanding and processing

the text. This strategy corresponds to what O'Malley and Chamot call elaboration.

b) Prediction: This strategy refers to predicting the content of the text based on

the information presented in part of the text.

c) Repetition to get the meaning of a word: This strategy occurs when the

reader repeats a word or a phrase in order to remember or retrieve the meaning from

the long term memory.

d) Repetition: Repetition here means the writer’s attempt to give some

information to the readers about the topic.

e) Paraphrase: This strategy refers to the reader’s attempt to either provide

synonyms and antonyms for a word or restating the contents of a sentence in his own

words.

f) Inference: This strategy refers to using the context or the knowledge of

suffixes and prefixes to guess the meaning of an unknown word.


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g) Inference (Reprocessing to get the meaning of a word): This strategy refers

to the act of rereading a phrase, a clause or a sentence in order to infer or guess the

meaning of an unknown word.

h) Translation: This strategy refers to using L1 to provide equivalents for a

word or stating the contents of a sentence.

i) Watchers: This strategy refers to reader’s attempt to keep an unfamiliar item

or vocabulary in mind to be tackled later on by getting help from incoming

information.

j) Using a dictionary: This strategy refers to the simple act of referring to a

dictionary to look up the meaning of an unknown word or item. This strategy

corresponds to what O’Malley and Chamot (1990) call resourcing.

k) Decoding: This strategy refers to breaking a word into syllables in order to

easily the pronunciation or processing its meaning. This strategy is often followed by

a repetition of the word.

l) Word identification based on phonological similarity: This strategy refers to

the reader’s attempt to get the meaning of an unknown lexical item by comparing it to

its closest possible neighbor, which bears some phonological similarity.


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m) Grammatical analysis: This strategy refers to using the knowledge of

grammar to interpret and understand a word, a phrase or a sentence. This strategy

corresponds to what O’Malley and Chamot call deduction.

n) Imagery: This strategy refers to using visual images and visualizing the

content of a text in order to understand.

A note, which should be keep in mind, is that as Brown (1993) maintains

strategies are "contextualized battle plans" which vary intra individually so that each

person may use different learning strategies in different times and situations and for

different purposes. Thus, the strategies used by the subjects should be interpreted as

those employed in an academic setting for the purpose of main idea construction of a

reading text.

3) Procedures for applying cognitive reading strategies

Strategies are an important part of comprehension. There are various strategies

in reading that the readers may use in various combinations repeatedly. Cognitive

reading strategies below are taken from http://docs.google.com/ modified by Hatzi

(2010) based on O’malley and chamot (1990) theory about Cognitive learning

strategy.

a) Making connections strategy. The readers make connections from text to

text, text to self, and text to world. Strategic readers connect what they know with

what they have read.


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1. What strategic readers are thinking?

- Does this remind me of something?

- Has something like this ever happened to me?

- Do I know someone like this character?

- Am I like this character?

- Have I ever felt this way?

- What do I already know that will help me understand this text?

- Does this information confirm or conflict with other things I’ve read?

- What do I know about the author or genre (i.e. poetry, short story, drama,

essay, etc.) that influenced my reading?

- Did the text make me think of real events in the news or in history books?

2. Sentence Starters for response

- This reminds me of . . .

- I connected to this when . . .

- made me remember a time when . . .

- This relates to my life because . . .

- Makes me think about . . .

- This illustration makes me think about . . .

- This makes me think about . . .

- This part makes me remember . . .

- I really had a strong connection to this part because . . .


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- This is like . . .

- This is familiar to me because . . .

- This is similar to . . .

b) Making Predictions. Strategic readers think about what’s going to

happen and make predictions based on what they know and what they have read.

1. What strategic readers are thinking?

- What text and/or picture clues can help me here?

- What background knowledge do I have that will help me with this text?

- What will I learn?

- Were my predictions correct?

- How did making the prediction help me with this reading?

- What will happen next?

2. Sentence starters for response

- I think this will be about _____ because . . .

- I think _____ is going to happen next.

- I predict that . . .

- _____ make me think that _____ will happen.

- I thought ____ was going to happen, but _____ happened instead.

- I’m guessing this will be about ___.

- Since ____ happened, I think ___ will happen.

- My predictions were right/wrong because . . .


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c) Asking questions. Strategic readers ask themselves questions before, during,

and after reading to better understand the author and the meaning of the text.

1. What strategic readers are thinking?

- What is the author saying?

- What am I wondering?

- What questions do I have?

- What would I like to ask the author?

- What questions might a teacher ask?

- Why is this happening?

- Why did this character ___?

- Is this important?

- How does this information connect with what I have already read?

- How could this be explained to someone else?

2. Sentence starters for response

- I wonder . . .

- I would like to ask the author . . .

- Who?

- What?

- When?

- Where?

- Why?
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- How?

- This makes me wonder about . . .

d) Visualizing strategy. Strategic readers picture what is happening as they

read.

1. What strategic readers are thinking?

- What pictures or scenes came into my mind?

- What do I hear, taste, smell or feel?

- What do the characters, setting, and events of the story look like in my

mind

- Can I picture this new information?

2. Sentences starters for response

- I could really picture . . .

- The description of ____ helped me visualize . . .

- I created a mental image of . . .

- In my mind I could really see . . .

- When it said ____, I could imagine . . .

- If this were a movie . . .

e) Monitoring and clarifying. Strategic readers stop to think about their reading

and know what to do when they don’t understand.

1. What strategic readers are thinking?


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- Is the text making sense?

- Wait, what’s going on here?

- What have I learned?

- Should I slow down? Speed up?

- Do I need to reread?

- How do I say this word?

- What does this word mean?

- What text clues help me fill in missing information?

- I know I’m on track because ___.

- To understand better, I need to know more about ___.

2. Sentences starters for readers

- I had to slow down when . . .

- I wonder what ____ means.

- I need to know more about . . .

- This last part is about . . .

- I was confused by . . .

- I still don’t understand . . .

- I had difficulty with . . .

- I ____ (name strategy) to help me understand this part.

- I can’t really understand . . .

- I wonder what the author means by . . .


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- I got lost here because . . .

- I need to reread the part where . . .

f) Summarizing and synthesizing. Strategic readers identify the most important

ideas and restate them in their own words.

1. What strategic readers are thinking?

- How is the text organized?

- What is the main idea here?

- What essential information do I need to know about the characters, plot,

and setting in order to understand the story?

- How does the text’s organization help me?

- What are the key words?

- Are the ideas supported with convincing evidence?

2. Sentence starters for response

- The text is mainly about ___.

- The author’s most important ideas were___.

- The details I need to include are . . .

- Some important concepts are . . .

- The most important evidence was . . .

- The basic gist . . .

- The key information is . . .

- In a nutshell this says that . . .


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g) Determining what is important. Strategic readers think about the text’s big

idea or message and why it is important.

1. What strategic readers are thinking?

- What is the message or big idea of this text?

- What in the text makes me think about the big idea?

- How did my thinking about the meaning of the text change as I read?

- How can I relate the big idea to events or experiences in my own life?

2. Sentences starters for responses

- At first I thought ___, but then I thought ___.

- My latest thought about this is ___.

- I’m getting a different picture here because ___.

- What this means to me is . . .

- So, the big idea is . . .

- A conclusion I’m drawing is . . .

- This is relevant to my life because . . .

h) Analyzing author’s craft. Strategic readers notice the way the author uses

language to get his or her ideas across.

1. What readers are thinking?

- What words, phrases, or figurative language is the author using to help

me create mental images?

- What was effective about the author’s style of writing?


31

- What stands out about the author’s use of details?

- How does the author’s style relate to the message he or she is trying to

convey?

- What did the author of the text do that I’d like to try in my own writing?

2. Sentences starters for responses

- A golden line for me is . . .

- I like how the author uses ___ to show ___.

- This word/phrase stands out for me because . . .

- I like how the author uses ____ to show . . .

- The simile / metaphor / image that caught my attention was . . .

- My favorite quote was . . .

- I like how the author described ____ to show . . .

b. Reading comprehension

1. Definition of reading comprehension

Some scholars have formulated definitions of reading comprehension. Below

are various definitions of reading comprehension.

Thinker and McCullough (1975:9) state that reading is the identification or

written symbol, which serves as stimulator for the recall of meaning built through

past experience.

“Reading comprehension understanding what has been read it is an active


thinking process that depends not only on comprehension skill but also the
32

students’ experiences and prior knowledge comprehension involves


understanding the vocabulary seeing the relationship among words and
concepts, organizing, ideas, recognizing author’s purpose, making judgment,
and evaluating”. (Kustaryo, 1988: 11-12)

Wender and Rubbin (1982: 106-107) states that reading comprehension is a

complex intellectual process involving a number of abilities. Pearson and Johnson in

Burn (1989: 148) state that reading comprehension is at once unitary process and a

set of discrete processes so, they explore comprehension from two angels: The

written units that the reader must understand and the different levels of

comprehension that he or she should achieve.

Smith and Robinson (1980: 205) state that reading comprehension means
the understanding, evaluating and utilize of information and ideas gained
through an interaction between the reader and the author. Reading
comprehension is such a kind of dialogue between an author and a reader in
which the written language becomes the medium that cause the dialogue
happen when the two persons communicate through the medium of printed
papers.

Turner in Alexander (1998: 159) points out that reading comprehension

involves taking meaning to a text in order to obtain meaning from that text.

Pearson and Johnson(1978) state that comprehension is a special thinking

process where the readers comprehend by actively constructing meaning internally

from interacting with the material that is read.

Clark and Silberstein in Simanjuntak (1998: 15) define reading as an


active cognitive process of interacting with print and monitoring
comprehension to establish meaning. Reading is the instantaneous recognition
of various written symbols with simultaneous association of these symbols with
existing knowledge, and comprehension of the information and ideas
communicated. Reading also is an active process of interacting with
33

comprehension to establish the meaning. The identification and recognition of


printed or written symbol can built our experience about something.

By looking over those definitions above, it can be concluded that reading

comprehension is an active process where the readers try to gain the information

given by the author and understand the reading text well.

2. Level of comprehension

There are various levels of comprehension that would obviously include higher

level of thinking. Burn (1984: 150)divides the comprehension into four levels of

skills. They are literal reading, interpretive reading, critical reading, and creative

reading. Each of these skills could be explained as follows:

a) Literal reading. Literal reading refers to the ideas and fact that directly stated

on the printed pages. Literal reading is the skill of getting the primary direct literal

meaning of a word, ideas, or sentence in context. The basic of literal comprehension

are recognizing stated main ideas, details, cause and effect and sequences. This level

of comprehension is fundamental to all reading skills at any levels because a reader

must first understand what the author said before he can draw an inference or make

an evaluation.

b) Interpretative reading. Interpretative reading involves reading between the

lines or making inferences. It is the process of deriving ideas that are implied rather

than directly stated. This level demands higher level of thinking ability because the
34

question in the category of interpretation are concerned with answer that are not

directly stated in the text but are suggested or implied. Smith (1980: 218) states that

in interpretation the readers read between the lines, make connections among

individuals stated ideas, make inferences, draw conclusions, read between the lines to

get inferences, or implied meanings from the text.

c) Critical reading. Critical reading is evaluating written material comparing

the ideas discovered in the material with known standards and drawing conclusion

about their accuracy, appropriateness, and timeliness. Critical reading compares

previous experience to elements in the new material such as content style, expression,

information, and ideas, or values of the author.

In this level of reading skill, the reader must be an active reader, questioning,

searching for facts, and suspending judgment until her or she has considered all of the

material.

d) Creative reading. Creative reading involves going beyond the material

presented by the author, creative reading requires the readers to think as they read just

as critical reading does, and it also requires the reader to use their imaginations. In

creative reading, the reader tries to propose new or alternate solutions to those by the

writer.

Besides that, levels of reading comprehension are originally described by Bots

in Harris in Rachmawati (2006: 10) those are:


35

1. Independent reading level. This is the highest level at which the students can

read easily and fluently without assistance, with few words recognition

errors, and with word comprehension and recall.

2. The instructional reading level. In this level students can do a satisfactory

reading provided he or she receives preparation and supervision from the

teacher. In this level, word recognition errors are not preventable, and

comprehension and recall are satisfactory.

3. The frustratingly reading level. The level which the students reading skill

break down, fluency disappears, word recognition errors are numerous,

comprehension is faulty, recall is sketchy and discomfort become evident.

3. Developing reading comprehension

There are some waysto improve reading comprehension. According to the

language expert, Smith (1980: 138-166) points out that there are five comprehension

skills that the students need to learn to become good readers. Those are:

1. Most of the students learn to read sentences with appropriate intonation

pattern. Oral reading is probably the only way to teach students to read with

appropriate intonation patterns but it is also should always be followed by

silent reading for specific purpose.

2. Most of the students learn to form mental pictures of situations or conditions

that are described in a sentence or a larger passage. Forming mental images


36

as one reads is important because many written materials requires

visualization in order to be comprehended.

3. Most of the students learn to answer questions about the facts or details

presented in a sentence or a larger passage. Students are hopped gain not

only a general impression from the material they read and for some material

and for certain reading process, but also factual information and many

details are important for a good understanding of the subject matter.

4. Most of the students learn to recall with a minimum of prompting the facts

and details in a sentence or a longer passage. Post reading discussion in

which the students are asks to recount the selection in as much detail as they

can remember are helpful in developing the students recall powers.

5. Most of the students learn to paraphrase the central thought or main ideas in

a passage. The beat manifestation of true understanding of the main ideas in

the passage is the ability to put the passage aside and express the essence of

the massage, using one’s personal vocabulary and personal manner of

expression.

4. Procedure of reading comprehension

Reading comprehension can be gained by following certain procedure namely:

1. Pre-reading, purpose to motivate students’ interest in reading material, the

students are expected to participate in reading process. In this step, the

teacher checks the students’ understanding and gives clear instruction.


37

2. Whilst-reading, to help the students to understand researchers’ purpose and

try to clarify the text contents.

3. Post reading, in this step, the teacher presents some communicative activities

to the students such as discussion, problem solving or games (Akmar

Mohammad,1999)

5. How comprehension works, Duffy (2009, P.32-31).

1. Proactive, because a reader must be actively thinking and constantly

monitoring the meaning.

2. Tentative, because predictions made in one moment may change in the next

moment.

3. Personal, in that meaning resides in the reader’s interpretation, which in turn

is controlled by his or her prior knowledge.

4. Trans active, because the reader’s background interacts with the author’s

intention.

5. Thoughtful, because a reader must always analyze the clues the author

provides.

6. Imagistic, because (in narrative text particularly) a reader uses the author’s

descriptive language to create a picture in his/her mind of what is happening.


38

6. School-level curriculum of reading subject

School-Level curriculum of English subject in senior high schools established

some of the general competences, which have to be mastered by the students, are the

ability to comprehend, critical analysis and how to use the information from many

sources, text or non-text. The students are expected to comprehend and interpret the

written texts in dialogue, narrative, argumentative and descriptive.

In reading subject, the school-level curriculum of the eleventh grade students of

SMA Negeri 1 Bontonompo Selatan for reading skills contains of competence

standard, base competence, indicator, learning materials, and learning activities.

1. Competence standard is to understand the short functional written text and

the simple essay in the form of narrative, spoof, and hortatory exposition in

the daily living context and to access of the science.

2. Base competence is to respond the meaning and the rhetorical steps in

written text accurately, fluently an accepted in the daily living context and to

access the science in the form of narrative, spoof, and hortatory exposition

texts.

3. Indicators.

a. To identify the meaning of the words in the text.

b. To identify the meaning of the sentences in the text.

c. To identify the setting of narrative text.

d. To identify complication of the narrative text.


39

e. To identify events in the text.

f. To identify cases in the text.

g. To identify the argument in the text.

h. To identify the suggestion given in the text.

i. To identify the rhetoric steps of the text.

j. To identify the communication purpose of the text.

4. Learning Materials. Written texts in the form of narrative, spoof, and

hortatory exposition.

5. Learning activities.

a. Read loudly exposition text individually.

b. Discuss the various aspects of the text as contents, text structure in a

group.

c. Practice using a sentence stating the arguments and suggestions.

C. The Cognitive domain of educational activities

The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the

development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific

facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual

abilities and skills. Bloom's Taxonomy provides a structured presentation of human

cognition from low-level thought processes like simple recall to higher-order thinking

skills like synthesis and evaluation. Bloom offers a "stair step" description of the

levels of human understanding. There are six major categories, which are listed in
40

order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories

can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first one must be mastered

before the next one can take place.

Based on the definition stated by O'Malley et al.(1985:582-584) on page 43

about cognitive strategies, the researcher assumes that the relation between bloom’s

taxonomy and cognitive strategies are needed, where cognitive strategies are the

strategy used by learners to develop their levels of understanding and cognitive

domain of what Bloom’s taxonomy describes the development of intellectual skills

started from low level thought processes to higher order thinking skills including the

level of comprehension.
41

Table 2. Cognitive Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy

SAMPLE SAMPLE
LEVEL DEFINITION
VERBS BEHAVIORS
Student recalls or Write
recognizes information, List
The students are able to define the 6
ideas, and principles Label
KNOWLEDGE levels of Bloom's taxonomy of the
in the approximate Name
cognitive domain.
form in which they State
were learned. Define
Student translates, Explain
The student can explain
comprehends, or Summarize
the purpose of Bloom's
COMPREHENSION interprets information Paraphrase
taxonomy of the
based on prior Describe
cognitive domain.
learning. Illustrate
Student selects, trans- Use
The student can
fers, and uses data Compute
write an instructional
and principles to Solve
APPLICATION objective for each
complete a problem Demonstrate
level of Bloom's
or task with a mini- Apply
taxonomy.
mum of direction. Construct
Student distinguishes,
Analyze
classifies, and relates The student can
Categorize
the assumptions, compare and contrast
ANALYSIS Compare
hypotheses, evidence, the cognitive and
Contrast
or structure of a affective domains.
Separate
statement or question.
Student originates,
Create The student can design a classification
integrates, and combines
Design scheme for writing
ideas into a
SYNTHESIS Hypothesize educational objectives that combines
product, plan or proposal
Invent the cognitive, affective,
that is new
Develop and psychomotor domains.
to him or her.
The student can
Student appraises, Judge
judge the effective-
assesses, or critiques Recommend
EVALUATION ness of writing
on a basis of specific Critique
objectives using
standards and criteria. Justify
Bloom's taxonomy.

(Bloom, 1956)

Considering the students’ achievement of this research, it is recommended to

use those cognitive domains of learning objective to measure the students’


42

achievement, especially in their reading comprehension. By using the degrees of

question verbs of cognitive domain above, it will be easily for the researcher to

identify on what level are the students’ comprehension achievement after getting

treatment about cognitive reading strategies instruction.

D. The Relevance of reading comprehension development and cognitive reading


strategies

O’malley and Chamot (1990: 211) assume that a number of metacognitive,

cognitive, and social and affective strategies are taught to develop reading

comprehension in social studies. These include advance organization to skim passage,

selective attention to scan for specific information, evaluation of one’s own

comprehension, elaboration of prior knowledge, making inferences about meanings

of new words, taking notes, decoding, prediction, imagery, self-monitoring,

repetition, paraphrase, while reading the text.

Researchers use the word “Comprehension” to label what takes place when the

reader connects the new information with prior knowledge. Information alone, no

matter how well written, does not create comprehension. Comprehension depends on

the reader’s prior knowledge and reading strategies.

When faced with a new text, readers do not begin by “reading” in the sense of

starting at the first word and moving sequentially toward the last word, they first

predict what the passage will mean. It is the one of cognitive strategy that the readers

may use in reading. The readers not only predict what an article will contain or what a
43

statement will mean but they also predict what prior knowledge will be relevant and

which strategies will be useful in approaching the new text.

Furthermore O’malley and Chamot (1990: 216) state that, students who have

had prior experience in using learning strategies in their first language may learn to

apply them with second language tasks through extension of the principle guiding

their use and not require extensive cued repetitions with the new task.

E. Characteristic between poor and successful readers

Table 3. Comparison between poor and successful readers

Characteristics of poor readers Characteristics of successful readers


- Think understanding occurs form- Understand that they must take
“getting the words right” rereading. responsibility for construction meaning
using their prior knowledge.

- Use strategies such as rote- Develop a repertoire of reading strategies,


memorization, rehearsal, simple organizational patterns and genre.
categorization.
- Are poor strategy users: - Are good strategy users:
1. They don’t think strategically about1. They think strategically, plan, monitor
how to read something or solve a their comprehension, and revise their
problem. strategies.
2. They don’t have an accurate sense of2. They have strategies for what to do when
when they have good comprehension they do not know what to do.
readiness for assessment.

- Have relatively low self-esteem. - Have self confidence that they are effective
learners; see themselves as agents able to
actualize their potential.
- See success and failure as the result- See success as the result hard work and
of luck or teacher bias. efficient thinking.
(Knuth and Jones, 1991)
44

In real life, to be successful readers we do not normally read because we haveto

but because we want to. In the table above, the writer presents the comparison

between characteristics of poor and successful readers.

Doff (1988, 170) states that we usually have a purpose in reading: there is

something we want to find out, some information we want to check or clarify, some

opinions we want to match against our own, etc. we also have purposes in reading

when we read stories for pleasure: we want to find out how the story develops, or

what happens next; even we do not usually begin reading with an empty mind but we

have some idea of what we are going to read about. We will usually have certain

questions in our mind (the things we want to know), and we may also be able to make

a number of predictions or guesses (things we expect to find out about).

F. Resume

O'Malley et al. (1985:582-584) state that cognitive Strategies are more limited

to specific learning tasks and they involve more direct manipulation of the learning

material itself. Repetition, resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking, deduction,

recombination, imagery, auditory representation, key word, contextualization,

elaboration, transfer, inferencing are among the most important cognitive strategies.

Reading comprehension is understanding what has been read, it is an active

thinking process that depends not only on comprehension skill but also the students’

experiences and prior knowledge comprehension involves understanding the

vocabulary seeing the relationship among words and concepts, organizing, ideas,
45

recognizing author’s purpose, making judgment, and evaluating” (Kustaryo, 1988:

11-12).

Burn (1984:150) divides the level of comprehension as follows:

- Literal reading refers to the ideas and fact that directly stated on the

printed pages.

- Interpretative reading involves reading between the lines or making

inferences. It is the process of deriving ideas that are implied rather than

directly stated.

- Critical reading is evaluating written material comparing the ideas

discovered in the material with known standards and drawing conclusion

about their accuracy, appropriateness, and timeliness.

- Creative reading involves going beyond the material presented by the

author, creative reading requires the readers to think as they read just as

critical reading does, and it also requires the reader to use their

imaginations.

G. Conceptual framework

Since this research applies quasi experimental method which use two groups,

experimental and control group, so the researcher teach reading comprehension by

using two strategies namely cognitive reading strategy for experimental group and

conventional teaching for control group. The researcher teaches three kinds of texts

that based on the syllabus; they are narrative, spoof, and hortatory written text. In this
46

research, researcher expects students to reach three levels of comprehensions by

applying cognitive reading strategies. The students’ reading achievement in English

by using cognitive reading strategies is measured through reading test. The students’

achievement is the result of their activities after learning process.

The conceptual framework is presents in the following diagram:

Teaching reading
comprehension

Cognitive Reading Non-cognitive


Strategies reading strategies

Students’ Students’
achievement achievement

Literal Interpretative Critical


comprehension comprehension comprehension

Figure 1. Conceptual framework

H. Hypothesis

H1 : The application of cognitive reading strategies significantly develops the

students’ reading comprehension.

H0 : The application of cognitive reading strategies does not significantly develop

the students’ reading comprehension.


47

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

This part presents research design, variables of the research, operational

definition of variables, population and sample, instrument of the research, procedure

of collecting data, and technique of analyzing the data.

A. Research design

In this research, the researcher applied quasi experimental with nonequivalent

group design. Utilizing quasi-experimental with nonequivalent group designs took

much less effort to study due to the assignment to groups was not random. In other

words, the researcher does not control assignments to groups through the mechanism

of random assignment. The experiment involved two groups, an experimental group

and a control group. The experimental group received treatment by using cognitive

reading strategies, while the control group got conventional teaching method where

students were asked to read certain text and then answer the questions directly. The

control group was needed for comparison purposes to see whether the application of

cognitive reading strategies effective or not in improving students’ reading

comprehension as Gay stated that the control group is needed for comparison purpose

to prove if the new treatment is more effective than other (Gay et al, 2006:254).

Both of two groups were given pretest and posttest. Pretest was administered

prior to treatment to assess their competence of reading comprehension. And posttest

administered to measure treatment effects. The aim of this test was to find out the
48

effectiveness of cognitive reading strategies in improving students reading

comprehension.

EG O1 X1 O2

CG O1 X2 O2

(Gay et al,2006:255)

Figure 2. Research Design

Symbols:

EG : Experimental Group

CG : Control Group

O1 : Pretest

O2 : Posttest

X1 : Treatment for experimental group by using cognitive

reading strategy.

X2 : Treatment for control group by using non cognitive reading

strategies.

B. Variables of the research

This research has two kinds of variables: independent and dependent

variables. The independent variable of this research was cognitive reading strategies

as a strategy in improving students reading comprehension, while the dependent

variable was the students’ achievement on reading comprehension.


49

C. Operational definition of the variables

The variables in this research are described in the following definition:

1. Cognitive reading strategies area bound of strategies which served to support

the students develop internal procedures that enable them to perform tasks

that are complex (Rosenshine, 1997). The use of cognitive strategies can

increase the efficiency with which the learner approaches a learning task.

These academic tasks can include, but are not limited to, remembering and

applying information from course content, constructing sentences and

paragraphs, editing written work, paraphrasing, and classifying information

to be learned.

2. Reading comprehension is understanding what has been read, it is an active

thinking process that depends not only on comprehension skill but also the

students’ experiences and prior knowledge comprehension involves

understanding the vocabulary seeing the relationship among words and

concepts, organizing, ideas, recognizing author’s purpose, making judgment,

and evaluating” (Kustaryo, 1988: 11-12). Burn (1984:150) divides the level of

comprehension as follows:

- Literal reading refers to the ideas and fact that directly stated on the

printed pages.
50

- Interpretative reading involves reading between the lines or making

inferences. It is the process of deriving ideas that are implied rather than

directly stated.

- Critical reading is evaluating written material comparing the ideas

discovered in the material with known standards and drawing conclusion

about their accuracy, appropriateness, and timeliness.

D. Population and sample

a. Population

The population of this research was the eleventh grade students of SMU Negeri

1 Bontonompo Selatan, Gowa in 2009/2010 academic year. There were three classes

of natural science department which consist of 32 students for each class. So, the total

number of population was 96 students.

b. Sample

The samples were selected based on cluster random sampling technique where

the researcher took two classes randomly. The number of sample was 96 students.

They were divided into two homogeneous groups (Natural Science classes) of 48

students. One of them was randomly selected as an experimental class and the other

one as a control group at the eleventh grade students of SMU Negeri 1 Bontonompo

Selatan, Gowa.
51

E. Research instrument

In collecting data, the researcher used one kind of instrument, namely a reading

test. It used both as the pre-test and the post-test. The purpose was to get data about

the students’ achievement in reading English texts. The model of reading test was

subjective test. It consists of three texts, namely narrative, hortatory exposition, and

spoof text. The total number of questions in the three texts above was 15 questions.

F. Procedures of the data collection

The procedure of data collection of this research is described as follows:

a. Pretest

The pretest was given to the sample to find out the students’ prior reading

achievement.

b. Posttest

The posttest was given to the sample after giving treatment. It aimed at

knowing whether the students have different achievement in reading with using

cognitive learning strategies as a reading method after giving treatments and to

compare their achievement with the control group.

1. Treatment
52

Then the writer applied cognitive reading strategies (Making connections,

prediction, asking question, visualizing, monitoring and clarifying, summarizing and

synthesizing, determining what is important, and analyzing author’s craft). The steps

of the implementation in the class are as follows:

a. Experimental group

1) The first meeting

Teacher explained about how to use making connections and prediction

strategy and how to apply it in reading English texts.

Pre-reading activity

1. Giving stimulation and motivation before the process of teaching reading

skill.

2. Explaining about three kinds of written text that will be taught (narrative,

spoof, and hortatory exposition).

3. Introducing Cognitive reading strategy as one strategy in teaching reading

4. Explaining more about narrative text and introduce the reading topic.

a) While-reading activity

1. Teacher explained the first strategy (Making Connections), in this phase the

teacher told the students how to connect what they know with what they are

reading.
53

2. The second strategy (making predictions) the teacher taught them to think

about what’s going to happen and make predictions based on what they

know and what they have read.

3. Teacher got students to practice reading the story by using the strategies

above.

4. Teacher gave students exercises related to the reading passage given by the

teacher.

5. Teacher asked some students randomly to read their answer and discusses

the right answer with the class

b) Post-reading activity

1. Teacher asked students about their difficulties in using cognitive reading

strategies in comprehending narrative text.

2. Teacher answered the students’ questions and gave them motivation.

3. Before closing the class, teacher explained briefly about the next material.

2) The second meeting

Teacher explained the way of using asking questions and visualizing strategy

in reading English texts.

a) Pre-reading activity

1. Giving stimulation and motivation before the process of teaching reading

skill.
54

2. Review a little bit about previous lesson.

3. Teacher distributed hand out papers which consist of the reading topic to the

students

4. Teacher told the story generally.

b) While-reading activity

1. Teacher explained the third strategy (asking questions),the students asked

themselves questions before, during, and after reading to better understand

the author and the meaning of the text.

2. The fourth strategy (visualizing) the teacher told the students to picture what

is happening as they read.

3. Teacher asked some students to practice the strategies above in reading.

4. Teacher asked students to read the story individually.

5. Teacher asked students to answer the questions about the text individually.

6. Teacher asked some students randomly to read their answer and discusses

the right answer with the class.

c) Post-reading activity

1. Teacher asked students about their difficulties in using the strategies above

in comprehending the reading text.

2. Teacher answered the students’ questions and give them motivation


55

3. Teacher closed the class as well after giving a few explanations about the

next material.

3) The third meeting

Teacher explained the way of using the fifth strategy (monitoring and

clarifying strategy) and the sixth strategy (Summarizing and synthesizing strategy) in

reading English texts.

a) Pre-reading activity

1. Giving stimulation and motivation before the process of teaching reading

skill.

2. Teacher introduced the topic of the reading passage that will be given to the

students.

b) While-reading activity

1. Using monitoring and clarifying strategy. Teacher explainedhow to stop to

think about their reading and know what to do when they don’t understand.

2. The students used summarizing and synthesizing strategy, where the

students identify the most important ideas and restate them in their own

words.

3. Teacher gave several times to the students to answer the questions together

4. Teacher asked some students to read their answer and discusses the right

answer with the class.


56

c) Post-reading activity

1. Teacher asked students about their difficulties in using those strategies and

in comprehending the text.

2. Teacher answered the students’ questions and give them motivation

3. Teacher closed the class after giving an overview material for the next

meeting.

4) The fourth meeting

Teacher explained the seventh strategy (determining what important) and the

eight strategy (analyzing author’s craft) in reading English texts.

a) Pre-reading activity

1. Giving stimulation and motivation before the process of teaching reading

skill.

2. Teacher reviewed the previous lesson especially about how to use the

strategies that had been explained before.

3. Teacher introduced the reading topic to the students.

b) While-reading activity

1. Teacher explained the seventh strategies (determining what’s important) the

students were asked to think about the text’s big idea or message and why

it’s important.
57

2. The eight strategies (analyzing author’s craft) the students were asked to

notice the way the author uses language to get his or her ideas across.

3. Teacher asked groups to read the text and then discuss about the topic by

using the strategies above.

4. Teacher gave several times to the students to answer the questions together.

5. Teacher asked some students to read their answer and discuss the right

answer with the class.

c) Post-reading activity

1. Teacher asked students about their difficulties in using the seventh strategies

(determining what’s important) and the eight strategies (analyzing author’s

craft) in comprehending the reading text.

2. Teacher answered the students’ questions and gave them motivation.

3. Teacher closed the class as well.

b. Control group

The control group was taught with uninformed/conventional strategy for six

meetings. This group learned the same materials as experimental group. The same

activities were conducted for six meetings, as follows:

1) Pre-reading activity

1. Giving stimulation and motivation before the process of teaching reading

skill.
58

2. Introduced about the topic to the students.

2) While-reading activity

1. Asked the students to read the text.

2. Asked the students to answer the questions in text.

3. Monitored the students’ activity.

4. Checked the students’ answer.

3) Post-reading activity

1. Teacher gave the chance for students to ask about unclear information during

the lesson.

2. Teacher closed the class as well.

2. Technique of data analysis

This research used descriptive statistic in analyzing the data. Descriptive

statistic data analysis that was used in this research consist of the sum number, mean,

standard deviation number, frequencies table and histogram of the data. To analyze

data the researcher used SPSS 15.0 program for windows. The collected data was

analyzed through scoring the result of the students’ test result. The students’

achievement classification was gained by dividing their total correct answer by the

total score. The result, then, was multiplied with ten, the maximum achievement

classification.

The formula for indicating the students’ score:


59

x 100 (interval of the score level)

(Depdiknas: 2006)

Table 4. Score and classification for reading

No Score Classification

1 80-100 Excellent

2 66-79 Good

3 56-65 Fairly Good

4 46-55 Fair

5 0-45 Poor

(Depdiknas, 2006)