INTRODUCTION
Generally speaking urban drainage systems consist of three parts: the overland surface
flow system, the sewer network, and the underground porous media drainage system.
Some elements of these components are shown schematically in Fig. 14.1. Traditionally
no design is considered for the urban porous media drainage part. Recently porous media
drainage facilities such as infiltration trenches have been designed for flood reduction or
pollution control in cities with high land costs. For example, preliminary work on this
aspect of urban porous media drainage design can be found in, Fujita (1987), Morita et al.
(1996), Takaaki and Fujita (1984) and Yen and Akan (1983). Much has yet to be devel
oped to refine and standardize on such designs; no further discussion on this underground
subject will be given in this chapter.
From a hydraulic engineering viewpoint, urban drainage problems can be classified
into two types: (1) design and (2) prediction for forecasting or operation. The required
hydraulic level of the latter is often higher than the former. In design, a drainage facility
is to be built to serve all future events not exceeding a specified design hydrologic level.
Implicitly the size of the apparatus is so determined that all rainstorms equal to and
smaller than the design storm are presumably considered and accounted for. Sewers,
ditches, and channels in a drainage network each has its own time of concentration and
hence its own design storm. In the design of a network all these different rainstorms
should be considered. On the other hand, in runoff prediction the drainage apparatus has
already been built or predetermined, its dimensions known, and simulation of flow from
a particular single rainstorm event is made for the purpose of realtime forecasting to be
used for operation and runoff control, or sometimes for the determination of the flow of
a past event for legal purposes. The hydrologic requirements for these two types of prob
lems are different. In the case of prediction, a given rainstorm with its specific temporal
and spatial distributions is considered. For design purposes, hypothetical rainstorms with
assigned design return period or acceptable risk level and assumed temporal and spatial
CHAPTER 14
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF
URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Ben Chie Yen
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign
Urbana, Illinois
A.Osman Akan
Department of Civil and Enviromental Engineering
Old Dominion University
Norfolk, Virginia
14.1
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
distributions of the rainfall are used. Table 14.1 lists some of these two types of design
and prediction problems.
In the case of sanitary sewers, for design purposes the problem becomes the estima
tion of the critical runoffs in both quantity and quality, from domestic, commercial, and
14.2 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.1 Schematic of components of urban catch
ment. (From Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. et al., 1971).
TABLE 14.1 Types of Urban Drainage Problems (a) Design Problems
Type Design Purpose Hydro Information Required Hydraulic
Sought Level
Sewers Pipe size (and slope) Peak discharge, Q
p
for Low
determination design return period
Drainage channels Channel dimensions Peak discharge, Q
p
for Low to moderate
design return period
Detention/retention Geometric dimensions Design hydrograph, Q(t) Low to moderate
storage ponds (and outlet design)
Manholes and Geometric dimensions Design hydrograph, Q(t) Low to moderate
junctions
Roadside gutters Geometric dimensions Design peak discharge, Low to moderate
Q
p
Inlet catch basins Geometric dimensions Design peak discharge, Low
Q
p
Pumps Capacity Design hydrograph Moderate to high
Control gates Capacity Design hydrograph Moderate to high
or valves
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
industrial sources over the service period in the future. For realtime control problems it
involves simulation and prediction of the sanitary runoff in conjunction with the control
measures.
The basic hydraulic principles useful for urban drainage have been presented in
Chapter 3 for free surface flows, Chapters 2 and 12 for pipe flows, and Chapter 10 for
pump systems. In the following, more specific applications of the hydraulics to urban
drainage components will be described. However, the hydraulic design for drainage of
highway and street surfaces, roadside gutters, and inlets has been described in Chapter 13,
design of stable erodible open channels in Chapter 16, and certain flow measurement
structures adaptable to urban drainage in Chapter 21; therefore they are not included in
this chapter.
14.2 HYDRAULICS OF DRAINAGE CHANNELS
Flows in urban drainage channels usually are openchannel flows with a free water surface.
However, sewer pipes, culverts, and similar conduits under high flow conditions could
become surcharged, and pressurized conduit flows do occur. Strictly speaking, the flow is
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.3
TABLE 14.1 (continued) Types of Urban Drainage Problems (b) Prediction Problems
Type Purpose Hydro Input Hydro Information Required Hydraulic
Sought Level
Realtime Realtime Predicted and/or just Hydrographs, Q(t, x
i
) High
operation regulation measured rainfall,
of flow network data
Performance Simulation for Specific storm Hydrographs, Q(t, x
i
) High
evaluation evaluation of event, network data
a system
Storm event Determination Given past storm Hydrographs, Q(t, x
i
) Moderatehigh
simulation of runoff at event or specified
specific locations input hyetographs,
for particular past network data
or specified events
Flood level Determination Specific storm Hydrographs and High
determination of the extent hyetographs, stages
of flooding netwark data
Storm runoff Reduce and Event or continuous Hydrographs Q(t, x
i
) Moderate to high
quality control of water rain and pollutant Pollutographs, c(t, x
i
)
control pollution due to data, network data
runoff from
rainstorms
Storm runoff Longterm, usually Longterm data Runoff volume Low
master large spatial scale Pollutant volume
planning planning for
stormwater
management
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
always unsteady, that is, changing with time. Nevertheless, in a number of situations, such
as in most cases of flow in sanitary sewers and for some rainstorm runoffs, change of flow
with time is slow enough that the flow can be regarded as approximately steady.
14.2.1 OpenChannel Flow
Openchannel flow occurs on overland, ditches, channels, and sewers in urban areas.
Unsteady flow in open channels can be described by a momentum equation given below
in both discharge (conservative) and velocity (nonconservative) forms together with its
various simplified approximate models:
g
1
A
Q
t
g
1
A
j
,
(
A
Q
2
\
(
,
g
1
A
U
x
q
1
d
Y
x
S
0
S
f
0. (14.1)
dynamic wave
quasisteady dynamic wave
noninertia
kinematic wave
1
g
V
t
(2 1)
V
g
V
x
( 1)
g
V
A
2
A
x
Y
x
S
o
S
f
0. (14.2)
where x flow longitudinal direction measured horizontally (Fig. 14.2); A flow cross
sectional area normal to x; y vertical direction; Y depth of flow of the cross section,
measured vertically; Q discharge through A; V Q/A, crosssectional average veloci
ty along x direction; S
o
channel slope, equal to tan , angle between channel bed
and horizontal plane; S
f
friction slope; perimeter bounding the cross section A; q
1
lateral flow rate (e.g., rain or infiltration) per unit length of channel and unit length of
perimeter , being positive for inflow; U
x
xcomponent velocity of lateral flow when
14.4 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.2 Schematic of open, channel flow.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
joining the main flow; g gravitational acceleration; t time; M (gA)
1
(U
x
V)g
1
d and Boussinesq momentum flux correction coefficient for velocity distri
bution:
Q
A
2
2
dA (14.3)
u
A
t
Q
x
q
1
d (14.4)
If the channel is prismatic or very wide, such as the case of overland flow, Eq. (14.4) can
be written as
Y
t
(VY)
1
b
q
1
d (14.5)
where b is the water surface width of the cross section.
In practice, it is more convenient to set the x and y coordinates along the horizontal lon
gitudinal direction and gravitational vertical direction, respectively, when applied to flow
on overland surface and natural channels for which S
o
tan . For humanmade straight
prismatic channels, sewers, pipes, and culverts, it is more convenient to set the xy direc
tions along and perpendicular to the longitudinal channel bottom. In this case, the flow
depth h is measured along the y direction normal to the bed and it is related to Y by Y
h cos , whereas the channel slope S
o
sin .
The friction slope S
f
is usually estimated by using a semiempirical formula such as
Mannings formula
S
f
n
2
K
V
2
n
V
R
4/3
n
K
2
n
Q
2
A
Q
2
R
4/3
(14.6)
or the DarcyWeisbach formula
S
f
8g
f
R
VV
8g
f
R
Q
A
Q
2
(14.7)
where n Mannings roughness factor, K
n
1.486 for English units and 1.0 for SI units;
f the Weisbach resistance coefficient; and R the hydraulic radius, which is equal to
A divided by the wetted perimeter. The absolute sign is used to account for the occurrence
of flow reversal.
Theoretically, the values of n and f for unsteady nonuniform openchannel and pres
surized conduit flows have not been established. They depend on the pipe surface rough
ness and bed form if sediment is transported, Reynolds number, Froude number, and
unsteadiness and nonuniformity of the flow (Yen, 1991). One should be careful that for
unsteady nonuniform flow, the friction slope is different from either the pipe slope, the dis
sipated energy gradient, the totalhead gradient, or the hydraulic gradient. Only for steady
uniform flow without lateral flow are these different gradients equal to one another.
At present, we can only use the steady uniform flow values of n and f given in the lit
erature as approximations. The advantage of f is its theoretical basis from fluid mechan
ics and its being nondimensional. Its values for steady uniform flow can be found from
the Moody diagram or the ColebrookWhite formula given in Chap. 2, as well as in stan
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.5
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
dard hydraulics and fluid mechanics references. Its major disadvantage is that for a given
pipe and surface roughness, the value of f varies not merely with the Reynolds number but
also with the flow depth. In other words, as the flow depth in the sewer changes during a
storm runoff, f must be recomputed repeatedly.
Mannings n was originally derived empirically. Its major disadvantage is its trouble
some dimension of length to onesixth power that is often misunderstood. Its main advan
tage is that for flows with sufficiently high Reynolds number over a rigid boundary with
a given surface roughness in a prismatic channel, the value of n is nearly constant over a
wide range of depth (Yen, 1991). Values of n can be found in Chow (1959) or Chap. 3.
Other resistance coefficients and formulas, such as Chezys or HazenWilliamss, have
also been used. They possess neither the direct fluid mechanics justification as f nor inde
pendence of depth as n. Therefore, they are not recommended here. In fact, Hazen
Williamss may be considered as a special situation of DarcyWeisbachs formula. A dis
cussion of the preference of the resistance coefficients can be found in Yen (1991).
Equations (14.6) and (14.7) are applicable to both surcharged and openchannel
flows. For the openchannel case, the pipe is flowing partially filled and the geometric
parameters of the flow cross section are computed from the geometry equations given
in Fig. 14.3.
The pair of momentum and continuity equations [Eqs. (14.1) and (14.4) or Eqs. (14.2)
and (14.5)] with 1 and no lateral flow is often referred to as the SaintVenant equa
tions or full dynamic wave equations. Actually, they are not an exact representation of the
unsteady flow because they involve at least the following assumptions: hydrostatic
pressure distribution over A, uniform velocity distribution over A (hence 1), and neg
ligible spatial gradient of the force due to internal stresses.
Those interested in the more exact form of the unsteady flow equations should refer to
Yen (1973b, 1975, 1996). Conversely, simplified forms of the momentum equation, name
ly, the noninertia (misnomer diffusion wave) and kinematic wave approximations of the
full momentum equation [Eq. (14.1)] are often used for the analysis of urban drainage
flow problems.
Among the approximations shown in Eqs. (14.1) or (14.2), the quasisteady dynamic
wave equation is usually less accurate and more costly in computation than the noniner
tia equation, and hence, is not recommended for sewer flows. Akan and Yen (1981),
among others, compared the application of the dynamic wave, noninertia, and kinematic
wave equations for flow routing in networks and found the noninertia approximation gen
erally agrees well with the dynamic wave solutions, whereas the solution of the kinemat
ic wave approximate is clearly different from the dynamic wave solution, especially when
the downstream backwater effect is important. Table 25.2 of Yen (1996) gives the proper
form of the equations to be used for different flow conditions.
14.6 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.3 Sewer pipe flow geometry. (From Yen, 1986a)
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Analytical solutions do not exist for Eqs. (14.1) and (14.2) or their simplified forms
except for very simple cases of the kinematic wave and noninertia approximations.
Solutions are usually sought numerically as described in Chap. 12. In solving the differ
ential equations, in addition to the initial condition, boundary conditions should also be
properly specified. Table 14.2 shows the boundary conditions required for the different
levels of approximations of the momentum equation. It also shows the abilities of the
approximations in accounting for downstream backwater effects, flood peak attenuation,
and flow acceleration.
For flows that can be considered as invariant with time the steady flow momentum
equations which are simplified from Eq. (14.2) for different conditions are given in Table
14.3. The lateral flow contribution, m
q
, can be from rainfall (positive) or infiltration (neg
ative) or both. Instead of these equations, the following Bernoulli total head equation is
often used for flow profile computations:
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.7
TABLE 14.2 Theoretical Comparison of Approximations to Dynamic Wave Equation
Kinematic Noninertia Quasisteady Dynamic
wave dynamic wave wave
Boundary conditions required 1 2 2 2
Account for downstream No Yes Yes Yes
backwater effect and flow reversal
Damping of flood peak No Yes Yes Yes
Account for flow acceleration No No Only Yes
convective
acceleration
TABLE 14.3 CrossSectionAveraged OneDimensional Momentum Equations for Steady Flow of
Incompressible Homogeneous Fluid
Prismatic channel
K (K K)
D
Y
b
F
2
d
d
y
x
S
o
S
f
V
g
2
d
d
d
d
K
x
m
q
Constant piezometric (1 F
2
)
d
d
Y
x
S
o
(1 F
2
)
d
d
y
x
s
F
2
S
o
pressure distribution
K K 1 S
f
F
2
D
B
b
B
x
V
g
2
d
d
m
q
constant
d
d
Y
x
or
d
d
Y
x
s
K K 1
Prismatic or wide
channel
Definitions: F m
q
g
1
A
(U
x
2V)q
d
D
b
water surface width; K and K piezometric pressure distribation cor
rection factors for main an lateral flows;
V
gD
b
/
(F
2
S
o
S
f
m
q
)
(1 F
2
)
(S
o
S
f
m
q
)
(1 F
2
)
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2
2
V
g
2
2
Y
2
y
b2
2
1
g
V
2
1
Y
1
y
b1
h
e
h
q
, (14.8)
where the subscripts 1 and 2 the cross sections at the two ends of the computational reach,
x, of the channel, Y y
b
the stage of the water surface where the channel bed elevation
at section 1 is y
b
1 and that at section 2 is y
b
2 y
b
1 S
o
x; h
q
is the energy head from the
lateral flow, if any; the energy head loss h
e
S
e
x where S
e
is the slope of the energy line;
and the Coriolis convective kinetic energy flux correction coefficient due to nonuniform
velocity distribution over the cross section (Chow, 1959; Yen, 1973). If there are other ener
gy losses, they should be added to the righthand side of the equation. Methods of backwa
ter surface profile computation using these equations are discussed in Chap. 3.
If the flow is steady and uniform, Eqs. (14.1) and (14.4) or Eqs. (14.2) and (14.5)
reduce to S
o
S
f
and Q AV. Hence, for steady uniform flow using Mannings formula,
Q 0.0496
K
n
n
S
o
1/2
D
8/3
s
2
i
/3
n)
5/3
, (14.9)
where is in radians (Fig. 14.3). Correspondingly, the DarcyWeisbach formula yields
Q
1
8
g
f
D
5/2
s
2
i
/3
n)
5/3
. (14.10)
Figure 14.4 is a plot of these two equations that can be used to find .
14.2.2 Surcharge Flow
Sewers, culverts, and other drainage pipes sometimes flow full with water under pressure,
often known as surcharge flow (Fig. 14.5). Such pressurized conduit flow occurs under
extreme heavy rainstorms or under designed pipes. There are two ways to simulate
unsteady surcharge flow in urban drainage: (1) The standard transient pipe flow approach
and (2) the hypothetical piezometric open slot approach.
14.2.2.1 Standard transient pipe flow approach. In this approach, the flow is con
sidered as it is physically, that is, pressurized transient pipe flow. For a uniform size
pipe, the flow crosssectional area is constant, being equal to the full pipe area A
f
;
hence A/x 0. The continuity and momentum equations [Eqs. (14.4) and (14.2)
with q
1
0] can be rewritten as
Q A
f
V (14.11)
1
g
V
t
j
,
(
g
V
2
\
(
,
S
f
, (14.12)
where P
a
the piezometric pressure of the flow and the specfic weight of the fluid. If
the pipe has a constant cross section and is flowing full with an incompressible fluid
throughout its length, then V/x 0. By further neglecting the spatial variation of , inte
gration of Eq. (14.12) over the entire length, L, of the sewer pipe yields
exit
entrance
H
u
K
u
2
V
g
2
H
d
K
d
2
V
g
2
L
j
,
(
S
f
1
g
V
t
\
(
,
(14.13)
14.8 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
or
g
L
A
Q
t
H
u
H
d
(K
u
K
d
)
2g
Q
A
2
f
2
S
f
L , (14.14)
where H
u
the total head at the entrance of the pipe, H
d
the water surface outside the
pipe exit, and K
u
and K
d
the entrance and exit loss coefficients, respectively (Fig. 14.5).
Equations (14.11) and (14.12) can also be derived as a special case of the commonly used
general, basic, closed conduit transient flow continuity equation for waterhammer and
pressure surge analysis, see, e.g., Chaudhry, 1979; Stephenson, 1984; Wood, 1980; Wylie
and Streeter, 1983.
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.9
FIGURE 14.4 Central angle of water surface
in circular pipe (from Yen, 1986a).
FIGURE 14.5 Surcharge flow in a sewer. (After
Pansic, 1980).
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A
1
d
d
A
t
1
d
d
V
x
0 (14.15)
or
V
1
H
t
H
x
g
c
V
2
V
x
sin 0 (14.16)
and the momentum equation
1
g
V
t
V
g
V
x
H
x
S
f
0 (14.17)
where the bulk density of the fluid, H P
a
/ the piezometric head above the ref
erence datum, and c the celerity of the pressure surge. The fact that Eqs. (14.11) and
(14.12) can be derived from Eqs. (14.2) and (14.5) is the theoretical basis of the
Preissmann hypothetical slot concept, which will be discussed below.
14.2.2.2 Hypothetical slot approach. This approach introduces hypothetically a contin
uous, narrow, piezometric slot attached to the pipe crown and over the entire length of the
pipe as shown in Fig. 14.6. The idea is to transform the pressurized conduit flow situation
into a conceptual openchannel flow situation by introducing a virtual free surface to the
flow. The idea was suggested by Preissmann (Cunge and Wegner, 1964). The hypotheti
cal opentop slot should be narrow so that it would not introduce appreciable error in the
volume of water. Conversely, the slot cannot be too narrow, with the aim of avoiding the
numerical problem associated with a rapidly moving pressure surge.
A theoretical basis for the determination of the width of the slot is to size the width
such that the wave celerity in the slotted sewer is the same as the surge celerity of the com
pressible water in the actual elastic pipe. The celerity c
1
of the slot pipe is
c
1
gA/b (14.18)
where b the slot width and A the flow crosssectional area. Neglecting the area con
tribution of the slot and hence A A
f
D
2
/4 for a circular pipe, and equating c
1
to the
pressure wave speed c in the elastic pipe without the hypothetical slot, the theoretical slot
width is
14.10 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.6 Preissmann hypo
thetical piezometric open slot.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
b gD
2
/4c
2
(14.19)
The surge speed in a pipe usually ranged from a few hundred feet per second to a few
thousand feet per second. For an elastic pipe with a wall thickness e and Youngs modulus of
elasticity E
p
, assuming no pressure force from the soil acting on the pipe, the surge speed c is
c
2
f
f
E
E
p
f
e
D
(14.20)
where E
f
is the bulk modulus of elasticity and
f
is the bulk density, respectively, of the
flowing water (Wylie and Streeter, 1983). Special conditions of pipe anchoring against
longitudinal expansion or contraction and elasticity relevant to the surge speed c are given
in Table 14.4 where Poissons ratio for the pipe wall material, that is, is the ratio
of the lateral unit strain to axial unit strain, and is a constant to account for the rigidity
with respect to axial expansion of the pipe.
For small pipes, Eq. (14.19) may give too small a slot width, which would cause
numerical problems. Cunge et al. (1980) recommend a width of 1 cm or larger.
The transition between partfull pipe flow and slot flow is by no means computation
ally smooth and easy, and assumptions are necessary (Cunge and Mazadou, 1984). One
approach is to assume a gradual width transition from the pipe to the slot. Sjberg (1982)
suggested two alternatives for the slot width based on two different values of the wave
speed c in Eq. (14.19). For the alternative applicable to h/D 0.9999, his suggested slot
width b can be expressed as
D
b
10
6
0.05423 exp[(h/D)
24
] (14.21)
He further proposed to compute the flow area A and hydraulic radius R when the depth
h is greater than the pipe diameter D as
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.11
TABLE 14.4 Special Conditions of Surge Speed in Full Pipe, Eq. (14.20)
Factor Condition
Pipe Anchor
2
D
e
(1 )
D
D
e
1 V
a
[(E
E
w
w
/E
a
) 1
E
f
E
w
Subscript w denotes water (liquid); Subscript a air; subscript f fluid mixture; V volume.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
A (D
2
/4) (h D)b (14.22)
R D/4 (14.23)
A slight improvement to Sjbergs suggestion to provide a smoother computational
transition is to use
A A
9999
b(h 0.9999D) (14.24)
for h/D 0.9999 and assume that the transition starts at h/D 0.91. Between h/D 0.91
and 0.9999, real pipe area A and surface width B are used. However, for h/D 0.91, R is
computed from Mannings formula using pipe slope and a discharge equal to the steady
uniform flow at h 0.91D, Q
91
; thus, for h/D 0.91
R (A
91
/A)R
91
(14.25)
Because of the lack of reliable data, neither the standard surcharge sewer solution
method nor the Preissmann hypothetical openslot approach has been verified for a single
pipe or a network of pipes. Past experiences with waterhammer and pressure surge prob
lems in closed conduits may provide some indirect verification of the applicability of the
basic flow equations to unsteady sewer flows. Nevertheless, direct verification is highly
desirable.
Jun and Yen (1985) performed a numerical testing and found there is no clear superi
ority of one approach over the other. Nevertheless, specific comparison between them is
given in Table 14.5. They suggested that if the sewers in a network are each divided into
many computational reaches and a significant part of the flow duration is under surcharge,
the standard approach saves computer time. Conversely, if transition between openchan
nel and pressurized conduit flows occurs frequently and the transitional stability problem
is important, the slot model would be preferred.
14.12 Chapter Fourteen
TABLE 14.5 Comparison Between Standard Surcharge Approach and Slot Approach
Item Standard Surcharge Approach Hypothetical Slot Approach
Concept Direct physical Conceptual
Flow equations Two different sets, one equation Same set of two equations
for surcharge flow, two equations (continuity and momentum)
for openchannel flow for surcharge and open
channel flows
Discretization for solution Whole pipe length for Divide into xs
surcharge flow
Water volume within pipe Constant Varies slightly with slot
size, inaccurate if slot is too
wide, stability problems if
slot is too narrow
Discharge in pipe at Same Varies slightly with x, thus
given time allows transition to progress
within pipe
Transition between Specific criteria Slot width transition to avoid
open channel flow and numerical instability
surcharge flow
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.3 FLOW IN A SEWER
14.3.1 Flow in a Single Sewer
Openchannel flow in sewers and other drainage conduits are usually unsteady, nonuni
form, and turbulent. Subcritical flows occur more often than supercritical. For slowly time
varying flow such as the case of the flow traveling time through the entire length of the
sewer much smaller than the rising time of the flow hydrograph, the flow can often be
treated approximately as stepwise steady without significant error.
The flow in a sewer can be divided into three regions: the entrance, the pipe flow, and
the exit. Figure 14.7 shows a classification of 10 different cases of nonuniform pipe flow
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.13
TABLE 14.5 (Continued)
Item Standard Surcharge Approach Hypothetical Slot Approach
Part full over pipe length Assume entire pipe length full Assume full or free x by x
or free
Time accounting for transition Yes, specific inventory of No, implicit
surcharged pipes at different times
Programming efforts More complicated because of two Relatively simple because of
sets of equations and time accounting one equation set and no
and computer storage for transition specific accounting and
storage for transition
between openchannel and
fullpipe flows
Computational effort Depending mainly on accounting Depending mainly on space
for transition times discretization x
FIGURE 14.7 Classification of flow in a sewer pipe.
(After Yen, 1986a).
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14.14 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.8 Types of sewer entrance flow.
(After Yen, 1986a).
based on whether the flow at a given instant is subcritical, supercritical, or surcharge.
There are four cases of pipe entrance condition, as shown in Fig. 14.8 and below:
Case I is associated with downstream control of the pipe flow. Case II is associated
with upstream control. In Case III, the pipe flow under the air pocket may be subcritical,
supercritical, or transitional. In Case IV, the sewer flow is often controlled by both the
upstream and downstream conditions.
Pipe exit conditions also can be grouped into four cases as shown in Fig. 14.9 and
below:
Case Pipe exit hydraulic condition
A Nonsubmerged, free fall
B Nonsubmerged, continuous
C Nonsubmerged, hydraulic jump
D Submerged
Case Pipe entrance hydraulic condition
I Nonsubmerged entrance, subcritical flow
II Nonsubmerged entrance, supercritical flow
III Submerged entrance, air pocket
IV Submerged entrance, water pocket
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Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.15
TABLE 14.6 Pipe Flow Conditions
Possible Possible Exit
Case Pipe Flow Entrance conditions Conditions
1 Subcritical I, III A, B
2 Supercritical II, III B, C
3 Subcritical hydraulic drop supercritical I, III B, C
4 Supercritical hydraulic jump subcritical II, III A, B
5 Supercritical hydraulic jump surcharge II, III D
6 Supercritical surcharge II, III D
7 Subcritical surcharge I, III D
8 Surcharge supercritical IV B, C
9 Surcharge subcritical IV A, B
10 Surcharge IV D
Source: From Yen (1986a).
FIGURE 14.9 Types of sewer exit flow. (After
Yen, 1986a).
In Case A, the pipe flow is under exit control. In Case B, the flow is under upstream
control if it is supercritical and downstream control if subcritical. In Case C, the pipe flow
is under upstream control while the junction water surface is under downstream control.
In Case D, the pipe flow is often under downstream control, but it can also be under both
upstream and downstream control.
The possible combinations of the 10 cases of pipe flow with the entrance and exit con
ditions are shown in Table 14.6 for unsteady nonuniform flow. Some of these 27 possible
combinations are rather rare for unsteady flow and nonexistent for steady flow, for exam
ple, Case 6. For steady flow in a single sewer, by considering the different mildslope M
and steepslope S backwater curves (Chow, 1959) as different cases, there are 27 possible
cases in addition to the uniform flow, of which six types were reported by Bodhaine (1968).
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The nonuniform pipe flows shown in Fig. 14.7 are classified without considering the
different modes of air entrainment. The types of the water surface profile, equivalent to
the M, S, and A (adverse slope) types of backwater curves for steady flow, are also not
taken into account. Additional subcases of the 10 pipe flow cases can also be classified
according to rising, falling, or stationary water surface profiles. For the cases with a
hydraulic jump or drop, subcases can be grouped according to the movement of the jump
or drop, be it moving upstream or downstream or stationary. Furthermore, flow with
adverse sewer slope also exists because of flow reversal.
During runoff, the change in magnitude of the flow in a sewer can range from only a few
times dry weather low flow in a sanitary sewer to as much as manyfold for a heavy rain
storm runoff in a storm sewer. The time variation of storm sewer flow is usually much more
rapid than that of sanitary sewers. Therefore, the approximation of assuming steady flow is
more acceptable for sanitary sewers than for storm and combined sewers.
In the case of a heavy storm runoff entering an initially dry sewer, as the flow enters the
sewer, both the depth and discharge start to increase as illustrated in Fig. 14.10 at times t
1
,
t
2
, and t
3
for the openchannel phase. As the flow continues to rise, the sewer pipe becomes
completely filled and surcharges as shown at t
4
and t
5
in Fig. 14.10. Surcharge flow occurs
when the sewer is underdesigned, when the flood exceeds that of the design return period,
when the sewer is not properly maintained, or when storage and pumping occur.
Under surcharge conditions, the flowcrosssectional area and depth can no longer
increase because of the sewer pipe boundary. However, as the flood inflow continues
to increase, the discharge in the sewer also increases due to the increasing difference
in head between the upstream and downstream ends of the sewer, as sketched in the
discharge hydrograph in Fig. 14.10. Even under surcharge conditions while the sewer
14.16 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.10 Time variation of flow in a sewer. (After
Yen, 1986a).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.17
diameter remains constant, the flow is usually nonuniform. This is due to the effects of
the entrance and exit on the flow inside the sewer, and hence, the streamlines are
not parallel.
As the flood starts to recede, the aforementioned flow process is reversed. The sewer
will return from surcharged pipe flow to openchannel flow, shown at t
6
and t
7
in Figure
14.1. Since the recession is usuallybut not alwaysmore gradual than the rising of the
flood, the water surface profile in the sewer is usually more gradual during flow recession
than during rising.
The differences in the gradient of the water surface profiles during the rising and reces
sion of the flood bear importance in the selfcleaning and pollutanttransport abilities of
the sewer. During the rising period, with relatively steep gradient, the flow can carry not
only the sediment it brings into the sewer but also erodes the deposit at the sewer bottom
from previous storms. For a given discharge and gradient, the amount of erosion increas
es with the antecedent duration of wetting and softening of the deposit. During the reces
sion, with a flatter water surface gradient and deceleration of the flow, the sediment being
carried into the sewer by the flow tends to settle onto the sewer bottom.
If the storm is not heavy and the flood is not severe, the rising flow will not reach sur
charge state. The flood may rise, for example, to the stage at t
3
shown in Fig. 14.10 and
then starts to recede. The sewer remains under openchannel flow throughout the storm
runoff. For such frequent small storms, the flow in the sewer is so small that it is unable
to transport out the sediment it carries into the sewer, resulting in deposition to be cleaned
up by later heavy storms or through artificial means.
For a singlepeak flood entering a long circular sewer having a diameter Dand pipe sur
face roughness k, Yen (1973a) reported that for openchannel flow, the attenuation of the
flood peak, Q
px
, at a distance x downstream from the pipe entrance (x 0) and the corre
sponding occurrence time of this peak, t
px
, can be described dimensionlessly as
Q
Q
p
p
0
x
exp
0.0771
j
,
(
D
x
\
(
,
j
,
(
D
k
\
(
,
0.17
j
,
(
R
D
b
\
(
,
0.42
j
,
(
D
2
Q
.5
p0
g
\
(
,
0.16
,
,
t
p0
1.64
(t
g
t
p0
)
D
g
1
1
.
.
3
3
2
2
]
]
]
4
(14.26)
(t
px
t
p0
)
V
D
w
6.03 log
10
,
,
j
,
(
Q
Q
p
p
0
x
\
(
,
0.18
]
]
]
520
j
,
(
D
k
\
(
,
0.11
j
,
(
R
D
b
\
(
,
0.66
,
,
Q
b
Q
4
g
p
0
0
4.
.
4
2
D
]
]
]
0.1
,
,
t
p0
0.68
(t
g
t
p0
)
D
g
0
0
.
.
8
8
2
2
]
]
]
0.5
,
(14.27)
where Q
p0
and t
p0
the peak discharge and its time of occurrence at x 0, respectively;
Q
b
is the steady base flow rate and R
b
hydraulic radius of the base flow; t
g
the time
to the centroid of the inflow hydrograph at x 0 above the base flow; g the gravita
tional acceleration; and V
w
(Q
b
/A
b
) (gA
b
/B
b
)
1/2
the wave celerity of the base flow,
where A
b
the base flow cross sectional area and B
b
the corresponding watersur
face width. In both equations, the second nondimensional parameter in the righthand side
k/D is a pipe property parameter; the third parameter R
b
/D is a base flow parameter; the
fourth nondimensional parameter represents the influence of the flood discharge; where
as the fifth and last nondimensional parameter reflects the shape of the inflow hydrograph.
The single peak hydrograph shown in Fig. 14.10 is an ideal case for the purpose of
illustration. In reality, because the phase shift of the peak flows in upstream sewers and
the timevarying nature of rainfall and inflow, usually the real hydrographs are multipeak.
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Because the flow is nonuniform and unsteady, the depthdischarge relationship, also
known as the rating curve in hydrology, is nonunique. Even if we are willing to consider
the flow to be steady uniform as an approximation, the depthdischarge relation is nonlin
ear, and within a certain range, nonunique, as shown nondimensionally and ideally in Fig.
14.11 for a circular pipe. The nonunique depthdischarge relationship for nonuniform flow,
aided by the poor quality of the water and restricted access to the sewer, makes it difficult
to measure reliably the timevarying flow in sewers. Among the many simple and sophis
ticated mechanical or electronic measurement devices that have been attempted on sewers
and reported in the literature, the simple, mechanical Venturitype meter, which has side
constriction instead of bottom constriction to minimize the effect of sediment clogging,
still appears to be the most practical measurement means, that is, if it is properly designed,
constructed, and calibrated and if it is located at a sufficient distance from the entrance and
exit of the sewer. On the other hand, the hydraulic performance graph described in Sec.
14.6.1 can be used to establish the rating curve for a steady nonuniform flow.
14.18 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.11 Rating curve for steady uniform flow in
circular pipe.
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Flow in sewers is perhaps one of the most complicated hydraulic phenomena. Even for
a single sewer, there are a number of transitional flow instability problems. One of them
is the surge instability of the flow in pipes of a network. The other four types of instabil
ities that could occur in a single sewer pipe are the following: The instability at the
transition between openchannel flow and full conduit flow, the transitional instability
between supercritical flow and subcritical flow in the openchannel phase, the watersur
face rollwave instability of supercritical openchannel flow, and a near drybed flow
instability. Further discussion on these instabilities can be found in Yen (1978b, 1986a). It
is important to realize the existence of these instabilities in flow modeling.
14.3.2. Discretization of SpaceTime Domain of
a Sewer for Simulation
No analytical solutions are known for the SaintVenant equations or the surcharged
sewer flow equation. Therefore, these equations for sewer flows are solved numerically
with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The differential terms in the partial dif
ferential equations are approximated by finite differences of selected grid points on a
space and time domain, a process often known as discretization. Substitution of the finite
differences into a partial differential equation transforms it into an algebraic equation.
Thus, the original set of differential equations can be transformed into a set of finite dif
ference algebraic equations for numerical solution.
Theoretically, the computational grid of space and time need not be rectangular.
Neither need the space and time differences x and t be kept constant. Nonetheless, it is
usually easier for computer coding to keep x and t constant throughout a computation.
For surcharge flow, Eq. (14.14) dictates the application of the equation to the entire length
of the sewer, and the discretization applies only to the time domain. In an openchannel
flow, it is normally advisable to subdivide the length of a sewer into two or three compu
tational reaches of x, unless the sewer is unusually long or short. One computational
reach tends to carry significant inaccuracy due to the entrance and exit of the sewer and is
usually incapable of sufficiently reflecting the flow inside the sewer. Conversely, too many
computational reaches would increase the computational complexity and costs without
significant improvement in accuracy.
The selection of the time difference t is often an unhappy compromise of three crite
ria. The first criterion is the physically significant time required for the flow to pass
through the computational reach. Consider a typical range of sewer length between 100
and 1000 ft and divide it into two or three x, and a high flow velocity of 510 ft/s, a suit
able computational time interval would be approximately 0.22 min. For a slowly varying
unsteady flow, this criterion is not important and larger computational t will suffice. For
a rapidly varying unsteady flow, this criterion should be taken into account to ensure the
computation is physically meaningful.
The second criterion is a sufficiently small t to ensure numerical stability. An oftenused
guide is the Courant criterion
x/t V gA/B (14.28)
In sewers, which usually have small x compared to rivers and estuaries, this criterion
often requires a t less than half a minute and sometimes 1 or 2 s.
The third criterion is the time interval of the available input data. It is rare to have rain
fall or corresponding inflow hydrograph data with a time resolution as short as 2, 5, or
even 10 min. Values for t smaller than the data time resolution can only be interpolated.
This criterion becomes important if the inbetween values cannot be reliably interpolated.
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.19
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In a realistic application, all three criteria should be considered. Unfortunately, in many
computations only the second numerical stability is considered.
There are many, many numerical schemes that can be adopted for the solution of the
SaintVenant equations or their approximate forms [Eqs. (14.1)(14.5)]. They can be clas
sified as explicit schemes, implicit schemes, and the method of characteristics. Many of
these methods are described in Chap. 12, as well as in Abbott and Basco (1990), Cunge
et al. (1980), Lai (1986), and Yen (1986a).
14.3.3 Initial and Boundary Conditions
As discussed previously and indicated in Table 14.1, boundary conditions, in addition to
initial conditions, must be specified to obtain a unique solution of the SaintVenant equa
tions or their approximate simplified equations.
The initial condition is, of course, the flow condition in the sewer pipe when compu
tations start, t 0, that is, either the discharge Q(x, 0), or the velocity V(x, 0), paired with
the depth h(x, 0). For a combined sewer, this is usually the dryweather flow or base flow.
For a storm sewer, theoretically, this initial condition is a dry bed with zero depth, zero
velocity, and zero discharge. However, this zero initial condition imposes a singularity in
the numerical computation. To avoid this singularity problem, either a small depth or a
small discharge is assumed so that the computation can start. This assumption is justifi
able because physically there is drybed film flow instability, and the flow, in fact, does
not start gradually and smoothly from dry bed. Based on drybed stability consideration,
an initial depth on the order of 0.25 in., or less than 5 mm, appears reasonable.
However, in sewers, this small initial depth usually is unsatisfactory because negative
depth is obtained at the end of the initial time step of the computation. The reason is that
the continuity equation of the reach often requires a water volume much bigger than the
amount of water in the sewer reach with a small depth. Hence, an initial discharge, or base
flow, that permits the computation to start is assumed. For a storm sewer, the magnitude
of the base flow depends on the characteristics of the inflow hydrograph, the sewer pipe,
the numerical scheme, and the size of t and x used. For small x and t, a relatively
large base flow is required, but may cause a significant error in the solution. In either case,
it is not uncommon that in the first few time steps of the computation, the calculated depth
and discharge decrease as the flood propagates, a result that contradicts the actual physi
cal process of rising depth and discharge. Nonetheless, if the base flow is reasonably
selected and the numerical scheme is stable, this anomaly would soon disappear as the
computation progresses. An alternative to this assumed base flow approach to avoid the
numerical problem is to use an inverted Priessmann hypothetical slot throughout the pipe
bottom and assigning a small initial depth, discharge or velocity to start the computation.
Currey (1998) reported satisfactory use of slot width between 0.001 and 0.01 ft.
As to boundary conditions, when the SaintVenant equations are applied to an interior
reach of a sewer not connected to its entrance or exit, the upstream condition is simply the
depth and discharge (or velocity) at the downstream end of the preceding reach, which are
identical with the depth and discharge at the upstream of the present reach. Likewise, the
downstream condition of the reach is the shared values of depth and discharge (or veloc
ity) with the following reach. Therefore, the boundary conditions for an interior reach
need not be explicitly specified because they are implicitly accounted for in the flow equa
tions of the adjacent reaches.
For the exterior reaches containing either the sewer entrance or the exit, the upstream
boundary conditions required depend on whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical as
indicated in Table 14.7.
14.20 Chapter Fourteen
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For a sewer that is divided into M computational reaches and M 1 stations, there is
a continuity equation and a momentum equation written in finite difference algebraic form
for each reach. There are 2(M1) unknowns, namely, the depth and discharge (or veloc
ity) at each station. The 2(M1) equations required to solve for the unknowns come from
M continuity equations and M momentum equations for the M reaches, plus the two
boundary conditions. If the flow is subcritical, one boundary condition is at the sewer
entrance (x 0) and the other is at the sewer exit (x L). If the flow is supercritical, both
boundary conditions are at the upstream end, the entrance, one of them often is a critical
depth criterion. If at one instant a hydraulic jump occurs in an interior reach inside the
sewer, two upstream boundary conditions at the sewer entrance and one downstream
boundary condition at the sewer exit should be specified. If a hydraulic drop occurs inside
the sewer, one boundary condition each at the entrance and exit of the sewer is needed;
the drop is described with a critical depth relation as an interior boundary condition.
Handling the moving surface discontinuity, shown schematically in Fig. 14.12, is not a
simple matter. The moving front may travel from reach to reach slowly in different t, or
it may move through the entire sewer in one t. If, for any reason, it is desired to compute
the velocity of the moving front V
w
between two computational stations i and i 1 in a
sewer, the following equation can be used as an approximation;
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.21
FIGURE 14.12 Moving water surface discontinuity in a
sewer. (After Yen, 1986a).
TABLE 14.7 Some Types of Specified Boundary Conditions for Simulation of Exterior
Reaches of Sewers
Location Upstream End of Sewer Downstream End of Sewer
Entrance Reach (x 0) Exit Reach (x L)
Subcritical flow One of One of
Q(0, t) h(L, t); e.g. ocean tides, lakes
h(0, t) Q(L, t); release hydrograph
V(0, t) Q(h); rating curve
V(h); storagevelocity relation
for all t to be simulated for all t to be simulated
Supercritical flow Two of the above None
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
V
w
A
i
V
i
A
i
A
1
i
1
A
V
i
i 1
(14.29)
14.3.4 Storm Sewer Design with Rational Method
The most important components of an urban storm drainage system are storm sewers.
A number of methods exist for designing the size of such sewers. Some are highly sophis
ticated, using the SaintVenant equations, whereas others are relatively simple. In contrast
to storm runoff prediction/simulation models, sophisticated storm sewer design methods
do not necessarily provide a better design than the simpler methods, mainly because of the
discrete sizes of commercially available sewer pipes.
If the peak design discharge Q
p
for a sewer is known, the required sewer dimensions
can be computed by using Mannings formula such that
AR
2/3
K
n
n
Q
S
p
o
(14.30)
which can be obtained from Eq. (14.6) by assuming the friction slope S
f
is equal to the
sewer slope S
o
. All other symbols in the equation have been defined previously. For a cir
cular sewer pipe, the minimum required diameter d
r
is
d
r
,
,
3.208
K
n
n
Q
S
o
p
]
]
]
3/8
(14.31a)
where k
n
1 for SI units and 1.486 for English units. If the DarcyWesibach formula (Eq.
14.7) is used,
d
r
,
,
0.811
gS
f
o
Q
p
2
]
]
]
1/5
(14.31b)
These two equations are plotted in Fig. 14.13 for design applications. The assumption S
o
S
f
essentially implies that around the time of peak discharge, the flow can well be
regarded approximately as steady uniform flow for the design, despite the fact that the
actual spatial and temporal variations of the flow are far more complicated as described
in Sec. 14.3.1.
In sewer designs, there are a number of constraints and assumptions that are commonly
used in engineering practice. Those pertinent to sewer hydraulic design are as follows:
1. Free surface flow exists for the design discharge, that is, the sewer is under gravity
flow or openchannel flow. The design discharge used is the peak discharge of the
total inflow hydrograph of the sewer.
2. The sewers are commercially available circular sizes no smaller than, say, 8 in. or 200
mm in diameter. In the United States, the commercial sizes in inches are usually 8, 10,
12, and from 15 to 30 inches with a 3in. increment, and from 36 to 120 in. with an
increment of 6 in. In SI units, commercial sizes, depending on location, include most
if not all of the following: 150, 175, 200, 250, 300, 400, 500, 600, 750, 1000, 1250,
1500, 1750, 2000, 2500, and 3000 mm.
3. The design diameter is the smallest commercially available pipe that has a flow capac
ity equal to or greater than the design discharge and satisfies all the appropriate con
straints.
4. To prevent or reduce permanent deposition in the sewers, a nominal minimum per
missible flow velocity at design discharge or at nearly fullpipe gravity flow is speci
14.22 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.23
fied. A minimum fullpipe flow velocity of 2 ft/s or 0.5 m/s at the design discharge is
usually recommended or required.
5. To prevent the occurrence of scour and other undesirable effects of high velocity
flow, a maximum permissible flow velocity is also specified. The most commonly used
value is 10 ft/s or 3 m/s. However, recent studies indicate that due to the improved
quality of modern concrete and other sewer pipe materials, the acceptable velocity can
be considerably higher.
6. Storm sewers must be placed at a depth that will allow sufficient cushioning to prevent
breakage due to ground surface loading and will not be susceptible to frost. Therefore,
minimum cover depths must be specified.
7. The sewer system is a treetype network, converging toward downstream.
8. The sewers are joined at junctions or manholes with specified alignment, for example,
the crowns aligned, the inverts aligned, or the centerlines aligned.
9. At any junction or manhole, the downstream sewer cannot be smaller than any of the
upstream sewers at that junction, unless the junction has significantly large detention
FIGURE 14.13 Required sewer diameter. (m or ft)
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.24 Chapter Fourteen
storage capacity or pumping. There also is evidence that this constraint is unnecessary
for very large sewers.
Various hydrologic and hydraulic methods exist for the determination of the design
discharge Q
p
. Among them the rational method is perhaps the most widely and simplest
used method for storm sewer design. With this method, each sewer is designed individu
ally and independently, except that the upstream sewer flow time may be used to estimate
the time of concentration. The design peak discharge for a sewer is computed by using the
rational formula
Q
p
i
C
j
a
j
, (14.32)
where i the intensity of the design rainfall; C the runoff coefficient (see Chap. 5 for
its values); and a is surface area. The subscript j represents the jth subarea upstream to be
drained. Note that
a
j
includes all the subareas upstream of the sewer being designed.
Each sewer has its own design i because each sewer has its own flow time of concentra
tion and design storm. The only information needed from upstream sewers for the design
of a current sewer is the upstream flow time for the determination of the time of concen
tration.
The rational formula is dimensionally homogenous and is applicable to any consistent
measurement units. The runoff coefficient C is dimensionless. It is a peak discharge coef
ficient but not a runoff volume fraction coefficient. However, in English units usually the
formula is used with the area a
j
in acres and rain intensity i in inches per hour. The con
version factor 1.0083 is approximated as unity.
The procedure of the rational method is illustrated in the following in English units for
the design of the sewers of the simple example drainage basin A shown schematically in
Fig. 14.14. The catchment properties are given in Table 14.8. For each catchment, the
length L
o
and slope S
o
of the longest flow pathor better, the largest L
o
/S
o
should
first be identified. As discussed Sec. 14.7, a number of formulas are available to estimate
the inlet time or time of concentration of the catchment to the inlet. In this example, Eq.
(14.86) is used with K 0.7 for English units and heavy rain, that is, t
o
0.7(nL
o
/S
o
)
0.6
. The catchment overland surface texture factor N is determined from
Table 14.16
The design rainfall intensity is computed from the intensitydurationfrequency rela
tion for this location,
i(in./h)
1
t
d
0
0T
2
r
0
5
.2
(14.33)
TABLE 14.8 Characteristics of Catchments of Example Drainage Basin A
Catchment Area Longest Overland Path Inlet Time Runoff
(Acres) Length L
o
Slope Surface Texture t
o
Coefficient
(ft) N (min) C
I 2 250 0.010 0.015 6.2 0.8
II 3 420 0.0081 0.016 9.3 0.7
III 3 400 0.012 0.030 11.7 0.4
IV 5 640 0.010 0.020 12.9 0.6
V 5 660 0.010 0.021 13.1 0.6
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.25
where t
d
the rain duration (min) which is assumed equal to the time of concentration,
t
c
, of the area described, and T
r
the design return period in years. For this example, T
r
10 years. Determination of i for the sewers is shown in Table 14.9a. The entries in this
table are explained as follows:
Column 1. Sewer number identified by the inlet numbers at its two ends.
Column 2. The sewer number immediately upstream, or the number of the catchment
that drains directly through manhole or junction into the sewer being con
sidered.
Column 3. The size of the directly drained catchment.
Column 4. Value of the runoff coefficient for each catchment.
Column 5. Product of C and the corresponding catchment area.
Column 6. Summation of C
j
a
j
for all the areas drained by the sewer; it is equal to the
sum of contributing values in Column 5.
FIGURE 14.14 Sewer design example drainage basin A. (a) Layout (b) Profiles.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.26 Chapter Fourteen
Column 7. Values of inlet time to the sewer for the catchments drained, that is, the
overland flow inlet time for directly drained catchments, or the time of
concentration for the immediate upstream connecting sewers.
Column 8. The sewer flow time of the immediate upstream connecting sewer as given
in Column 9 in Table 14.9b.
Column 9. The time of concentration t
c
for each of the possible critical flow paths,
t
c
inlet time (Column 7) sewer flow time (Column 10) for each
flow path.
Column 10. The design rainfall duration t
d
is assumed equal to the longest of the dif
ferent times of concentration of different flow paths to arrive at the
entrance of the sewer being considered, for example, for Sewer 31, t
d
is
equal to 13.9 min from Sewer 21, which is longer than that from directly
contributing Catchment V (13.1 min).
Column 11. The rainfall intensity i for the duration given in Column 10 is obtained
from the intensityduration relation for the given location, in this case, Eq.
(14.33) for the 10year design return period.
Table 14.9b shows the design of the sewers for which the Manning n 0.015, mini
mum soil cover is 4.0 ft, and minimum nominal design velocity is 2.5 ft/s. The exit sewer
of the system (Sewer 31) flows into a creek for which the bottom elevation is 11.90 ft, the
ground elevation of its bank is 21.00 ft, and its 10year flood water level is 20.00 ft.
Column 1. Sewer number identified by its upstream inlet (manhole) number.
Column 2. Ground elevation at the upstream manhole of the sewer.
Column 3. Length of the sewer.
Column 4. Slope of the sewer, usually follows approximately the average ground
slope along the sewer.
Column 5. Design discharge Q
p
computed according to Eq. (14.32); thus, the product
of Columns 6 and 11 in Table 14.9a.
Column 6. Required sewer diameter, as computed by using Eq. (14.31) or Fig. 14.13;
for Mannings formula with n 0.015 and d
r
in ft, Eq. (14.31a) yields
d
r
j
,
(
0.0324
Q
S
p
o
\
(
,
3/8
in which Q
p
, in ft
3
/s, is given in Column 5 and S
o
is in Column 4.
Column 7. The nearest commercial nominal pipe size that is not smaller than the
required size is adopted.
Column 8. Flow velocity computed as V Q/A
f
; that is, it is calculated as Column 5
multiplied by 4/ and divided by the square of Column 7. As discussed in
Yen (1978b), there are several ways to estimate the average velocity of the
flow through the length of the sewer. Since the flow is actually unsteady
and nonuniform, usually the one used here, using full pipe cross section,
is a good approximation.
Column 9. Sewer flow time is computed as equal to L/V, that is, Column 3 divided by
Column 8 and converted into minutes.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.27
T
A
B
L
E
1
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.28 Chapter Fourteen
(
b
)
S
e
w
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.29
Column 10. Product of Columns 3 and 4; this is the elevation difference between the
two ends of the sewer.
Column 11. The upstream pipe crown elevation of Sewer 11 is computed from the
ground elevation minus the minimum soil cover, 4.0 ft, to save soil exca
vation cost. In this example, sewers are assumed invert aligned except the
last one (Sewer 31), which is crown aligned at its upstream (23.85 ft for
upstream of Sewer 31 and downstream of Sewer 21) to reduce backwater
influence from the water level at sewer exit.
Column 12. Pipe invert elevation at the upstream end of the sewer, equal to Column 11
minus Column 7.
Column 13. Pipe crown elevation at the downstream end of the sewer, equal to Column
11 minus Column 10.
Column 14. Pipe invert elevation at the downstream end of the sewer, equal to Column
13 minus Column 7. For the last sewer, the downstream invert elevation
should be higher than the creek bottom elevation, 11.90 ft.
The above example demonstrates that, in the rational method, each sewer is designed
individually and independently, except the computation of sewer flow time for the purpose
of rainfall duration determination for the next sewer, that is, the values of t
f
in Column 8
of Table 14.9a are taken from those in Column 9 of Table 14.9b.
The profile of the example designed sewers are shown as the solid lines in Fig. 14.14b.
If the water level of the creek downstream of Sewer 31 is ignored, theoretically a cheap
er design could be achieved by putting the exit Sewer 31 on a slightly steeper slope, from
0.0144 to 0.0156 to reduce the pipe diameter from 2.75 to 2.50 ft. The new slope can be
estimated from
S
o
j
,
(
10
2
/3
K
n
2
n
2
Q
p
2
\
(
,
/d
16/3
. (14.34)
This alternative is shown with the parentheses in Table 14.9b and as dashed lines in Fig.
14.14b. However, one should be aware that the water level of a 10year flood in the creek
is 20.00 ft and hence, the last sewer is actually surcharged and its exit is submerged. The
sewer will not achieve the design discharge unless its upstream manhole is surcharged by
almost 4 ft (20.0016.05). Therefore, the original design of 2.75 ft diameter is a safer and
preferred option in view of the backwater effect from the tailwater level in the creek. In
fact, Sewer 2131 may also be surcharged due to the downstream backwater effect.
Sometimes, a backwater profile analysis is performed on the sewer network to assess
the degree of surcharge in the sewers and manholes. In such an analysis, energy losses in
the pipes and manholes should be realistically accounted for. However, the intensitydura
tionfrequencybased design rainfall used in the rational method design is an idealistic,
conceptual, simplistic rain and the probability of its future occurrence is nil. The actual
performance of the sewer system varies with different actual rainstorms, each having dif
ferent temporal and spatial rain distributions. But it is impossible to know the distribu
tions of these future rainstorms, whereas the ideal rainstorms adopted in the design of the
rational method are used as a consistent measure of protection level. Although designing
sewers using the rational method is a relatively simple and straightforward matter, check
ing the performance of the sewer system is a far more complex task requiring thorough
understanding of the hydrology and hydraulics of watershed runoff. For instance, check
ing the network performance by using an unsteady flow simulation model would require
simulation of the unsteady flow in various locations in the network accounting for losses
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
in sewer pipes as well as in manholes and junctions (the latter will be discussed in the next
section).
Moreover, for a given sewer network layout, by using different sewer slopes, alterna
tive designs of the network sewers can be obtained. A cost analysis should be conducted
to select the most economic feasible design. This can be done with a system optimization
model such as Illinois LeastCost Sewer System Design Model (ILSD) (Yen et al., 1984).
14.4 HYDRAULICS OF SEWER JUNCTIONS
There are various auxiliary hydraulic structures such as junctions, manholes, weirs,
siphons, pumps, valves, gates, transition structures, outlet controls, and drop shafts in a
sewer network. Information relevant to design of most of these apparatuses are well
described in standard fluid mechanics textbooks and references, particularly in the
German text by Hager (1994) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA, 1996). In this
section, the most important auxiliary component in modeling the sewer junctions are dis
cussed. For sewers of common size and length, the headloss for the flow through a sewer
is usually two to five times the velocity head. Thus, the head loss through a junction is
comparable to the sewer pipe loss, and is not a minor loss.
14.4.1 Junction Classifications
A sewer junction usually has three or four sewer pipes joined to it. Under normal flow
conditions, one downstream pipe receives the outflow from the junction and other pipes
flow into the junction. However, junctions with only two or more than four joining pipes
are not uncommon. The most upstream junctions of a sewer network are usually oneway
junctions having only one sewer connected to a junction. The horizontal cross section of
the junction can be circular or square or may be another shape. The diameter or horizon
tal dimension of a junction normally is not smaller than the largest diameter of the join
ing sewers. To allow the workers room to operate, usually junctions are not smaller than
3 ft (1 m) in diameter. For large sewers, the access to the junction can be smaller than the
diameter of the largest joining sewer.
Sewers may join a junction with different vertical and horizontal alignments, and they
may have different sizes and slopes. Vertically, the pipes may join at the junction with
their centerlines or inverts or crowns aligned, or with any line of alignment in between.
There is no clearly preferred alignment that could simultaneously satisfy the requirements
of good hydraulics at low and high flows without complicating either construction cost or
design. The bottom of the junction is usually at or slightly lower than the lowest invert of
the joining sewers.
In the horizontal alignment, often the outflow sewer is aligned with one (usually the
major) inflow sewer in a straight line with other sewers joining at an angle. For cities with
square blocks, rightangle junctions are most common. Typical sewer benching and flow
guides in junctions are shown in Fig. 14.15.
With the alignment of the joining pipes and the shape and dimensions of junctions not
standardized, the precise, quantitative hydraulic characteristics of the junctions vary con
siderably. As a result, there are many individual studies of specified junctions, but a gen
eral comprehensive quantitative description of junctions is yet to be produced.
For the purpose of hydraulic analysis, junctions can be classified according to the fol
lowing scheme (Yen, 1986a):
14.30 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
1. According to the geometry: (a) oneway junction, (b) twoway junction, (c) three
way junctionmerging (two pipes flow into one pipe) or dividing (one pipe flows into
two pipes), and (d) four or moreway junctionmerging, dividing, or merging and
dividing.
2. According to the flow in the joining pipes: (a) openchannel junction (with open
channel flow in all joining pipes), (b) surcharge junction (with all joining pipes sur
charged), and (c) partially surcharged junction (with some, but not all, joining pipes
surcharged).
3. According to the significance of the junction storage on the flow: storage junction or
point junction.
Hydraulically, the most important feature of a junction is that it imposes backwater
effects to the sewers connected to it. A junction provides, in addition to a volumehow
ever smallof temporal storage, redistribution and dissipation of energy, and mixing and
transfer of momentum of the flow and of the sediments and pollutants it carries. The pre
cise, detailed hydraulic description of the flow in a sewer junction is rather complicated
because of the high degree of mixing, separation, turbulence, and energy losses. However,
correct representation of the junction hydraulics is important in realistic simulation and
reliable computation of the flow in a sewer system (Sevuk and Yen, 1973).
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.31
FIGURE 14.15 Junction benching of sewers and flow guides.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.4.2 Junction Hydraulic Equations
The continuity equation of the water in a junction is
0
0
Q
i
Q
j
d
d
s
t
(14.35)
where Q
i
the flow into or out from the junction by the ith joining sewer, being positive
for inflow and negative for outflow; Q
j
the direct, temporally variable water inflow into
(positive) or the pumpage or overflow or leakage out from (negative) the junction, if any;
s the storage in the junction; and t time. For a twoway junction, the index i 1, 2;
for a threeway junction, i 1, 2, 3, and so on.
The energy equation in a onedimensional analysis form is
0
0
Q
i
j
,
(
2
V
g
i
2
Z
i
\
(
,
Q
j
H
j
s
d
d
Y
t
0
0
Q
i
K
i
2
V
g
i
2
,
(14.36)
where Z
i
, P
i
, V
i
the pipe invert elevation above the reference datum, piezometric pres
sure above the pipe invert, and velocity of the flow at the end of the section of the ith sewer
where it meets the junction, respectively; H
j
the net energy input per unit volume of the
direct inflow expressed in water head; K
i
the entrance or exit loss coefficient for the ith
sewer; Y the depth of water in the junction; and g the gravitational acceleration. The
first summation term in Eq. (14.36) is the sum of the energy input and output by the join
ing pipes. The second term at the lefthand side of the equation is the net energy brought
in by the direct inflow. The first term to the right of the equal sign is the energy stored in
the junction as its water depth rises. The last term is the energy loss.
The momentum equations for the two horizontal orthogonal directions x and z are
0
0
(Q
i
V
ix
)
0
0
g
x
dA (14.37)
and
0
0
(Q
i
V
iz
)
0
0
g
dA , (14.38)
where p
x
and p
z
the x and z components of the pressure acting on the junction bound
ary, respectively, and A the solid and water boundary surface of the junction. The direct
flow Q
j
is assumed entering the junction without horizontal velocity component. The
righthand side term of Eqs. (14.37 and 14.38) is the x or z component force, where the
integration is over the entire junction boundary surface A. The lefthand side term is the
sum of momentum of the inflow and outflow of the joining pipes. Note that for a three
way merging junction, two of the Q
i
s are positive and one Q
i
is negative, whereas for a
threeway dividing junction, two of the Q
i
s are negative.
Joliffe (1982), Kanda and Kitada (1977), Taylor (1944), and others suggested the use
of momentum approach to deal with high velocity situations. To illustrate this approach,
consider the threeway junction shown in Fig. 14.16. The control volume of water at the
junction enclosed by the dashed line is regarded as a point, and there is no volume change
associated with a change of depth within it. One of the two merging sewers is along the
direction of the downstream sewer, whereas the branch sewer makes an angle with it.
When one assumes that the pressure distribution is hydrostatic and the flow is steady, the
forcemomentum relation can be written as
14.32 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
h
2
A
2
h
3
A
3
cos h
b
A
b
sin h
1
A
1
F (14.39)
Q
1
V
1
Q
2
V
2
Q
3
V
3
cos ,
where A the flow crosssectional area in a sewer; h depth of the centroid of A;
the specific weight; the density of water; Q the discharge; V Q/A the
crosssectional mean velocity; and F the sum of other forces that are normally
neglected. Some of these neglected forces are the component of the water weight in the
control volume along the small bottom slope, the shear stresses on the walls and bot
tom, and the force due to geometry of the junction if the sewers are not invert aligned
or the longitudinal sewers are of different dimensions. The subscripts 1, 2, and 3 iden
tify the sewers shown in Fig. 14.16, and b represents the exposed wall surface of the
branch in the control volume shown as ab in the figure. For the special case of invert
aligned sewers with the branch (pipe 3) joining at right angle, 90, Eq. (14.39) can
be simplified as
A
2
(gh
2
V
2
2
) A
1
(gh
1
V
1
2
) (14.40)
or
Q
Q
2
1
,
,
j
,
(
A
A
2
1
\
(
,
(
(
g
g
h
h
1
2
/
/
V
V
1
2
2
2
)
)
1
1
]
]
]
1/2
(14.41)
Based on experimental results of invertaligned equalsize pipes merging with 90,
Joliffe (1982) observed that the upstream depth h
1
h
2
and proposed that
h
h
c
3
1
h
h
c
2
1
F
3
b
(14.42)
where h
c1
the critical depth in the downstream sewer, F
3
the Froude number of the
flow in the branch sewer, and
0.999 0.482
j
,
(
Q
Q
2
1
\
(
,
0.381
j
,
(
Q
Q
2
1
\
(
,
2
.
(14.43)
b 0.514 0.067
j
,
(
Q
Q
2
1
\
(
,
0.197
j
,
(
Q
Q
2
1
\
(
,
2
0.122
j
,
(
Q
Q
2
1
\
(
,
3
(14.44)
The equation describing the load of sediment or pollutants, expressed in terms of con
centration c, can be derived from the principle of conservation as
d
d
t
0
s
cds Q
i
c
i
Q
j
c
j
G , (14.45)
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.33
FIGURE 14.16 Control volume of junction
for momentum analysis.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
where G a source (positive) or sink (negative) of the sediment or pollutants in the
junction.
Equations (14.3514.44) are the theoretical basic equations for sewer junctions. They
are applicable to junctions under surcharge as well as openchannel flows in the joining
pipes. However, more specific equations can be written for the pointtype and storagetype
junctions.
14.4.3 Experiments on ThreeWay Sewer Junctions and
Loss Coefficients
Proper handling of flow in sewer networks required information on the loss coeffi
cients at the junctions. Unfortunately, there exists practically no useful quantitative
information on energy and momentum losses of unsteady flow passing through a junc
tion. Therefore, steady flow information on sewer junction losses are commonly used
as an approximation.
Table 14.10 summarizes the experimental conditions of threeway merging, surcharg
ing, topopen sewer junctions conducted by Johnston and Volker (1990), Lindvall (1984),
and Sangster et al. (1958, 1961). Also listed in the table are the experiments by Blaisdell
and Mason (1967), Serre et al. (1994), and Ramamurthy and Zhu (1997); these experi
ments were not conducted on opentop sewer junctions but on threeway merging closed
pipes. They are listed in the table as an example because these tests were conducted with
different branch and main diameter ratios and with different pipe alignments. Hence, they
may provide helpful information for sewer junctions. There exists considerably
more information on merging or dividing branched closed conduits than on sewer junc
tions. The reader may look elsewhere (e.g., Fried and Idelchik, 1989, Miller, 1990) for
information about centerlinealigned threeway joining pipes as an approximation to
sewer junctions.
The loss coefficients K
2 1
and K
3 1
for the merging flow are defined as
k
ij
. (14.46)
Figure 14.17 shows the experimental results of (1987) and Sangster et al. (1958) and
Lindvall for the case of identical pipe size of the main and 90 merging lateral. The cor
responding curves suggested by Miller (1990) and Fried and Idelchik (1989) for three
way identical closed pipe junctions are also shown as a reference. The values of the loss
coefficients in a sewer junction that is open to air on its top are expected to be slightly
higher than the enclosed pipe junction cases given by Miller because of the water volume
at the junction above the pipes.
The effect of the relative size of the joining branch pipe is shown in Fig. 14.18. The exper
imental data of Sangster et al. (1961) have identical upstream pipe sizes, D
2
D
3
for four dif
ferent values of lateral branch to downstream main pipe area ratio, A
3
/A
1
. The data of Johnston
and Volker (1990) on surcharged circular opentop sewer junction are not plotted in Fig. 14.18
because the mainline pipe area ratio A
2
/A
1
0.41 instead of unity in the figure. Conversely,
as a comparison, the smoothed curve of K
21
for A
3
/A
1
0.5 of the threeway pipe junction of
Serre et al. (1994) with A
1
A
2
is plotted in Fig. 14.18a, and their experimental curves of K
3
1
for A
3
/A
1
0.21 and 0.118 are plotted in Fig. 14.18b. Also shown in the figure, as reference,
are the threeway pipe junction curves for different values of A
3
/A
1
suggested by Fried and
Idelchik (1989) and Miller (1990) for identical size of main pipes, A
2
A
1
. The experiments
of Sangster et al. (1961) indicated that for a given A
3
/A
1
, the effect of A
2
/A
1
on the loss coeffi
cients is minor. Therefore, their curves should be comparable with those of Fried and Idelchik,
,
,
j
,
(
V
2g
i
2
h
i
Z
i
\
(
,
j
,
(
2
V
g
j
2
h
j
Z
j
\
(
,
]
]
]
j
,
(
V
2g
1
2
\
(
,
14.34 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.35
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
1
0
E
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
a
l
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t
u
d
i
e
s
o
n
T
h
r
e
e

w
a
y
J
u
n
c
t
i
o
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o
f
M
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r
g
i
n
g
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u
r
c
h
a
r
g
e
d
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
T
y
p
e
o
f
J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
S
h
a
p
e
o
f
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
P
i
p
e
A
l
i
g
n
m
e
n
t
a
t
J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
T
y
p
e
o
f
R
e
m
a
r
k
s
S
l
o
p
e
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
F
l
o
w
S
a
n
g
s
t
e
r
e
t
a
l
.
S
q
u
a
r
e
,
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
r
,
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
F
l
u
s
h
e
d
b
o
t
t
o
m
S
t
r
a
i
g
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t
t
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r
o
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g
h
a
n
d
S
t
e
a
d
y
A
l
s
o
t
e
s
t
s
o
f
o
p
p
o
s
e
d
(
1
9
5
8
,
1
9
6
1
)
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
,
o
r
D
3
.
0
i
n
.
3
.
7
5
i
n
.
o
n
e
9
0
m
e
r
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n
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c
h
a
n
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l
l
a
t
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a
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p
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p
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s
;
r
o
u
n
d
b
o
x
4
.
7
5
i
n
.
o
r
5
.
7
2
i
n
.
t
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u
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d
v
a
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R
o
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b
o
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r
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r
,
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o
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a
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t
r
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t
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o
s
s
c
o
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f
f
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c
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e
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t
(
1
9
8
4
,
1
9
8
7
)
D
m
a
i
n
1
4
4
m
m
,
9
0
m
e
r
g
i
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c
h
a
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l
d
e
p
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D
b
r
/
D
m
a
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n
1
.
0
,
j
u
n
c
t
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o
n
d
i
a
m
e
t
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r
,
0
.
6
8
6
,
o
r
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.
3
8
9
l
a
t
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p
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a
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r
,
a
n
d
f
l
o
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r
a
t
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o
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o
h
n
s
t
o
n
a
n
d
S
q
u
a
r
e
b
o
x
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
r
,
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
F
l
u
s
h
e
d
b
o
t
t
o
m
C
e
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n
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g
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d
w
i
t
h
S
t
e
a
d
y
V
o
l
k
e
r
(
1
9
9
0
)
D
m
a
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n
d
7
0
m
m
,
s
l
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g
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d
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m
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p
/
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m
a
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n
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0
.
6
4
,
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a
t
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n
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u
n
c
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o
n
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b
r
/
D
m
a
i
n
d
0
.
9
1
B
l
a
i
s
d
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p
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m
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r
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a
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(
1
9
6
7
)
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u
n
c
t
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b
r
/
D
m
a
i
n
0
.
2
5
1
.
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m
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5
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n
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p
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,
(
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)
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(
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)
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(
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(
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m
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m
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o
r
9
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5
m
m
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.36 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.18 Headloss coefficients for surcharged 3way junction with 90
o
merging lateral of differ
ent sizes. (a) Mainline loss coefficient K
21
. (b) Branch loss coefficient K
31
.
FIGURE 14.17 Experimental headloss coefficients for surcharged 3way sewer junction with identical
pipe sizes and 90
o
merging lateral. (a) Mainline loss coefficient K
21
; (b) Branch loss coefficient K
31
.
Miller, and Serre et al. However, Fig. 14.18 depicts considerable disagreement among the dif
ferent sources, indicating the need for more reliable investigations.
The joining angle of the lateral branch is a significant factor affecting the loss coeffi
cients, particular on K
3 1
. The values of the loss coefficients decrease if the joining angle
more or less aligns with the flow direction of the main, and increase if the lateral flow is
directed against the main. The references of Fried and Idelchik (1989) and Miller (1990)
provide some idea on the adjustment needed for the K values due to the joining angle.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.37
Listed in Table 14.11 is a summary of experiments on steady flow in threeway merg
ing openchannel junctions. Most of the studies were done with pointtype junctions. The
experimental subcritical flow results of storagetype junctions by Marsalek (1985) and
Townsend and Prins (1978) are plotted in Fig. 14.19 for lateral joining 90 to the same size
mainline pipes. Yevjevich and Barnes (1970) gave the combined main and lateral loss
coefficient but not the separate coefficients, making the result difficult to be used in rout
ing simulation. The points in the figure scatter considerably, but they are generally in the
same range of the loss coefficient values for surcharged threeway 90 merging junction
except K
3 1
for Townsend and Prins data. It is interesting to note that the most frequently
encountered sewer junctions are three and fourway box junctions with unsteady sub
critical flow in the joining circular sewers. None of the openchannel experiments was
conducted under these conditions. All were tested with steady flow. It is obvious that
existing experimental evidence and theory do not yield reliable quantitative information
on the loss coefficients of threeway sewer junctions. Before more reliable information is
obtained, provincially for design and simulation of three joining identical size sewers, for
K
2 1
a curve drawn between that of Lindvall and that of Sangster et al. can be used as an
approximation. For K
3 1
, the curve of Lindvall can be used. For joining pipes of unequal
sizes, the curves of Sangster et al. appear to be tentatively acceptable.
14.4.4 Loss Coefficient for TwoWay Sewer Junctions
Twoway junctions are used for change of pipe slope, pipe alignment, or pipe size.
Experimental studies on twoway, surcharged, topopen sewer junctions are listed in Table
FIGURE 14.19 Headloss coefficients for 3way openchannel sewer junction with identical pipe
sizes and 90
E
merging lateral. (a) Mainline loss coefficient K
21
(B) Branch loss coefficient K
31
(After Yen, 1987).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.38 Chapter Fourteen
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
1
1
E
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
a
l
S
t
u
d
i
e
s
o
n
T
h
r
e
e

W
a
y
J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
o
f
M
e
r
g
i
n
g
O
p
e
n
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
P
i
p
e
A
l
i
g
n
m
e
n
t
a
t
J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
T
y
p
e
o
f
F
l
o
w
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
T
y
p
e
o
f
S
h
a
p
e
o
f
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
U
p
s
t
r
e
a
m
D
o
w
n
s
t
r
e
a
m
R
e
m
a
r
k
s
J
u
n
c
t
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGrawHill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.39
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGrawHill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.40 Chapter Fourteen
T
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B
L
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1
4
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.41
14.12. All the experiments were conducted with the same size upstream and downstream
pipes joining the junction. Only Sangster et al. (1958, 1961) tested also the effect of dif
ferent joining pipe sizes. These experimental results show that for a straightthrough, two
way junction, the value of the loss coefficient is usually no higher than 0.2. Alignment of
the joining pipes and benching in the junction are also important factors to determine the
value of the loss coefficient.
Figure 14.20a shows the headloss coefficiet of a surcharged twoway opentop junc
tion connecting two pipes of identical diameters aligned centrally given by the experi
ments of Archer et al. (1978), Howarth and Saul (1984), Johnston and Volker (1990) and
Lindvall (1984). Noticeable is the swirl and instability phenomena when the junction sub
mergence (junction depth to pipe diameter ratio) is close to two and the corresponding
high head loss coefficient. The ranges of loss coefficient given by Ackers (1959),
Marsalek (1984), and Sangster et al. (1958) are also indicated in Fig. 14.20a, but the data
on the variation with the pipetojunctionsize ratio was not given by these investigators.
Sangster et al. (1958) also tested the effect of different sizes of joining pipes for sur
charged twoway junction. Some of their results are plotted in Fig. 14.20b. They did not
indicate a clear influence of the effect of the size of the junction box. However, Bo
Pedersen and Mark (1990) demonstrated that the loss coefficient of a twoway junction
can be estimated as a combination of the exit headloss due to a submerged discharging jet
and the entrance loss of flow contraction. They suggested that the loss coefficient K
depends mainly on the size ratio between the junction and the joining pipes of identical
size. For an infinitely large storage junction, the theoretical limit of K is 1.5. For the junc
tiondiameter to pipediameter ratio, D
M
/D less than 4, they proposed to estimate the K
values according to benching as shown in Fig. 14.21.
14.4.5 Storage Junctions
For a storage (or reservoir) type junction, the storage capacity of the junction is rela
tively large in comparison to the flow volume and hydraulically it behaves like a reservoir.
A water surface, and hence, the depth in the junction can be defined without great diffi
culty. A significant portion of the energy carried in by the flows from upstream sewers is
dissipated in the junction. If the horizontal crosssectional area of the junction A
j
remains
constant, independent of the junction depth Y, the storage is s A
j
Y. Hence, ds/dt
A
j
(dY/dt) A
j
(dH/dt), where H Y Z the water surface elevation above the refer
ence datum, and Z the elevation of the junction bottom. Therefore, from Eq. (14.35),
Q
i
Q
j
A
j
d
d
H
t
(14.47)
Either the energy equation (Eq. 14.36) or the momentum equations [Eqs. (14.37) and
(14.38)] can be used as the dynamic equation of the junction. If the energy loss coefficient
K
i
in Eq. (14.36) can be determined, use of the energy equation is appropriate. On the
other hand, if the pressure on the junction boundary can be determined, the momentum
equation is also applicable. If the junction were truly a large reservoir, both the loss coef
ficients and the pressure could reasonably be estimated on the basis of information on
steady flow entering or leaving a reservoir.
Customarily for the convenience of computation, instead of Eq. (14.36), the junction
energy relationship is divided for each joining sewer by relating the total head of the sewer
flow to the total head in the junction. Assuming that the energy contribution from the
direct lateral inflow Q
j
is negligible, the component of Eq. (14.36) for each joining sewer
i can be written as
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.42 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.20 Headloss coefficient for surcharged 2
way opentop straightthrough sewer junction.
(a) Same size sewers upstream and downstream. (b)
Different joining pipe sizes. (After Yen, 1987).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.43
H (1 K
i
)(V
i
2
/2g) (P
i
/) Z
i
(14.48)
For openchannel flow in the joining pipes, the piezometric term P
i
/ is
P
i
/ h
i
(14.49)
where h
i
is the openchannel flow depth of the ith pipe at the junction. It should be cau
tioned that Eq. (14.48) is applicable only when there is no free surface discontinuity
between the junction and the sewer. In other words, they are applicable to Cases B and D
in Fig. 14.9 and all four cases in Fig. 14.8. The flow equations for these pipe exit and
entrance cases are given in Table 14.13.
14.4.6 Point Junctions
A pointtype junction is the one whose storage capacity is negligible, and the junction is
treated as a single confluence point. Hence, Eq. (14.35) is reduced to
Q
i
Q
j
0 (14.50)
For subcritical flow in the sewers emptying into the point junction, the flow can dis
charge freely into and without the influence of the junction only when a free fall exists
over a nonsubmerged drop at the end of the pipe (Case A in Fig. 14.9). Otherwise, the sub
critical flow in the sewer is subject to backwater effect from the junction. Since the junc
tion is treated as a point, the dynamic condition of the junction is usually represented by
a kinematic compatibility condition of common water surface at the junctions for all the
joining pipes without a free fall (Harris, 1968; Larson et al., 1971; Roesner et al., 1984;
Sevuk and Yen, 1973; and Yen, 1986a). Thus, by neglecting the junction storage and for
subcritical sewer flow into the junction,
h
i
h
ic
if Z
i
h
ic
Z
o
h
o
(Case A in Fig. 14.9)
(14.51)
FIGURE 14.21 Effect of benching on loss coefficient of surcharged twoway sewer junction
according to Bo Pedersen and Mark (1990).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.44 Chapter Fourteen
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
1
3
S
t
o
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n
E
q
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n
R
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k
s
F
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.
1
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.
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o
r
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.
9
F
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t
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D
S
u
b
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e
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s
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e
x
i
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D
H
(
1
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)
(
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/
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g
)
(
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/
Z
F
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K
1
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p
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1
s
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c
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(
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)
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c
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r
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A
v
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v
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e
n
t
r
a
n
c
e
,
o
p
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n

h
<
D
V
v
C
v
2
g
(
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)
c
h
a
n
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f
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e
w
e
r
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r
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a
r
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e
d
s
e
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e
r
H
(
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/
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g
)
H
(
1
K
)
(
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/
2
g
)
(
P
/
1
h
D
S
o
u
r
c
e
:
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r
o
m
Y
e
n
(
1
9
8
6
a
)
.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
h
i
Z
i
h
o
Z
o
otherwise (Case B in Fig. 14.9)
where Z
o
and h
o
the invert elevation and depth of the flow at the entrance of the down
stream sewer taking the outflow from the junction, respectively.
For a supercritical flow in a sewer flowing into a point junction, Case C in Fig. 14.9
would not occur. Only a subcase of Case B in Fig. 14.9 with h
i
h
ic
exists where Eq.
(14.51) applies. For Case D of Fig. 14.9 with submerged exit,
Z
i
(P
i
/) (P
o
/) Z
o
Z
i
D
i
(14.52)
The flow in the downstream sewer, which takes water out from the junction, may be
subcritical, supercritical, or submerged, depending on the geometry and flow condi
tions. The flow equations are the same as the storage junction outflow Cases IIV given
in Table 14.13.
14.5. HYDRAULICS OF A SEWER NETWORK
Hydraulically, sewers in a network interact, and the mutual flow interaction must be
accounted for to achieve realistic results. In designing the sewers in a network, the con
straints and assumptions on sizing sewers as discussed in Sec. 14.3.4 should be noted.
The rational method is the most commonly and traditionally used method for the
design of sewer sizes. As described in Sec. 14.3.4, each sewer is designed independently
without direct, explicit consideration of the flow in other sewers. This can be done because
to design a sewer, only the peak discharge, not the entire hydrograph, of the designstorm
runoff is required. As previously explained in Sec. 14.3.4, each sewer has its own design
storm. The information needed from upstream sewers is only for the alignment and bury
depth of the sewer and the flow time to estimate the time of concentration for the deter
mination of the rainfall intensity i for the sewer to be designed.
Contrarily, in simulation of flow in an existing or predetermined sewer network for
urban stormwater control and management, often the hydrograph, not merely the peak dis
charge, is needed, and a higher level of hydraulic analysis that considers the interaction of
the sewers in the network is required. This network system analysis involves combining
the hydraulics of individual sewers as described in Sec. 14.3, together with the hydraulics
of junctions described in Sec. 14.4.
A sewer network can be considered as a number of nodes joined together by a number
of links. The nodes are the manholes, junctions, and network outlets. The links are the
sewer pipes. Depending on their locations in the network, the nodes and links can be clas
sified as exterior or interior. The exterior links are the most upstream sewers or the last
sewer having the network exit at its downstream end. An exterior sewer has only one end
connected to other sewers. Interior links are the sewers inside the network that have both
ends connected to other sewers. Exterior nodes are the junctions or manholes connected
to the upstream end of the most upstream sewers, or the exit node of the network. An exte
rior node has only one link connected to it. Interior nodes (junctions) inside the network
have more than one link connected to each node.
A systematic numeric representation of the nodes or links is important for computer
simulation of a network. One approach is to number the links (sewers) according to the
branches and the order of the pipes in the branch, similar to Hortons numbering of river
systems. Another approach is to identify the links by the node numbers at the two ends of
the link. Using the node number identification system, a numbering order technique sim
ilar to topographic contour lines called the isonodal line method, can be used. This method
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.45
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.46 Chapter Fourteen
was proved effective for computer manipulation of sewer network simulation (Mays,
1978; Yen et al., 1976).
There are special hydraulic features of the networks that are often ignored to simulate
flow in sewers. Usually, much attention is given to single sewers in the network but little
attention to the junctions, and the mutual effects among the sewers are often neglected. If
the pipes in a sewer network are all surcharged, it is obvious that the network should be
solved as a whole similar to water supply networks. Conversely, if all the pipes carry
supercritical flow, one can simply solve the flow starting from the most upstream sewers,
complete the solution for the upstream sewers before proceeding to the solution of
the downstream sewers in sequence. Likewise, if each one of the sewers in the network
has a drop of sufficient height at its exit to ensure a free fall at its downstream end, the
downstream boundary condition is specified when the flow is subcritical. Hence, the solu
tion can still progress sewer by sewer starting from the most upstream exterior sewers,
having the solution for the upstream sewers completed before proceeding to the next
downstream sewer.
However, more often than not, flows in sewer networks do not fall into one of these
three types just mentioned. For example, for a subcritical sewer flow that can be mathe
matically represented by the SaintVenant equation or its simplified approximations, the
downstream boundary condition at the sewer exit depends on the hydraulic condition of
the downstream junction. Except for the network exit, this downstream junction condition
by itself is unknown, and its solution is affected by the sewers joining to it. The junction
continuity equation is obtained from Eq. (14.47) written in a finite difference form using
the average values between time levels n and n 1:
(Q
i,n
Q
i,n 1
) Q
j,n
Q
j,n 1
A
t
j
(H
n 1
H
n
) 0 (14.53)
where the summation of i is over the number of the sewers connected to the junction. For
a pointtype junction, the last term vanishes. It should be cautioned that if surcharge flow
is considered, pointtype junctions should not be used. When the junction is completely
filled and ground flooding occurs, A
j
is so large that H
n 1
practically equals H
n
. The junc
tion dynamic equation depends on the condition between the junction and the connecting
pipes, as shown in Table 14.13 and discussed in Secs. 14.4.5 and 14.4.6.
Thus, for a simple network consisting of a single fourway junction with three
upstream sewers and one downstream sewer and having each sewer divided into two com
putational reaches, by using an implicit numerical scheme the matrix of the equations to
be solved for the 24 unknowns is shown in Fig. 14.22. There is one continuity equation
and one momentum equation in its complete or simplified form for each reach. There are
two boundary conditions for each sewer, which are described by the junction equations for
an interior junction, and by the network outlet or inflow conditions for an exterior junc
tion. Therefore, in general, if there are N sewers in the network and each sewer is divided
into M reaches for openchannel flow computation, there are N(2M 2) algebraic equa
tions to solve for the N(2M 2) unknowns.
If all the sewers of the simple fourway junction network are surcharged and the
Preissmann hypothetical slot is not used, there are nine algebraic equations to be solved
for the nine unknowns, that is, one surcharge equation and one upstream junction conti
nuity equation for each sewer, plus the network outlet boundary condition. The matrix for
implicit solution of the simple network is shown in Fig. 14.23.
Likewise, if the simple fourway junction network has one sewer surcharged and the
other three sewers under openchannel flow for which each sewer is divided into two com
putational reaches, there are 20 equations for the 20 unknowns. The corresponding matrix
is shown in Fig. 14.24. In general, if a network has N
o
sewers under openchannel flow,
each divided into M computational reaches, and N
s
sewers under surcharge flow, the total
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.47
FIGURE 14.22 Matrix configuration for 4way junction with all four sewers having openchannel flow.
(After Yen, 1986a).
FIGURE 14.23 Matrix configuration for 4way junction with all four sew
ers having surcharged flow. (After Yen, 1986a).
FIGURE 14.24 Matrix configuration for fourway junction with three sewers having open
channel flow and one sewer surcharged. (After Yen, 1986a).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.48 Chapter Fourteen
number of equations is N
o
(2M 2) 2N
s
if the last (exit) pipe of the network is not sur
charged, or N
o
(2M 2) 2N
s
1 if the exit pipe of the network is surcharged.
Thus, it is obvious that the number of unknowns and equations to be handled can eas
ily become large for a sewer network consisting of many sewers. Consequently, the
method of solution becomes important to achieve the efficient solution of the entire net
work. The network solution techniques can be classified into four groups as follows:
1. Cascade method. In this method, the solution is sought sewer by sewer, starting from
the most upstream sewers. Each sewer is solved for the entire duration of runoff
before moving downstream to solve for the immediately following sewer: that is, the
entire inflow hydrograph is routed through the sewer before the immediate down
stream sewer is considered. For the noninertia, quasisteady dynamic wave and
dynamic wave equations, this cascading routing is possible only for the following two
conditions: (1) the flow in all the sewers is supercritical throughout, or (2) the exit
flow condition of each sewer is specified, independent of the downstream junction
conditionfor example, a free fall over a drop of sufficient height at the downstream
end of each sewer. However, in some sewer models, the downstream condition of the
sewer is arbitrarily assumedfor example, using a forward or backward difference
and approaching to normal flow, so that the cascading routing computation can pro
ceed, and the solution, of course, bears no relation to reality. Conversely, in the kine
matic wave approximation, only one boundary condition is needed and it is usually
the inflow discharge or depth hydrograph of the sewer. At the junction, only the
downstream sewer dynamic equation and junction continuity equations are used. The
junction dynamic equations for the upstream sewers are ignored. Thus, the computa
tion can proceed downstream sewer by sewer in a cascading manner, completely
ignoring the downstream backwater effects. This method of solving each sewer indi
vidually for the entire hydrograph before proceeding to solve for the next downstream
sewer is relatively simple and inexpensive. But, it is inaccurate if the downstream
backwater effect is significant.
2. Onesweep explicit solution method. In this method, the flow equations of the sewers
and junctions are formulated by using an explicit finite difference scheme such that the
flow depth, discharge, or velocity at a given computation station x ix and the cur
rent time level t n t can be solved explicitly from the known information at the pre
vious locations x i x at the same time level, as well as known information at the
previous time level t (n 1) t. Thus, the solution is sought reach by reach, sewer
by sewer, and junction by junction, individually from upstream to downstream, over a
given time level for the entire network before progressing to the next time level for
another sweep of individual solutions of the sewers and junctions for the entire net
work. In this method, only one or a few equations are solved for each station, avoid
ing the large matrix manipulation as in the implicit simultaneous solution of the entire
network, and computer programming is relatively direct and simple compared to the
simultaneous solution and overlapping segment methods to be discussed later.
Nevertheless, this onesweep method bears the drawback of computational stability
and accuracy problems of explicit schemes that requires the use of small t. An exam
ple of this approach for sewer flow is the Extended Transport (EXTRAN) Block of
Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) (Roesner et al., 1984) in which each sewer
is treated as a single computational reach. Variations of this onesweep approach do
exist. For example, each reach of a sewer can be solve explicitly, or the sewer is solved
implicitly, and then the junction flow condition is solved explicitly.
3. Simultaneous solution method. When the implicit difference formulations of the
dynamic wave, quasisteady dynamic wave, or noninertia equations and the corre
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.49
sponding junction equations are applied to the entire sewer network and solved for the
unknowns of flow variables together, simultaneous solution is ensured. The simulta
neous solution usually involves solving a matrix similar to those shown in Figs.
14.2214.24, but much bigger for most networks. There are numerically stable and
efficient solution techniques for sparse matrices of implicit schemes. Nonetheless,
since the matrix is not banded, solution of the sparse matrix may still require high com
putational cost and large computer capacity if the network is large.
4. Overlapping segment method. To avoid the costly implicit simultaneous solution for
large networks and still preserve the advantages of stability and numerical efficiency
of the implicit schemes, Sevuk (1973) and Yen (1973a) proposed the use of a technique
called the overlapping segment method. Similar to the wellknown Hardy Cross
method for solving flow in distribution networks, this method is a successive iteration
technique. Unlike the Hardy Cross method which applies only to looped networks, the
overlapping segment method can be applied to dendritic as well as looptype networks.
It decomposes the network into a number of small, overlapped, subnetworks or seg
ments, and solutions are sought for the segments in succession. Thus, it is suitable to
be used in programming for models to be applied for simulation of large sewer net
works in different locations.
A simple, singlestep overlapping segment example of a network consisting of three
segments is shown in Fig. 14.25. Each segment is formed by a junction together with
all the sewers joining to it. Thus, except for the most upstream and downstream (exte
rior) sewers, each interior sewer belongs to two segmentsas a downstream sewer for
one segment and then as an upstream sewer for the sequent segment, that is, over
lapped. Each segment is solved as a unit.
The flow equations are first applied to each of the branches of the most upstream
segment for which the upstream boundary condition is known and solved numerically
and simultaneously with appropriate junction equations for all the sewers in the seg
ment. If the flow is subcritical and the boundary condition at the lower exit of the
downstream sewer of the segment is unknown, the forward or backward differences,
depending on the numerical scheme, are used as an approximate substitution.
Simultaneous numerical solution is obtained for all the sewers and junctions of the seg
ment for each time step, repeating until the entire flow duration is completed.
For example, for the network shown in Fig. 14.25a, solutions are first sought for each
of the two segments shown in Fig. 14.25b. Since the downstream boundary condition
of the segment is assumed, the solution for the downstream sewer is doubtful and dis
carded, whereas the solutions for the upstream sewers are retained. The computation
now proceeds to the next immediate downstream segment (e.g., the segment shown in
Fig. 14.25c). The upstream sewers of this new segment were the downstream sewers
of each of the preceding segments for which solutions have already been obtained. The
FIGURE 14.25 Overlapping segment scheme for network solution. (After Yen, 1986a).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.50 Chapter Fourteen
inflows into this new segment are given as the outflow from the junctions of the pre
ceding segments. With the inflows known, the solution for this new segment can be
obtained. This procedure is repeated successively, segment by segment in the down
stream direction, until the entire network is solved. For the last (most downstream)
segment of the network, the prescribed boundary condition at the network exit is used.
The method of overlapping segments reduces the requirements on computer size and
time when solving for large networks. It accounts for downstream backwater effect and
simulates flow reversal, if it occurs. Its accuracy and practical usefulness have been
demonstrated by Sevuk (1973) and Yen and Akan (1976).
Solution by the singlestep overlapping segment method accounts for the downstream
backwater effect of subcritical flow only for the adjacent upstream sewers of the junc
tion, but it cannot reflect the backwater effect from the junction to sewers farther
upstream if such case occurs. However, by considering the lengthtodepth ratio of actu
al sewers, in most cases the effect of backwater beyond the immediate upstream branch
es is small, and hence, this imposes no significant error in routing of sewer flows. For
the rare case of two junctions located closely, the overlapping segment method can be
modified to perform double iteration by recomputing the upstream segment after the
approximate junction condition is computed from the first iteration of the downstream
segment. Alternatively and perhaps better, a twostep overlapping procedure can be
employed by making a segment containing two neighboring junctions, forming the seg
ment with three levels of sewers instead of two, and retaining only the solutions of the
top level sewers for each iteration. Thus, interior sewers are iterated twice. The over
lapping segment method can be modified to account for divided sewers or loop net
works, in addition to treetype networks.
The entrance and exit loss coefficients of the sewers at a junction vary with the sub
mergence Y/D at the exit or entrance of the sewers. The values of these loss coefficients
may be approximated from the information given in Sec. 14.4.2. In order to minimize the
chance of computation instability due to discrete values of the loss coefficient K, Pansic
(1980) assumed an Scurvetype smooth transition starting from a minimum value K
1
at
incipient submergence Y/D 1. The loss coefficient will attain a maximum value K
m
at
some maximum submergence Y
m
/D, for example, at the level of ground flooding. The vari
ation in between is
K K
1
j
,
(
D
Y
1
\
(
,
2
for 1
D
Y
Y
m
2
D
D
(14.54)
and
K K
m
,
,
D
Y
1
2
j
,
(
Y
D
m
1
\
(
,
]
]
]
2
for
Y
m
2
D
D
D
Y
Y
D
m
, (14.55)
where
2 . (14.56)
14.6 CAPACITY AND BOTTLENECK DETERMINATION
One of the most useful pieces of information to solve urban drainage problems is know
ing the flow carrying capacity of the channel or sewer. There are actually various kinds of
capacities. There is the capacity for a single sewer. There is the capacity of the sewer net
K
m
K
1
,
,
Y
D
m
1
]
]
]
2
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.51
work as a system which usually is different from the capacity of individual sewers. For an
open channel, often the maximum steady uniform flow that the channel can carry without
spilling over bank is quoted as its capacity. For a sewer, the just about full gravity (open
channel) steady uniform flow is usually quoted.
In fact, for a subcritical openchannel flow, the discharge that the channel can carry
depends on the downstream water level. For a channel with a range of possible exit water
levels, this would require repeated backwater profile computations. For a channel or sewer
network that has a number of connected channels, the number of backwater computations
can easily become very large making it nearly impossible, if not impractical, for the net
work capacity determination. Yen and Gonzlez (1994) developed a method to summarize
the backwater information of a channel into a hydraulic performance graph from which
the network capacity can be determined. Knowing the channel or sewer capacities allows
a new approach to solve flood drainage problems by separating them into two parts: The
demand part of how much water needs to be drained, which is essentially a hydrology
problem. The supply part of how much can the channel or sewer handle, that is, the capac
ity, which is a hydraulic problem. The flood drainage problem can be analyzed by com
paring the two parts and searching for a solution.
14.6.1 Hydraulic Performance Graph
A hydraulic performance graph (HPG) is a plot of a set of curves showing the rela
tionship between water depths, y
u
and y
d
, at the upstream and downstream ends of the
channel reach for different specified discharges, that is, y
u
F(y
d
, Q). Depicted in
Figs. 14.26 and 14.27 are the HPGs for a mildslope channel and a steepslope chan
nel, respectively.
For a channel with mild slope (that is, y
n
y
c
where y
n
is the normal flow depth and y
c
is the critical depth for the given Q), the HPG has the following main characteristics:
1. The hydraulic performance curves, each for a given discharge, never intercept each
other. The curves with higher discharges are located above those with lower discharges.
2. The left bound of the curves indicated as Ccurve in Fig. 14.26 represents the locus
of critical flow condition at the downstream end of the channel reach. The downstream
FIGURE 14.26 Hydraulic performance graph for
mildslope channel. (From Yen and Gonzalez, 1994).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.52 Chapter Fourteen
depth y
d
is computed by using the following equation with y
d
y
c
(Q),:
A
T
c
c
3
Q
g
2
(14.57)
where A
c
and T
c
the flow crosssectional area and water surface width correspond
ing to the critical depth y
c
, respectively, and g the gravitational acceleration.
3. The hydraulic performance curves are bounded at the right by the 45 straight line y
u
y
d
S
o
L, designated as Zline in Fig. 14.26, which is the line representing a hori
zontal water surface and no flow. The performance curves approach asymptotically to
the Zline for very large values of y
d
or y
u
where the flow has very small convective
acceleration.
4. The locus of normal flow depths for the possible discharges is name the Nline. It can
be expressed as y
u
y
d
and is located at a distance S
o
L left to the Zline.
5. The Nline divides the hydraulic performance curves into two regions. The region
between the Ccurve and the Nline contains all the possible pairs of upstream and
downstream end water depths for which the backwater profiles are M2type (see Table
3.5 or Chow, 1959), whereas the water depth pairs within the region between the N
line and the Zline correspond to all the possible M1type profiles.
The HPGs for horizontalslope and adverseslope channels are similar to those in Fig.
14.26 without the Nline because for these two cases, the normal depth is infinity and
imaginary, respectively The HPG of S1 profiles in a steepslope channel (Fig. 14.27) has
the following major characteristics:
1. The hydraulic performance curves of S1 profiles, each for a given discharge, never
intercept each other. The curves with higher discharges are located below those with
lower discharges.
2. The right bound of the curves indicated as C
u
curve in Fig. 14.27 represents the locus
of critical flow condition at the upstream end of the channel reach. The upstream depth
y
u
is computed by using Eq. (14.57) with y
u
y
c
(Q).
FIGURE 14.27 Hydraulic performance graph for
steepslope channel. (From Yen and Gonzalez, 1994).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.53
3. The region of S1profile hydraulic performance curves is bounded on the left by the
hydraulic performance curve that corresponds to the discharge Q
s
which starts at the
C
u
curve and is asymptotic to the Zline for large y
u
and y
d
. The threshold discharge Q
s
is the discharge for which the channel slope is critical. For smaller discharges, the
channel slope becomes mild instead of steep. The value of Q
s
is determined by setting
the critical depth equal to the normal depth, or equivalently the critical discharge equal
to the normal flow discharge with y
n
y
c
, which yields
R
s
4
A
/3
s
T
s
K
g
n
n
2
S
2
o
(14.58)
For a given channel reach, the procedure to establish the hydraulic performance graph
HPG is as follows:
1. Determine the ranges of depths or water surface elevations to be considered at the two
ends of the channel reach.
2. Determine and plot the Zline for which the water surface elevations are equal at the
upstream and downstream ends, or y
d
y
u
S
o
L, where S
o
is the channel slope and L
is the reach length.
3. Determine and plot the Nline which is the 45 line at a distance equal to S
o
L to the left
of the Zline, and on which y
d
y
u
.
4. For a mildslope channel with M1 or M2type backwater profiles, choose a discharge Q,
a. Compute the normal flow depth y
n
y
u
y
d
and mark this point on the Nline for
this Q.
b. Compute the critical depth, y
c
, at the downstream end of the channel reach by
using Eq. (14.57).
c. Perform the backwater computation for the given Q and y
c
at the downstream end
to determine the corresponding upstream depth y
u
, the backwater computation can be
done by using the standard step method, direct step method, or any other methods
described in Sec. 3.5 or in Chow (1959).
d. Plot the result of this set of (y
u
, y
d
y
c
) for the specified Q as one point of the C
curve on the HPG; it is also the beginning point of the hydraulic performance curve of
the chosen discharge.
For a steepslope channel with S1type backwater profiles,
a. Determine the value of Q
s
which corresponds to the condition at which the critical
depth is equal to the normal depth, that is, y
n
y
c
, or equivalently the critical discharge
is equal to the normal flow discharge, that is, Q
n
Q
c
. The value of y
n
y
c
can be
obtained by using Eq. (14.58). This depth is the water depth that corresponds to the
minimum discharge Q
s
, for which the channel slope remains steep, and with this depth,
Q
s
can be computed by using Eq. (14.57).
b. For a chosen Q Q
s
, use Eq. (14.57) to compute the critical depth y
c
at the
upstream end of the channel reach.
c. Perform the backwater computation for the specified Q starting with the corre
sponding y
c
at the upstream end of the reach to determine the downstream depth y
d
.
d. Plot the result of this set of (y
d
, y
u
y
c
) for the specified Q as one point of the C
u

curve on the HPG, and it serves as the beginning point of the hydraulic performance
curve of the chosen discharge.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
5. For the Q chosen in Step 4, select a feasible downstream depth y
d
and perform a back
water computation to determine the upstream depth y
u
. This pair of (y
d
, y
u
) constitutes
a point of the hydraulic performance curve for this Q.
6. Repeat Step 5 for a few selected y
d
s to provide sufficient pairs of (y
d
, y
u
) values to
plot the hydraulic performance curve for the chosen Q. The curve starts at the C
curve and approaches asymptotically to the Zline for large y
u
or y
d
. For a mild
slope channel, the constant Q curve crosses the Nline between the downstream C
d

curve and the Zline. For a steepslope channel, the constant Q curve starts at the
upstream C
u
curve.
7. Select different feasible discharges and repeat Steps 46 to establish the hydraulic per
formance curves for different Qs.
8. Connect the criticaldepth C points computed for different discharges as the Ccurve
on the HPG.
14.54 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.28. Example HPG for Reach 1 of Boneyard Creek.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.55
A typical Mtype HPG is shown in Fig. 14.28 as an example.
14.6.2 Flow Capacities of a Channel Reach
The following representative flow capacities can be defined for an individual channel
reach (Yen and Gonzalez, 1994):
1. Absolute maximum carrying capacity of a channel reach (Q
amax
)the largest discharge
the reach is able to convey when the water depth at its exit cross section is critical
while there is no bank overflow.
2. Maximum uniform flow capacity (Q
nmax
)the maximum steady, uniform, flow dis
charge that the reach can convey either as the flow just about to spill overbank, or as
the flow reaching a surcharged condition, with the free surface parallel to the channel
bottom.
3. Maximum flow capacity for a given exit water level (Q
exmax
)for a given tailwater
stage, the maximum steady gradually varied openchannel flow discharge that the
reach can carry without spilling overbank. Obviously, this capacity varies with the tail
water lever, having Q
amax
as its upper limit.
4. Maximum surchargedflow capacity (Q
smax
)for a channel reach with a top cover such
that under high flow the openchannel flow changes to pressurized conduit flow, this
capacity is the discharge this closedtop reach can convey when the upstream water
surface is at the bankfull stage and the downstream water elevation is at the crown
level of the opening of the bridge, culvert, or sewer.
The water surface profiles corresponding to these four different capacities are shown
in Fig. 14.29 for the closedtop Reach 2 in Fig. 14.30 as an example. The value of Q
smax
is determined from the closedconduit flow rating curve shown in Fig. 14.31, whereas the
openchannel flow capacities are determined from Fig. 14.32. The values of Q
amax
and
Q
nmax
for the other three openchannel reaches individually are also listed in Table 14.14,
which are read from their individual HPG shown in Figs. 14.28, 14.33, and 14.34.
The HPGs of channels of similar geometries can be nondimensionalized for more
general uses. Shown in Fig. 14.35 is such a graph for openchannel flows in circular sew
ers with S
o
L/D 0.05 and Q
f
/g D
5
0.224 where S
o
, L, and D the slope, length, and
diameter of the sewer pipe, respectively; Q
f
the justfull steady uniform flow sewer
FIGURE 14.29 Water surface profiles for different hydraulic capacities of closedtop
bridge Reach 2 of Boneyard Creek.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.56 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.30 Example flow capacities and water surface profiles of Boneyard Creek for
two exit water levels.
FIGURE 14.31 Rating curve for Reach 2 of Boneyard Creek.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.57
FIGURE 14.32. Example HPG for Reach 2 of Boneyard Creek (7 + 375 to 7 + 435).
capacity; y the depth of flow, subscripts 1 and 2 upstream (entrance) and downstream
(exit) cross section of the sewer, respectively; and the subscript n normal (steady uni
form) flow.
14.6.3 Bottleneck and Channel System Capacity Determination
The bottleneck of network of drainage channels or sewers is the critical location within
the network where the water is about to spill overbank or violate specified restriction.
Therefore, for a given exit water level, the bottleneck determines the capacity of the chan
nel network as a system without flooding. Different exit water levels may have different
bottleneck locations and different system capacities. Because the flows in the channels of
TABLE 14.14 Maximum Capacities of Individual Reaches of Boneyard Creek
Channel Reach Q
amax
Q
nmax
Q
smax
(ft
3
/s) (ft
3
/s) (ft
3
/s)
Reach 1: Lincoln Ave.Gregory St. 1130 930
Reach 2: Gregory St. Bridge 1025 807 1371
Reach 3: Gregory St.Footbridge 1100 800
Reach 4: FootbridgeLoomis Lab (7 945) 1370 1070
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.58 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.33. Example HPG for Reach 3 of Boneyard Creek (7 + 435 to 7 + 575).
FIGURE 14.34. Example HPG for Reach 4 of Boneyard Creek (7 + 575 to 7 + 945).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.59
the network mutually interact, this interaction must be accounted for in the system capac
ity determination. The set of the HPGs and rating curves for the individual reaches of the
system can be used together in sequence to determine the bottleneck and capacity of the
channels as a system. To apply the HPG method of Yen and Gonzalez (1994) to determine
the bottleneck and flow capacity of a drainage channel system, the channel system is first
subdivided into reaches such that within each reach the geometry, alignment, and rough
ness are approximately the same and there is no significant lateral inflow within the reach.
For subcritical flow, the system capacity is a function of the tailwater level at the exit of
the most downstream reach. The maximum system capacity occurs when depth at the sys
tem exit is critical. While the flow capacity of each reach can be determined individually
from its HPG, the flow capacity of the channel flowing as a part of the system should be
FIGURE 14.36. Schematic of lateral runoff contribution
along a channel. (After Yen and Gonzalez, 1994).
FIGURE 14.35. Nondimensional hydraulic performance graph for a sewer pipe. (Yen, 1987).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
determined by accounting for the backwater effect between the reaches, the losses at the
junctions, if any, and the significant lateral flow joining the channel.
Concerning the lateral flow entering the channel system at the junctions between
reaches, a simple approximate method of Yen and Gonzalez (1994) can be used if no
better method is available. As shown schematically in Fig. 14.36; the area drained by
channel reach j1 is A
u
and the corresponding discharge is Q
u
C
u
i A
u
, where C
u
is the
runoff coefficient for the area drained. The lateral flow joining the channel at the down
stream end of reach j1 is Q
L(j1)
. The sewer delivering the lateral flow peak discharge
Q
L(j1)
drains an incremental local area A
L(j1)
having a C
L(j1)
runoff coefficient. Therefore,
under the rainstorm with intensity i, Q
L(j 1)
C
L(j 1)
iA
L(j 1)
. At the junction between
reaches j1 and j, Q
j
Q
u
Q
L(j1)
. Hence, the ratio between the lateral flow and the
flow in reach j1 is
(14.59)
For a given tailwater level at the system exit, for each reach the upstream water level
is determined from the HPG knowing the downstream water level, progressing reach by
reach toward upstream, with junction head loss included if it exists. If the reach is sur
charged, the rating curve is used instead of HPG. It may require a trial of several dis
charges to locate the bottleneck and identify the system capacity iteratively. Details and
examples of this procedure can be found in Yen and Gonzalez (1994). By applying this
procedure to the example fourreach system shown in Fig. 14.30, with the rating curve of
Fig. 14.31 and HPGs of Figs. 14.28, 14.33, and 14.34, the network capacity for exit tail
water level equal to 711.0 ft is determined as 515 ft
3
/s. This capacity is controlled by the
bottleneck of spilling water overbank near the upstream end of reach 1 as shown in Fig.
14.30. The water surface profile is also shown in this figure.
The channel system hydraulic capacity and the location of the bottleneck vary with
the water surface elevation at the exit. When the exit water level is low, the bottlenecks
tend to locate in the upstream parts of the system. As the exit tailwater level rises, the
bottlenecks tend to move downstream as the exit tailwater level rises, and the system
capacity decreases as demonstrated by the example shown in Fig. 14.37. Identification
of the most likely range of exit tailwater levels and removal of the bottlenecks in this
range may be a relatively simple and effective way for system capacity improvement.
For the example system shown in Figs. 14.30 and 14.37, removal (raising) of the
Gregory Street Bridge (the first two obstacles) improves the system capacity as indicat
ed by the dashed line in Fig. 14.37.
If the flood frequency (dischargereturn period) relationship is known, the system
capacity curve and the locations of bottlenecks shown in Fig. 14.37 can be converted into
a system capacity curve in terms of return period versus exit water level as demonstrated
in Fig. 14.38 for the system shown in Fig. 14.30. It can be seen that with the improvement
of the Gregory Street Bridge removal, the system absolute maximum capacity is increased
from 860 to 970 ft
3
/s, or a return period improvement from 25 to 40 years. At a likely exit
water level of 710.75 ft, the system capacity is increased from 655 to 730 ft
3
/s, or a return
period improvement from 11 to 15 years.
Thus, it is obvious that when the connecting reaches are considered interacting as a
system, the overall channel capacity is different from any of the capacity values of the
individual reaches. For an openchannel system, the backwater effects of connecting
reaches usually prevent the exit depth of interior reaches to become critical. Therefore, the
absolute maximum capacity, Q
amax
, of a reach serves as the upper bound provided open
C
L
(j 1)
A
L
(j 1)
C
u
A
u
Q
L
(j 1)
Q
u
14.60 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.61
FIGURE 14.38 Example flood stage frequency of Boneyard Creek.
FIGURE 14.37 Example hydraulic capacity curve of Boneyard Creek.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.62 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.39 Depthvelocity relation for steady openchannel plane flow. (From Yen, 1986b).
channel flow prevails in the reach and also in adjacent reaches upstream and downstream.
For a closedtop reach, the upper bound is the larger of Q
amax
and Q
smax
. For an openchan
nel reach connected to a closedtop reach at either its upstream or downstream, or both,
the upper bound is the larger between Q
amax
and the largest discharge allowed under sub
merged exit or entrance condition of the openchannel reach.
The capacity of the system of reaches as a whole cannot exceed the smallest of the
upper bound of the individual reaches just mentioned, adjusted for lateral flow entering
the interior reaches in the channel system. However, the location of the bottleneck, which
determines the capacity of the channel as a system, may not and often is not in this reach
of smallest Q
amax
upper bound, and in such a case, the system capacity is smaller than this
smallest upper bound.
14.7 HYDRAULICS OF OVERLAND FLOW
14.7.1 Overland Flow and Resistance Equations
Runoff on overland surface is usually nonuniform, unsteady, openchannel flow. For the
depth and velocity ranges encountered in urban surface runoff, the flow can be laminar or
turbulent, subcritical or supercritical, stable or unstable, as depicted in Fig. 14.39 for
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.63
steady flow as an approximation. Mathematically, the flow can be described by the one
dimensional continuity relationship [Eq. (14.4) or Eq. (14.5)] and momentum relationship
[Eq. (14.1) or Eq. (14.2)] or their approximations, if applicable] or the corresponding two
dimensional flow equations (see Yen, 1996, Tables 25.6 and 25.7). These equations are
equally applicable to impervious and pervious surfaces, gutters, and pavement. For a high
ly pervious surface where the infiltrating subsurface flow interacts with the free surface
flow, a conjunctive surfacesubsurface flow simulation such as those developed by Akan
and Yen (1981a) and Morita et al. (1996) should be used.
Conversely, for drainage design of streets, roads, roadside gutters and inlets, the flow
time of concentration is so short that often the flow can be regarded as steady and the
design can proceed as such. Traditionally used design procedures with this assumption
have been described in Chap. 13.
The resistance coefficient in Weisbach form can be determined from Fig. 14.40 (Yen,
1991) which is a modified form of the Moody diagram for twodimensional steady uni
form flow over rigid impervious boundary. The curves can be expressed in equation form
for the Reynolds number R VR/v 500 as
f 24/R (14.60)
for 500 R 30,000 as
f 0.224/R
0.25
(14.61)
and for R 30,000 with k
s
/R 0.05 as
f
1
4
,
,
log
j
,
(
1
k
2
s
R
1
R
.9
0.
5
9
\
(
,
]
]
]
2
(14.62)
Correspondingly, expressed in terms of Mannings n, for R 500
n R
1/6
R
3
(14.63)
K
n
g
FIGURE 14.40 Weisbach resistance coefficient for steady uniform flow in open channels. (FromYen,
1991).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
for 500 < R 30,000 as
n R
1/6
0.0 28 R
1/8
(14.64)
and for R > 30,000 with k
s
/R < 0.05 as
n
,
,
log
j
,
(
1
k
2
s
R
1
R
.9
0.
5
9
\
(
,
]
]
]
1
(14.65)
For the third region of fully developed turbulent flow (Eq. 14.65), it is well known that n
can be regarded approximately as a constant (Yen, 1991) and its value can be estimated
from standard tables such as in Chow (1959) or Table 3.3.
For shallow overland flow under rainfall, raindrops bring in mass, momentum, and
energy input into the flow, and hence, the resistance coefficient is modified. Based on the
result of a regression analysis by Shen and Li (1973), the values of n and f for R 900
can be estimated from the following nondimensional relationship
f 8
j
,
(
K
n
g
R
n
1/6
\
(
,
2
24 660
j
,
(
\
(
,
0.4
(14.66)
For a higher Reynolds number, Eq. (14.62) or constant n applies.
One of the frequent purposes for overland flow simulation is to determine the peak dis
charge and its time of occurrence. For a continuous rainfall, the time to reach the peak dis
charge when all the areas within the watershed contribute is one definition of the time of
concentration. A popular method of solving such overland flow problems is the kinematic
wave approximation of the SaintVenant equations because it is relatively simple, easy to
solve, and requires only one boundary condition for solution, whereas the other two high
er level approximations require two boundary conditions (Sec. 14.3.4). Its biggest draw
back is its incapability to account for the backwater effect from downstream. Such back
water effect does exist in urban subcritical overland flow, for example, when the street sur
face flow joins the gutter flow, and the backwater effect from inlet catch basin.
Despite the heterogeneous nature of urban catchments, a fundamental understanding
of the overland surface runoff process can be gained through the consideration of the
runoff of rainfall excess on a sloped, homogeneous, relatively smooth, plane surface. After
the initial losses are satisfied, rain water starts to accumulate on the surface. Initially when
the amount of water is small and the surface tension effect is predominant, the water may
be held as isolated pots without occurrence of flow, as one would observe on a glass sur
face with a small amount of water. As rain water supply continues, the surface tension can
no longer overcome the gravity force and the momentum input of the raindrops along the
slope of the surface. The individual water pools merge and flow starts downslope.
One should be wise and extremely careful to select the appropriate simplified equa
tions to solve overland flow problems. For instance, if the geometry of a short street gut
ter is well defined, the hydraulic characteristics of the inlet catch basin downstream of the
gutter are known, and a relatively reasonable accurate result is desired, the kinematic wave
approximation will not be acceptable and at least the noninertia approximation should be
used. Conversely, when simulating a whole block conceptually as a flow plane, there is no
reason to use the SaintVenant or noninertia equations because the grossly aggregated
information of the block is incompatible with the sophisticated equations. Likewise, when
i
3
gv
K
n
g
R
1/6
4 2
K
n
g
14.64 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.65
representing a long flow surface as an impervious or pervious surface which is described
merely by its length, width, slope, and overall average surface roughness type, the kine
matic wave approximation usually suffices, whereas the noninertia or SaintVenant equa
tions overkill because the downstream backwater effect is insignificant except for a small
stretch at the very downstream.
14.7.2 Kinematic Wave Modeling of Overland Flow
Despite its heterogeneous nature, urban overland surface is often hypothetically conceived
as a collection of wide planes in modeling. For most overland flows, the depth is relatively
small compared to flow length and the downstream backwater effect is insignificant;
hence, the kinematic water approximation is applicable. For a wide open channel where
the hydraulic radius R is equal to the flow depth Y, the kinematic wave momentum equa
tion, S
o
S
f
, can be simplified as
V aY
m 1
(14.67)
or in terms of discharge per unit width of the channel q
1
as
q
1
aY
m
(14.68)
where m 5/3 and a K
n
S
o
/n for the Manning formula, m 3/2 and a (8gS
o
/f)
1/2
for the DarcyWeisbach formula, and m 3/2 and a C S
o
for the Chezy formula.
If either Eq. (14.67) or Eq. (14.68) is solved together with the continuity relationship
[Eqs. (14.4) or (14.5)] in a nonlinear form, the simplification is a nonlinear kinematic
wave approximation, often simply referred to as kinematic wave. If Eq. (14.67) or Eq.
(14.68) is solved together with a simplified, linear form of Eqs. (14.4) or (14.5), the sim
plification is a linear kinematic wave approximation.
Combining Eq. (14.67) with Eq. (14.5) and assuming a to be independent of x, we obtain
Y
t
x
(aY
m
)
Y
t
maY
m 1
Y
x
i
e
(14.69)
where the rainfall excess i
e
is
i
e
i f'
/
(14.70)
where i the rain intensity on the water surface and f'
/
infiltration rate at channel bot
tom, that is, land surface.
Since from Eq. (14.68) with a independent of x, q
1
/t maY
m1
(Y/t). Substitution
of this relation into the continuity equation yields another popular form of the kinematic
wave approximation used in modeling:
q
t
1
1
c
q
x
1
i
c
e
(14.71)
where
c maY
m1
(14.72)
Assuming that a and m are both constants, Eqs. (14.69) and (14.71) yield
d
d
x
t
c maY
m1
mV (14.73)
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.66 Chapter Fourteen
d
d
q
x
1
i
e
(14.74)
d
d
q
t
1
i
e
mV (14.75)
d
d
Y
t
i
e
(14.76)
and
d
d
Y
x
m
i
e
V
(14.77)
For an initially dry surface (Y 0 for 0 x L at t 0) under constant rainfall
excess, i
e
and zero depth at the upstream end, integration of Eq. (14.76) yields
Y i
e
t (14.78)
Substituting this equation into Eq. (14.73) and integrating, one has
x x
0
ai
e
m1
t
m
(14.79)
Let x
O
0, the equilibrium peak discharge time, t
e
, can be obtained with x L where L
is the total length of the overland surface:
t
e
j
,
(
ai
L
e
m1
\
(
,
1/m
(14.80)
At this time, the discharge per unit width from the overland surface is
q
1L
i
e
L (14.81)
and the discharge for 0 t t
e
is
q
1L
a(i
e
t)
m
(14.82)
FIGURE 14.41 Sketch of kinematicwave water surface profile
during buildup times.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.67
The water surface profile during the buildup period 0 t t
e
based on the above kine
matic wave analysis is shown in Fig. 14.41. Generalized charts are available in the litera
ture to determine the peak kinematic overland flow rate from infiltrating surfaces for
which i
e
is not constant (Akan, 1985a, 1985b, 1988).
14.7.3 Time of Concentration
The equilibrium time given in Eq. (14.80) for Mannings formula is often referred to as
the kinematic wave time of concentration:
t
c
0.6
i
0.4
(14.83)
For infiltrating overland flow planes, Akan (1989) obtained numerical solution to the kine
matic overland flow and the Green and Ampt infiltration equations and fitted the follow
ing equation to the numerical results by regression:
t
c
0.6
(i K)
0.4
3.10K
1.33
P
f
(1 S
i
)i
2.33
(14.84)
where K is the soil hydraulic conductivity, is porosity, P
f
is characteristic suction head,
and S
i
is the initial degree of saturation of the soil. Note that this equation reduced to Eq.
(14.83) for impervious surfaces with K 0.
Morgali and Linsley (1965) numerically solved the SaintVenant equations instead of
the kinematic wave approximation for a number of runoffs from idealized catchment sur
face, and the results were regressed to give the following equation for the time of con
centration in minutes,
t
c
K
n
S
0
o
.
0
6
.
0
3
5
8
L
i
e
0
0
.
.
3
5
8
9
8
3
(14.85)
where K 0.99 for English units with L in feet, and i in in./h. Izzard (1946) provided the
following equation based on his experiments of artificial rain on sloped surfaces:
t
c
41
j
,
(
0.0007i
1/3
i
2
k
/3
\
(
,
j
,
(
C
L
2
S
o
\
(
,
1/3
(14.86)
for English units with iL 500, L in ft and i in in./h, and C is the rational formula runoff
coefficient. In practical applications, often the rain intensity i is unknown a priori. Hence,
t
c
of Eqs. (14.83)(14.86) is computed iteratively with the aid of a rainfall intensity rela
tionship.
For overland surfaces of regular geometry beyond the twodimensional surface just
discussed, formulas for peak discharge and time of equilibrium estimation can be found
in Akan (1985c) and Singh (1996).
In addition to the hydraulicbased equations for time of concentration, a number of
hydrologicbased empirical time of concentration formulas also exist (Kibler, 1982).
Equations (14.83) and (14.85), when applied to actual catchments, usually yield a t
c
value
smaller than found empirically. There are a number of possible reasons to cause this dis
crepancy (Yen, 1987), including the following:
1. The catchment surface is usually not homogeneous as is assumed in the derivation of
Eqs. (14.83) and (14.85), the surface undulation is far more than the sandequivalent
roughness assumed in the derivation.
nL
K
n
S
o
nL
K
n
S
o
S
o
s
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
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n
p
u
t
A
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i
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a
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGrawHill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.74 Chapter Fourteen
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
1
7
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S
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGrawHill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.75
suitable values of the coefficients of the parameters (variables) knowing the input and out
put from observed data. In verification, we have the parameters and their coefficient val
ues all determined for the model, and we have the data on both input and output. The input
is run through the model to produce output, which is compared to the known output in the
data set to verify the agreement between the computed and observed outputs. On the other
hand, verification is different from validation. Validation is to ascertain if the correct equa
tion or model is used to solve the problem. Verification is to find out if the equation or
model is solved correctly.
No model can do everything. For example, a good flow simulation model may not pro
duce a good design of the drainage system. Conversely, a good design model may notand
often need notbe an accurate flow simulation model. Therefore, models should be veri
fied and validated according to their objectives and their applications. In verifying a model,
the verification criteria should be setup to confirm with the model objectives. For example,
the verification can be made according to the peak discharge, time to peak, or to the fitting
of the hydrograph as desired by the objective. Various verification fitting error measures
have been suggested in the literature (ASCE Task Committee, 1993; Yen, 1982). Some mea
sures are listed in Table 14.19. In the table, the magnitude parameter Q can be discharge,
depth, velocity, or concentration as appropriate to the problem investigated. The subscript p
denotes the peak magnitude of the time graph. The subscript m represents the measured or
true values used as the gauge for the curve fitting and verification of the model simulation.
The selection of the error measures to evaluate the merit of simulation models depends
on the objective of the simulation. For example, if the accuracy of the peak rate and peak
ing time are of paramount importance,
Q
p
and
t
p
would be the most appropriate error
measures. If the overall fitting of the curves is the main objective,
RMS
would be the most
important measure, while
1
,
v
a
,
t
p
, and
Q
p
could be used as auxiliary measures.
In calibration, since the reliability of a single set of data is uncertain, the more sets of
TABLE 14.18 Modes of Operation of Models
Mode Input
Transformation
Parameters Coefficient Values Output
Prediction Known Known Known ?
Calibration Known Known ? Known
Verification Known Known Known ?(/Known?)
Validation Known Known Known Applicable ?
Detection ? Known Known Known
Parameter Known ? Known (?) Known
identification
Sensitivity Known Known Known ?(Per unit change
of parameter or
coefficient)
Reliability Known Known Known ?(Over likely
ranges of
parameters)
Source: From Yen (1986b).
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGrawHill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.76 Chapter Fourteen
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
1
9
S
i
m
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l
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t
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*
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k
r
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r
r
o
r
Q
p
(
Q
p
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p
m
)
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m
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(
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(
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(
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r
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0
1 2
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2
d
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2
1
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0 i
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i
2
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m
0 i
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.77
data used, the better. Different sets of data would produce different sets of coefficient val
ues. Normally, a weighted average (e.g., through optimization) of the values is adopted for
each of the coefficients.
It is not infrequent to see a model misused or abused. Sometimes this is due to the lack
of understanding about how the model works. Sometimes it is due to the lack of appreci
ation of the operational modes. For example, data used for calibration should not be used
again for verification. Yet, this situation happens again and again. In such a case of using
the same data for calibration and verification, the difference between the model output and
the recorded data is simply a reflection of the numerical errors and the deviation of the
particular data set from the weighted average situation.
Not all models require calibration. Presumably, some strictly physically based models
have their coefficient values assigned based on available information and no calibration is
needed. However, in rainfallrunoff modeling, some degree of spatial and temporal aggre
gation of the physical process is unavoidable. Therefore, calibration is desirable, if not
necessary.
14.9 DETENTION AND RETENTION STORAGE
Detention and retention basins are widely used to control the increased runoff due to
urbanization of undeveloped areas. These basins can also offer excellent water quality ben
efits since pollutants are removed from the stormwater runoff through sedimentation,
degradation, and other mechanisms, as the runoff is temporarily stored in a basin.
Detention basins are sometimes called dry ponds, because they store runoff only during
wet weather. The outlet structures are designed to completely empty the basin after a storm
event. Retention basins are sometimes called wet ponds since they retain a permanent pool.
FIGURE 14.43 Routing of runoff through detention basin.
Post development
hydrograph (Pond inflow)
Required pond volume
Predevelopment
peak flow rate
Routed postdevelopment
hydrograph (pond outflow)
Time
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.78 Chapter Fourteen
F
I
G
U
R
E
1
4
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.79
FIGURE 14.45 Detentionoutlet structures.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.80 Chapter Fourteen
14.9.1 Detention Basins
The primary function of a detention basin is to control the quantity of stormwater runoff.
Most stormwater management policies require that the postdevelopment peak flow rates be
reduced to predevelopment peak flow rates for one or more specified design return periods
such as 2, 10, and 25 years. Peak flow reduction is achieved by routing the postdevelopment
runoff through a detention basin, that is by detaining the runoff temporarily in a basin.
Figures 14.43 illustrates the effect of a detention basin on storm water runoff.
The schematic diagram given in Fig. 14.44 shows the basic elements of a detention
basin. In addition, sediment forebays are often used for partial removal of sediments from
the stormwater runoff before it enters the detention basin. Energy dissipating structures
such as baffle chutes are used at inlets. Most detention basins also have a trickle flow ditch
or gutter in the bottom sloped towards the outlet to provide drainage of the pond bottom.
14.9.1.1 Detention basin design guidelines. Specific design criteria for detention basins
vary in different local ordinances. Some general guidelines are summarized herein.
Similar guidelines can be found elsewhere in the literature [ASCE, 1996; Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA), 1996; Loganathan et al. 1993; Stahre and Urbonas,
1990; Urbonas and Stahre, 1993; Yu and Kaighn, 1992].
The main objective of a detention basin is to control the peak runoff rates. The outfall
structures should be designed to limit the peak outflow rates to allowable rates. A detention
basin should also provide sufficient volume for temporary storage of runoff. The inlet, outlet,
and side slopes should be stabilized where needed to prevent erosion. The side slopes should
be 3H/1V or flatter. The channel bottom should be sloped no less than 2 percent toward the
trickle ditch. Detention basin length to width ratio should be no less than 3.0. Outlets should
have trash racks. Coarse gravel packing should be provided if a perforated riser outlet is used.
An emergency spillway should be built to provide controlled overflow relief for large storms.
A 100year storm event can be used for the emergency spillway design.
14.9.1.2 Outlet structures. Detention basin outlet structures can be of orificetype, weir
type, or combinations of the two. Schematics of basic outlet structures are shown in
Fig. 14.45.
Discharge through an orifice outlet is calculated as
Q k
o
a
o
2gH
o
, (14.88)
where a
o
the orifice area, k
o
the orifice discharge coefficient, and H
o
the effective
head. If the orifice is submerged by the tailwater, H
o
is the difference between the head
water and tailwater elevations. If the orifice is not submerged by the tailwater, it is
assumed that Q O if the headwater is below the centroid of the orifice. Otherwise, H
o
is set equal to the difference between the headwater elevation and the orifice centroid. This
approximation is acceptable for small orifices. To account for partial flow in lanrge ori
fices, the inlet control culvert flow formulation discussed in Chap. can be used to deter
mine the orifice flow rates. Short outflow pipes smaller than 0.3 m (1.0 ft) in diameter can
also be treated as an orifice provided that H
o
is greater than 1.5 times the diameter. Typical
values of k
o
are 0.6 for squareedge uniform entrance conditions, and 0.4 for ragged edge
orifices (FHWA, 1996).
Weirtype structures include sharpcrested weirs, broadcrested weirs, spillways, and
vnotch weirs. Flow over spillways, broadcrested weirs, and sharp crested weirs with no
end contractions is expressed as
Q k
w
L
c
2gH
o
1.5
(14.89)
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.81
where k
w
the weir discharge coefficient, L
c
the effective crest length, and H
o
the
head over the weir crest. The weir discharge coefficient depends on the type of the weir
and the head. Discharge coefficients for various types and structures are tabulated in
Chapter. The head over the weir is the difference between the water surface elevation
in the detention basin and the weir crest. For sharp crested weirs with end contractions
Q k
w
(L
c
2H
o
)2 gH
o
1.5
(14.90)
and for Vnotch weirs
Q k
v
(
1
8
5
)2 g(tan
) H
o
2.5
, (14.91)
where k
v
the Vnotch discharge coefficient, the notch angle, and H
o
the head over
the notch bottom.
Riser pipes act like a weir at low heads and like an orifice at higher heads. It is also
possible that the flow will be controlled by the outflow barrel at even higher heads. In
many applications, the outflow barrel is oversized to avoid the flow control by the barrel.
In that case the outflow through the structure is calculated for a given head both using the
weir and orifice flow equations, and the smaller of the two is used. If a trash rack is
installed, the clear water area should be used in the calculations. It should be noted that
many engineers design riser pipes so that orificetype flow will not occur, because it is
often observed that vortices form in the structure under orifice flow conditions.
Sometimes antivortex structures are installed to avoid this problem.
Multiple outlets are used if the design criteria require that more than one design storm
be considered. Figure 14.46 displays schematics of several multipleoutlet structures.
14.9.1.3 Stagestorage relationships. The stagestorage relationship is an important
detention basin characteristic. For regularshaped basins, this relationship is obtained
from the geometry of the basin. For instance, for trapezoidal detention basins that has a
rectangular base of W L and a side slope of z, the relationship between the volume, S,
and the flow depth d is
S L W d (L W) zd
2
4
3
z
2
d
3
(14.92)
FIGURE 14.46 Example multiple outlet structures.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.82 Chapter Fourteen
For irregularshaped detention basins, first the surface area, A
s
, versus elevation, h,
relationship is obtained from the contour maps of the detention basin site. Then
S
2
S
1
(h
2
h
1
)
A
s1
2
A
s2
(14.93)
where S
1
and A
s1
correspond to elevation h
1
, and S
2
and A
s2
correspond to h
2
. Equation
(14.93) is applied to sequent elevations. A more accurate relationship is
S
2
S
1
h
2
3
h
1
A
S1
A
s2
A
s1
A
s2
(14.94)
The stagestorage relationship for most humanmade and natural basins can also be
approximated by
S bh
c
(14.95)
where b and c fitting parameters. Figure 14.47 displays approximate relationships
between the parameter b and c, the base area, length to width ratio, and the side slope for
trapezoidal basins.
14.9.1.4 Detention pond design aids. The conventional procedure for the hydraulic design
of a detention basin is a trialanderror procedure, and it consists of the following steps:
1. Calculate the detention basin inflow hydrograph(s) for the design return period(s)
being considered. A rainfallrunoff model, such as HEC1, TR20, or SCSHYDRO, can
be used for this purpose. For urbanizing areas, the inflow hydrograph(s) are normally
those calculated for postdevelopment conditions.
FIGURE 14.47 Detention basin stagestorage parameters. (After Currey and Akan, 1998).
1
2
3
4
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
1
2
3
4
Side slope (H/V)
Side slope (H/V)
bottom area
(m
2
or ft
2
)
bottom area
(m
2
or ft
2
)
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.83
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.84 Chapter Fourteen
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.85
2. Set the hydraulic design criteria. In most applications, the postdevelopment peak(s) are
required to be reduced to the magnitude(s) of the predevelopment peak(s) for the
design return period(s). If predevelopment peak(s) are not available, a rainfallrunoff
model can be used to calculate them. The hydraulic design criteria may also restrict the
maximum water surface elevation in the detention basin.
3. Trial design a detention basin. A trial design consists of the stagestorage relationship,
and the types, sizes and elevations of the outlet structures.
4. Route the inflow hydrograph(s) through the trialdesigned detention basin and check
if the design criteria set are met. If not go back to Step 3. Also, if the criteria are met,
but the outflow peak(s) are much smaller than the allowable value(s), then the trial
basin is overdesigned. Again, go back to Step 3. The levelpool routing procedure is
adequate for most detention basin design situations. This procedure is based on the
solution of the hydrologic storage routing equation
d
d
S
t
I Q, (14.96)
where I inflowrate and t time. Unless a computer program is used, Eq. (14.96) is
solved by employing a semigraphical method like the storage indication method, which
can be found in any standard hydrology textbook.
Obviously a good trial design is the key in this procedure. Designing a detention basin
can become a tedious and lengthy task if the trial designed basins are not chosen carefully.
Various charts and equations are available in the literature that can be used as trial design
aids. Most of these aids are based on predetermined solutions to Eq. (14.96) in dimen
sionless form (Akan, 1989, Akan, 1990; Currey and Akan, 1998; Kessler and Diskin,
1991; McEnroe, 1992). Others are based on assumed inflow and outflow shapes (Abt and
Grigg, 1978; Aron and Kibler, 1990) or results of numerous routings for many detention
basins (Soil Conservation Service, 1986; Wycoff and Singh, 1976). Table 14.20 presents
various design aid equations, where I
p
the peak inflow rate (peak discharge of postde
velopment hydrograph), Q
p
the allowable peak outflow rate, S
max
the required stor
age volume, and S
R
the volume of runoff.
The use of these design aids can be illustrated through a simpleexample. Suppose the
rainfall excess resulting from a design rainfall is 3.5 in over a 2,178,000 ft
2
urban water
shed, and the runoff hydrograph has a peak of I
p
212ft
3
/s occurring at t
p
30 min
1800 s. A detention basin is to be designed to reduce the peak flow rate to Q
p
120 ft
3
/s.
A weirtype outlet will be used that has k
w
0.40. It is also required that the depth of
water above the weir crest not to exceed 6.50 ft. A trapezoidal detention basin is suggest
ed width a lengthtowidth ratio of 4 and sideslopes of 3H/1V. To size the required basin,
let the surface area of the detention basin at the weir crest elevation be 40,000 ft
2
. Then
from Fig. 14.47, b 42,500 and c 1.055. By definition, S
R
(3.5/12)(2,178,000)
635,250 ft
3
. Using the equations suggested by Currey and Akan (1998) from Table 14.20,
we obtain S
max
302,715 ft
3
, h
max
6.43 ft, and L
c
2.29 ft. Note that h
max
6.50 ft.,
so the suggested basin with a base area of 40,000, ft
2
should work.
The Soil Conservation Service (SCS), (1986) equations given Table 14.20 are recom
mended if the standard SCS design rainfall hyetographs are to be used. Also, these equa
tions are not restricted to single outlet detention basins. Suppose a detention basin is
required to control the stormwater runoff for 2year and 25year events. Given for the 2
year event are I
p
91 ft
3
/s, Q
p
50 ft
3
/s, S
R
408,480 ft
3
, and for the 25 year event I
p
360 ft
3
/s, Q
p
180 ft
3
/s, S
R
928,750 ft
3
. A twostage weir outlet is suggested with k
w
0.40, and the maximum water depth above the lower weir crest is not allowed to exceed
5 ft. The design is to be based on SCS 24h Type II rainfall. Suppose a trapezoidal deten
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.86 Chapter Fourteen
tion basin with a lengthtowidth ratio of 4 and side slopes of 3H/1V is suggested. From
Table 14.22, S
max
928,750 [0.682 1.43(180/360) 1.64(180/360)
2
0.804
(180/360)
3
] 256,750 ft
3
. Likewise, Smax 105,400 ft
3
for the 2year event. To deter
mine the base area (or the surface area of the detention basin at the lower crest elevation),
use Eq. (14.92) with S 256,800 ft
3
, L 4W, z 3, and d 5 ft. Solving the equation
for W, we obtain approximately W 104 ft, and then L 416 ft. To size the lower crest
for the 2year event use S
max
105,400 ft
3
. Now substituting S 105,400 ft
3
, W 104
ft, L 416 ft and z 3 in Eq. (14.92) and solving for d, we obtain the maximum head
over the lower crest for the 2year event as being 2.25 ft. Next, using the weir equation
(Eq. 14.89) with Q 50 ft
3
/s, k
w
0.40, h 2.25 ft, and g 32.2 ft/s
2
, we obtain L
c
4.61 ft for the lower crest. Let the upper crest be placed 2.30 ft above the lower crest. To
size the upper crest, the 25year event is considered. The maximum head over the lower
crest will be 5 ft. At this head the lower crest will discharge 165 ft
3
/s [from Eq. (14.89)].
Therefore, the upper crest should be sized to pass (180 165) 15 ft
3
/s under a head of
(5.00 2.30) 2.70 ft. From the weir formula [Eq. (14.89)] we obtain L
c
1.05 ft for
the upper crest.
14.9.2 Extended Detention Basins
Extended detention basins are effective means of removing particulate pollutants from
urban storm water runoff. As shown in Fig. 14.48, an extended detention pond has two
stages. The bottom stage is expected to be inundated frequently. The top stage remains dry
except during large storms.
FIGURE 14.48 Extended detention basin. (After Schueler, 1987).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.87
14.9.2.1 Detention volume and time. An extended detention basin is designed to
detain a certain quantity of runoff, sometimes referred to as the water quality volume,
for a certain period of time to achieve the targeted level of pollutant removal. The vol
ume to be detained and the duration over which this volume to be released vary in dif
ferent stormwastet management policies. For example, Hampton Roads Planning
District Commission (1992) requires that a quantity of runoff calculated as 0.5 inch
times the impervious watershed area be released over 30 h in southeastern Virginia.
Prince George County Department of Environmental Resources (1984) requires the
runoff volume generated from the 1year, 24hour storm be released over a minimum
of 24 h.
American Society of Civil Engineers (1998) outlines a procedure to size extended basins
serving up to 1.0 km
2
(0.6 m
3
) watersheds. In this procedure, the volume of water to be
detained per unit watershed area, P
o
, is estimated as
P
o
a
r
(0.858i
3
0.78i
2
0.774i 0.04)P
6
, (14.97)
where a
r
a regression coefficient, i the watershed imperviousness expressed as a frac
tion, and P
6
the mean storm precipitation depth that can be obtained from Fig. 14.49.
The value of the regression coefficient a
r
is 1.109, 1.299, and 1.545 for detention volume
release times of 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Interpolation of these values is allowed for
durations between 24 and 48 h.
The use of this procedure can be illustrated by a simple example. Suppose an
extended detention basin is to be designed for a 150acre watershed in Norfolk,
Virginia that is 40 percent impervious. Determine the required size if the detained
runoff is to be released over 36 hours. From Fig. 14.49, P
6
0.67 in for Norfolk,
Virginia. Because the watershed is 40 percent impervious, i 0.40. Also, interpolat
ing the a
r
values between 24 and 48 h, a
r
1.422 for 36 h. Then, from Eq. (14.97), we
obtain P
o
0.27 in. Therefore, the volume of runoff to be detained is (150) (0.27/12)
3.38 aqft 147,233 ft
3
. It is advisable to increase this volume by about 20 percent
for sedimentation.
FIGURE 14.49 Mean storm precipitation depth in inches. (After ASCE, 1998).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.88 Chapter Fourteen
14.9.2.2 Extended detention outlet structures. The outlets for extended detention basins
are designed to slowly release the captured runoff from the basin over the specified emp
tying time to allow settling of particulate pollutants. We sometimes refer to these outlets
as water quality outlets. Lowflow orifices are often used as outlet structures. Figure 14.50
displays various methods for extending detention times. As pointed out by Schueler
(1987) and ASCE (1998), however, extended detention outlet structures are generally
prone to clogging. This makes the design of outlet structures difficult since the hydraulic
performance of a clogged outlet will be uncertain and different from what it is designed
for. Regular cleanouts must be performed.
A hydrograph routing approach is probably the best way to size an extended detention
basin and the water quality outlet. However, this requires an inflow hydrograph. In prac
tice, as discussed in the preceding section, only the volume of captured runoff is consid
ered for pollutant removal. There are no broadly accepted procedures to convert this vol
ume to an inflow hydrograph. Therefore, the water quality outlets are often sized by using
approximate hydraulics. This can be illustrated by a simple example.
FIGURE 14.50 Extended detention pond outlets. (After Schueler, 1987).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.89
Suppose an extended detention basin has a bottom length of 80 ft, a width of 20 ft, and
side slopes of 3:1(H:V). The outlet is to be sized so that it will release a water quality vol
ume of 10,200 ft
3
over a period of 40 h. To determine the depth of water corresponding to
this volume, Eq. (14.92) is written as
10,200 (80)(20)d (80 20)3d
2
(4/3)3
2
d
3
.
By trial and error, d 3.6 ft. Let the outlet structure be comprised of
1
/2in circular
ragged edge orifice holes cut around a riser pipe. Let the average elevation of the holes be
1 ft above the pond bottom. Therefore, the average head over the orifice holes is (3.6
1.0)/2 1.3 ft. To empty 10,200 ft
3
over 40 h 144,000 s, the average release rate is
10,200/144,000 0.0708 ft
3
/s. Noting that the orifice area of a
1
/2in hole is 0.00136 ft
2
,
and k
o
0.40 for ragged edge orifices, we can write Eq. 14.88 as
0.0708 N(0.40)(0.00136)2 (3 2.2 )1.3 ,
where N is the number of orifice holes. Solving for N we obtain N 14.22. Therefore, we
use 14 holes evenly distributed.
14.9.2.3 Extended detention basin design considerations. Additional design considera
tions for extended detention basins can be found in various publications (ASCE, 1998;
FHWA, Schueler, 1987; Urbonas and Stahre, 1993). Briefly, the basin should gradually
expand from the inlet, toward the outlet. A lengthtowidth ratio of 2 or higher is recom
mended. Side slopes should not be steeper than 3:1 (H:V) and flatter than 20:1 (H:V). A
riprap, concrete, or paved lowflow channel is required to convey trickle flows. A twostage
design is recommended with a 1.5 to 3.0 ftdeep bottom stage and a 2.0 to 6.0ftdeep
upper stage. A wetland marsh created in the bottom stage will help remove soluble pollu
tants that cannot be removed by settling. The detention basin inlet should be protected to
prevent erosion. If the outlet is not protected by a gravel pack, some form of trash rack
should be used. A sediment forebay is recommended to encourage sediment deposition to
occur near the point of inflow
14.9.3 Retention Basins
Retention basins or wet ponds retain a permanent pool during dry weather as shown in
Fig. 14.51. A high removal rate of sediment, biological oxygen demand (BOD), organic
nutrients, and trace metals can be achieved if stormwater is retained in the wet pond long
enough. During wet weather, the incoming runoff displaces the old stormwater from the
permanent pool from which significant amounts of pollutants have been removed. The
new runoff is retained until it is displaced by subsequent storms. The permanent pool
therefore will capture and treat the small and frequently occurring stormwater runoff
which generally contain high levels of pollutant loading. The storage volume provided
above the permanent pool is used to control the runoff peaks caused by the specified
design storm events.
14.9.3.1 Permanent pool volume. Among all the factors influencing the pollutant
removal efficiency of a retention basin, the size of the permanent pool is the most impor
tant. As pointed out by Schueler (1987), in general, bigger is better. However, after a
threshold size is reached, further removal by sedimentation is negligible.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.90 Chapter Fourteen
FIGURE 14.51 Retention basin. (After Yu and Kaighn, 1992).
The required size of the permanent pool in relation to the contributing watershed area
varies in different stormwater management policies. For example, FHWA (1996) and Yu
and Kaign (1992) recommend a permanent pool size three times the water quality volume
defined for extended detention basins. Montgomery County Department of Environmental
Protection (1984), Maryland, requires a volume greater than 0.5 in times the total water
shed area. ASCE (1998) recommends that Eq. (14.97), be used with a drain time of 12
hours to determine the permanent pool volume. It is also recommended that a surcharge
extended detention volume, equal to the permanent pool volume, be provided above the
permanent pool. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986) provides geographically
based design curves to determine the permanent pool surface area as percent of the con
tributing watershed area (see Fig. 14.52). Hartigan (1989) and Walker (1987) treat a reten
tion basin as a small euthrophic lake and employ empirical models to size the retention
pond. This procedure is outlined by ASCE (1998).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986) presented a procedure to evaluate the
longterm pollutant removal efficiency of retention basins depending on the basin size and
the rainfall statistics of the project area. This procedure was developed by DiToro and
Small (1979), and is outlined in various publications (Akan, 1993; Stahre and Urbonas,
1990; Urbonas and Stahre, 1993).
14.9.3.2 Retention basin design considerations. Wet ponds can be designed to control
the peak runoff rates from rare and large storm events if additional storage volume is pro
vided above the permanent pool. The size of the additional volume can be determined by
using the procedures described for detention basins.
The outlet structures for retention basins include a low flow outlet to control the runoff
from frequent storm events and overflow devices to control the runoff from larger storms.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.91
FIGURE 14.52 Design curves for solids settling. for lowdensity residential land use. (After USEPA, 1986).
FIGURE 14.53 Retention basin outlet structures. (After Schueler, 1987).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.92 Chapter Fourteen
Typical outflow structures are shown in Fig. 14.53 (Schueler, 1987).
Additional design considerations have been presented by Schueler (1987). In sum
mary, the pond should be wedgeshaped, narrowest at the inlet and widest at the outlet.
A minimum length to width ratio of 3:1 should be used. The pond depth should average
36 ft, with a shallow underwater bench around the ponds perimeter. Sideslopes
should be no steeper than 3:1 (H:V) and not flatter than 20:1 (H:V). If the soils at the
pond site are highly permeable, the ponds bottom should be lined by impervious geot
extile or a 6in clay liner. The inlets and outfalls should be protected by riprap or other
means to prevent erosion. Wet ponds should be surrounded by a 25ft buffer strip plant
ed with watertolerant grasses and shrubs. A sediment forebay should be constructed
near the inlet of the pond with extra storage equal to the projected sediment trapping
over a 20 to 40year period.
14.9.4 Computer Models for Detention and Retention Basin Design
As discussed in the preceding sections, a trialanderror procedure is used for hydraulic
design of retention and detention basins. A basin is first trialdesigned, and then the design
hydrographs are routed through the basin to verify if the design criteria are met. Therefore,
any reservoir routing computer program can be useful for designing detention and reten
tion basins. The widely known TR20 (Soil Conservation Service, 1986) and HEC1
(Hydrologic Engineering Center, 1990), for instance, have reservoir routing schemes and
can be used for pond design. These models are in public domain. Commercially available
pond routing software are a lot more userfriendly, and they include Watershed Modeling
Standalone (www.eaglepoint.com). The commercially available models allow a variety of
different outlet structures and simulation of multiple storm events. Also available are
PONDOPT (www.cahh.com) and BASINOPT (www.cahh.com) which include an analy
sis option for reservoir routing as in the other pond models. These two models also have
a unique design option which performs all the iterations internally. The ponds are sized
and the outlet invert elevations and sizes are determined by the program for
multiplereturn periods.
14.10 SEWER HYDRAULIC SIMULATION MODELS
Amodel is defined here as a method or simulation algorithm that has been coded into a com
puter program for computations and applications. Numerous models have been developed
for sewer networks. These sewer models can be classified in different ways as follows:
1. According to the purpose of the model: (a) design modelshydraulic design, or Optimal
design, riskbased design; (b) evaluation/predictions models, (c) planning models.
2. According to the objective of the project: (a) flood control or (b) pollution control.
3. According to the extent of space consideration: (a) overland surface only, (b) sewer
system only, or (c) sewer system and overland surface.
4. According to the nature of wastewater: (a) sanitary sewer models or (b) storm and
combined sewer models.
5. According to waterquality considerations: (a) quantity only, (b) quality only (rare),
or (c) quantity and quality.
6. According to time considerations of rainfall input: (a) singleevent models or
(b) multipleevent continuous models.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.93
7. According to probability considerations: (a) deterministic or (b) probabilisticpure
statistical or stochastic.
8. According to systems concept: (a) lumped system or (b) distributed system.
9. According to hydrologic principles considered: (a) hydrologic (principle of mass con
servation) or (b) hydraulic (principles of conservation of mass and momentum or
energy).
In the first classification, the design models are for the determination of the size of
the sewers and perhaps also their slope and layout of either a new sewer systems or an
extension or modification of an existing system. The evaluation/prediction models are
those used to simulate the flow in an existing or predetermined sewer system for which
the size, slope, and layout are already specified. Their use is to compute the flow in the
sewers to check the adequacy of sewer capacity, system performance, operation, man
agement of pollution abatement, flood mitigation, and so forth. Or, the model may be
incorporated as part of a realtime operation system. The planning models are those
models used for strategy planning and decision making for urban or regional storm and
waste water management, usually applied to a larger time and spatial frame than the
design or evaluation models.
The design models design the sewers in a network for a hypothetical future event
which is represented by the design storms of specified return period or risk level. The eval
uation/prediction models simulate the runoff produced by a rainstorm of the past, present,
future, or the flow from other sources. The planning models usually consider a relatively
long continuous period of time covering many rainstorms and dry periods in between. The
planning models utilize the least hydraulic consideration of flow on overland areas and in
sewers. Often, a simple water budget balance suffices. A typical example is the STORM
model (Hydrologic Engineering Center, 1974). Supposedly, for the purpose of reliable
flow simulation, the evaluation/prediction models require the highest level of hydraulic
sophistication and accuracy. However, many lower level models do exist. Due primarily
to the discrete sizes of commercial pipes, usually a moderate level of hydraulics is ade
quate for the design models (Yen and Sevuk, 1975; Yen et al., 1976). Most of the existing
sewer models are evaluation/prediction models. Aside from the design models derived
from the rational method, there are actually very few true sewer design models; among
them only two models, ILSD (Yen et al., 1976, 1984) and WASSP (Price, 1982b), have
published users guides and arrangements for release of programs. Some of the evalua
tion/prediction models have the ability to compute the diameter required for gravity flow
of a specific discharge. However, they are not true design models because different sew
ers should be designed for different rainstorms of different durations corresponding to the
different time of concentration of the sewers. Hence, many computer runs are required to
complete the design of a network using these models.
In the last classification, the hydraulic models can further be classified according to the
level of hydraulics shown in Eq. (14.1) or (14.2) as follows: dynamic wave models, non
inertia models, nonlinear kinematic wave models, and linear kinematic wave models. It is
impossible to summarize and report the hydraulic properties of all the exiting sewer mod
els in this chapter. Therefore, only selected models are made in this presentation. Since
this article deals with the hydraulics of sewers, in the following section, only the
hydraulics of selected models are discussed. For models that allow more than one
hydraulic level for flow routing, they are presented according to their respective highest
hydraulic level. For information and comparison of the nonhydraulic aspects of the mod
els, the reader should refer to other references such as those by Brandstetter (1976), Chow
and Yen (1976), and Colyer and Pethick (1976) in addition to the original model develop
ers reports or papers. Models without hydraulic consideration of the sewer flow, such as
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.94 Chapter Fourteen
the rational method models, are excluded. When water quality transport simulation is
sought, nearly all the models perform the flow routing first and allow another pollutant
transport modelusually in concentration formcoupled with the routing result for sim
ulation. Only the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) has the quality portion inte
grated in the model as a modular block.
14.10.1 Hydraulic Properties of Selected Dynamic
Wave Sewer Models
Wellknown models, in which the highest hydraulic level, the dynamic wave simula
tion is employed, are listed in Table 14.21. In the table, the subscript o denotes the sewer
receiving outflow from the junction. All these models were developed for flow simula
tion rather than for design of sewers in a network. CAREDAS, UNSTDY,
HYDROWORKS, and MOUSE are proprietary models. Among the nonproprietary
models, only two [ISS and Stormwater Management Models Extended Transportation
(SWMMEXTRAN)] have users manuals published and available to the public. For
dynamic wave and noninertia models, the junction conditions and surcharge transition
conditionsif surcharge is allowedare important for reliable and realistic simulation
of the flow. However, for most of the models listed in Table 14.21, information about
the details and assumption on the surcharge transition and on junctions is inadequately
given. Also, except ISS which cannot handle flow having a Froude number greater than
1.6, it is not known whether the other models can handle supercritical flow with roll
waves, and if so, what assumptions are involved. In the following, dynamic wave mod
els listed in Table 14.21 are briefly discussed in three groups, namely, the explicit
scheme model (SWMMEXTRAN), the models that handle only openchannel sewer
flows, and the models that handle both openchannel and surcharge sewer flows. The
allowed network size given in Table 14.21 is that indicated in the quoted literature. For
most models, this number has been increased with later developments.
14.10.1.1 Explicit scheme model: SWMMEXTRAN. The Storm Water Management
Model (SWMM) developed under continuous support of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency is one of the best known among all the sewer models. The Extended
Transport block (EXTRAN) (Roesner and Shubinski, 1982; Roesner et al., 1984) was
added to the SWMM Version III to provide the model with dynamic wave simulation
capability. The entire sewer length is considered as a single computational reach, and the
dynamic wave equation is written in backward time difference between the time levels n
1 and n for the sewer, and expressed explicitly as
Q
n 1
j
,
(
1
2.
g
2
n
1
2
R
n
t
4/3
V
n

\
(
,
1
Q
n
2V
n
A V
n
A
u,n
L
A
d,n
t
gA
n
h
u,n
L
h
d,n
t
(14.98)
where all the symbols have been defined previously, the subscript u the upstream end
of the sewer (that is, entrance) and d the downstream end of the sewer (that is, exit), the
bar indicates the average of values at the entrance and exit, and presumably A A
n1
A
n
is also the average of the values at the sewer ends. The junction condition used is the
continuity equation, Eq. (14.47), expressed explicitly in terms of the depth and discharge
values at the time nt as
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.95
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.96 Chapter Fourteen
T
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.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.97
H
n 1
H
n
A
t
j
(
Q
i,n
Q
j,n
) (14.99)
where the subscript j indicates junotion. The junction dynamic relation is simplified as a
common water surface [Eq. (14.51)]. Equations (14.98) and (14.99) are solved explicitly
by using a modified Euler method and halfstep and fullstep calculations. Courants sta
bility criterion is adopted to select the computational t.
In EXTRAN, when a junction is surcharged, instead of properly applying the conti
nuity equation (Eq. 14.53), it assumes the pointtype junction continuity relationship
(Eq. 14.50) applies. On the basis of this pointtype junction continuity equation, an
expression of the junction water head is derived through an improper application of the
chain rule of differentiation, for which a Taylor expansion would have been more appro
priate. The unsatisfactory result was apparently recognized, and remedies were attempt
ed through the introduction of an adjustment factor and the assumption on the numeri
cal iterations to either reach a maximum number set by the user or the algebraic sum of
the inflows and outflows of a junction being less than a tolerance. In an earlier version
of EXTRAN that was applied to a project in San Francisco, California, an attempt was
made to artificially modify the geometry of the junction so that numerical solution
could be obtained.
The SWMMEXTRAN, with its explicit difference formulation, solves the flow sewer
by sewer by using the onesweep explicit solution method with no need for simultaneous
solution of the sewers of the network. Therefore, it is relatively easy to program.
Nonetheless, because of the assumptions on the surcharge condition, and also the stabili
ty and convergence (accuracy) problems of the explicit scheme for the openchannel con
dition, on a theoretical basis EXTRAN is inferior to other dynamic wave models listed in
Table 14.21. The other models, of course, have their share of problems concerning the
assumptions on the transitions between openchannel and surcharge flows, between
supercritical and subcritical flows, and on roll waves.
14.10.1.2 Dynamic wave model handling only openchannel flow: ISS. The Illinois
Storm Sewer System Simulation (ISS) model (Sevuk et al. 19973) solves the dynamic
wave equation using the firstorder scheme of the method characteristics. The Saint
Venant equations [Eqs. (14.2) and (14.5)] or similar type partial differential equations are
transformed mathematically into two sets of characteristic equations, each set consisting
of a pair of ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically using a semi
implicit scheme. The formulation can be found in Sevuk and Yen (1982).
The junction conditions used for a storage junction are Eq. (14.47), together with the
equations in Table 14.15, for sewer exits, and for sewer entrances Eq. (14.48) with K
i
0, that is,
H (V
2
/2g) h Z (14.100)
For a point junction, the equations are Eq. (14.50), together with Eqs. (14.51) or (14.52).
The ISS model program considers direct backwater effects for up to three sewers in a junc
tion. For junction with more than three joining sewers, the excess sewers (preferably those
with small backwater effects from the junction) are treated as direct inflow, that is, Q
j
in
Eqs. (14.47) or (14.50). The flow in the network is solved by using the overlapping seg
ment method. The outlet of the network can be any one of the following: (1) a free fall,
(2) flow continuing to approach normal flow, (3) a stage hydrograph h f(t), (4) a rating
curve Q f(h), (5) a velocitydepth relationship v f(h), and (5) a dischargetime rela
tionship Q f(t).
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.98 Chapter Fourteen
When used to compute the required pipe diameter of a sewer, ISS is the only model
among those listed in Table 14.21 that uses a maximum depth criterion to ensure gravity
flow in the sewer for the design situation. Other models compute the required pipe diam
eter on the basis of the peak discharge that does not guarantee gravity flow because, for
unsteady flow, maximum depth usually does not occur at the same time as the maximum
discharge in a sewer. The ISS model can easily be modified to account also for surcharge
flow by adding the Preissmann hypothetical slot.
14.10.1.3 Dynamic wave models handling both openchannel and surcharge flows.
Among the seven models belonging to this group listed in Table 14.21, four of them
CAREDAS, UNSTDY, Joliffe, and HYDROWORKSare numerically similar, using a
fourpoint implicit scheme and adopting the Preissmann fictitious open slot to simulate
surcharge flow. Details of the fourpoint implicit scheme can be found in Liggett and
Cunge (1975) and Lai (1986). In fact, the same fourpoint numerical scheme is also used
in SURDYN (Pansic, 1980). SURDYN is the only model in this group of seven that sim
ulates the surcharge flow by using the standard pressurized conduit approach and solving
it simultaneously with the openchannel flow. The surcharge equation used in this model
is a quasisteady dynamic equation obtained by dropping the local acceleration (V/t)
term in Eq. (14.2). For the rising transition from openchannel flow, surcharge is assumed
to occur when the discharge exceeds Q
f
or when the pipe exit is submerged. Falling tran
sition from surcharge to openchannel flow is assumed to occur when the pipe entrance
is not submerged, when the discharge falls less than Q
f
or when the pipe exit is not sub
merged. Pansic (1980) reported that the model simulates the unsteady flow reasonably
well. But oscillations often occur at transitions between openchannel and surcharge con
ditions. This oscillation problem is partly numerical, partly hydraulic, and partly due to
assumptions.
Among these models, HYDROWORKS, MOUSE, UNSTDY, and CAREDAS are pro
prietary. They are briefly introduced in the following:
1. HYDROWORKS. The dynamic wave sewer flow routing option of HYDROWORKS is
based on an earlier model SPIDA from the same company, Hydraulics Research, in
England. HYDROWORKS also contains noninertial (WALLRUS) and nonlinear kine
matic wave (WASSPSIM) sewer routing options. The model can handle a loopedtype
network as well as a dendritic type. For dynamic wave routing, the inertia terms are
linearly phased out from a Froude number equal to 0.81.1. Essentially, for supercriti
cal flow, the noninertia approximation is used. For pressurized flow, the hypothetical
slot width is assumed onetwentieth of the maximum pipe diameter.
2. MOUSE. This model was upgraded from Danish Hydraulic Institutes (DHI) System
11sewer (S11S) model. It was first released in 1985 and subsequently updated with
personal computer PC technology advancements. It uses the AbbottIonescu sixpoint
implicit scheme (Abbott and Basco, 1990) which is relatively stable and consistent but
costly in computation. The model allows loop network. In addition to dynamic wave
routing, it also has noninertia (identified in the model as diffusion wave) and kinemat
ic wave routing options for sewers.
3. UNSTDY. The UNSTDY model uses fourpoint noncentral implicit schemes to solve
the SaintVenant equations for subcritical flow. Supercritical flow is simulated by
using the kinematic wave approximation. The model can solve a looped network in the
system.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.99
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
2
2
S
u
m
m
a
r
y
o
f
H
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t
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N
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k
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n

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)
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m
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t
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o
(
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V
2
/
2
g
)
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.100 Chapter Fourteen
4. CAREDAS. This is one of the earliest full dynamic wave sewer flow routing models
developed by SOGREAH at Grenoble, France. This is the first model to incorporate the
Preissmann slot to simulate surcharge flow. In applying CAREDAS, a sewer network is
first checked for the sewers with sufficiently steep slope for which the kinematic wave
equation can be applied as an adequate approximation. The dynamic wave model is
applied to each group of the connected, gently sloped sewers.
14.10.2 Hydraulic Properties of Noninertia Sewer Models
The noninertia approximation of the unsteady flow momentum equation [Eq. (14.1)] is
probably the most efficient option among the dynamicwave momentum equation options
to solve unsteady openchannel sewer flow problems. It accounts for downstream back
water effect, and it allows reversal flow. Computationally, it is much simpler than the full
dynamic wave option. It is only for rare highly unsteady cases that the noninertia option
is inadequate and the full dynamic wave or the exact momentum options are required.
However, only a few noninertia sewer models have been developed; only four are report
ed in the literature and they are summarized in Table 14.22.
The proprietary HVMQQS model was developed by Dorsch Consult (Klym et al.,
1972; Vogel and Klym, 1973) at Munich, Germany. It has been misquoted as a dynam
ic wave model (Brandstetter, 1976). Examination of the equations [Eqs. (3) and (4) in
Vogel and Klym, 1973] reveals that, in fact, it is a noninertia model. It was stated that
to avoid simultaneous solution of all the sewers in the network, further assumptions
were made. One assumption is to let S
f
S
o
(Q/Q
o
)
2
, where Q
o
is defined as a normal
flow discharge corresponding to S
o
, but it is not clear what depth is used in computing
Q
o
. Another issue that the sewer downstream boundary condition at the exit is either
unspecified or a rating curve h h(Q), or the exit depth hydrograph h(t) is known. In
fact, with unspecified downstream boundary condition, this model does not really
account for the backwater effect, and thus, it omits one of the important advantageous
properties of the noninertia model. No information is given on whether the flow equa
tions are solved implicitly or explicitly.
The DAGVLDIFF model was developed at the Chalmers University of Technology
(Sjberg, 1982) at Gteborg, Sweden. The equations in the model are solved in a manner
similar to the dynamic wave model DAGVLA and were found generally satisfactory. No
further development or support of the DAGVL models has been provided since the devel
opment of S11S/MOUSE.
The proprietary DHI (1994) model MOUSE contains noninertia and kinematic wave
sewer routing options in addition to dynamic wave routing. The noninertia option simu
lates the flow the same way as the dynamic wave option; thus, it does not take full advan
tage of the simplicity and computational efficiency of the noninertia modeling.
The NISN model (Pagliara and Yen, 1997) utilizes the overlapping segment method to
solve for the flow in a network. For each segment, the flow equations are solved simulta
neously using the Preissmann fourpoint implicit scheme. Junction storage and headloss
are allowed. There is no network size limit for this model.
14.10.3 Nonlinear Kinematic Wave Models
Unlike the dynamic wave and noninertia sewer models, there exist many kinematic wave
models. Only a few nonlinear kinematic wave models are listed in Table 14.23 for dis
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.101
T
A
B
L
E
1
4
.
2
3
S
e
w
e
r
H
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c
P
r
o
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t
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o
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l
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c
t
e
d
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l
i
n
e
a
r
K
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m
a
t
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M
o
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l
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M
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.102 Chapter Fourteen
cussion. All of the models listed in these tables, except the USGS model, have provision
to compute the required diameter for a specified discharge using the Manning or Darcy
Weisbach formula. All the nonlinear kinematic wave models listed in Table 14.23 consid
er the backwater effect from upstream (entrance) of the sewer within the realm of a single
sewer and not beyond, and not the backwater effect from downstream (sewer exit).
The kinematic wave models, unable to compute reliably the sewer flow crosssection
area A, depth h, and velocity V, are of questionable usefulness in coupling with a water
quality equation for waterquality evaluation. Unless the downstream backwater effect is
always insignificant, otherwise a waterquantity model having a hydraulic level of nonin
ertia approximation or higher should be used.
Nonlinear kinematic wave models may be classified further according to the man
ner the flow equations are formulated for solution. The first group includes the models
solving directly the nonlinear kinematic wave equations. The first two models in Table
14.23, [U.S. Geological Surveys Distributed Routing RainfallRunoff Model (USGS)
(Dawdy et al., 1978)] and [Illinois LeastCost Sewer System Design Model, option B2
(ILSDB2) (Yen et al., 1976)] belong to this group. The second group includes the
models that solve an explicit linear algebraic equation of the Muskingum equation
form. The Illinois LeastCost Sewer System Design Model, option B3 (ILSDB3) (Yen
et al., 1976) and the British Hydraulics Researchs Wallingford Storm Sewer Design
and Analysis Package Simulation Method (WASSPSIM) (Price, 1982a,b) belong to
this group. The third group consists of the models using other modified nonlinear kine
matic wave equations for solution such as the TRANSPORT Block in SWMM (Metcalf
and Eddy. et al., 1971).
1. ILSDB2 and USGS models. In the first group, the continuity equation is written as a
finite difference algebraic equation of one variable (usually h or Q) or two variables
(e.g., h, Q or A, Q) and solved iteratively with the aid of the simplified momentum
equation, S
o
S
f
, where S
f
is approximated by Mannings or similar formulas to relate
the depth or area to discharge. A formulation used in Yen and Sevuk (1975) and adopt
ed in ILSDB3 is given in the following as an example. Noting that B(h) A/h and
G(h) Q/h, Eq. (14.4) can be rewritten as
B(h)
h
t
G(h)
h
x
0 (14.101)
For partially filled circular pipes (Fig. 14.3),
B(h) D sin
j
,
(
\
(
,
(14.102)
and by using Mannings formula
G(h)
K
n
n
S
o
1/2
R
2/3
B
3
,
,
sin
2
1
(/2)
j
,
(
sin
1
\
(
,
]
]
]
(14.103)
0.13
n
2K
n
S
o
1/2
D
5/3
sin
2/3 ,
,
5 sin
sin (
1
/2)
si
]
]
]
where the central angle in radians is (Fig. 14.3):
2 cos
1
[1 (2h/D)] (14.104)
Consider the four computational grid points boxed by the time levels n and n 1 and
space levels i and i 1, Eq. (14.101) can be transformed into the following implicit
fourpoint forwarddifference equation:
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Hydraulic Design of Urban Drainage Systems 14.103
2
1
t
[
(B
i,n 1
B
i 1,n 1
)(h
i,n 1
h
i 1,n 1
h
i,n
h
i 1,n
)
]
1
x
[
(G
i,n 1
G
i 1,n 1
)(h
i 1,n 1
h
i,n 1
)
]
0 (14.105)
This equation is nonlinear only with respect to the unknown flow depth h
i 1, n 1
since
B
i 1, n 1
and G
i 1, n 1
are both expressed in terms of the depth [Eqs. (14.102) and
(14.103)], and hence it can readily be solved by using Newtons iteration method. The
solution proceeds sewer by sewer from upstream toward downstream. Within each
sewer, the flows for all the reaches are determined for a given time before proceeding
to the next time step.
In ILSD, there are actually several sewer flow routing schemes of different hydraulic
levels, including options B2 and B3 listed in Table 14.23 and the option of hydrograph
time lag adopted in ILSD1 and 2. The objective of ILSD is to develop an efficient and
practical optimization model for the least cost system design of sewer networks.
Therefore, the sensitivity and significance of the sophistication of hydraulics on opti
mal design of sewer systems were investigated. It was found that for the purpose of
designing sewers, because of the discrete sizes of commercially available pipes, unso
phisticated hydraulic schemes often suffice, and hence the hydrograph time lag
method, instead of options B2 and B3, is adopted in ILSD1 and 2. Yen and Sevuk
(1975) also arrived at a similar conclusion that for design, a low hydraulic level rout
ing method is often acceptable, whereas for evaluation and simulation of flow in sew
ers, a high hydraulic level routing is usually required.
In the USGS model, the finite difference equation is formulated from Eq. (14.47) sim
ilar to ILSDB2. However, the nonlinear relation between Q/Q
f
and A/A
f
is approxi
mated by a straight line, and the flow area A is expressed explicitly as
A
i 1,n 1
f(A
i,n 1
, A
i 1,n
) (14.106)
Hence, solution for all the reaches within a sewer must be obtained at each time for the
time increments. However, for the sewers in a network, the solution technique can be
either the cascade method or the onesweep method. No information on which one is
used in the model is given in the literature.
2. SWMMTRANSPORT. Only one model in the third group of modified nonlinear kine
matic wave models is listed in Table 14.23. The SWMM is a comprehensive urban
storm water runoff quality and quantity simulation model for evaluation and manage
ment. A good summary of the model is given in Huber and Dickinson (1988), Huber
and Heaney (1982), and Metcalf and Eddy et al. (1971). It has two sewer flow routing
options, TRANSPORT and EXTRAN, not counting the crude guttertype routing in
the RUNOFF block. EXTRAN was discussed above. TRANSPORT is the original
sewerrouting submodel built in the progam. In TRANSPORT, the continuity equation
is first normalized using the justfull steady uniform flow discharge Q
f
and area A
f
, then
the equation is written in finite differences and expressed as a linear function of the
normalized unknowns A/A
f
and Q/Q
f
at the grid point x (i 1)x and
t (n 1)t:
(Q/Q
f
)
i 1,n 1
C
1
(A/A
f
)
i 1,n 1
C
2
0 (14.107)
where C
1
and C
2
functions of known quantities. From the simplified dynamic equa
tion S
f
S
o
and Mannings formula, we have
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
(Q/Q
f
) AR
2/3
/A
f
R
f
2/3
f(A/A
f
) (14.108)
Accordingly, curves of normalized dischargearea relationship Q/Q
f
versus A/A
f
for
steady uniform flow in pipes of different crosssectional geometries are established
and solved together with Eq. (14.107) for Q/Q
f
and A/A
f
. In the kinematic wave method
of solving Eqs. (14.107) and (14.108), in addition to the initial condition, only one
boundary condition is needed, which is usually the inflow hydrograph at the sewer
entrance. No downstream boundary condition is required, and hence, no backwater
effect from the downstream can be accounted for if the flow is subcritical. However, in
TRANSPORT through a formulation of friction slope calculation using the previous
time values at the spatially forward point, the downstream backwater effect is partial
ly accounted for at one time step behind. In routing the unsteady nonuniform flow by
using Eqs. (14.107) and (14.108), the value of Q
f
is not calculated as the steady uni
form fullpipe discharge. Instead, it is adjusted by assuming that
S
f
S
o
h
x
V
g
V
x
S
o
h
i 1
,n
x
h
i,n
V
i
2
2
1
g
,n
x
V
i
2
,n
(14.109)
To improve computational stability, it is further assumed in TRANSPORT that at any
iteration k, Q
fk
is taken as the average of previous and current values: that is,
Q
fk
1
2
Q
f(k 1)
A
f
R
f
2/3
(14.110)
S
o
x h
i,(k 1)
h
i 1,(k 1)
V
i
2
,
2
(k
g
1)
V
i
2
2
1
g
,(k 1)
1/2
where all the values of h and V are those at the previous time nt that are known if the
onesweep or implicit solution method is used to solve for the flow in individual sew
ers at incremental times. Incorporating Eq. (14.109) for S
f
in Mannings formula yields
a quasisteady dynamic wave approximation instead of the kinematic wave. Thus, use
of Eq. (14.110) to compute Q
f
indirectly gives a partial consideration of the down
stream backwater effect with a time lag. This improvement of the kinematic wave
approximation makes SWMM TRANSPORT hydraulically more attractive than the
standard nonlinear kinematic wave models. Presumably, the partial accounting of the
downstream backwater effect is effective as long as the flow does not change rapidly
with time, and no hydraulic jump or hydraulic drop is allowed. A hydraulic compari
son of EXTRAN to improvement and advantages over TRANSPORT has not been
reported and would be interesting.
Nonetheless, since the downstream boundary condition is not truly accounted for, it is
recommended in SWMMTRANSPORT that for a sewer with a large downstream
storage element from which the backwater effect is severe, the water surface is assumed
as horizontal from the storage element going backward until it intercepts the sewer
invert. Moreover, when the sewer slope is steep, presumably implying highvelocity
supercritical flow, the flood may simply be translated through the sewer without rout
ing, that is, shifting of the hydrograph without time lag. Also, if the backwater effect is
expected to be small and the sewer is circular in cross section, the gutter flow routing
method in the RUNOFF Block may be applied to the sewer as an approximation.
In SWMM, large junctions with significant storage capacity and storage facilities are
called storage elements, equivalent to the case of storage junction (that is, ds/dt 0),
which was discussed above. Only the continuity equation, Eq. (14.35), is used in stor
age element routing. No dynamic equation is considered except for the cases with weir
or orifice outlets. Small junctions are treated as pointtype junctions with ds/dt 0.
K
n
K(1
K
X
X)
0
.5
0
.
t
5t
(14.112a)
C
2
K(1
0.
5
X
t
)
K
0
X
.5t
(14.112b)
and C
3
K
K
(
(
1
1
K
X)
)
0
0
.
.
5
5
t
t
(14.112c)
where K is known as the storage constant having a dimension of time and X a factor
expressing the relative importance of inflow. Cunge (1969) showed that by taking K and
t as constants, Eq. (14.111) is an approximate solution of the nonlinear kinematic wave
equation [Eqs. (14.4) and (14.102) or Eq. (14.104)]. He further demonstrated that Eq.
(14.111) can be considered as an approximate solution of Eq. (14.104) if
K x/c (14.113)
and
X
1
2
(/cx) (14.114)
where is the diffusion coefficient and c is the celerity of the flood peak that can be
approximated as the length of the reach divided by the flood peak travel time through the
reach. Assuming K t and denoting 1 2X, Eq. (14.111) can be rewritten as
Q
i 1,n 1
2
2
Q
i, n
Q
i, n 1
Q
i 1, n
(14.115)
In the traditional Muskingum method, X and, consequently, are regarded as constant. In
the Muskingum method as modified by Cunge, is allowed to vary according to the chan
nel geometry and is computed as
KQ/S
o
(x)
2
B (14.116)
in which B is the surface width of the flow and S
o
the sewer slope. The values of are
restricted to being between 0 and 1 so that C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
in Eq. (14.112) will not be neg
ative. It is the variation of , and hence C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
, that classifies the Muskingum
Cunge method as a nonlinear kinematic wave approximation.
The MuskingumCunge method offers two advantages over the standard nonlinear
kinematic wave methods. First, the solution is obtained through a linear algebraic equa
tion [Eq. (14.111) or Eqs. (14.115) and 14.116)] instead of a partial differential equation,
permitting the entire hydrograph to be obtained at successive cross sections instead of
solving for the flow over the entire length of the sewer pipe for each time step as for the
standard nonlinear kinematic wave method. Second, because of the use of Eq. (14.116), a
limited degree of wave attenuation is included, permitting a more flexible choice of the
time and space increments for the computations as compared to the standard nonlinear
kinematic wave method.
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
14.106 Chapter Fourteen
In ILSDB3, the coefficient in Eq. (14.115) is computed at each grid point by using
Eq. (14.116), while B and K both change with respect to time and space. The values of K
are computed by using Eq. (14.113) with the celerity c evaluated by
c Q/A (14.117)
or for a partially filled pipe using Mannings formula
c
0.13
n
2K
n
S
o
1/2
D
2/3
sin
2/3
5 sin
2
sin
(14.117)
The initial flow condition is the specified base flow as in ILSDB2. The upstream
boundary condition of the sewer is the given inflow hydrograph. The flow depth and other
geometric parameters at the sewer entrance can be computed from the geometric equa
tions given in Fig. 14.3. The junction condition used is the continuity relationship, Eq.
(14.53). The solution is obtained over the entire time period at a flow cross section before
proceeding to the next cross section. The solution then proceeds downstream section by
section and then sewer by sewer in a cascading sequence. More details on the computa
tional procedure of ILSDB3 can be found in Yen et al. (1976).
The British model WASSP is a sewer design and analysis package consisting of four
submodels (Price, 1982b): A modified rational method for design of sewers, a hydrograph
method for design of sewers using the MuskingumCunge routing, an optimal design
method, and a simulation method using the fixed parameter MuskingumCunge technique
for openchannel routing in sewers and the unsteady dynamic equation for surcharge flow
computations. Openchannel flow is routed using Eq. (14.111) with the coefficients C
1
,
C
2
, and C
3
expressed as functions of c and Q/2BS
o
. In computation, c is taken as the
fullpipe velocity and is evaluated at h/D 0.6. Sewers under openchannel flow are
solved pipe by pipe, using a directionally explicit algorithm to calculate the discharge at
the sewer exit. The space increment x along the sewer is selected automatically in terms
of t to enhance computational accuracy. Connected surcharged sewers are solved simul
taneously. For surcharge flow, a time increment as small as a few seconds may be neces
sary if surges occur. The transition between openchannel flow and surcharge flow is
assumed to occur when the discharge exceeds Q
f
, when the sewer entrance and exit are
submerged, or when the water depth in the junction is higher than the sewer flow depth
plus the entrance or exit headloss (Bettess et al num., 1978). At a junction, only the con
tinuity equation is considered for openchannel flow. For surcharge flow, in addition to the
continuity equation, junction headloss is considered and incorporated into the surcharge
unsteady dynamic wave equation. The headloss coefficient is assumed to be 0.15 for a
junction with straight pipes, 0.50 for 30 bend pipes, and 0.90 for 60 bend pipes. Some
details of WASSPSIM are reported in Price (1982b).
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and Operation of StormSewer Networks, in M. B. Abbott and J.A. Cunge, eds., Engineering
Applications of Computational Hydraulics, Vol. 1, Pitman, London, 1982, pp. 1136.
Abt, S. R., and N. S. Grigg, An Approximate Method for Sizing Detention Reservoirs, Water
Resources Bulletin, 14(4):956965, 1978.
Ackers, P., An Investigation of Head Losses at Sewer Manholes, Civil Engineering Public Works
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Copyright 2004 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Akan, A. O., Similarity Solution of Overland Flow on Pervious Surface, Journal of Hydraulic
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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS