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13.1 Vascular Plant Structure and Function

Key features of four plant taxa Taxon Waxy Cuticle Vascular Tissue Pollen grains Seeds Flowers and Fruits Mosses X Ferns X X Gymnosperms X X X X Angiosperms X X X X X Photosynthesis: process plants synthesize their own carbohydrates supply stored chemical energy, building blocks for cell growth and reproduction, food for other animals. Cellular process: cells tissues tissue systems organs organ systems: plants photosynthesize, grow, reproduce, distribute, store products. Meristems Plant cells mitosis in regions called meristems. In spermatophytes: root and shoot systems form in tiny embryo within seed germination cells at tips of roots and shoots (apical meristems, responsible for primary growth) elongates. Other locations: meristems form complete/incomplete cylinders of tissue. Cell division here: lateral meristems/ cambium (cambia): increase in the diameters of roots and stems = new xylem/phloem tissue

Primary and Secondary Growth Primary growth: growth in length of roots and stems throughout entire life (apical meristems), growth in diameters of roots and stems in first year of life Secondary growth: lateral meristems activity throughout rest of plants life. cells from meristematic tissue differentiate into other specialized organs: roots, stems, leaves, cones, flowers

13.2 Roots
plant tissues: absorption, transport, storage, photosynthesis, and reproduction 1) dermal tissue cells epidermis (outermost cell layer of plant experiencing primary growth), and periderm (protective covering replacing epidermis in plants that show extensive secondary growth) 2) ground tissue cells internal nonvascular regions 3) vascular tissue cells conduct materials throughout plant bodies Dermal Tissue System Parts of shoot system epidermis produces cuticle (waxy, noncellular layer): protects against water loss, infection by microorganisms, restricts gaseous exchange through surfaces of epidermal cells. Epidermal tissue specialized cells: root hair cells, leaf guard cells Secondary growth: replaced by periderm. Some form special cells soon die leave behind waterproof, protective material. Ground Tissue System Parenchyma Living ground tissue bulk of primary plant body. Tasks: photosynthesis, storage of nutrients, carbohydrates, water, heals wounds, regenerates plant parts. Succulents: (cacti): thick, fleshy parts large amounts of parenchyma tissue water storage. Pith: general term: ground tissue in centre of roots and stems: spongy parenchyma cells: storage of nutrients, carbohydrates, water. Cortex: ground tissue surrounding pith: rigid cells Collenchyma Living cells: strengthens plant, specialized for supporting primary growth regions thickened cell walls w/ flexibility to plant parts that must bend to withstand wind. (Celery) Sclerenchyma Cells secondary cell wall cellulose and lignin: material w/ strength and rigidity. May occur as continuous mass, small clusters, or individually scattered. (pear fruit). Strengthen and support plant parts, evident where hardness is an advantage (nuts/cactus spines). Dead at maturity. Vascular Tissue System Xylem, phloem, some collenchyma and parenchyma cells -

Xylem (wood) main tissue for conducting water and minerals contains fibres, water conducting cells. 1) tracheids (no longer than vessel elements, tapered, overlapping ends/ pits in their cell walls unthickened areas for easier transfer of materials between cells). 2) vessels: long, continuous tubes of individual vessel elements- end to end / thickened walls, large perforations in their end walls) Both types in angiosperms, gymnosperms only tracheids. Both dead at maturity, only lignified cell walls remain, continuing to transport water and dissolve substances until filled with various deposits

Phloem transports sugars / solutes through plant mature as a living tissue. Sieve tubes: obstruction-free pathway for movement of materials from cells / composed of sieve elements (long, thin phloem cells with sieve plates at end walls) Sieve plates large pores for easy passage of water/dissolved materials pits on side walls. Lack a nucleus, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, vacuoles Sieve elements usually associated with companion cell: small cells next to them, direct activities of tubes, supply them with needed substances.

13.3 Leaves
Green leaves: sites of photosynthesis, contain chlorophyll, obtain carbon dioxide from the air and water to use as building blocks for sugars and starches. Other objectives: protecting against drying out, hungry herbivores = variety of internal structures, characteristics to survive biotic (living tings in an area include interactions within and between species), abiotic (non living: temperature, humidity, light, soil) factors Blade flattened main body Nodes locations where leaves are attached to stem Internode space between two successive nodes on same stem Usually network of veins / vascular bundles of conducting, supporting tissue. Leaf connected to stem by leaf stalk called petiole. Vascular tissue in stem usually sends out one branch to leaf through petiole. In leaf, vascular system branches out. Branching and rebranching through leaf: net venation (dicots). New leaf veins from petiole to leaf tip without joining, parallel venation (monocots) Simple leaf single, undivided blade Compound leaf blade divided into 2 or more leaflets

Stomata What Where Factors How

Water builds up Sunrise

Stomata (stoma) regulates exchange of gases (carbon dioxide, oxygen) Found in epidermis of leaves/stems, mostly lower epidermis of leaves Light levels, temperature, abscisic acid, levels of water, levels of gas Allows water vapour to escape (transpiration). Water diffuses out, evaporates into air space of leaves. Guard cells: occur in pairs around stoma, regulate opening and closing, contain chloroplasts. Open stomata: plant takes in CO2, loses water. Closed: water is conserved, carbon dioxide isnt obtained. Related to concentration of CO2 in guard cells = stomata open in daytime, closed at night (Night) guard cells swell. The portion of cell wall that faces each other is thickened => open. Photosynthesis begins in chloroplasts, carbon dioxide drops, oxygen levels increase. Gaseous exchange Water concentration drops, guard cells are limp, rest against each other, closing stoma

Throughout day Hottest Plants lose excessive water. Guard cells lose water limp. Stomata closes, gaseous exchange part of the prevented. Photosynthesis is closed or stopped. day Mesophyll What Region of photosynthetic cells, consists of parenchyma cells w/ lots of chloroplasts Where Between upper and lower surfaces of leaf. Most plants: two different areas Areas Palisade Mesophyll: one/two layers - brick-shaped cells, rich in chloroplasts, tightly packed (the longer side of the cells at right angles with) under the upper epidermis of leaves primary photosynthesis Spongy Mesophyll: between palisade mesophyll and lower epidermis. Fewer chloroplasts, irregularly shaped, arranged with large air spaces scattered = promote rapid diffusion of gaseous exchange How Photosynthesis = lower CO2 levels in mesophyll cells. CO2 diffuses in = more reactants for photosynthesis. Oxygen levels rise = diffusion out. Stomata Open: gaseous exchange between air spaces + atmosphere. Closed: process of photosynthesis uses up CO2 and stops.

Leaf Adaptations to Abiotic Factors Broad leaves trap low light energy in shaded areas Early leaves before leaves of surrounding trees make shaded conditions for deciduous forest Conifers keep leaves throughout winter: beneficial for short growing season avoid time, energy, nutrients for new set of leaves. Thin, long needles: small surface area, thick, waxy cuticle = inefficient for photosynthesis, greatly reduces water loss. Winter cant replace water Leaves w/ thick layers of water storage tissue, covered w/ extra thick, waxy cuticle areas of low precipitation or high salt content fewer than usual stomata Spines of cacti remnants of leaves very few stomata, extremely small surface area. Photosynthesis fleshy, green stems. Leaf Adaptations to Biotic Factors Tough, hairy, prickly, bitter leaves survive herbivore appetites: also reduces photosynthetic efficiency. Herbivores also adapted: some tough mouth tissues, efficient teeth, poor sense of taste, digestive enzymes Toxic chemicals: control herbivore populations. E.g. nicotine in tobacco leaves: insecticide. Common milkweed plant produces toxin (poison): horrible taste and highly toxic to all insects, large herbivorces monarch butterfly caterpillars immune, toxin accumulates in them Other Leaf Adaptations Plants use leaves for other functions. Some plants all modified leaves. Others combination. Onion bulbs modified leaves for storage of water, nutrients Plants w. specialized leaves survive better w/ herbivores. Tendrils specialized leaves for attachment to surfaces or objects Sharp spines of cacti Petals of flowers attract pollinators Carnivorous plants venus fly-trap, pitcher plant, sundews: thrive with animal protein Indian pipe leaves tiny bits of tissue no chloroplasts = heterotrophic. They are saprophytes = nutrients from organic matter in soil. Indian pipe has vascular tissue and complete flowers.

13.4 Roots
1) Absorb water + minerals from soil transported 2) Physically support + anchor plants through vascular tissue to stems, leaves, flowers 3) Store carbohydrates 4) Variety of compounds: hormones Primary Root: very first main root seed Secondary Root: lateral root smaller than main root, branches from it 2 types of plant roots: 1) taproots: primary root remains predominant, very small secondary roots. E.g. young root increases in diameter, grows downward, develops small lateral roots (carrots, beets, dandelions, oak trees). 2) fibrous roots: primary roots disintegrated + replaced by adventitious roots: develop from part of the plant other than root form huge tufts at base of stem. No main roots, most are same size. Smaller secondary roots branch out from roots. (Fibrous root system). Does not penetrate as deeply as taproots, total combined length enormous. Protective root cap: loose mass of cells forming a protective cap covering the apical meristems of most root tips. Behind cap: root hairs: microscopic extensions of the epidermal cells near tip of a root: function in absorption of water + minerals by increasing roots surface area. At the centre: vascular cylinder (stele), contains vascular tissues, xylem, phloem, some ground tissue Endodermis: layer of rectangular cells, surrounding vascular cylinder. Innermost layer of cortex. Regulates lateral movement of water + minerals. Pericycle: between vascular cylinder + endodermis: thin layer of lateral meristematic cells (tissue) - gives rise to secondary roots

Secondary growth in roots: increase in diameter of vascular cylinder + formation of mark. Most monocot roots + some annual (plants, complete entire life cycle, one year) dicots do not exhibit. Definite characteristic of perennial (plants that grow + reproduce repeatedly for many years)

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Ground tissue, vascular cambium (separates xylem + phloem) within stele meristematic + begins to divide. Cambium divides, mitosis => phloem cells outside, xylem cells inside. Xylem increases in size; cambium is displaced outward = increase in diameter of root. Primary xylem + phloem st 1 year of plants life. After all are secondary. Pericycle gets pushed outwards, some of its cells => meristematic, develop into cork cambium (lateral meristem formed by pericycle in dicots over 2 years), produces compact layers of cork (eventually form layer of dead cells that provide a protective covering for roots over 2 years old. Also describes protective layers) Cells become impervious to water. When epidermis, remnants of cortex die + get rubbed off, remains = accumulating corky layers of the bark, protect roots from excess moisture loss, bacterial invasion, mechanical damage.

Root Adaptations Waterlogged, oxygen poor soils (mangrove swamps) roots specialized extensions: pneumatophores grow out of water, function to supply oxygen to root tissues below. Some plants small aerial roots (adventitious roots) from leaf nodes along stem absorb oxygen from air. If part of stem contacts the soil, roots grow downwards as normal roots. E.g. aerial roots orchids never reach ground: epiphytes: grow on stems + branches of other plants not parasitic: photosynthetic E.g. stranger figs epiphytes: roots grow down to ground. E.g. carrot: roots greatly expanded, major carbohydrate-storage organ. E.g. walnut trees: roots: release toxins into soil from roots, seeds, fallen leaves: inhibit germination of other plant seeds, reducing competition: allelopathy: suppression of growth + development of neighbouring plants caused by chemicals secreted by roots + contained in leaves.



Stems + leaves = plant shoot system. Stems: 1) support for plant 2) transport link to and from leaves, roots, reproductive parts 3) store water, carbohydrates. Herbaceous stems: fleshy stems of annual plants: do not survive more than one yea nonwoody stems. Thin, soft, green, short lived, little, no wood photosynthesis, produce carbohydrates. Usually not more than 1m. Woody stems: grape vines, shrubs, conifers: stems of perennial plants: increase in diameter each year. Xylem cells, after they have died, create hard, woody tissue.

1 year of growth: the two resemble each other: with growth at the apical meristems increasing in shoot length. Monocot and dicot herbaceous plants different arrangements of vascular tissues within stem seldom survive year+ - any lateral growth still primary growth Like roots, stems of dicots grow year after year secondary growth after year 1, involves Vascular and cork cambia cells of vascular cambium (mitosis) secondary phloem + secondary xylem. Secondary phloem cells crush fragile phloem cells of previous years as pressure exerted outwards. Secondary xylem do not thick walls. Oldest xylem centre of stem, youngest is next to cambium. Secondary xylem thickens + forms tissue = wood. Each year, new layer added = size, hardness, strength. Xylem cells produced + maturing in Spring grow large available moisture. Later conditions drier xylem cells much smaller. One zone of Spring Xylem + zone of summer-fall xylem = annual ring: the increase in the amount of secondary xylem during one year. Wet years rings wider. Number of rings: age. Tropical zones: uniform growth no annual rings. Other changes: no new ground tissue, primary tissue may be displaced by secondary tissue. Like root, cork cambium formed cork cells accumulate layers. Actual cells die cell walls remain in form cork protection against mechanical damage + damage caused by bacteria, fungi, insects


Bark: outer layers on older stems, branches, trunks every layer from vascular cambium outwards: phloem, any remaining cortex, cork cambium, cork. Bark removed phloem will be destroyed no further carbohydrates transported to root tree will die. Aging trees: old xylem cells plugged w/ various substances e.g. oils, resins prevent water + dissolved materials from moving up + down. Cause xylem tissue to darken: region: heartwood: older, harder, nonliving central wood in tree trunks: basic function: support lies at the heart/centre of stem. Living xylem surrounding sapwood: younger, softer, outer wood in tree trunks important for transporting water, dissolved materials + support. Sugar maples: also stores + transports carbohydrates. Light color. Each year some sapwood => heartwood. Fluid within any part of plant: sap: found mostly within xylem + phloem tissues.

Stem Adaptations Cacti: thick, fleshy stems perform photosynthesis + contain large amounts of parenchyma tissue: water storage. Sometimes modified for asexual reproduction. Regular white potatoes are tubers thick underground stems specialized for carbohydrate storage + asexual reproduction. Thin, reddish strawberry runners thin stems which grow along the ground producing roots and shoots at their nodes: not roots. Some plants: stems twine completely around other plants. Members same species same direction Crecopia tree hollow stems home to symbiotic ants: benefit from protective habit, offer protection for tree by attacking leaf-eating insects. Peeling/shedding bark: gets rid of epiphytes which grow on tree trunk + branches.

13.6 Transport in Plants

Plants depend on vascular tissue to circulate nutrients, water, carbohydrates, hormones water and dissolved materials move through conducting tissues: bulk/mass flow. Capillary action +adhesion + cohesion theories all related to the hydrogen bond attraction among water molecules and to the tubule walls. These keep water column intact. Several processes = 1) water evaporates from inner leaf cell walls into air spaces and out through open stomata = reduced pressure in leaves and water flows upwards from roots. 2) This lost water = replaced by bulk flow from roots. Cell membranes of root cells allow more water and dissolved minerals to enter by osmosis, diffusion, active transport Carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis moved from leaf cells to other plant parts through phloem tissue = translocation. Flow from source (higher pressure) to where they are stored (lower pressure). Driving force: positive pressure gradient from source to sink. Phloem (like xylem) = continuous pipeline between leaves and roots. This = pressure-flow hypothesis

13.7 Reproduction
Flowers: most complex, intricate: ensures successful pollination and fertilization. Indirectly: protect and distribute seeds because they form the seed coats and fruit. Seed Growth and Development 1 2 3 4 5 Angiosperm seeds inside fruit: consists of embryo, tissue (nutrients for embryo), protective coat Slowly forms a root and shoot structure Monocot: single seed leaf (cotyledon) develops Dicot: two seed leaves form One/two cotyledon(s): either all the nutrients for embryo, or endosperm (additional nutrient rich material). Seeds large cotyledon usually insignificant endosperm tissue, vice versa Seeds (protected seed coat) may enter dormant period (state of extremely slow biological activity: contains living embryo but does not grow: remains protected by seed coat + sometimes fruit too), often many years. Optimum temperature and moisture conditions germination Seed + seed coat absorb water = rapid growth Seed coat ruptures, root and shoot emerge Water-and-nutrient absorbing root grows downward, shoot grows upward occurs because of certain chemicals and effect of gravity. Some plants cotyledons are raised out of soil for a while and photosynthesize. Others remains underground Endosperm nutrients support development until sufficient root surface area and chlorophyll

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Seed Adaptations Competition within species reduced = evolution of various mechanisms for dispersing seeds Fruit: investment of resources dispersal. Some: special features: hooks or spines to attach to fur, feathers of birds, clothes. Fleshy fruits attractive + nutritious for animals pass through digestive tract, deposited along with animals waste (ideal fertilizer). Birds carry far distances Some plant seeds will not germinate unless passed through specific animal: e.g. dodo bird + tree Calvaria. Squirrels + chipmunks hiding + burying acorns for winter: rarely all consumed remaining new oak trees. Other ways:

Fruits or pods that explode when they mature: throws seed far from parent Small, lightweight seeds carried by wind (orchid and poppy) Fluffy, parachutelike structures with seed (dandelions, milkweed) Winglike structures: maple, sycamore, elm, ash By water: air is trapped in seeds (floatation) (water lilies and coconuts) Waxy, waterproof coating seeds of water plants protects during long travel over water. Coating wears away, water penetrates seed + triggers germination.