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Genotype x management interaction in wheat: Do genotypes adapted to CA make difference?

By Rajbir Yadav PS, Division of Genetics, IARI, New Delhi

Issues related to viability of agriculture

Profit = (Yield X Price) Costs High Profits Obtain the highest possible yield With the lowest possible costs Market at the best possible price

Yield =Genotype X Environment X Management Genotype Yield potential, disease resistance, lodging, Environment Rainfall, sunlight, temperature, day length, etc. Management Cropping system, Fertility, planting, pest

How to increase yield: Basic plant physiology Good stand establishment and early growth Vegetative growth (leaves and stems) foundation for grain growth Cool temperature favors vegetative growth : plant accordingly Highest yields w/ high biomass w/ optimum proportion of grain (Harvest Index ~45%) Balancing source (leaves) and sink (florets) Reproductive phase (4 leaf to anthesis) most critical in determining yield (seeds/area) Minimize stress during this stage

Sustainability: Rainfed and irrigated agriculture has contributed significantly toward increasing production but concern has been raised for their sustaiability and efficient use of water and land resources Declining return Degrading natural resources Polluting environment

Changing environment
Uncertain weather Very high or low precipitation Very high or low temperature Prolonged or shortened winter

All these issues can be addressed simultaneously by practising CA The global area currently under CA is reaching 120 M ha, corresponding to about 8.5% of arable cropped land, spread across all continents and agro-ecologies (Kassam et al., 2012).

Conservation Agriculture Comprises three basic component (1) Retaining full or as close as possible full ground cover No soil compacting and disturbance Maintaining diverse crop rotations.

(2) (3)

Implications for crops in conservation agriculture New diseases ( more soil borne diseases) More challenging seed bed Weed competition Changes in nitrogen dynamics Tillage x cultivar interaction

Breeding for cropping system and conservation agriculture To exploit genotype x tillage interaction for developing varieties for resource conservation agriculture. To exploit genotype x system interactions (G x S) for developing varieties for specific cropping system To insulate the varieties for biotic and abiotic stresses encountered in different wheat based cropping system To develop wheat varieties suppressing weeds via changed plant morphology. Integration of MAS in achieving the various breeding objectives

Breeding for cropping system


Three cropping system being addressed under this project
Rice-wheat Maize-wheat Bajra-wheat

Composition of the material used for Genotype x Tillage interaction 72 top yielding genotypes from maize-wheat zero till raised bed. 115 top yielding genotypes from conventionally tilled maize wheat 102 top yielding lines from Zero tilled Bajrawheat 55 top yielding lines from rice-wheat

Performance of lines selected from maize-wheat (PB) in different cropping system

Performance of ten highest yielding lines of MW across different production environment

Maize-wheat (FIRB and zero tillage)

Maize-wheat

Maize-wheat

Growth under Zero till ( Maizewheat)

Maize-wheat (Weed Competitive Genotype)

Scientists from Australia and CIMMYT

Growth of CSW1 under Zero tillage in Maize-wheat

CSW02

Study on genotype x tillage interaction in MW


Entry no 153 172 Pedigree VL 349/YSCN08 VL 849/ UP 2571 Yield per Yield ( plot Q/ha) 3.7 3.8 62.03 63.71 63.71 65.39 65.39 67.06 62.03 57.08 Per cent superiority over check 8.82 11.70 11.76 14.70 14.70 17.64 8.82 0.0 Selection from MW ZT MW ZT MW ZT MW ZT MW ZT MW ZT MW ZT -

178 UP 2425/ UP 2626 3.8 CL 1449/ HUW 272 585 3.9 HD 2687/ PBW 328 498 3.9 HW 4023/DW 774 1326 4 803 HW4023/HD 2824 3.7 Best plot of 3 Check checks 3.4

CSW 18 in Maize-wheat( PB)

View of CSW18 ear head

FIRB for water saving

FIRB for water saving


Time taken for irrigating 41.40 x 12 m2 block FIRB 18

Flat bed

22

Percent saving over flat bed : 18

Incidence of termite in maize stubbles

Incidence of termite in maize during 2009


Crop Maize Bajra Zero tillage 45 Nil CT 25 -

Incidence of termite in maize during 2010


Crop Maize Bajra RW Zero tillage 15 Nil Nil CT 25 05 Nil

View of Bajra Field sown under zero till condition

Hybrids of Bajra adapted to zero till condition


No of hybrids sown Arjun Best under CT Maharaja 52 PS 999 PS 9444 A Best Under Zero tillage PS 9444 Krishna 68

Bajra-wheat sowing

Bajra-wheat ( Zero tillage Raised Bed with residue)

Weed competitive genotypes under bajra-wheat

Growth under Bajra-wheat ( Zero tillage)

Growth of CSW1 under BajraWheat

Performance of lines selected from BW in different cropping system

Performance of entries in Bajrawheat


Entry No. 2005 2063 2076 2077 HD 2878/HD 29 SAWSN14 Yield per plot Yield (q/ha) 3.8 3.7 63.71563 62.0389 60.36217 62.0389 % superiority over check 11.76471 8.823529 5.882353 8.823529 MW MW CT BW

PBW 502/UP2425 3.6 HD 2824/DW1278 3.7 HW 5015/HD 2643//PBW343 Best plot

2096 Check

3.7 3.4

62.0389 57.00872

8.823529 0

BW

Growth under Bajra-wheat ( Zero till)

Rice-wheat with rice residue

Rice-wheat with rice residue

Growth of Wheat under very high load of rice residue

Performance of lines selected from RW in different cropping system

Performance of entries under RW


Entry No. 2291 2359 2368 2375 2379 6017 6040 6051 Check HD 2824/VL 849 HD 2329/ CL 1555 VL 849/ UP 2571 UP 2425/UP 2626 HD 2448/DW1305 HD 2329/HD 2285 HD 2824/HD 2643 HD 2824/HD 2329 Best plot of check Yield per plot Yield (q/ha) 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 58.730 58.730 60.31 58.73 58.73 58.73 58.73 58.73 57.0 Per cent gain 2.78 2.78 5.56 2.78 2.78 2.78 2.78 2.78 0.0 Syste m
MW ZT CT CT CT CT RW RW RW MW ZT

Conventionally tilled Flat Bed

Conventional tillage ( Maize-wheat)

Conventionally tilled wheat on Flat Bed

Conventionally tilled wheat on Flat Bed


Yield (2010- Yield 11) (q/ha) % superiority over check

Entry No.

Pedigree

4389 4354 4436 4378 4356 4476 Check

HD 2329/WR544//PBW 343/NW 5041 4.3 HD 2878/MC10 CL1579/HD 2329 UP2425/CL1482 HD 2878/HD 29 IBYT(2006-07) Best plot 4 4 3.8 3.8 4 3.8

62.86 58.47 58.47 55.55 55.55 58.47 55.55

13.15 5.26 5.26 0 0 5.26 0

MW ZT MW ZT CT MW ZT MW ZT CT

Performance of lines selected from CT in different cropping system

Maize-wheat ( Raised Bed Conventionally tilled)

Performance under CT raised bed


Entry no Pedigree Yield /plot Yield in Per cent q/ha gain over best plot 55.33 53.65 51.97 51.97 50.30 50.30 10 6.66 3.33 3.33 0 0 System from which picked CT CT CT RW MW ZT MW ZT

1716 1712 1747 1867 1666 1667

VL 349/YSCN 08 PBW 343/HUW567

3.3 3.2

VL 616/Inqlab//Kundan 3.1 CL1705/HD 2894 UP 2425/CL 1461 UP 2425/UP 2626 3.1 3 3

Cross over type Genotype x CS interaction

Performance of CSW entries under multi location


Name of the entry Karnal Kushina Begu gar Sarai CoochBi Ludhian New har a Delhi Shikopu Mean r

CSW15 CSW16 CSW18 CSW1 DBW 17 PBW 343 HD 2967 PBW 550 Sarpat Rubi Munal

5753 5760 5938 5470 5513 5750 5780 4913 6163 6471

5410 6330 6170 5440 4215 5550 4250 3669 3740 3747 6451

6245 5864 6183 6027 5182 4934 6108 5164 5125 5508 5552

4075

5860 5904 6100 5942 5404 6463 5606 6495

5772 5762 5823 5650 5293 5150 3667 -

5867 5931 5842 5791 4656 5153 5163 -

5818 5925 6009 5719 5043 5411 5425 3907 4592 5256 5809

Well filled cob under zero till condition

Maize hybrid under zero tillage

Problem under zero tillage

Hybrids adapted to zero till condition


Name of the entry ZT09 ZT1 ZT154 ZT110 ZT45 ZT165 Plot yield 15.5 14 14 13.8 13.5 12 Yield ( q/ha) 49.20 44.44 44.44 43.80 42.85 38.09 Cob length 22 16 17 18 18 18 No of rows 12.7 13.7 13.3 15.0 15.7 13.3 Kernels per row 45.3 41.7 34.3 36.7 36.3 37.0

Hybrids adapted to CT
Name of Plot yield the entry in Kg CT 503 CT 234 CT 217 CT 606 CT 246 6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 Yield ( q/ha) 42.8 39.2 39.2 39.2 39.2 Cob length 19 18 17 20 16 No of rows 13.3 12.7 12.3 13.3 13.0 Kernels per row 36.3 39.3 38.3 39.3 42.7

Exploring possibility of CSW 18 by early sowing HD 2329 vrn A1 Vrn B1 and VRN D1 CSW 18: vrnA1, VrnB1 and vrn D1

Growth under Zero tilled condition

Rice-wheat field

Genotype x cropping system interaction in 2009


Name of the check DBW 17 PBW 550 HD 2967

No of replications

30

30

30

Range of yield per plot

1910 -2600

772-1880

1160-2350

Average yield per plot

2156.66

1256.56

1862.66

Standard error

224.86

275.25

275.35

Yellow rust infection in PBW343

Conclusion: Selection under maize-wheat (PB) were also good for CT (FB) also but not vice-versa Selection under Bajra-wheat were also good for maize-wheat. Selection under RW were equally good for MW and CT(FB) Strong Genotype x System interaction in bad years. Is it consistent over the years Can we go varietal release: No harm

Traits important for conservation agriculture


Trait Coleoptile length Coleoptile thickness Emergence from depth Rapid height growth Seedling vigour Kernel weight & embryo size Faster stubble decomposition Weed suppression & Allelopathy Early biomass/specific leaf area et al Deeper roots N-use efficiency Disease resistance Seedling temperature tolerance Recent evidence Trethowan et al (2001); Rebetzke et al (2004 & 2007); Erayman et al (2006) Rebetzke et al (2004) Trethowan et al (2005); Joshi et al (2007) Olesen et al (2004) Liang and Richards (1999); Trethowan et al (2005); Erayman et al (2006) Liang and Richards (1999) Joshi et al (2007) Olesen et al (2004); Bertholdsson, 2005 Liang and Richards (1999); Olesen (2004) Reynolds and Trethowan (2007) Van Ginkel et al (2001); Trethowan et al (2005) Trethowan et al (2005); Joshi et al (2007) Boubaker & Yamada (1991); DellAquila and Spada (1994)

According to Sayre and Trethowann Crosses among lines with contrasting responses under zerotillage Always selected under zero-tillage alternating between rainfed and irrigated conditions Always selected under conventional tillage alternating between rainfed and irrigated conditions Advanced lines from both selection regimes evaluated under both zero and conventional tillage

Thanks For Your Kind Attention