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1 (1989) 159-174

159

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD FOR PRESSURE DRIVEN MHD DUCT FLOW

B.D. AGGARWALA and P.D. ARIEL Department of Hathematlcs and Statistics University of Calgary, Calgary, K1berta, Canada

(Received January 15, 1988)

ABSTRACT.

In this paper,

of the

ve

Incompresslble,

field

is

fleld,

when one

boundaries

partly

(li) flov

arbltrarily

through a rectangular duct vhen the conducting part is symmetrlcally situated, and

(Ill)

flow

through

rectangular duct

vhen

the

conducting

part

is

positioned.

Such problems have been studied before by asyptotlc means for large values of H,

of

Method renders the proble coputatlonally efficient and provides a rellable ntmerlcal

all

values

H.

For

large

M,

our

coputatlon

tlme

decreases

slgnlflcantly.

76t/05.

1.

INTRODUCTION.

The MHD flov of an electrlcally conducting fluld through ducts in the presence of

a :agnetlc fleld is of ipotance in various areas of technology and engineering such as HHD power generation, HHD flow-eters, HHD pumps etc.

Since the classlcal orks by

Hartmann [I] and Shercllff [2], many investigations have been carried out in vhlch various combinations of boundary conditions have been considered [3-14]. Speclal attention has been paid in these investigations to large values of M, the Hartmann

number, to study the formation of various boundary layers in the fleld at large H.

160

Hunt

and

Williams

[I 5]

studied

the

effects

of

discontinuity

in

the

flat channel.

field

of

the

boundaries

recently extended this Idea and investigated the MHD flow through ducts in which one

perpendicular

to

the

magnetic

had

mixed

electromagnetic

equation.

In the present paper, we investigate the MHD flow through ducts, when one of the

boundaries perpendicular to the magnetic field has a portion of the boundary perfectly

conducting

Method.

and

the

remaining

boundaries

are

Insulated,

by

the

Boundary

Integral

duct when the conducting part is symmetrically situated, and (Ill) a rectangular duct

when

is

arbitrarily positioned.

of

r.

method has been modified to develop an Integral equation for the value of the magnetic

field

on

the

conducting

part

the

boundary,

which

integral

equation

has

An

and the results presented for various values of the Hartmann number.

Such problems

2.

Consider the flow of

a viscous,

incompressible,

field

through a duct.

be

fully

developed,

steady

and

laminar.

A unlform magnetic

is

applied

The equation of motion and the curl of Ohms law in the dimensionless form are

B v2v + M-if -,

(2.,)

V2B + M "x

is the Rartmann number defined by

(2.2)

Here V is the velocity in the z-dlrectlon, B is the induced magnetic field and M

M

where

PeHoL,(o/p)

1/2

(2.3)

and p,

L,

is

characteristic

length

o and

Pe

respectively

denote

the

is

3.

Taking

the

primary

flow

as

corresponding

to

perfectly

insulated

walls,

its

solution is given by

v0 (x)

ch

2M

shMa

,..Ma

ch M

(,..

x)

(3.

a sh

161

B0(x)

=W (-

x)

M(a

sh Ma

x) (3.2)

0 and x

a.

v0(,y)-and

m--I ,3

v (x) sin

m

B0(x

where

y)

>.

re=l,3

b (x) sin m

v (x) m

16b

m

[I

b (x) m

and

m

1

16b

shPm (a-x)

Pm

2 + M 2 4b

m n

22

change of variable.

sho mx ch

shp a m

-sh

O, x

a and y

+/-

mr cos

m_

2b

(3.3)

cos

2b

(3.4)

M(a-x)+shPm(a-x)c

Sx

(3.5)

Mx-shPmX

sh

M(a-x)

shp a m

(3.6)

(3.7)

a, y

0 and y

O, x

b, the

We shall examine the effect of the perfectly conducting part of the boundary on

the flow in the following sections.

B

where V

and B

B0

velocity

+

B

and

(3.8)

magnetic

field

induced

are

the

by

the

electrical

4.

The equations of motion for secondary flow and the associated boundary conditions

are

V2V

3B

+ M

(4.1)

V2B

V

V

+

0

(4.2)

on the boundaries

(4.3a)

(4.3b)

---ffi

3B o 3n

(4.3c)

162

Vl(X,y)

and

Bl(X,y)

shch- f(x,y)

M f

2

f(x,y)

(4.4) (4.5)

V2f

_!

(4.6)

given by

(4.7) (4.8)

f (0 y)

--0 x

y)

f(P)

=-- f

point

{f(Q)

interior

G(P,Q)

to

G(P,Q)-Q} dSQ

the

(4.9)

is

Here

is

any

domain

D,

any

point

on

the

outward drawn normal.

/SnQ

4.1

at

Assume that the conducting part of the boundary x 0 is symmetrically situated c. y Because of the symmetry of the problem, we need to consider the solution

0 only.

The boundary condition at y

in the region y

0 becomes

(y

Choosing

x, o)

(4.10)

C(x,y;,n)

(-I) m

{Ko[

V(Xm-)2+(y-n)2

(4.1 i)

+K

where

M [ /(Xm -)2+(Y+r )2

Xm

equations

(m +

)a

+ (-1) m (x

a)

(4.12)

Bl(X,y)

and

V l(x,y)

Notice

that-v

8G

to differentiate it.

-- ch

Mx

c

163

G f BI(O,) x,y;O,)

O

dq

(4.13)

sh-

Mx

c

O

BI(O,) x,y:O,)

_I

r

at x

(4.14)

q, and we still need

0, y

4.2.

MODIFI ED

[NTEGRJ

EQUATION FOR B

lira

x+O o

where G is given by

{K

O

B

n) d

2n--x

(0 y)

(4.15)

-(x,y;g,n)

+ K

Since

[ /(Xm-)2+(y-n)2]

2

(4.16)

the

function G also

satisfies

the differential

equation

(4.6), equation

lira

x+O

Bl(O,n)

(x,y;O,q)

82

(x,y;0 n)]dn

2n-x(O, y)

(4.17)

vanishes

Integrating the second term in the integrand by parts and noting that B

at

c and

--vanishes

4

at

lira

x+0

f

o

Bl(0,)(x,y;0,)+Bl(0,n

(x,y;0,)]d

(0,y)

(4.18)

.

(4.19) (4.20)

Assume

g(n)

which implies

f B l(O,y)dy O

0

g(0)

and

g (r)

B l(O,q)

(4.21)

c

lira

x+0

-1 f [! 2 g (n)(x,y;0,n)

dn

2 n_O(o Y)

ox

(4.22)

164

Integrating first term in the Integrand by parts and using (4.20) we have

llm x+0

[ M2g(c)(x,y;0,c)

f

o

h(q

y(X,y;0,)dn]

-x (0,y)

Bo

(4.23)

G(x,y;,n)

{K

o["

(Xm-)Z+(y-n)21

(4.24)

-K

and

[ /(Xm-) 2+(y+U) 21

g"(rl)

h(r)

Integrating equation (4.23) with respect to y from 0 to y and taking the limits,

we finally obtain the following integral equation for h

M2g(rl)

(4.25)

f

o

h(q)G(0,y;0,v)dq

where

P(y)

and

Q(y)

g(c)P(y) + Q(y)

(4.26)

(O,rl;O,c2)d n

Bo

(4.27)

--x(O,r)dr o

n

(4.28)

One should note that

this equation has a singularity of the type

significant

determined,

Also, equation (4.26) needs to be solved only on the conducting part of the boundary, and not over the whole boundary, and this leads to

saving in computation.

h()

Let

g(c)h I() +

h2(

(4.29)

where h

and h

2

c

o c o

satisfy

.f hl(rl)

G(O,y:O,r)dr G(0,y;0,n)drl

P(y) Q(y)

(4.30)

(4.31)

f h2(n)

respectively.

Also let

g(n)

where

g(c)gl(r)

g2(rO

(4.32)

gi(n)

165

gi"(n)

with

2gi(n)

O,

i(n)

(i

(4.33)

gi(O)

gi(c)

(4.30)

1,2)

(4.31)

for

By solving equations

equation (4.33).

and

hi(n),

one

can

obtain

gi(n)

from

Now g(c) can be obtained from equation (4.32) by using the condition

g(c)

g(c).

We have

g(c)

g2 (c)

gl(c)

and

(4.34)

and (4.21).

gi(n), Bl(0,n)

4.3.

NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS.

Equations (4.30) and (4.31) were solved numerically by descretizing the interval

(0,c)

into a mesh and using an analog of Eulers mid-point rule for integration

j+l

h(n)G(0,y;0,n)dn

h(nj+i/2)

j+l

G(0,y;0,n)dn

(4.35)

Thus the values of h were calculated at the mid-points of the mesh-points rather than at the nodal points.

The

resulting linear algebraic system of equations was solved on the Cyber 860 at the

University of

Calgary,

Calgary,

Canada

varies sharply

(IwMr)

when y

first integrated by parts resulting into an integrand without a singularity but which

0.

This was,

were evaluated using the three point Gauss Legendre formula, which was sufficient to

The

BVP

(4.33)

was

functions

(rather

mid-point formula was used to calculate the integrals and this enabled us to compute

the values of

The

BI(0,) at the nodal points of the mesh. values of Bl(0,n) were calculated using 50 and

accuracy

of the

i00 mesh-points.

was

To further

used. The

improve

the

results,

Richardsons

extrapolation

improved values of

Bl(0,n)

4.4.

The

field were

calculated

for c

0.2

and

various values of M.

using the Fourier transform technique, and the present results for these cases are in

good

agreement

with

the

results

obtained

there.

166

encountered

there for large values of M.

Such difficulties were not encountered

here.

Also worth mentioning is the fact that using the present method the execution

time reduced with increasing values of M as fewer terms are needed for coputatlon of

time on he Cyber 860 for calculating

BI(0,)

For M- I0, it took 1.950 seconds of CPU for a single run, but for M 50 it took

I00.

further reduced by using the Gauss-Seldel method instead of Gauss elimination, as for

domlnan t.

perpendicular to the magnetic field.

I00.

As expected, boundary

layer formation takes place for large values of M near the non-conductlng boundaries

Also shear layers [16, 17, 19] given by

which

emanate

from

the

points

of

discontinuity

in

the

electromagnetic

boundary

In Figure 3, the current lines (constant magnetic field lines) are presented for

M

I00.

Again, one can notice the formation of the two boundary layers for large

values of M.

demarcated

by dashed lines.

It may be

parabolic layer.

magnetic

4.5.

Again, we assume that the conducting part of the boundary x

0 is symmetrically

placed at

ly

4 c.

C(x,y;,n)

mffi-

G(x,y;,n)

..

(-I) m+n K

nffi-

(-1) n

M

G(x,y;,)

where

m----

>

(-1)

n----

n"

Ko[

"

(4.37

(4.38)

,/(Xm-)2+(yn-n) 2

(4.39)

yn

and

n

(n+

n"

(4.40) (4.41)

(n + 1.) 2

()

velocity

lines

and

current

In

Figure

and

5,

equal

lines

are

presented

respectively, for c

0.2 and M

I00.

167

4.6.

In

i.e., c

cases.

this

case

c

2.

the positioning of the conducting part is taken arbitrary The analysis now is slightly different compared with the previous

C

V l(x,y)

and

Bl(X,y)

where

=--

G(x,y;,)

x

and

Yn

- -sh- c Bl(0,n)

c

Mx

(x,y;O,) dn

(4.42)

ch-_

Mx

Bl(0,n)

(x,y;0,n) dn

(4.43)

m=- n=-

l)m+n Ko[ M

(Xm-) 2+(yn_n)2

(4.44)

Defining

g()

C

Bl(0,y)dy

(4.45)

and proceeding as in Section 4.2, we obtain the following integral equation for h()

c c

h(n)G(0,y;0,)dn

where

p(y)

Q(y) =-2r

and

C

M2

g(c2)m(y)

+ Q(y) + A

(4.46)

(0,;0,c2)d

y

(4.47) (4.48)

f

Cl

--x (0,n)d

Bo

f h()G(0,Cl;0,)d c

(4.49)

(_ i)

and

(4.50)

(4.51)

Let

M

2)

h()

where h I, h and h 2 3

g(c2)hl(n)

are given by

h2()

Ah3()

(4.52)

i2 hl() G(0,y;0,n)d

C

P(y)

(4.53)

168

2 h2(n

c,j2

c

G(O,y;O,n)dn

(4.54)

()

G(O,y;0,rl)drl

(4.55)

Further assume

g(r)

where

g(c2)g

the BVP

(n) +

g2(n)

Ag3(n)

(4.56)

gi(n)satisfy

gi()

M2gi ()

0,

hi()

0 (i- 1,2,3)

with

(c gl )=

constants

g(c 2 )=

and g(c

(4.57)

be

obtained

The

2)

can

now

by

using

the

condition g(c

I)

A

2)

g(c2).

We have

and

(4.58)

g(c2)

In

by

Figures

g2(cl)g3(c2)-g3(cl)g2(c2 ) g3(cl)[gl(c2)-l]-g3(c2)gl(Cl)

and

(4.59)

and

current lines

7,

2

equal

note

velocity

lines

are

shown

respectively, for c

0, c

One

the

dashed

lines.

should

interaction

of

various

layers

in

these

figures.

Finally in Figure 8, the values of B(0, y) are plotted on the conducting part for

the geometries considered in this paper.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Financial support of

169

Ho

c

INSULATED

CONDUCTING

O

Figure

I.

FiLwe 2.

Equal velocity lines in infinite channel (y)_ 0) I, c 0.2. The parabolic boundary I00, a for M layer is indicated by dashed lines.

170

FiEure 3.

channel Equal magnetic field lines in (y >. O) for M : I00, a : I, c : 0.2. The parabolic boundary layer is irticated by dashed lines.

iinite

Figure 4.

Equal

ines

171

Figure 5.

Equal magnetic field lines in the rectangular duct I00, a b (symmetric case) for M I, c 0.2. The parabolic bour layer is imlicated by dashed

lines.

Figure 6.

Equal velocity lines in the rectangular duct (non-symmetric case) for M I00, a b I, 0.9.. The parabolic botmdmry layer is 0, c c, indicated by dashed lines.

172

Figure 7.

qual agnetic field lins in the rectangular duct {non-s,mtric case) for M I00, a b I, 0.2. The parabolic botmdary layer is c O, c by dashed lines. indicated

173

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

N-lO0

0.01

H- 10 N- 20 H- $0, H

0.00 0.00

Figure 8.

0.04

0.08

0.12

7

0.16

0.20

Values of B on the conducting part of the boundary 0 for various values of H. The curves x represent B for infinite channel, the curves represent B for rectangular duct (symmetric-case} and represent B for rectangular duct the curves (non-syuetric case).

174

REFERENCES

I.

HARTMANN,

J. ,Hg-Dynamlcs-l,

Theory

of

the

Laminar

Flow

of

an

Electrically

Math.

Fys. Medd.,15 6

under Transverse

(1937).

2.

SHERCLIFF,

I.

Steady

Motion

of

Conducting Flulds

in Pipes

3.

Magnetic Fields, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 4if, (1953), 136-144. Mech. HUNT, J.C.R., Magnetohydrodynamlc Flow in Rectangular Ducts,Jour. Fluid 21 (1965), 577-590.

4.

two

Nonconducting Walls,

and

two

(1961), 1024-1034. 5. GRINBERG, G.A., On Some Types of Flow of a Conducting Fluid in Pipes of Rectangular Cross section, Placed in a Magnetic Field PMM, 26 (1962), 80-87. 6. HUNT, J.C.R. and STEWARTSON, K., Magnetohydrodynamlc Flow in Rectangular Ducts II Jour. Fluid Mech. 23, (1965), 563-581. 7. CHIANG, D. and LUNDGREN, T., Magnetohydrodynamlc Flow in a Rectangular Duct rlth Perfectly Conducting Electrodes, ZAMp, 18, (1967), 92-105. 8. LAVRENTEV, I.V. and SHISKO, A. YA., Electrodynamlc Processes in MHD Channels with High Magnetic Reynolds Number, MHD, 16 (1980), 88-311. 9. SINGH, BANI and AGARWAL, P.K., Numerical Solution of a Singular Integral Equation Appearing in Magnetohydrodynamlcs, .ZAMp, 3_5 (1984), 760-770. I0. SINGH, BANI and LAL JIA, Kantorovlch Method in Magnetohyd rodynaml c Flow Problems through Channels, Ind. Jour. Pure Appl. Math. 15, (1984), 1048Magnetic Field, PMM, 25

1063.

II. AITOV, T.N., KALYUTIK, A.I. and TANANAEV, A.V., Numerical Study of ThreeDimensional MHD Flow in a Duct of Complex Configuration, Using the Stokes Approximation, MHD, 20, (1984), 288-293.

12. KASHEVSKII, B.E. and NOGOTOV, E.F., Non-Linear MHD Effects Found in the Channel

Flow of a Magnetic Liquid, MHD,

13. ANTIMIROV, M. YA., Solution of MHD Problems with Mxed Boundary Conditions, MHD

21

14. SLATINSKI,

V.I.

FEDONENKO, A.I.

and

TARAPOV,

I.E., Flow of

Plane Channel,

MH____D,

22 (1986), 155-161.

15. HUNT, J.C.R. and WILLIAMS, W.E., Some Electrically Driven Flows in

Magnetohydrodynantlcs, Part I., TheoryL J. Fluid Mech., 31, (1968), 705-722. 16. SEZGIN, M., AGGARWALA, B.D. and ARIEL, P.D., Electrically Driven Flows in MHD

With Mixed Electromagnetic Boundary Conditions,

ZAMM, (1987),

Driven

to appear.

17. SEZGIN,

M.,

ARIEL,

P.D.

and

AGGARWALA,

Partially

B.D.,

Pressure

and

MHD

Flows

in

Channels

Conducting

Partially

Insulating

number Annual Rev. Fluid Mech. 3

(1971), 37-62.

Call for Papers

Thinking about nonlinearity in engineering areas, up to the 70s, was focused on intentionally built nonlinear parts in order to improve the operational characteristics of a device or system. Keying, saturation, hysteretic phenomena, and dead zones were added to existing devices increasing their behavior diversity and precision. In this context, an intrinsic nonlinearity was treated just as a linear approximation, around equilibrium points. Inspired on the rediscovering of the richness of nonlinear and chaotic phenomena, engineers started using analytical tools from Qualitative Theory of Dierential Equations, allowing more precise analysis and synthesis, in order to produce new vital products and services. Bifurcation theory, dynamical systems and chaos started to be part of the mandatory set of tools for design engineers. This proposed special edition of the Mathematical Problems in Engineering aims to provide a picture of the importance of the bifurcation theory, relating it with nonlinear and chaotic dynamics for natural and engineered systems. Ideas of how this dynamics can be captured through precisely tailored real and numerical experiments and understanding by the combination of specic tools that associate dynamical system theory and geometric tools in a very clever, sophisticated, and at the same time simple and unique analytical environment are the subject of this issue, allowing new methods to design high-precision devices and equipment. Authors should follow the Mathematical Problems in Engineering manuscript format described at http://www .hindawi.com/journals/mpe/. Prospective authors should submit an electronic copy of their complete manuscript through the journal Manuscript Tracking System at http:// mts.hindawi.com/ according to the following timetable: Manuscript Due First Round of Reviews Publication Date December 1, 2008 March 1, 2009 June 1, 2009 Guest Editors Jos Roberto Castilho Piqueira, Telecommunication and Control Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, The University of So Paulo, 05508-970 So Paulo, Brazil; piqueira@lac.usp.br Elbert E. Neher Macau, Laboratrio Associado de Matemtica Aplicada e Computao (LAC), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), So Jos dos Campos, 12227-010 So Paulo, Brazil ; elbert@lac.inpe.br Celso Grebogi, Center for Applied Dynamics Research, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK; grebogi@abdn.ac.uk

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