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Internat. J. ath. and Math. Journal VOL. 12 NO.

1 (1989) 159-174

159

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD FOR PRESSURE DRIVEN MHD DUCT FLOW

B.D. AGGARWALA and P.D. ARIEL Department of Hathematlcs and Statistics University of Calgary, Calgary, K1berta, Canada
(Received January 15, 1988)

ABSTRACT.

In this paper,
of the

ve

investigate the flov of a viscous,

Incompresslble,
field
is

electrlcally conducting fluld through a rectangular duct in the presence of a magnetic

fleld,

when one

boundaries

perpedlcular to the umgnetlc

partly

conducting and partly Insu/atlng, by a modified Boundary Integral Hethod.

Three problems are considered (1) flov through an infinite channel,

(li) flov
arbltrarily

through a rectangular duct vhen the conducting part is symmetrlcally situated, and

(Ill)

flow

through

rectangular duct

vhen

the

conducting

part

is

positioned.

Such problems have been studied before by asyptotlc means for large values of H,

the Hartmann nuaber. solutlon for

Hoverer, the present odlflcatlon of the Boundary Integral


of

Method renders the proble coputatlonally efficient and provides a rellable ntmerlcal

all

values

H.

For

large

M,

our

coputatlon

tlme

decreases

slgnlflcantly.

KEY ORDS AND NEW PHRASES. solutlons.

Boundary Integral method, Hl flow, and asymptotic


76t/05.

1980 AMS SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION CODE.


1.

INTRODUCTION.
The MHD flov of an electrlcally conducting fluld through ducts in the presence of

a :agnetlc fleld is of ipotance in various areas of technology and engineering such as HHD power generation, HHD flow-eters, HHD pumps etc.
Since the classlcal orks by

Hartmann [I] and Shercllff [2], many investigations have been carried out in vhlch various combinations of boundary conditions have been considered [3-14]. Speclal attention has been paid in these investigations to large values of M, the Hartmann
number, to study the formation of various boundary layers in the fleld at large H.

160
Hunt
and
Williams

B.D. AGGARWALA AND P.D. ARIEL


[I 5]
studied

the

effects

of

discontinuity

in

the

electromagnetic boundary conditions

by considering the flow driven by the currents


flat channel.
field

produced by electrodes placed in each plane of


of
the
boundaries

The authors [|6, 17]

recently extended this Idea and investigated the MHD flow through ducts in which one
perpendicular
to

the

magnetic

had

mixed

electromagnetic

boundary conditions; by reducing the problem to the solution of a Fredholm Integral


equation.

In the present paper, we investigate the MHD flow through ducts, when one of the
boundaries perpendicular to the magnetic field has a portion of the boundary perfectly

conducting
Method.

and

the

remaining

boundaries

are

Insulated,

by

the

Boundary

Integral

Three geometries are considered (i) an infinite channel, (ll) a rectagnular

duct when the conducting part is symmetrically situated, and (Ill) a rectangular duct
when

the conducting part

is

arbitrarily positioned.
of
r.

The usual boundary integral

method has been modified to develop an Integral equation for the value of the magnetic
field
on

the

conducting

part

the

boundary,

which

integral

equation

has

singularity no stronger than

An

This integral equation has been solved numerically

and the results presented for various values of the Hartmann number.

Such problems

would arise, e.g., in coupled MHD ejectors.

2.

THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION.


Consider the flow of
a viscous,

incompressible,

electrically conducting fluid


field

through a duct.
be

The flow is driven by a constant pressure gradient and is assumed to

fully

developed,

steady

and

laminar.

A unlform magnetic

is

applied

perpendicular to the boundary with mixed electromagnetic boundary conditions.

The equation of motion and the curl of Ohms law in the dimensionless form are

(Shercllff [2], Dragos [18])

B v2v + M-if -,

(2.,)

V2B + M "x
is the Rartmann number defined by

(2.2)

Here V is the velocity in the z-dlrectlon, B is the induced magnetic field and M

M
where

PeHoL,(o/p)

1/2

(2.3)
and p,

L,

is

characteristic

length

o and

Pe

respectively

denote

the

coefficient of viscosity, electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability.

is

the strength of the applied magnetic field directed along x-axis.


3.

SOLUTION FOR PRIMARY FLOW.


Taking
the

primary

flow

as

corresponding

to

perfectly

insulated

walls,

its

solution is given by

v0 (x)

ch

2M

shMa

,..Ma

ch M

(,..

x)

(3.

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD


a sh

161

B0(x)

=W (-

x)

M(a
sh Ma

x) (3.2)
0 and x
a.

for an infinite channel bounded by the planes x

The solution for a rectangular duct bounded by the planes x b is

v0(,y)-and

m--I ,3

v (x) sin
m

B0(x
where

y)

>.
re=l,3

b (x) sin m

v (x) m

16b
m

[I

b (x) m

and

m
1

16b

shPm (a-x)

Pm

2 + M 2 4b
m n

22

For a rectangular duct bounded by the planes x


change of variable.

primary solution is easily obtained from equations

sho mx ch
shp a m

-sh

O, x

a and y

+/-

mr cos

m_
2b

(3.3)

cos

2b

(3.4)

M(a-x)+shPm(a-x)c

Sx

(3.5)

Mx-shPmX

sh

M(a-x)

shp a m

(3.6)

(3.7)
a, y
0 and y

O, x

b, the

(3.3) and (3.4) by a suitable

We shall examine the effect of the perfectly conducting part of the boundary on
the flow in the following sections.

Thus we write the solution for the flow as

B
where V
and B

B0
velocity

+
B
and

(3.8)
magnetic
field
induced

are

the

by

the

electrical

conductivity of the boundary.

4.

SOLUTION FOR SECONDARY FLOW.


The equations of motion for secondary flow and the associated boundary conditions

are

V2V

3B

+ M

(4.1)

V2B
V

V
+
0

(4.2)

on the boundaries

(4.3a)
(4.3b)

on the non-conducting boundaries

---ffi

3B o 3n

on the conducting part of the mixed boundary

(4.3c)

162

B.D. AGGARALA qD P.D. ARIEL

where /n denotes the derivative in the normal direction.

A solution of equations (4.!) and (4.2) is

Vl(X,y)
and

Bl(X,y)

shch- f(x,y)
M f
2

f(x,y)

(4.4) (4.5)

where the function f(x,y) satisfies the differential equation

V2f

_!

(4.6)

and the boundary conditions

The appropriate solution of equation (4.6) in terms of the Greens functions G is


given by

0 on the non-conducting boundaries

(4.7) (4.8)

f (0 y)

--0 x

y)

on the conducting part.

f(P)

=-- f
point

{f(Q)
interior

G(P,Q)
to

G(P,Q)-Q} dSQ
the

(4.9)
is

Here

is

any

domain

D,

any

point

on

the

boundary D of the domain D and


outward drawn normal.

/SnQ

denotes the derivative in the direction of the

G is a suitable Greens function.

4.1

THE FLOW IN AN INFINITE CHANNEL.

at

Assume that the conducting part of the boundary x 0 is symmetrically situated c. y Because of the symmetry of the problem, we need to consider the solution
0 only.
The boundary condition at y

in the region y

0 becomes

(y
Choosing

x, o)

(4.10)

C(x,y;,n)

(-I) m

{Ko[

V(Xm-)2+(y-n)2

(4.1 i)

+K
where

M [ /(Xm -)2+(Y+r )2

Xm
equations

(m +

)a

+ (-1) m (x

a)

(4.12)

(4.9), (4.4) and (4.5) give

Bl(X,y)
and

V l(x,y)
Notice

that-v

8G

has a singularity of the type

to differentiate it.

-- ch

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD


Mx
c

163

G f BI(O,) x,y;O,)
O

dq

(4.13)

sh-

Mx

c
O

BI(O,) x,y:O,)
_I
r
at x

(4.14)
q, and we still need

0, y

4.2.

MODIFI ED

[NTEGRJ

EQUATION FOR B

Differentiating equation (4.13) with respect to x and taking limits as x tends to

zero, we obtain from (4.3c)


lira

x+O o
where G is given by

2-( Bl(O,n)- x,y;O g2


{K
O

B
n) d

2n--x

(0 y)

(4.15)

-(x,y;g,n)
+ K
Since

[ /(Xm-)2+(y-n)2]
2

(4.16)

[-f /(Xm_)2+ (y+r)

the

function G also

satisfies

the differential

equation

(4.6), equation

(4.15) can be rewritten as


lira

x+O

Bl(O,n)

(x,y;O,q)

82

(x,y;0 n)]dn

2n-x(O, y)

(4.17)
vanishes

Integrating the second term in the integrand by parts and noting that B
at

c and

--vanishes
4

at

0, equation (4.17) reduces to

lira

x+0

f
o

Bl(0,)(x,y;0,)+Bl(0,n

(x,y;0,)]d

(0,y)

(4.18)

where a prime() denotes the derivative with respect to

.
(4.19) (4.20)

Assume

g(n)
which implies

f B l(O,y)dy O
0

g(0)
and

g (r)

B l(O,q)

(4.21)

Equation (4.18) now leads to


c

lira

x+0

-1 f [! 2 g (n)(x,y;0,n)

g"(n (x,y;0 n)]

dn

2 n_O(o Y)

ox

(4.22)

164

B.D. AGGARWALA AND P.D. ARIEL


Integrating first term in the Integrand by parts and using (4.20) we have
llm x+0

[ M2g(c)(x,y;0,c)

f
o

h(q

y(X,y;0,)dn]

-x (0,y)

Bo

(4.23)

where the function G is given by

G(x,y;,n)

{K

o["

(Xm-)Z+(y-n)21

(4.24)

-K
and

[ /(Xm-) 2+(y+U) 21
g"(rl)

h(r)

Integrating equation (4.23) with respect to y from 0 to y and taking the limits,
we finally obtain the following integral equation for h

M2g(rl)

(4.25)

f
o

h(q)G(0,y;0,v)dq

where

P(y)
and

Q(y)

g(c)P(y) + Q(y)

(4.26)

(O,rl;O,c2)d n
Bo

(4.27)

--x(O,r)dr o
n

(4.28)
One should note that

Equation (4.26) is the integral equation we need to solve.


this equation has a singularity of the type

r which can be handled by the usual

boundary integral technique.


significant
determined,

Also, equation (4.26) needs to be solved only on the conducting part of the boundary, and not over the whole boundary, and this leads to
saving in computation.

However, the constant g(c) still needs to be g(c) is calculated as follows:


h()

Let

g(c)h I() +

h2(

(4.29)

where h

and h

2
c
o c o

satisfy

.f hl(rl)

G(O,y:O,r)dr G(0,y;0,n)drl

P(y) Q(y)

(4.30)
(4.31)

f h2(n)

respectively.
Also let

g(n)
where

g(c)gl(r)

g2(rO

(4.32)

gi(n)

satisfy the BVP

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD

165

gi"(n)
with

2gi(n)
O,

i(n)
(i

(4.33)

gi(O)

gi(c)
(4.30)

1,2)
(4.31)
for

By solving equations
equation (4.33).

and

hi(n),

one

can

obtain

gi(n)

from

Now g(c) can be obtained from equation (4.32) by using the condition

g(c)

g(c).

We have

g(c)

g2 (c)

gl(c)
and

(4.34)

Having obtained g(c)


and (4.21).

gi(n), Bl(0,n)

can be calculated from equations (4.32)

4.3.

NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS.
Equations (4.30) and (4.31) were solved numerically by descretizing the interval

(0,c)

into a mesh and using an analog of Eulers mid-point rule for integration

j+l

h(n)G(0,y;0,n)dn

h(nj+i/2)

j+l

G(0,y;0,n)dn

(4.35)

Thus the values of h were calculated at the mid-points of the mesh-points rather than at the nodal points.

The values of y were also chosen at these same points.

The

resulting linear algebraic system of equations was solved on the Cyber 860 at the
University of

Calgary,

Calgary,

Canada

invoking the IMSL subroutine LEQTIF which

uses the Gauss elimination method with partial pivoting.

Note that G has a singular part of the form K


varies sharply

(IwMr)

when y

n. This part was

first integrated by parts resulting into an integrand without a singularity but which

for large M, near r

0.

This was,

therefore, computed accurately

using the IMSL routine DCADRE.

The remaining integrals, being free of singularities,

were evaluated using the three point Gauss Legendre formula, which was sufficient to

produce desired accuracy.


The

BVP

(4.33)

was

solved using Greens

functions

(rather

than the shooting

method which would cause difficulties for large M).

Once again an analog of Eulers

mid-point formula was used to calculate the integrals and this enabled us to compute

the values of
The

BI(0,) at the nodal points of the mesh. values of Bl(0,n) were calculated using 50 and
accuracy
of the

i00 mesh-points.
was

To further
used. The

improve

the

results,

Richardsons

extrapolation

improved values of

Bl(0,n)

were used to compute the secondary flow given by equations

(4.13) and (4.14), using the subroutine DCADRE, once again.


4.4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.


The

velocity distribution and magnetic

field were

calculated

for c

0.2

and

various values of M.

This problem has been investigated by the authors [17] recently

using the Fourier transform technique, and the present results for these cases are in

good

agreement

with

the

results

obtained

there.

However some difficulties were

166
encountered

B.D. AGGARWALA AND P.D. ARIEL


there for large values of M.
Such difficulties were not encountered

here.

Also worth mentioning is the fact that using the present method the execution

time reduced with increasing values of M as fewer terms are needed for coputatlon of

the expression for the Greens function G.


time on he Cyber 860 for calculating

BI(0,)

For M- I0, it took 1.950 seconds of CPU for a single run, but for M 50 it took
I00.

0.485 seconds, and 0.315 seconds for M

Indeed this time could have been

further reduced by using the Gauss-Seldel method instead of Gauss elimination, as for

large values of M the algebraic system of equations determining h is highly diagonally


domlnan t.

In Figure 2, velocity contours are presented for M


perpendicular to the magnetic field.

I00.

As expected, boundary

layer formation takes place for large values of M near the non-conductlng boundaries
Also shear layers [16, 17, 19] given by

which

emanate

from

the

points

of

discontinuity

in

the

electromagnetic

boundary

conditions are evident in the figure.

This shear layer has been depicted in Figure 2

by means of dashed lines.

In Figure 3, the current lines (constant magnetic field lines) are presented for
M
I00.
Again, one can notice the formation of the two boundary layers for large

values of M.

The parabolic shear layer is

demarcated

by dashed lines.

It may be

noted that the changes in the values of


parabolic layer.

magnetic

field take place mostly in this

4.5.

THE FLOW IN A RECTANGULAR DUCT SYMMETRIC CASE.


Again, we assume that the conducting part of the boundary x

0 is symmetrically

placed at

ly

4 c.

The only difference in the analysis from the preceedlng case is in

the expressions for Greens functions. They are now defined as

C(x,y;,n)

mffi-

G(x,y;,n)

..

(-I) m+n K

nffi-

(-1) n

Ko[ /(Xm-) 2+ (yn-n) 2]


M

G(x,y;,)
where

m----

>

(-1)
n----

n"

Ko[

"

[ (Xm_ )2+ (yn-rt) 2]

(4.37

(4.38)

,/(Xm-)2+(yn-n) 2

(4.39)

yn
and
n

(n+

1/2)b+ (-1)n(y 1/2b)


n"

(4.40) (4.41)

(n + 1.) 2

()
velocity
lines
and
current

[x] being the integral part of x.

In

Figure

and

5,

equal

lines

are

presented

respectively, for c

0.2 and M

I00.

The parabolic shear layers glen by equation

(4.36) have been demarcated by dashed lines.

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD

167

4.6.

THE FLOW IN A RECTANGULAR DUCT NON-SYMMETRIC CASE.

In
i.e., c
cases.

this

case
c

2.

the positioning of the conducting part is taken arbitrary The analysis now is slightly different compared with the previous

The expressions for velocity and magnetic field are


C

V l(x,y)
and

Bl(X,y)
where

=--

G(x,y;,)
x
and

Yn

being defined by equations (4.12) and (4.40) respectively.

- -sh- c Bl(0,n)
c

Mx

(x,y;O,) dn

(4.42)

ch-_

Mx

Bl(0,n)

(x,y;0,n) dn

(4.43)

m=- n=-

l)m+n Ko[ M

(Xm-) 2+(yn_n)2

(4.44)

Defining

g()
C

Bl(0,y)dy

(4.45)

and proceeding as in Section 4.2, we obtain the following integral equation for h()
c c

h(n)G(0,y;0,)dn
where

p(y)

Q(y) =-2r
and
C

M2

g(c2)m(y)

+ Q(y) + A

(4.46)

(0,;0,c2)d
y

(4.47) (4.48)

f
Cl

--x (0,n)d

Bo

f h()G(0,Cl;0,)d c

(4.49)

The functions G and G now become

(_ i)
and

M nK o[y (Xm-) 2 (yn-) 2

(4.50)
(4.51)
Let

Ko[- J(Xm-) 2+ (Yn-n) 2]


M

Now there are two constants A and g(c

2)

which need to be calculated.

h()
where h I, h and h 2 3

g(c2)hl(n)
are given by

h2()

Ah3()

(4.52)

i2 hl() G(0,y;0,n)d
C

P(y)

(4.53)

168

B.D. AGGARWALA AND P.D. ARIEL

2 h2(n
c,j2
c

G(O,y;O,n)dn

(4.54)

()

G(O,y;0,rl)drl

(4.55)

respect ive ly.

Further assume

g(r)
where

g(c2)g
the BVP

(n) +

g2(n)

Ag3(n)

(4.56)

gi(n)satisfy
gi()

M2gi ()
0,

hi()
0 (i- 1,2,3)

with

(c gl )=
constants

g(c 2 )=
and g(c

(4.57)
be
obtained

The

2)

can

now

by

using

the

condition g(c

I)
A

0 and the trivial condition g(c

2)

g(c2).

We have

and

gl(Cl)g2(c2)-g2(cl [gl(c2 )-I] g3(cl)tg (c2)-11-g 3 (e2)g (e 1)

(4.58)

g(c2)
In
by
Figures

g2(cl)g3(c2)-g3(cl)g2(c2 ) g3(cl)[gl(c2)-l]-g3(c2)gl(Cl)
and

(4.59)
and
current lines

7,
2

equal
note

velocity

lines

are

shown

respectively, for c

0, c
One

-0.2 and M- I00.


the

The shear layer has been indicated

dashed

lines.

should

interaction

of

various

layers

in

these

figures.

Such interaction would be difficult to obtain by asymptotic methods.

Finally in Figure 8, the values of B(0, y) are plotted on the conducting part for
the geometries considered in this paper.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Financial support of

the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of

Canada is gratefully acknowledged.

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD

169

Ho

c
INSULATED

CONDUCTING

O
Figure

I.

Geometry of the duct.

FiLwe 2.

Equal velocity lines in infinite channel (y)_ 0) I, c 0.2. The parabolic boundary I00, a for M layer is indicated by dashed lines.

170

B.D. AGGWALA AND P.D. ARIEL

FiEure 3.

channel Equal magnetic field lines in (y >. O) for M : I00, a : I, c : 0.2. The parabolic boundary layer is irticated by dashed lines.

iinite

Figure 4.

Equal
ines

(s]metric by dashed The parabolic boundary layer is irKiicated

velocity lines in the rectangular duct : case) for M : I00, a : b : I, c

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD

171

Figure 5.

Equal magnetic field lines in the rectangular duct I00, a b (symmetric case) for M I, c 0.2. The parabolic bour layer is imlicated by dashed
lines.

Figure 6.

Equal velocity lines in the rectangular duct (non-symmetric case) for M I00, a b I, 0.9.. The parabolic botmdmry layer is 0, c c, indicated by dashed lines.

172

B.D. AGGARWALA AND P.D. ARIEL

Figure 7.

qual agnetic field lins in the rectangular duct {non-s,mtric case) for M I00, a b I, 0.2. The parabolic botmdary layer is c O, c by dashed lines. indicated

MODIFIED BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD

173

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02
N-lO0

0.01
H- 10 N- 20 H- $0, H

0.00 0.00
Figure 8.

0.04

0.08

0.12
7

0.16

0.20

Values of B on the conducting part of the boundary 0 for various values of H. The curves x represent B for infinite channel, the curves represent B for rectangular duct (symmetric-case} and represent B for rectangular duct the curves (non-syuetric case).

174

B.D. AGGARWALA AND P.D. ARIEL


REFERENCES

I.

HARTMANN,

J. ,Hg-Dynamlcs-l,

Theory

of

the

Laminar

Flow

of

an

Electrically

Conducting Liquid in a homogeneous Magnetic Field,

Math.

Fys. Medd.,15 6
under Transverse

(1937).
2.

SHERCLIFF,

I.

Steady

Motion

of

Conducting Flulds

in Pipes

3.

Magnetic Fields, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 4if, (1953), 136-144. Mech. HUNT, J.C.R., Magnetohydrodynamlc Flow in Rectangular Ducts,Jour. Fluid 21 (1965), 577-590.

4.

GRIN-BERG, G.A., On Steady Flow of


two

a Conducting Fluid in a Rectangular Tube with

Nonconducting Walls,

and

two

Conducting Ones Parallel to an External

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Mathematical Problems in Engineering

Special Issue on Modeling Experimental Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaotic Scenarios


Call for Papers
Thinking about nonlinearity in engineering areas, up to the 70s, was focused on intentionally built nonlinear parts in order to improve the operational characteristics of a device or system. Keying, saturation, hysteretic phenomena, and dead zones were added to existing devices increasing their behavior diversity and precision. In this context, an intrinsic nonlinearity was treated just as a linear approximation, around equilibrium points. Inspired on the rediscovering of the richness of nonlinear and chaotic phenomena, engineers started using analytical tools from Qualitative Theory of Dierential Equations, allowing more precise analysis and synthesis, in order to produce new vital products and services. Bifurcation theory, dynamical systems and chaos started to be part of the mandatory set of tools for design engineers. This proposed special edition of the Mathematical Problems in Engineering aims to provide a picture of the importance of the bifurcation theory, relating it with nonlinear and chaotic dynamics for natural and engineered systems. Ideas of how this dynamics can be captured through precisely tailored real and numerical experiments and understanding by the combination of specic tools that associate dynamical system theory and geometric tools in a very clever, sophisticated, and at the same time simple and unique analytical environment are the subject of this issue, allowing new methods to design high-precision devices and equipment. Authors should follow the Mathematical Problems in Engineering manuscript format described at http://www .hindawi.com/journals/mpe/. Prospective authors should submit an electronic copy of their complete manuscript through the journal Manuscript Tracking System at http:// mts.hindawi.com/ according to the following timetable: Manuscript Due First Round of Reviews Publication Date December 1, 2008 March 1, 2009 June 1, 2009 Guest Editors Jos Roberto Castilho Piqueira, Telecommunication and Control Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, The University of So Paulo, 05508-970 So Paulo, Brazil; piqueira@lac.usp.br Elbert E. Neher Macau, Laboratrio Associado de Matemtica Aplicada e Computao (LAC), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), So Jos dos Campos, 12227-010 So Paulo, Brazil ; elbert@lac.inpe.br Celso Grebogi, Center for Applied Dynamics Research, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK; grebogi@abdn.ac.uk

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