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Lecture 27 Seismic Loads per IBC

Analysis of earthquake induced strong ground motion is a multi-discipline study of geology, soil mechanics, seismology, structural dynamics, mechanical vibration, probability, and statistics. It is an evolving science. Great research efforts are undertaken annually through the federal, state and private sectors to develop accurate methods of prediction, analysis, design and retrofit to lessen the impact of potentially catastrophic earthquakes. The seismic structural design portion of the IBC greatly simplifies the underlying science of strong ground motion and is incorporated into Sections 1613. Section 1613 Earthquake Loads List of seismically-related definitions used throughout the remainder of the Code. Section 1613.1 Scope Every structure and portion thereof, including nonstructural components that are permanently attached to structures and their supports and attachments, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake motions in accordance with ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A. Exceptions (earthquake analysis not required): 1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories A, B or C. 2. Seismic-force-resisting wood-framed structures complying with IBC Section 2308. 3. Agricultural buildings with no human occupancy. Section 1613.5.3 Site Coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration parameters Ground motion accelerations are determined from IBC Figure 1613.5. These include: Ss = Earthquake spectral response acceleration at short (0.2 sec.) periods. S1 = Earthquake spectral response acceleration at 1-second periods.

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Section 1613.5.6 Determination of Seismic Design Category Seismic Design Category A, B, C, or D see IBC Tables 1613.5.6(1) and 1613.5.6(2).

Section 1613.5.6.2 Simplified Design Procedure Step 1: Determine Ground Motion Spectral Response Acceleration: SS = Ground acceleration at short (0.2 second) period = see Figure 1613.5(1) S1 = = Ground acceleration at longer(1 second) period = see Figure 1613.5(2) Step 2: Determine Site Class: Site class is based on seismic shear wave velocity, vs, traveling through the top 100 feet of ground. Site class is determined from Table 1613.5.2 on p. 303
Step 3: Determine Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response:

SMS = FaSS where: Fa = Site coefficient based upon Site Class = From Table 1613.5.3(1) p. 304 SM1 = FvS1 where: Fv = Site coefficient based upon Site Class = From Table 1613.5.3(2) p. 304 Step 4: Determine Design Spectral Response Acceleration: SDS =

2 (SMS) per IBC Equation 16-39 3

SD1 =

2 (SM1) per IBC Equation 16-40 3

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Step 5: Determine Response Modification Coefficient R: R = From ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1

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Step 6: Determine the Effective Seismic Weight of Structure W: W = Effective seismic weight of structure = Total dead load of structure + 1. In areas used for storage, a minimum of 25% of the reduced floor live load (floor live load in public garages and open parking structures need not be included) 2. Where an allowance for partition load is included in the floor load design, the actual partition weight or a minimum weight of 10 PSF of floor area, whichever is greater. 3. Total operating weight of permanent equipment 4. 20% of uniform flat roof snow load where the flat roof snow load Pf exceeds 30PSF. Step 7: Determine Seismic Importance Factor IE:

Seismic Importance Factor IE


Occupancy Category (per IBC 1604.5) I or II III IV IE 1.0 1.25 1.5

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Step 8: Determine Seismic Base Shear V: V = CsW where: Cs = S DS R I E S D1 R Ta I E Where: Ta = approx. fundamental building period (sec.) = Cthx h = ht. of bldg (feet) Structure Type:
Steel moment-resisting frames Concrete momentresisting frames Eccentrically braced steel frames All other structural systems

Cs = Use largest Cs Cs =

Ct 0.028 0.016 0.030 0.020

x 0.8 0.9 0.75 0.75

0.5S1 if S1 > 0.6g R I E

Cs > 0.01 Step 9: Determine Vertical Distribution of Seismic Shears: Fx = CvxV where: Cvx = wxhx wihI where: h = height above base (feet) w = portion of weight at that level

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Example GIVEN: The 2-story office (Category II) building shown below. The building has the following features: Location = Delhi, NY Exterior ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall for resisting seismic forces Steel framing to support gravity loads Soil characteristics = very dense soil & soft rock Roof dead load = 26 PSF 2nd Floor dead load = 89 PSF Exterior walls = 95 PSF (per height of wall) Flat roof snow load = 24.5 PSF

REQUIRED: 1) Determine the seismic base shear. 2) Determine the vertical distribution of story and roof shear

2 stories @ 12 = 24-0 tall

60-0 wide 100-0 long

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Step 1: Determine Ground Motion Spectral Response Acceleration: SS = Ground acceleration at short (0.2 second) period (Fig. 1613.5(1)) = 20% g for Delhi, NY = 0.20 S1 = Ground acceleration at longer (1 second) period (Fig. 1613.5(2)) = 6% g for Delhi, NY = 0.06 Step 2: Determine Site Class: From Table 1613.5.2, Site Class = C (since soil = very dense soil & soft rock)
Step 3: Determine Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response:

SMS = FaSS where: Fa = 1.2 from Table 1613.5.3(1) (since Site Class C and Ss < 0.25) SMS = 1.2(0.20) = 0.24 SM1 = FvS1 where: Fv = 1.7 from Table 1613.5.3(2) (since Site Class C and S1 < 0.1) SMS = 1.7(0.06) = 0.102 Step 4: Determine Design Spectral Response Acceleration: SDS = 2 (SMS) per IBC Equation 16-39 3

2 (0.24) 3 = 0.16 2 (SM1) per IBC Equation 16-40 3

SD1 =

2 (0.102) 3 = 0.068

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Step 5: Determine Response Modification Factor: R = From ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System = Building Frame System Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall Step 6: Determine the Effective Seismic Weight of Structure: W = Effective seismic weight of structure (100 ft)(60 ft)(26 PSF) = Roof DL: (100 ft)(60 ft)(89 PSF) = 2nd Floor DL: Ext. Walls DL: 24 ft(60 + 60 + 100 + 100)(95 PSF) = TOTAL W = Step 7: Determine Seismic Base Shear: V = CsW where: Cs = S DS 0.16 = = 0.08 R 2 I 1 .0 E =
0.068 = 0.15 2 0.22 1 .0

R=2

156 kips 534 kips 730 kips 1420 kips

Where: Ta = Cthx Ct = 0.020 h = 24 ft. x = 0.75 Ta = (0.020)(240.75) = 0.22 seconds

Use largest Cs

S D1 Cs = R Ta I E

Cs =

0.5S1 if S1 > 0.6g R I E

Pick largest Cs = 0.15

Cs > 0.01 V = CsW = (0.15)(1420 kips) V = 213 kips

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Building

Ground V = 213 kips

Step 8: Determine Vertical Distribution of Seismic Shears: Fx = CvxV where: Cvx = wxhx wihI where: h = height of mass above base (feet) w = portion of weight at that level

Froof 12 F2nd 12

Wroof = 156 kips + (730 kips) = 338.5 kips

Wroofhroof = 338.5 kips(24) = 8124 kip-ft

W2nd = 534 kips + (730 kips) = 1081.5 kips

W2ndh2nd = 1081.5 kips(12) = 12978 kip-ft Wxhx = 8124 kip-ft + 12978 kip-ft = 21102 kip-ft

V = 213 kips 8124kip ft (213kips) 21102kip ft Froof = 82.0 kips Froof 12978kip ft (213kips) 21102kip ft F2nd = 131.0 kips F2nd =

Check: 82.0 kips + 131.0 kips = 213 kips ??? 213 kips = 213 kips OK

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