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Asssignment-1, HRM 380


Management 351 is the introductory course of Human Resource Management. Here we are taught about the HRM, Different Models of HRM, Objectives of HRM, Function of HRM, Importance of HRM in the Organization, HRM Recruitment and Selection, Evolution of HRM, Strategic HRM, Problems in HRM, Role of Human Resource Management, Advantages of Human Resources Management and a lots of things to give us a brief idea of Human Resource Management. I did the course under Mr. Faisol Chowdhury (Fcy). He taught us everything very nicely. He basically followed his lecture slides throughout the whole semester and also cover some topics from the book HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT by Gary Dessler.

In this course we have learned that Human resource as could be said is all about making business strategies work. It is therefore important that emphasis is placed on how to best match and develop appropriate human resource management (HRM) approach/system of managing people in every sector. This would therefore be looking at some of the HRM approaches used such as the Harvard model; hard and soft approach in conjunction with the real world.

Human resource management has frequently been described as a concept with two distinct forms: soft and hard. These are diametrically opposed along a number of dimensions. Every organization now has an exclusive Human Resource Management Department.

Human Resource Management involves the development of a perfect blend between traditional administrative functions and the well-being of all employees within an organization. Employee retention ratio is directly proportionate to the manner in which the employees are treated, in return for their imparted skills and experience. A Human Resource Manager ideally empowers inter-departmental employee relationships and nurtures scope for down-the-rung employee communication at various levels. The field is a derivative of System Theory and Organizational Psychology. The Human Resource department has earned a number of related interpretations in time, but continues to defend the need to ensure employee wellbeing. Every organization now has an exclusive Human Resource Management Department to interact with representatives of all factors of production.

The main objective of HRM is to be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. The failure of organizations to use their resources for society's benefit 1

Assignment-1, HRM 380

may result in restrictions. For example, societies may pass laws that limit human resource decisions. Organizational objective is to recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organization.

HRM practices, there is a need to align organizational goals with that of the HR strategy to ensure that there is alignment of the people policies with that of the management objectives. This means that the HR department can no longer be viewed as an appendage of the firm but instead is a vital organ in ensuring organizational success. The aims of strategic management are to provide the organization with a sense of direction and a feeling of purpose. The day when the HR manager was concerned with administrative duties is over and the current HRM practices in many industries are taken as seriously as say, the marketing and production functions.

The Recruitment and Selection Process is one of the basic HR Processes. Recruitment and Selection is very sensitive as many managers have a need to hire a new employee and this process is always under a strict monitoring from their side. The Recruitment and Selection Process must be simple and must be robust enough to operate excellently in the moment of the insufficient number of candidates on the job market and the process must be also able to process a large number of candidates within given time limit. Evolution of Personnel management started in 19th century at that time there was a boom in industrialization which leads to increase in franchising and influence of trade unions and harshness of industrial condition called for the better of industrial condition. There was no department as such for taking care of above problem only welfare officers came into being to take care of above situation.

These welfare officers were only women's who take care of protectionism of women and girls because they feel it as worthy if women employee are sick they visit their home give food accommodation give moral welfare. As the role of women increasing like they were getting employed in modern industries where their work is packing assembly or other routine job so the quality required by these women employee increased so these welfare officer who were women their responsibility also increased that is to recruitment training development.

In the very past, the HR manager did more of an administrative job of simply hiring and firing. But, with the growing society at present, every organization needs

Asssignment-1, HRM 380

someone to look after the overall well being and the well-being of employees. The HR manager must be brave to say right or wrong and how and who should tackle problems. It is what is called societal developmental expectation towards the HR managers role. And, the name itself as an HR manager or People Manager; is kind of obvious for that particular person as an HR manager to accommodate such duties.

The practice of HRM must be viewed through the prism of overall strategic goals for the organization instead of a standalone tint that takes a unit based or a micro approach. The idea here is to adopt a holistic perspective towards HRM that ensures that there are no piecemeal strategies and the HRM policy enmeshes itself fully with those of the organizational goals.

For instance, if the training needs of the employees are simply met with perfunctory trainings on omnibus topics, the firm stands to lose not only from the time that the employees spend in training but also a loss of direction. Hence, the organization that takes its HRM policies seriously will ensure that training is based on focused and topical methods.

In conclusion, the practice of HRM needs to be integrated with the overall strategy to ensure effective use of people and provide better returns to the organizations in terms of ROI (Return on Investment) for every rupee or dollar spent on them. Unless the HRM practice is designed in this way, the firms stand to lose from not utilizing people fully. And this does not bode well for the success of the organization.

Assignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 1 : Introduction to Human Resource Management

This is the first lecture that has been delivered form our respected faculty Mr. Faisol Chowdhury and this was all about what is Human Resource Management. In this lecture I have learned many things about HRM, some believes form many respected and honorable personnel. I have learned that HRM means managing an understanding relationship between an employee and an employer, how to plan, manage and delegating HRM activities within an organization etc. It also teaches us how to keep good relationship with the line and the staff managers.

In HRM there are basically three objectives. They are the Organizational, operational and personal objectives. It also has basically two approaches; soft and the hard approach. I have also learned many objectives which will help the managers how to create good relationship between the people at the workplace and it also helps us to manage the management functions in the organization. The main objectives were to hire the right person for the right job, enhancing the employee commitment, royalty, satisfaction and retention and improving employees KSA. Management is a technique of getting things done properly through people. Five basic functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling. HRM is a part of Management dealing directly with productive use of people in achieving the organizations strategic business objectives and the satisfaction of individual employee needs.

Asssignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 2 : Ethics and Legal Issues of HRM

From this lecture I came to know about the Employment contract, what is ethics, ethical climate, how ethics is related to HRM and what is the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and HRM. From the topic employment contract I came to know about three different but interconnected type of contracts and they are Employer Obligation (duties & obligations an employer must fulfill), Employment Contract (An informal or formal agreement between an employer and employee) & Employee Obligation (Duties & Responsibilities an employee must fulfill). I came to know how ethics is related to HRM. Basically ethics is what is good or bad, right or wrong or with moral duties and obligations. If there is any shared belief and understanding between the people working at the workplace, then the ethical climate has been maintained and their will be no discrimination. From this lecture I also came to know some terms known as Equal Employment opportunity, Affirmative action, Anti Discrimination, Harassment, Workplace discrimination, Diversity management, Corporate social responsibility, Victimization, Retaliation, Reverse discrimination etc. Another thing I have learned is about CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility); the role an organization play to monitor and ensure its support to law, ethical standards, and international norms. Consequently, organization would embrace responsibility for the impact of its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere.

Assignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 3 : Diversity Management

Diversity is having people from different background in a workforce. Involved with integrating non-traditional people into the workforce and using their competency for the organizations competitive advantage. Ensuring fair and effective utilization of all the employees by avoiding discrimination and providing fair treatment.

Managing the mixture of employees and developing each employees full potential while leveraging diversity as an organizations resource. Hiring people with different background and using their competencies for the organizations benefit. Creating a workplace climate inclusive, respectful, innovative and supportive for all. Mismanaging diversity can severely costs an organization.

Approaches of diversity management: Legal obligation, Ethical obligation, Ageing workforce, Religion, Disability.

An employer can be held vicariously liable for discriminating employees, not complying with EEO, and other local and international standards. Skilled employees may leave an organization because of poor diversity management, which may lead to increase in the cost of organizations hiring and employee development process.

Ensuring fair and effective utilization of all the employees by avoiding discrimination and providing fair treatment. Managing the mixture of employees and developing each employees full potential while leveraging diversity as an organizations resource. Hiring people with different background and using their competencies for the organizations benefit.

Asssignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 4 : HRIS (Human Resource Information System)

An information system designed to support the organizations HR functions. Use of computer and softwares to systematically generate relevant and timely information for HR decision-making. It is an integrated approach to acquire, store, analyze and control the flow of HR information throughout an organization.

Needs Analysis makes a detailed study of the HR functions requirement. Stand Alone Information System - a single system unrelated to other information systems. Example: a HRIS software to design employee training program. Integrated Information System - a system that is related with other systems.

The HRIS data / information should have the following features:

Accuracy - accurate and error free data Reliability - reliable information is consistent Timeliness - information must be available to meet demands Readability - presentation of information must be easily understood Comprehensiveness - information should provide complete answers Verifiability - duplication of information must be possible

Problems of adaptation:
Lack of top managements support Satisfaction with existing paper based / manual system Limitation of HRIS knowledge and skills. 7

Assignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 5 : HR Planning & Strategy

Strategy defines the direction in which an organization intends to move and establishes the framework for action by which it intends to get there. It is the organizations long term plan for how it will balance its internal strength and weaknesses with its external opportunities and threats to maintain a competitive advantage. Strategic HRM formulating and executing HR systems - HR policies and activities that produce the employee competencies and behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic aims.

Managerial Judgment is because of various external and internal forces shaping a firms future, ratio / trend analysis may not always predict the future manpower need. So, judgment is needed to modify the forecast using factors the manager believes will change in future. Qualification Inventory is the summary data of existing employees skill and competency information, performance record, special skills, etc. maintained by HRIS for internal promotion.

Replacement Chart is manually done a visual representation of which employee will replace the existing incumbent in a designated position when it becomes vacant. Succession Planning is a process of identifying talented employees who could be groomed up for key positions in future in an organization, and then designing grooming plans for them. Computerized Forecast - determination of future staff needs by projecting sales, volume of production and personnel required to maintain this volume of output, using software packages.

A successful HR planning will ensure that an organization: Has right number of employees, with right qualification and skill, appointed in the right place, Are doing the right tasks, at the right time, in the right place.

Asssignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 6 : Job Analysis & Design

From this part I have learned what is job analysis, job description & person specification, types and uses of Job Analysis information, steps of job analysis, job analysis data collection method, advancement of job analysis and job design etc.

Job Analysis - A systematic procedure for investigating all the necessary information about a job and the person who will perform the job. Job Description - a list of job duties, responsibilities, reporting relationship, context, and all other job related information. Person Specification - a list of qualification, skill, experience, and other information about the person who will perform the job.

Work activities, human behavior, tools & equipment, performance standards, job contents, human requirements are the types of job analysis information. And there are basically six steps of job analysis and all of them are very important. There are basically two types of JA data collection methods and they are Qualitative and Quantitative techniques. Qualitative Techniques Quantitative Techniques

Observation Interview Questionnaire Participant Diary / Log Critical Incident Report


Job design is concerned about how the tasks that are to be performed are combined to from a job. There are also seven methods of job design and each of them is very important for the HR managers to manage the employees as well as the employers.

Assignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 7 : Recruitment & Selection

The Recruitment and Selection Process: Decide what positions to fill through personnel planning and forecasting. Build a candidate pool by recruiting internal or external candidates. Have candidates complete application forms and undergo initial screening interviews. Use selection tools to identify viable candidates. Decide who to make an offer to, by having the supervisor and others interview the candidates.

Labor market analysis, industry analysis & branding, demographic analysis, target role analysis are the types of recruitment analysis.

I have also learned some errors that should be avoided and these are False negative, false positive, halo effect, contagious bias, logical error, validity, reliability etc. There are also interview preparation techniques and they are structured, unstructured, panel, sequential, situational, online; all of these are part of the recruitment and selection and these are very important for the HR managers.


Asssignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 8 : Performance Appraisal

Basic Concepts in Performance Management and Appraisal : Employees generally see performance evaluations as having a direct effect on their work lives. The performance management systems need to include; decisions about who should evaluate performance, what format should be used, how the results should be utilized.

Purposes of a Performance Management System :

Feedback - let employees know how well they have done and allow for employee input. Development identify areas in which employees have deficiencies or weaknesses. Documentation - to meet legal requirements.

Appraisal Methods :
Absolute standards Relative standards Objectives

An employees performance is measured against established standards. Evaluation is independent of any other employee. Appraiser writes narrative describing employee performance & suggestions. Another is based on key behavior anecdotes illustrating effective or ineffective job performance. Appraiser checks off behaviors that apply to the employee. Appraiser rates employee on a number of job-related factors. Attribution Theory : Evaluations are affected based on whether someones performance is due to internal factors they can control external factors which they cannot. If poor performance is attributed to internal control, the judgment is harsher than when it is attributed to external control.


Assignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 9 : Training and Development

After studying this chapter I knew about the basic training process, identifying training requirements, how to distinguish between problems you can fix with training and those you cant, how to use five training techniques.

The Training Process:

Training: The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. Trainings Strategic Context: The firms training programs must make sense in terms of the companys strategic goals. Performance Management: Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees performance.

Motivation Principles for Trainers: People learn best by doingprovide as much realistic practice as possible. Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses. Trainees learn best at their own pace. Create a perceived training need in the trainees minds. The schedule is importantthe learning curve goes down late in the day; less than full day training is most effective.

Training Methods: On-the-Job Training, Apprenticeship Training, Informal Learning, Job Instruction Training, Lectures, Programmed Learning, Audiovisual Training, Simulated Training (also Vestibule Training), Computer-Based Training (CBT), Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS), Distance and InternetBased Training.


Asssignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 10 : Reward Management & Compensation

From this lecture I came to know what is Remuneration, total remuneration rewards, incentives and benefits, different types of payment system, incentive plans, the strategy to design the compensation, knowledge/skill based payment, centralized and decentralized payment etc. There are different types of payment systems such as Wages are calculated by multiplying the number of hours worked by the agreed hourly rate of pay. Salary total monthly / annual paid for performing the job. PRP performance related pay when pay is determined on the basis of individual / group performance. Merit Pay Annual salary increase that reflects higher performance level.

The incentive plans are the Scanlon plan, commission, production bonus, profit sharing plan, perquisite, employee stock ownership plan, cost reduction plan, piece rate etc. and the HR managers follow all the rules to compensate the employers and the employees. Design of compensation strategy are primarily driven by the organizations compensation philosophy based on:
Organizations principles Laws of the land Socio-economic condition Demand-supply scenario of talents in the industry

Lecture 11 : Career Management


Assignment-1, HRM 380

Career the occupational positions a person has had over time. It is the occupations undertaken for a significant period of a persons life that offers opportunities for progress. By the term career management I have learned that they are basically two types. Career planning ( Employees Perspective SWOT ) and Career development (Organizations Perspective Support ). Career Cycle is the five stage through the career evolves. Growth (0-14) stage, Exploration (14-24) stage, Establishment (2444) stage, Maintenance (44-65) stage, Decline (65+) stage.

Career transitions are Enrichment, Vertical, Exploration, Lateral, Realignment, Reallocation, Redirection, Proposal etc. Career orientation has basically six stages; Realistic, Investigative, Social, Conventional, Enterprising, Artistic etc.

Career anchors are Technical/Functional, Managerial Competency, Creativity, Autonomy, Security and these are very important. I have also learned about the promotion techniques, promotion decisions, some career issues regarding reality shocks, career counseling, transfer, outplacement, retirement, preretirement counseling etc.


Asssignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 12 : Industrial Relations

Industrial Relations - All the rules, practices and conventions governing interactions between managements and their workforces, normally involving collective employee representation and bargaining. It is the study of Employment Relationship, an interaction of people and organizations at work. It is the old fashioned way of managing employer - employee demands and accepts conflict as inevitable.

Employment Relations - The arrangements made by employers and employees about work, pay, leave, and other work related conditions and situations. It is the win-win way of managing employer - employee relations by using careful HRM practices.

Industrial Relations Components

Employer Associations ( CBI, FCCI, FBCCI etc. )

Trade Unions ( TUC, AFL-CIO, SKOP, ACTU etc.)

Government Monitoring Authority ( ACAS, Employment Tribunal, Labor Court etc. )

Industrial Relation Bargaining are of three types; Individual Bargaining, Enterprise Bargaining, Collective Bargaining.


Assignment-1, HRM 380

Lecture 13 : Occupational Health & Safety (OH&S)

Concerned with the provision of a safe and healthy working environment. It also involves injury and disease caused by work, or by combinations of work or non-work activity or involves the effects of injury and disease not caused by work but having implications for the workplace.

The perspectives of OH&S are Medical Perspective, Work Psychology Perspective, Technical Perspective, Sociological Perspective. The employees need analysis are :

Employees should be protected from needless pain and sufferings. Employers have legal obligations to take responsible measures to protect the health and safety of the employees.

Accidents illness and other causes of employee absence and impaired performance causes the employer money.

Employer brand image in the market may suffer if its health and safety record is bad.

Improve moral and loyalty of employees and the employer must have the sense of CSR.


Asssignment-1, HRM 380