.
Temperature term in the JC model reduces the flow stress to
zero at the melting temperature of the work material, leaving
the constitutive model with no temperature effect.
( ) [ ]
(
(


.

\



.

\

+ + =
m
room melt
room
n
T T
T T
C B A 1 ln 1
0
(1)
The JC material model constants for AISI 1045, AISI
4340 steels and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys are given in Table 1.
Table 1. The JohnsonCook material model
constants.
Material A
(MPa)
B
(MPa)
n C m T
melt
(C)
AISI 1045
[34]
553.1 600.8 0.234 0.013 1.00 1460
AISI 4340
[35]
792.0 510.0 0.26 0.014 1.03 1520
Ti6AlV4
[36]
862.5 331.2 0.34 0.012 0.8 1650
TOOLCHIP INTERFACE FRICTION
As commonly accepted, in the toolchip contact area near
the cutting edge a sticking region forms, and the frictional
shearing stress at the sticking region,
p
should be equal to
average shear flow stress at toolchip interface in the chip, k
chip
,
. Over the remainder of the toolchip contact area a
sliding region forms, and the frictional shearing stress can be
determined by using a coefficient of friction, , (see Fig. 1).
p chi
k =
p
Fig. 1. Normal and frictional stress distributions
on the tool rake face [13].
When the normal stress distribution over the rake face is
fully defined and the coefficient of friction, , is known, the
Copyright 2005 by ASME 2
frictional stress can be determined. The shear stress distribution
on the tool rake face can be represented in two distinct regions:
a) In the sticking region:
( )
f p
x =
P
, and when ( ) , 0
n p
x x l < (2a)
b) In the sliding region:
( ) ( )
f n
x x = , and when ( ) ,
n p P c
x l x l < < (2b)
The calculated friction characteristics with the
methodology explained in zel and Zeren [37] include
parameters of the normal and frictional stress distributions on
the rake face. Since the length of sticking region, l
p
and chip
tool contact length, l
c
are not implemented in the friction model
in the FEM simulations they are not given in Table 2. Instead, a
limiting shear friction model is implemented with the limiting
shear stress and friction coefficient are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Friction characteristics when using an
uncoated carbidecutting tool.
AISI 1045
steel
AISI 4340 Ti6AlV4
k
chip
(MPa) 200 250 400
0.5 0.5 0.5
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL AND ADAPTIVE MESHING
The essential and desired attributes of the continuum
based FEM models for cutting are: (1) The work material
model should satisfactorily represent elastic plastic and thermo
mechanical behavior of the work material deformations
observed during machining process, (2) FEM model should not
require chip separation criteria that highly deteriorate the
physical process simulation around the tool cutting edge
especially when there is dominant tool edge geometry such as a
round edge or a chamfered edge is in present, (3) Interfacial
friction characteristics on the toolchip and toolwork contacts
should be modeled highly accurately in order to account for
additional heat generation and stress developments due to
friction.
In this paper, a commercial software code,
ABAQUS/Explicit v6.4 and explicit dynamic ALE modeling
approach is used to conduct the FEM simulation of orthogonal
cutting considering round tool edge geometry and all of the
above attributes are successfully implemented in the model.
The chip formation is simulated via adaptive meshing and
plastic flow of work material. Therefore, there is no need for a
chip separation criterion in the proposed FEM model.
The FEM model as shown in Fig. 2 requires a predefined
chip geometry. The chip surfaces are defined with the
Lagrangian boundary conditions and the chip upper surface is
defined with the Eulerian boundary conditions. Therefore, the
chip flow is bound at a vertical position. However, the chip
thickness and the chiptool contact length gradually settle to
their final size with the change in the deformation conditions as
the cutting reaches its steadystate. The major drawback of this
approach is that the predefined chip shape must be determined
before hand and entered into the FEM model. Similar ALE
models were presented by AdibiSedeh and Mahdavan [21] and
by Haglund et al. [22].
(a)
(b)
Figure 2. Finite Element simulation model for ALE
formulation; (a) Eulerian and Lagrangian boundary
conditions, (b) mesh with predefined chip,
workpiece and tool dimensions.
The workpiece is also modeled with the Eulerian
boundaries from the both ends and with the Lagrangian
boundaries at the top and the bottom. The top surface of the
workpiece with the free boundaries reaches to the final
deformed shape at the steadystate cutting.
In this ALE approach, the explicit dynamic procedure
performs a large number of small time increments efficiently.
The general governing equations are solved for both
Lagrangian boundaries and Eulerian boundaries in same
Copyright 2005 by ASME 3
fashion. The adaptive meshing technique does not alter
elements and connectivity of the mesh. This technique
combines the features of pure Lagrangian analysis in which the
mesh follows the material, and Eulerian analysis in which the
mesh is fixed spatially and the material flows through the mesh
as explained earlier.
The thermomechanical FEM simulation model is created
by including workpiece thermal and mechanical properties,
boundary conditions, contact conditions between tool and the
workpiece as shown in Fig. 2 and given in Tables 3 and 4. The
workpiece and the tool model use fournode bilinear
displacement and temperature (CPE4RT) quadrilateral elements
and a plane strain assumption for the deformations in the
orthogonal cutting process.
Table 3. Work material properties.
Work Properties AISI 1045 AISI 4340 Ti6Al4V
Expansion (m /mC) 11 1.23 4.7
Density (g/cm
3
) 7.8 7.85 4.43
Poissons ratio 0.3 0.22 0.34
Specific heat (J/kg/C) 432.6 477 203
Conductivity (W/mC) 47.7 44.5 6.7
Youngs modulus (GPa) 200 208 113.8
Table 4. Cutting conditions and tool material
properties.
Orthogonal Cutting Parameters
Cutting speed, V
c
(m/min) 300
Uncut chip thickness, t
u
(mm) 0.1
Width of cut, w (mm) 1
Tool rake angle, (degree) 5
Tool clearance angle (degree) 5
Tool edge radius, (mm) 0.02
Carbide Tool Properties
Expansion (m/mC) 4.7
Density (g/cm
3
) 15
Poissons Ratio 0.2
Specific heat (J/kg/C) 203
Conductivity (W/mC) 46
Youngs Modulus (GPa) 800
As it is shown in Fig. 2, the workpiece was fixed at the
bottom and at one end. The tool had a 20micrometer edge
radius and was modeled as elastic body with thermal
conductivity.
The cutting process as a dynamic event causes large
deformations in a few numbers of increments resulting in
massive mesh distortion and termination of the FEM
simulation. It is highly critical to use adaptive meshing with
fine tuned parameters in order to simulate the plastic flow over
the round edge of the tool. Therefore the intensity, frequency
and sweeping of the adaptive meshing are adjusted to most
optimum setting for maintaining a successful mesh during the
simulation of the orthogonal cutting process.
The general equations of motion in explicit dynamic
analysis are integrated by using explicit central difference
integration rule with diagonal element mass matrices. The
system equations become uncoupled so that each equation can
be solved for explicitly. This makes explicit dynamic method
highly efficient for nonlinear dynamic problem such as metal
cutting. During metal cutting, flow stress is highly dependent
on temperature fields as we discussed earlier. Therefore, fully
coupled thermalstress analysis is required for accurate
predictions in FEM simulations.
In summary, the explicit dynamic method is used mainly
because it has the advantages of computational efficiency for
large deformation and highly nonlinear problems as
experience in machining. Machining, as a coupled thermal
mechanical process, could generate heat to cause thermal
effects that influence mechanical effects strongly. In the mean
time, work material properties change significantly as strain
rate and temperature changes. Thus, the fully coupled thermal
stress analysis, in which the temperature solution and stress
solution are also carried out concurrently, is applied.
RESULTS
The FEM simulations for machining AISI 1045, AISI
4340 and Ti6Al4V at the same cutting conditions were
conducted and the chip formation process at the steady state
was fully observed as shown in Fig. 3.
Figure 3. Chip formation and temperature distribution
for machining of AISI 1045 steel.
The heat generated at the secondary deformation zone and
at toolchip interface is conducted to the cutting tool. The
radiation to the ambient is also allowed. Temperature
distributions for machining of AISI 1045 and AISI 4340 steels
and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy are obtained as shown in the
Figures 3, 4 and 5 respectively.
Copyright 2005 by ASME 4
Temperature rises in the primary and secondary
deformation zones are high and reach to a steady state very
rapidly. It is highly noticeable that the maximum temperatures
occur inside the chip due to the low thermal conductivity of the
Ti6Al4V alloy, where as the maximum temperatures are
observed on the tool rake face in machining of steels.
Figure 4. Temperature distributions using ALE
approach for machining of AISI 4340 steel.
Figure 5. Temperature distributions using ALE
approach for machining of Ti6Al4V.
The distributions of the predicted von Mises stress
distributions are given in the Figures 6, 7 and 8 respectively.
The von Mises stress
xx
and
yy
also represent the residual
stress distributions on the machined surface. From the
simulation results it was observed that there exist a region of
very high deformation rate around the round edge of the cutting
tool.
Figure 6. The Von Mises stress distributions in
machining of AISI 1045 steel (x10
6
Pa, t
u
=0.1 mm,
V=300 m/min).
All threework materials were utilized in the ALE based FE
simulations in order to observe the effects of machinability and
also the field variables such as temperatures, residual stress on
the machined surfaces comparatively.
Figure 7. The Von Mises stress distributions in
machining of AISI 4340 steel (x10
6
Pa, t
u
=0.1 mm,
V=300 m/min).
Copyright 2005 by ASME 5
Figure 8. The Von Mises stress distributions in
machining of Ti6Al4V (x10
6
Pa, t
u
=0.1 mm, V=300
m/min).
Machining induced residual stress profiles with respect to
the depth beneath the machined surface for von Mises stresses,
stress components
xx
and
yy
are also computed from the
simulated stress fields.
A path prescribed underneath the round edge of the tool is
tracked for obtaining the stress components and the
temperature with respect to the depth inside the machined
surface as shown in Fig. 9.
Figure 9. Machining induced stress distributions of
xx
and
yy
with respect to depth beneath the
machined surface (t
u
=0.1 mm, V=300 m/min).
The machining induced state of stress is the highest in
machining of AISI 1045 steel and AISI 1045 steel. However,
the von Misses stress is significantly lower on the machined
layer in machining of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy as shown in Fig.
10.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
Depth beneath the machined surface (mm)
V
o
n
M
i
s
e
s
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Ti6Al4V
AISI 1045
AISI 4340
Figure 10. Machining induced Von Mises stress
distributions with respect to depth beneath the
machined layer (t
u
=0.1 mm, V=300 m/min).
On the other hand, process induced stress profiles depict
that there exist both compressive and tensile stress regions
beneath the surface as shown in Fig. 11.
In case of machining Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, the stress
xx
is compressive indicating preferred surface integrity.
However, this stress component is mainly tensile in machining
of AISI 1045 steel.
All of the work material machined reveals compressive
machining induced stress component
yy
as shown in Fig. 12.
600
400
200
0
200
400
600
800
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
Depth beneath the machined surface (mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s
x
x
(
M
P
a
)
Ti6Al4V
AISI 1045
AISI 4340
Figure 11. Machining induced stress distributions of
xx
with respect to depth beneath the machined layer
(t
u
=0.1 mm, V=300 m/min).
The temperature along the prescribed path is significantly
high in machining of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy due to low
thermal conductivity as shown in Fig. 13 and indicates that
there is a possibility of thermomechanical processing
occurring underneath the round edge tool during machining.
Copyright 2005 by ASME 6
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
Depth beneath the machined surface (mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s
y
y
(
M
P
a
)
Ti6Al4V
AISI 1045
AISI 4340
Figure 12. Machining induced stress distributions of
yy
with respect to depth beneath the machined layer
(t
u
=0.1 mm, V=300 m/min).
In summary, these stress field predictions can be combined
with the temperature field predictions and can be fed into
surface property models that are highly essential to further
predict surface integrity and thermomechanical deformation
related property alteration on the microstructure of the
machined surfaces. Today, most of the surface property models
are empirical and still not sufficient to determine the full
surface morphology induced by the machining especially finish
machining where most of the machining is done with the edge
geometry of the cutting tool.
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
Depth beneath the machined surface (mm)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
Ti6Al4V
AISI 1045
AISI 4340
Figure 13. Temperature distributions of along the
prescribed path in the machined layer (t
u
=0.1 mm,
V=300 m/min).
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, we have utilized the explicit dynamic
Arbirary Lagrangian Eulerian method with adaptive meshing
capability and developed a FEM simulation model for
orthogonal cutting of AISI 1045, AISI 4340 steels and Ti6Al4V
titanium alloy using round edge carbide cutting tool without
employing a remeshing scheme and without using a chip
separation criterion. The extended JohnsonCook work material
model and a detailed friction model are also employed and
work material flow around the round edge of the cutting tool is
simulated in conjunction with an adaptive meshing scheme.
The development of temperature distributions during the
cutting process is also captured. Very high and localized
temperatures are predicted at toolchip interface due to a
detailed friction model. Predictions of the von Mises stress
distributions in the chip, in the tool and on the machined
surface are effectively carried out. Process induced stress
profiles depict that there exist both compressive and tensile
stress regions beneath the surface. These predictions combined
with the temperature field predictions are highly essential to
further predict surface integrity and thermomechanical
deformation related property alteration on the microstructure of
the machined surfaces. It is believed that the ALE simulation
approach presented in this work, without remeshing and using
a chip separation criterion, may result in better predictions for
machining induced stresses.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors acknowledge the support provided by Rutgers
University Research Council grants and ABAQUS Inc. for use
of software licenses.
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