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# TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA

## GEARED TRANSMISSIONS DESIGN

Relly Victoria PETRESCU, Florian Ion PETRESCU
Abstract: In this paper one presents shortly an original method to obtain the efficiency of the geared

transmissions in function of the cover grade of gearing. With the presented relations one can make the dynamic synthesis of geared transmissions, having in view increasing the efficiency of gearing mechanism in works. Key words: Efficiency, Force, Geared Transmission, Cover Grade, Dynamic, Tangential Velocity, Motor Velocity, Momentary Efficiency, Mechanical Efficiency, Wheel, Tooth, Four Pair in Contact.

1. INTRODUCTION In this paper one makes a brief presentation of an original method to obtain the efficiency of the geared transmissions in function of the cover grade. With the presented relations one can make the dynamic synthesis of the geared transmissions having in view increasing the efficiency of gearing mechanisms in work. 2. DETERMINING THE GEARING EFFICIENCY IN FUNCTION OF THE COVER GRADE One calculates the efficiency of a geared transmission, having in view the deed that at one moment there are more couples of teeth in contact, and not just one. The start model has got four pairs of teeth in contact (4 couple) concomitantly. The first couple of teeth in contact has the contact point i, defined by the ray ri1, and the pressure angle i1; the forces which action in this point are: the motor force Fmi, perpendicular in i on the position vector ri1 and the transmitted force from the wheel 1 at the wheel 2 by the point i, Fi, parallel with the gearing line and with the sense from the wheel 1 to the wheel 2, the transmitted force being practically the projection of the motor force at the gearing line; the defined velocities are similar with the

forces (having in view the original kinematics, or the precisely kinematics adopted); the same parameters will be defined for the next three points of contact, j, k, l (see the picture number one). For starting one writes the relations between the velocities (see the system 1):

vi = vmi cos i = ri 1 cos i = rb1 1 vj = vmj cos j = rj 1 cos j = rb1 1 vk = vmk cos k = rk 1 cos k = rb1 1 vl = vml cos l = rl 1 cos l = rb1 1 From the relations (1), one obtains the equality of the tangential velocities (2), and one explicit the motor velocities (see the relations 3):
vi = vj = vk = vl = rb1 1

(1)

(2)

v mi = v mk

## rb1 1 r ; v mj = b1 1 ; cos i cos j

r r = b1 1 ; v ml = b1 1 cos k cos l

(3)

The transmitted forces concomitantly in the four points must be the same (see the relation 4):

Fi = Fj = Fk = Fl = F

(4)

## The relations (7) and (8) are auxiliary relations:

K 1i = rb1 tg i ; K 1 j = rb1 tg j ; K 1 k = rb1 tg k ; K 1l = rb1 tg l K 1 j K 1i = rb1 (tg j tg i );

## The motor forces are (5):

F F Fmi = ; Fmj = ; cos i cos j Fmk F F ; Fml = = cos k cos l

(5)

K 1 j K 1i = rb1 tg j = tg i +

2 z1

2 z1 2 z1

K 1 k K 1i = rb1 (tg k tg i );
O2 Fl, vl rb2 Fml, vml K2 l k rl1 rk1 rj1 A j i ri1j i rb1 O1 K1 Fmi, vmi Fi, vi

K 1 k K 1i = rb1 2 tg k = tg i + 2

2 z1 2 z1

## K 1l K 1i = rb1 (tg l tg i ); K 1l K 1i = rb1 3 tg l = tg i + 3

2 z1

(7)

tg j = tg i
Fig. 1 Four pairs of teeth in contact concomitantly.

2 ; tg k = z1

2 2 = tg i 2 ; tg l = tg i 3 z1 z1

(8)

i =

Pu P = = Pc Pm

## Fi vi + Fj vj + Fk vk + Fl vl Fmi v mi + Fmj v mj + Fmk v mk + Fml v ml

4 F rb1 1 F rb1 1 F rb1 1 F rb1 1 F rb1 1 + + + cos 2 i cos 2 j cos 2 k cos 2 l = 4 1 1 1 1 + + + 2 2 2 cos i cos j cos k cos 2 l 4 4 + tg i + tg j + tg 2 k + tg 2 l
2 2

One keeps the relations (8), with the sign plus (+) for the gearing where the drive wheel 1, has external teeth (at the external or internal gearing), and with the sign (-) for the gearing where the drive wheel 1, has internal teeth (the drive wheel is a ring, only at the internal gearing). The relation of the momentary efficiency (6), use the auxiliary relations (8) and takes the form (9): It start in the expression (9) with the relation (6) where one has four pairs in contact concomitantly, but then one generalizes the expression exchanging the 4 figure (four pairs) with E couples (exchanging figure 4 with the E variable, which represents the whole of cover grade +1), and after while one restricts the

(6)

sums expressions, one exchanges the variable E with the cover grade 12, as well.

## with relation (12) for the internal gearing as well.

i =

4 4 + tg i + tg j + tg k + tg l
2 2 2 2

m =

1 B1 2 2 ( 12 1) 3 z12 (10)

## 4 4 1 1 1 1 = = = = = = A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 2 2 ) + A1 = 4 + tg 2 i + (tg i z1 + (tg i 2 2 2 2 ) + (tg i 3 ) 2 z1 z1

B1 = 1 + tg 2 0 + (2 12 1)

2 tg 0 ( 12 1) z1
+

4 2 A2 = 4 + 4 tg 2 i + 2 (0 2 + 12 + 2 2 + z1 2 + 3 ) 2 tg i (0 + 1 + 2 + 3) z1
2

a 12.e. =

## z12 sin 2 0 + 4 z1 + 4 2 cos 0 2 cos 0

2 z 2 sin 2 0 + 4 z 2 + 4

(11)

A3 = 1 + tg 2 i + 2 tg i

4 (i 1) 2 E z12 i =1
2 E

( z1 + z 2 ) sin 0 2 cos 0

E 2 (i 1) E z1 i =1

a .i . 12

## z e2 sin 2 0 + 4 z e + 4 2 cos 0 2 cos 0

A4 = 1 + tg 2 1 +

4 2 E z12

## z i2 sin 2 0 4 z i + 4 ( z e z i ) sin 0 2 cos 0

(12)

E ( E 1) (2 E 1) 4 tg 1 E ( E 1) 6 2 E z1 2 2 ( E 1) (2 E 1) 3 z12

A5 = 1 + tg 2 1 +

2 tg 1 ( E 1) z1 2 2 ( 12 1) 3 z12

## The calculations results one has been centralized in the table 1.

3. CONCLUSION

A6 = 1 + tg 2 1 +

2 tg 1 (2 12 1) ( 12 1) z1 (9) The mechanical efficiency is more interesting than the momentary efficiency, and will be calculated approximately, exchanging the pressure angle 1, with the normal pressure angle 0, in the relation (9) which takes the form (10); where 12 represents the cover grade of the gearing, and it will be calculated with the expression (11) for the external gearing, and

The best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring; the minimum efficiency will be obtained when the drive wheel 1 of the internal gearing has external teeth. At the external gearing, the better efficiency can be obtained when the greater wheel is the drive wheel; when one decreases the normal angle 0, the cover grade and the efficiency increase. The efficiency increase too when the number of teeth of the drive wheel, 1, increase as well (when one increases z1), see the table number 1.

4. REFERENCES

 Petrescu, R.V., Petrescu, F.I., Popescu, N., Determining Gear Efficiency, In Gear Solutions magazine, March 2007, USA, pp. 19-28.  Petrescu, F.I., Grecu, B., Comnescu, A., Petrescu, R.V., Sinteza dinamic la angrenajele cu roi dinate cu axe paralele. In al treilea Seminar Naional de Mecanisme Craiova 2008, SNM08, Proceedings, ISBN 978-973-746-910-6, 582 pag, Ed. SITECH, Craiova, p. 319-324, 2008.

 Petrescu, F.I., Grecu, B., Comnescu, A., Petrescu, R.V., Geared Transmissions Dynamic Synthesis, In NEW TRENDS IN MECHANISMS, Ed. Academica Greifswald, 2008, ISBN 978-3-9402-37-101.  Petrescu, F.I., Grecu, B., Comnescu, A., Petrescu, R.V., Determining the Efficiency of Geared Transmissions, Proceedings of International Conference on 33Rd Automotive Engineering Off-Road Vehicles, ORV 2008, Military Technical Academy, Bucharest, Romania, 2008, ISBN 978-973-640-149-7.
Table 1

Determining the efficiency of the geared transmissions z1 42 46 52 58 65 74 85 98 115 137 165 204 257 336 457 657

0

z2 126 138 156 174 195 222 255 294 345 411 495 510 514 672 914 1314

12ae
1.799463 1.875212 1.964633 2.062449 2.173287 2.301654 2.449656 2.620345 2.822316 3.062854 3.351511 3.687451 4.097102 4.666475 5.427328 6.495028

12ae
0.844769 0.856744 0.869323 0.880938 0.892173 0.903305 0.914052 0.924221 0.934095 0.943503 0.952271 0.960703 0.968417 0.975348 0.981528 0.986917

21ae
0.871197 0.882524 0.893686 0.904223 0.914292 0.923963 0.933147 0.941781 0.949936 0.957556 0.964586 0.970155 0.975013 0.980651 0.98562 0.989899

12ai
1.920902 2.004616 2.099177 2.205675 2.326635 2.465121 2.624685 2.810001 3.027795 3.286764 3.599006 4.020382 4.577099 5.214391 6.067023 7.264006

12ai
0.83866 0.850911 0.864094 0.87608 0.887672 0.899241 0.910419 0.920962 0.931246 0.941054 0.950177 0.958606 0.966232 0.973645 0.980251 0.986011

21ai
0.89538 0.905915 0.915635 0.925023 0.933877 0.942103 0.949774 0.956932 0.963487 0.969476 0.974938 0.980652 0.98587 0.989299 0.992231 0.994672

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5

DESIGNUL TRANSMISIILOR (ANGRENAJELOR) CU ROI DINATE Rezumat: Lucrarea prezint pe scurt o metod original pentru obinerea eficienei (randamentului) angrenajelor dinate n funcie de gradul de acoperire (al angrenajului respectiv). Cu relaiile prezentate se poate face sinteza dinamic a unui angrenaj cu roi dinate, avnd n vedere creterea eficienei (randamentului) angrenajului n funcionare. Petrescu Relly Victoria, PhD. Eng., Lecturer at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, GDGI Department (Department of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics), petrescurelly@yahoo.com, 0214029136; Petrescu Florian Ion, PhD. Eng. Assistant Professor at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, TMR Department (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots Department), petrescuflorian@yahoo.com, 0214029632.