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Purification and Separation 1
Purification and Separation
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Effects of Impurities and Pressure Melting point Effect of (Solids) No fixed temperature, Lower Impurities
Effects of Impurities and Pressure
Melting point
Effect of
(Solids)
No fixed temperature,
Lower
Impurities
(Impure
Boiling point
Substance)
(Liquids)
No fixed temperature,
Higher
 

Changes to Pressure

Changes to Boiling point

Effect of

High pressure

Fixed temperature,

increase b.p.

Pressure on

boiling point

Lower pressure

Fixed temperature,

decrease b.p.

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Sublimation

Solid – solid mixtures where on can sublime.

Sublimation • Solid – solid mixtures where on can sublime.

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Why do we need substances to be pure?

  Why do we need substances to be pure?  
 

1. Impurities in drugs and medicine must be detected as they may cause side effects .

1. Impurities in drugs and medicine must be detected as they may cause side effects .

2. Impurities in chemicals causes inaccuracy in results when carrying out research experiments

2. Impurities in chemicals causes inaccuracy in results when carrying out research experiments

3. Chemicals are often added to food and beverages. It is important to ensure that only the pure chemicals are added.

 

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Consolidation

Using Magnets Separating solids • Some metals are magnetic. • We can use this property

Using Magnets

Separating solids

• Some metals are magnetic.

• We can use this property to separate these metals (e.g. iron, nickel, cobalt, steel) from mixtures.

2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

 

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Chromatography liquid mixtures

Chromatography is a technique of using a solvent to separate a mixture into its components.

The ratio between the

distance

travelled b the substance

y

and the

distance travelled by the solvent constant.

is a

This ratio is called the

Rf value

To analyse colourless substances, we

travelled by the solvent constant. is a • This ratio is called the Rf value •
 

use a

locating

agent .

2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

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Uses of Chromatography

Chromatography is used to:

• separate the components in a sample,

• identify the number of components in a sample,

• identify the components present in a sample,

• determine the purity of a sample.

Chromatography cannot be used to:

• isolate/ obtain the components,

• reuse components in a sample.

of a sample. Chromatography cannot be used to: • isolate/ obtain the components, • reuse components

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Crystallisation

Separating soluble solid from liquid

How to test for saturation?

Dip a clean glass rod into the solution and remove.

If small crystals form on the rod as the solution cools, the solution is saturated.

the rod as the solution cools, the solution is saturated. A saturated solution is a solution

A saturated solution is a solution of a substance that cannot dissolve anymore of that substance. Adding additional amounts of it will cause a precipitate to appear.

2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

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Evaporation

Separating soluble solid from liquid

• To recover salt from salt solution, we evaporate the solution to dryness.

• Since salt (1413 ºC) has a much higher b.p. than water (100 ºC), only the water will evaporate and the salt will be left behind.

salt solution evaporating dish
salt solution
evaporating dish

2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

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Crystallisation

Separating soluble solid from liquid

1. Water is removed by heating the solution.

2. Heating is stopped when a hot saturated solution is formed .

3. As the resulting solution is allowed to cool to room temperature, the dissolved solid will be formed as pure crystals.

As the resulting solution is allowed to cool to room temperature, the dissolved solid will be

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VideoCrystallisation of CuSO 4

1. Adding impure copper sulphate until no further can be dissolved.

2. Heat solution to fully dissolve all copper sulphate crystals.

3. Filter to remove excess impure copper sulphate.

4. Pour the copper(II) sulphate solution into the evaporating dish and heat until one third of the solution is left in the evaporating dish.

5. Allow the solution to cool and observe the crystals form.

one third of the solution is left in the evaporating dish. 5. Allow the solution to

Separation Funnel

Video:

Separation Funnel • Video: Oil layer Aqueous layer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcwfhDhLiQU
Separation Funnel • Video: Oil layer Aqueous layer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcwfhDhLiQU

Oil layer

Aqueous

layer

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcwfhDhLiQU

Decanting

Separating dense, insoluble solid from liquid

e.g. washing of gold ore, making of cheese

Decanting Separating dense, insoluble solid from liquid • e.g. washing of gold ore, making of cheese
Decanting Separating dense, insoluble solid from liquid • e.g. washing of gold ore, making of cheese

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Simple distillation

Used for miscible liquid liquid mixtures

Condenser Distillate
Condenser
Distillate

Cold running water enters from the bottom of the condenser and leaves from the top.

Boiling chips are used to smooth the boiling.

http://www.footprints science.co.uk/flash/distillation.swf

Fractional Distillation

•Filled with glass beads, plates or spirals. • Provides a large surface area for the
•Filled with glass
beads, plates or
spirals.
• Provides a large
surface area for the
condensation of the
vapour.

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Filtration Separating fine, insoluble solid from liquid Upon filtration, the solid that remains on the
Filtration
Separating fine, insoluble solid from liquid
Upon filtration, the
solid that remains on
the filter paper is
called the residue.
The liquid or solution
that passes through the
filter paper is called the
filtrate.
How does filtration work?
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Limitations of Simple Distillation
• Simple distillation can be used to separate mixtures of liquids with
different boiling points.
• Limited to boiling point differences of more than 20 o C.
What happens if we need
to separate liquids with
small differences in boiling points ?
Fractional Distillation
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How does fractional distillation work?

Fractional distillation of a mixture of ethanol (78 o C) and water (100 o C).

3. Ethanol distils over. In the condenser, ethanol vapour condenses.

2. Vapour of the liquid with higher boiling point condense along the fractionating column and
2. Vapour of the liquid
with higher boiling
point condense along
the fractionating
column and re-enter
the round-bottomed
flask.
4. Ethanol is
collected as
the distillate.
1. In the distillation flask, the
mixture of ethanol and
water boils and both liquids
may distil together.

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Completed Concept Map of all the Separation Techniques Mixtures Mixture with components to be identified
Completed Concept Map of all the Separation Techniques
Mixtures
Mixture with
components to be
identified
Solid – Solid Mixtures
Solid – Liquid
Mixtures
Liquid - Liquid
Mixtures
To obtain
To obtain
solid
liquid
Boiling
Boiling
soluble
insoluble
point
difference
> 20 o C
point
difference
< 20 o C
Do not decompose
on heating
Decompose on
heating
Chromatography
-
add suitable solvent,
Evaporate
Crystallisation
- Filtration
Simple
Fractional
then filter
Distillation
to dryness
- Decanting
Distillation
- use magnets
- sublimation

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Problem solving

My h ouse h as b een ransac ke d . Everyt h ing is
My h ouse h as b een ransac ke d . Everyt h ing is in a
mess, especially in my kitchen. Can you help me
separate a mixture of sand, copper wires, salt
(sodium chloride), iron fillings, iodine and
cooking oil from each other?