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Pakistan Armed Forces

Pakistan Armed Forces


The Pakistan Armed Forces (Musalah Afwaj-ePakistan) are the military forces of Pakistan. They are the seventh largest in the world in terms of active troops

Emblem of Pakistan Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy (Marines) Headquarters JS HQ, Rawalpindi Leadership Chairman, Joint Chiefs General Khalid of Staff Shameem Wynne Committee Secretary of Defence Chief of Army Staff Nargis Sethi General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani

Chief of Air Staff

Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafik Butt

Chief of Navy Muhammad Asif Sandila Staff

Manpower
Military age 1649 years old[1] 48,453,305 males, age 1649 (2010 est.), 44,898,096 females, age 1649 (2010 est.) 37,945,440 males, age 1649 (2010 est.), 37,381,549 females, age 1649 (2010 est.)

Available for military service

Fit for military service

Expenditures $6.41 billion (2010 Budget 11) (ranked 35th) Percent of 2.6% (2008)

GDP China United States France Italy Germany Sweden Turkey

Foreign suppliers

History

Ranks

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Siachen conflict Kargil War War in North-West Pakistan Awards and decorations of the Pakistan military

The Pakistan Armed Forces, Musalah Afwaj-e-Pakistan) are the military forces of Pakistan. They are the seventh largest in the world in terms of active troops. The armed forces comprise three main branches: the Pakistan Army, the Pakistan Navy (including the Pakistan Marines) and the Pakistan Air Force, together with a number of paramilitary forces. Following 1962, Pakistan Armed Forces has had close military relations with the People's Republic of China, including development and research cooperation to enhance military system, such as on the JF-17 Thunder, K-8 Karakorum, and others as well. China is the leading supplier of military equipments to Pakistan. The armed forces were formed in 1947 when Pakistan became independent from the British Empire. Pakistan Armed Forces are the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, with more than 10,000 personnel deployed in 2007. Other foreign deployments have consisted of

Pakistani military personnel as advisers in African and Arab countries.

History

The roots of the Pakistan Army trace back to the British Indian Army which included several personnel from present day Pakistan. In picture are troops of the Khyber Rifles striking a pose, circa 1895. Before 1947, most military officers of the newly formed Pakistan Armed Forces had served in the British Indian Army and fought in both World Wars and the numerous Anglo-Afghan Wars. Several experienced commanders who fought in the British military in World War II joined Pakistan Armed Forces giving it professionalism, experience and leadership. After independence, the military was supposed to have been divided between India and Pakistan with a ratio of 64% going to India and 36% for Pakistan; however, it is estimated that Pakistan inherited only about 15% of the equipment.

The Pakistan Armed Forces have also taken over the Pakistani government several times since independence mainly on the pretext of lack of good civilian leadership, whom most Pakistanis regard as corrupt and inefficient. However, according to the political parties

removed from power by the army, political instability, lawlessness and corruption are direct consequences of army rule.

Organization and Command Structure (All generals of pakistan)

General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee deals with all problems bearing on the military aspects of state security and is charged with integrating and coordinating the three services. In peacetime, its principal function is planning; in time of war, its chairman is the principal staff officer to the president in the supervision and conduct of the war. The secretariat of the committee serves as the principal

link between the service headquarters and the Ministry of Defense in addition to coordinating matters between the services.

The three branches within the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee deal with planning, training, and logistics. Affiliated with the committee are the offices of the Engineer-in-Chief, the director general of medical service, the director of Inter-Services Intelligence, and the director of inter-services public relations.

Troop Strength As of 2010, about 617,000 people were on active duty in the military, with an additional 304,000 in the paramilitary forces and 513,000 people in reserve. It is an all volunteer military, but conscription can be enacted at the request of the President with the approval of the Pakistani parliament. The military is the seventh largest in the world and has a large number of troops deployed around the globe in military assistance and peacekeeping operations. The following table summarizes current Pakistani military troop levels: Service Army Navy Pakistani Military Troop Levels Total Active Duty Personnel Total Reserve 550,000 500,000 22,000 5,000

Air Force Paramilitary Forces Uniforms

45,000 304,000

8,000 0

A Pakistani soldier in combat gear during training The standard uniform for the Pakistan Army was a traditional old British Army Khaki but this has been recently changed to a camouflage pattern uniform which is standard for other armies of the world. The colours of the new camouflage pattern uniform depend on the geographical areas in which the troops operate so that they can blend in with the environment & more. Gallantry awards Nishan-i-Haider, Highest military decoration of Pakistan. Awarded "to those who have performed acts of greatest heroism or most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger and have shown bravery of the highest order or devotion to the country, in the presence of the enemy on land, at sea or in the air ... and scarificed their lives for this caRecipients Nishan-i-Haider recipients receive an honorary title
as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients and Ghazi meaning victor for living recipients. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed (1948) Major Tufail Muhammad Shaheed (1958) Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (1965) Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed (1971) Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed(Air Force) (1971) Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed (1971)

7. Jawan Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed (1971) 8. Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Shaheed (1971) 9. Captain Karnal Sher Khan Shaheed (1999) 10. Lalak Jan Shaheed (1999) 11. Naik Saif Ali Janjua Shaheed (1948) (Was awarded Hilal-e-Kashmir - an equivalent to Nishan-i-Haider) 2. 3. Hilal-i-Jurat (Crescent of Courage) Sitara-i-Jurat (Star of Courage)

4. Tamgha-i-Jurat (Medal of Courage) 5. Imtiazi Sanad (Mentioned in Despatches)[2]

Non operational awards


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sitara-e-Basalat (Star of Good Conduct) Tamgha-e-Basalat (Medal of Good Conduct) Tamgha-i-Khidmat Class I (Medal of Service) Tamgha-i-Khidmat Class II (Medal of Service) Tamgha-i-Khidmat Class III (Medal of Service).

Civil-Military Awards
1. 2. 3. Nishan-i-Imtiaz (Order of Excellence) Military Division Hilal-i-Imtiaz (Crescent of Excellence) (Military) Sitara-i-Imtiaz (Star of Excellence) (Military)

4. Tamgha-i-Imtiaz (Medal of Excellence) (Military) 5. Tamgha-i-Khidmat (Medal of Service) (Military) 1. 2. 3.

Hilal-i-Jurat Sitara-i-Jurat Tamgha-i-Jurat

Foreign military relations

China China has been a steady source of military equipment and has cooperated with Pakistan in setting up weapons production and modernization facilities. The two countries are also actively involved in the joint venture of several projects to enhance each others' military needs, including JF17 Thunder fighter aircraft, K-8 Karakorum advanced training aircraft, space technology, AWACS, Al Khalid tank, missiles and many other projects. The two countries also held several military exercises together to further deepen and enhance cooperation between the two armed forces. Also China is the largest investor in the Gwadar Deep Sea Port, which is strategically located at the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz.

South Asian Countries

Defense attachs from Russia and Pakistan visit the communications tent at the Nigerian Air Force Base, Abuja, Nigeria, 21 July 2008, during Africa Endeavor 2008. After independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan, full diplomatic relations were not restored until 1976. Relations improved considerably under the military regimes of Ziaur Rahman and Hossain Mohammad Ershad in Bangladesh, which had grown more

distant from its war ally, India. Common concerns over India's regional power have influenced strategic cooperation leading to a gift of several squadrons of F-6 fighter aircraft to the Bangladesh Air Force in the late 1980s. With India reluctant and unwilling to supply it weapons that Sri Lanka was looking for, Colombo turned towards Pakistan by 1999. In May 2000, President Musharraf of Pakistan supplied millions of dollars of much-needed weapons to the Sri Lankan government, when separatist Tamil Tiger rebels were about to recapture their former capital of Jaffna.[26] In May 2008, Lt-Gen Fonseka of the Sri Lanka Army held talks with his Pakistan Army counter-parts regarding the sale of military equipment, weapons and ammunition. The sale of 22 Al-Khalid MBTs to the Sri Lanka Army was finalised during these talks in a deal worth over US$100 million.In April 2009, Sri Lanka requested $25 million worth of 81 mm, 120 mm and 130 mm mortar ammunition to be delivered within a month which proved decisive in the defeat of the Tamil Tigers.

United States and NATO

Pakistan's has had an on-again and off-again military relationship with the United States. When relations were good, this meant access to funds, sophisticated weaponry and training. When relations were bad, it meant bitter disillusionment and the severing of support at critical junctures. These wide swings of fortune are something to which the Pakistanis have become accustomed, and they recognize

that, whatever the provocation, the relationship with the United States has too much potential benefit to be discarded lightly. After the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received a huge increase in military aid from America. In the three years before the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received approximately $9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to $4.2 billion. Special Forces

The Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the Special Air Service and the Delta Force. Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions). Special Service Group Navy (SSGN) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Navy.[citation needed] It is an elite special operations force similar to the Special Boat Service and U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group. Official numbers place the strength between 700 to 1,000, in 1 Company; however the actual strength is classified. Special Service Wing (SSW) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Air Force. It is an elite special operations force similar based upon the US Air Force's Special Tactics Squadron

units. This newest component to the Special Forces of Pakistan. The division has recently been built up and is fielding between 700 to 1,000 men in 1 Company. UN peacekeeping forces Pakistan is the single largest contributor of UN peacekeeping forces, with more than 11,000 Pakistani military personnel serving in UN peacekeeping operations worldwide. The table below shows the current deployment of Pakistani Forces in UN Peacekeeping missions. Start of Name of Locatio Contributio operatio Conflict Operation n n n United Nations Organization Democrati Mission in the Second 3,556 1999 c Republic Democratic Congo War Troops. of Congo Republic of the Congo (MONUC) United Nations Second 2,741 2003 Mission in Liberia Liberian Troops. Liberia Civil War (UNMIL) United Nations Burundi 1,185 2004 Operation in Burundi Civil War Troops. Burundi ONUB

2004

2005

United Nations Operation in Cte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) Staff/Observer s

Cte d'Ivoire

Civil war in 1,145 Cte d'Ivoire Troops.

Sudan

Second Sudanese Civil War

1,542 Troops. 191 Observer s

The total amount of troops serving currently in peacekeeping missions is 10,173 (as of March, 2007).

Military Intelligence Inter-Services Intelligence, Military Intelligence of Pakistan, Naval Intelligence of Pakistan, and Air Intelligence of Pakistan Pakistan's Military Intelligence (MI) is one of the three main intelligence services in Pakistan. MI is tasked with counterinsurgency operations, identifying and eliminating sleeper cells, foreign agents and other anti Pakistani elements within Pakistan. Additional functions involve monitoring high level military and political leaders and safe guarding critical facilities such as military and non-military installations.

Military Academies The Military Academies Are:


Pakistan Military Academy Pakistan Air Force Academy Pakistan Naval Academy Pakistan Maritime Academy

Some other Professional and Technical Military Institutes:


National Defense University Command and Staff College PAF Air War College Pakistan Navy War College Military College of Engineering College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Army Medical College Military College of Signals College of Aeronautical Engineering College of Flying Training Pakistan Navy Engineering College

Weapons industry

Army A MFI-17 Mushshak

Pakistan invented POF Eye which is special-purpose weapon fitted with a semi-automatic pistol Pakistan began with virtually no military production capability. By 1951, Pakistan had created the Pakistan Ordnance Factory at Wah Cantonment, near Rawalpindi, to produce small arms, ammunition, and explosives. During the period of reliance on United States supply, there was little attention given to domestic production, but after the assistance cutoffs in 1965 and 1971, Pakistan relied on China's help to expand its facilities, including the modernization of Wah. The Heavy Industries at Taxila was established in 1971 as an equipment rebuilding facility, followed in 1973 by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex at Kamra, north of Islamabad. The air force assembled Chinese F-6s and French Mirages; produced the Mushak trainer, which was based on the Swedish SAAB Safari; maintained radar and avionics equipment; after the success of Mushak the Super Mushak and Karakoram-8 Advance jet state-of-art training platform were made. The Ministry of Defence Production was created in September 1991 to promote and coordinate the patchwork of military production facilities that have developed since independence. The ministry also includes seven other specialized organizations devoted to research and development, production, and administration. The navy is supported mainly by a facility at the Karachi Shipyard, which has limited production capacity. In 1987 development of a submarine repair and rebuild facility at Port Qasim was begun. By early 2000, in a joint project with China led to the development of the JF-17 Thunder fighter and the Al-Khalid Tank. Pakistan also has

taken major steps to becoming self sufficient in aircraft overhaul and modernization and tank and helicopter sales and in a transfer of technology with France led to the construction of the Agosta 90 B Submarine in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Pakistan Air Force

When the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) was established on August 15, 1947, it had only a small amount of aircraft and only few to fly that amount. There were even fewer places to fly from. The PAF came into being with only thirty-two C-47 Dakotas and types like Tempests, Harvards, Tiger Moths and Auster V's which were delivered to No. 5, 6 and 9 Squadron. Operating these types of aircraft in Pakistan was far from ideal. The Dakotas were having severe trouble flying at their maximum altitude of 10.000 feet to avoid the tops of the world's highest mountains

Pakistan's indigenous produced JF-17 Thunder. Pakistan plans to induct over 300 of these fighters.

Pakistani F16s parked at Nevada during their delivery to Pakistan. The Pakistan Air Force plans to retire several types of combat aircraft by 2019. Joint production and further development of the JF-17 Thunder light-weight multi-role fighter is ongoing and around 150 JF-17 are expected to be inducted by 2015, replacing all A-5C, F-7P, Mirage III and Mirage 5 fighter-bombers. The F-7PG will be replaced later and the JF-17 fleet may eventually be expanded to 300 aircraft.[42] Orders have been placed for at least 36 Chengdu J-10 fighters from China,[43] around 26 upgraded second-hand F-

16AM/BM and at least 18 new-built F-16C/D Advanced Block 52. Two types of Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft are to be introduced, 4 Saab 2000 Erieye AEW&C from Sweden and the ZDK-03, a Chinese AEW&C based on the Shaanxi Y-8F-600 cargo aircraft. The Il-78 aerial refueling tanker is to be inducted and will be capable of refueling the JF-17 and J-10, 4 are to be acquired second-hand from Ukrainian surplus stocks. The fleet of Shenyang FT-5 and T-37 Tweet is being replaced by around 75 K-8 Karakorum intermediate (jet) training aircraft. Navy

Pakistan Navy Frigate PNS Shahjahan Mclanery (ASW) Class for Pakistan Navy PNS Babur In 2005 Pakistan ordered four F-22P light frigates from China in a deal worth $600mn. The first is expected to be commissioned 2009 and the remainder by 2013.[46] One of the frigates has already been

completed and formally delivered to the navy, its formal induction in to the Pakistan Navy however, would take place at a later date. Plans to procure 4 used frigates were dropped in favor of 4 newbuilt corvettes. According to Turkish press the Pakistan Navy is reportedly interested in procuring the Milgem class corvettes from Turkey. The frigate USS McInerney (FFG-8) with considerable antisubmarine warfare capability will be handed over in August 2010. In mid-2006 the Pakistan Navy announced its requirement of three new SSK attack submarines to replace the two Agosta-70 submarines and rebuild its fleet after retiring the 4 Daphne class. French naval firm DCN offered its latest export design the Marlin SSK which is based on the Scorpene SSK, but also uses technology from the Barracuda nuclear attack submarine. The German firm HDW offered the U-214 SSK. Credible reports confirm that the Pakistan Navy has opted for the German U-214's which will be built in Pakistan and includes transfer of technology. According to Walter Frietag the contract has been finalized 95 percent. Pakistan is also seeking to enhance its strategic strike capability by developing naval variants of the Babur cruise missile. The Babur cruise missile has a range of 700 km and is capable of using both conventional and nuclear warheads. Future developments of Babur include capability of being launched from submarines, surface combatants as well as range extension from 500 km to 1000 km. The Airborne version of Babur, 'RAAD' has already been successfully tested.