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MULTIFUNCTION STEREO AUDIO CONSOLE

INTRODUCTION
The audio console in broadcast studios is utilized for mixing of various audio sources and also to facilitate the operator to control some of these audio sources remotely from the console. The mixing console for transmission studios is required to handle two microphone sources and at least 10 line sources, whereas the recording studio console has up to 6 microphone sources and few line sources. The switching console used in control room is not required to handle any microphone sources but must be able to handle 6 to 8 independent line sources with additional 8 to 12 line sources to be connected through source selector modules. It was observed that even though many required features of the recording, transmission and switching console were similar, the existing mono audio consoles used for the above functions differed in some details and were not inter-changeable. Deployment of three different mixing consoles results in substantial expenditure on stocking of spare modules and other components at each station. It was decided to get indigenous stereo console developed with such features that the same console could be used for stereo recording, transmission or switching with different configuration of modules so as to reduce spares inventory due to interchangeability of modules. Thus the concept of multi-function stereo audio console was born. Source Selector module has been incorporated in all types, which will be useful for interfacing multiple recording/playback machines presently being deployed due to transition phase from analogue to digital systems.

Special features
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Modular construction Tabletop recessed mounting. Easy access to wiring and components in modules and to motherboard. Solid state switching of audio at all locations. Conductive plastic PCB mount potentiometers and faders.

Induction Course (Radio) 6. 7. 8. 9. Frame size to accept 12 input modules with user indicated configuration. Placement of any type of input module in any of the input slots on motherboard. Source Selector high-level input module with audio selection through solidstate switches located on the Mixer panel. Selection switches to route the fader contact also to the selected machine for fader start operation. 4 types of input modules, namely: . mono mike/line input module with pan pot, with and without equalizer. . high level input module without equalizer. . source select module for connecting 4 Stereo or 8 Mono high level audio sources. 2 mute buses with possibility of assigning any of the mike/line modules to any of the bus for simplified configuration of the Mixer in recording studio environment. Any of the microphone channels can be assigned to announcer or to the artistes in the studio. Phantom supply (selectable) for connecting condenser microphones. Remote mute facility for microphone channels. Stereo Pre Fade Listen (PFL) facility. 2 stereo master outputs and 2 mono auxiliary outputs. A stereo high level input for each stereo master output. Generation of signaling and machine control signals as required for transmission/recording/switching consoles. Acceptance of control signals as required for transmission/ recording/switching functions. Correlation Meter Separate Monitoring Output for Recording/Announcers room and Studio Loudspeakers with respective mute logic. Talk back send and receive facility to/from 8 locations. PFL to Monitor Selection. Built-in Oscillator. Balanced input and outputs. Isolated power supply bus so that fault in one module does not affect the other modules.

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Program Inputs/Outputs Input Channels Output Channels Input Impedance Microphone Line Input Levels STI(T) Publication 82 004/IC(Radio)/2001 : : > 2 K Ohm > 10 K Ohm : : : 12 (Max.) Balanced on XLR 2, Balanced on XLR Each having Left, Right and Mono outputs

Multi-function Stereo Console

Microphone Line Input head room Microphone Line Output Levels Left, Right & Mono Output Impedance Frequency Response Distortion Microphone Line Cross talk (at 15 kHz) Adjacent channel/master to master Stereo CR Monitor/Aux Bus (Channel to Channel) Noise Equivalent Input Noise Signal to Noise Ratio Monitoring Outputs Control Room Studio Foldback Auxiliary ouputs 1&2

: :

-70/-60/-50/-40/-30 dBu (Selectable) -10/0/+10 dBu (Selectable)

: :

20 dB 20 dB

: : :

4 dBu 24 dBu < 50 Ohms 40 Hz 15 kHz + 0.5 dB

: :

< 0.3% (-70dBu input, +4dBu Output) < 0.1% (0 dBu input, +4 dBu output)

: : :

Better than 75 dB Better than 60 dB Better than 60 dB

: :

Better than 124 dB Better than 80 dB

: : : :

+ 4dBu + 20 dBu (Balanced Stereo) + 4dBu + 24 dBu (Balanced Stereo) + 4dBu + 24 dBu (Balanced Mono) + 4dBu + 20 dBu (Balanced Mono)

BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


The Multifunction Stereo Audio Console consists of up to 12 Input modules, two Output modules, one Monitor module, one Talkback module and a Power supply module. The STI(T) Publication 83 004/IC(Radio)/2001

Induction Course (Radio) input modules can be configured from mono mic/line inputs with or without equaliser and stereo line inputs with or without remote selection. The block diagram of Multifunction Stereo Audio Console has been shown in fig.1.

INPUT MODULE
a. Mono Mic/Line Line level signals from mono sources and mic level signals from Announcer/Studio Mics are fed to the Mono Mic/Line modules. The mic level signal is amplified with a 5-step gain control amplifier and, after optionally switchable low frequency roll off and phase reversal, fed to the program selector. The gain is variable from 30 dB to 70 dB in the five steps. The low frequency roll off circuit has a cut of 3 dB at 70 Hz and may be brought in circuit to eliminate undesirable noise such as mic thumps and stage rumble. The phase reversal circuit provides an 180-degree phase shift and may be used to cancel out any signal phase shift introduced at the mic input connectors. The line amplifier circuit is provided with continuous gain control variable from 10 dB to + 10 dB and then fed to the programme selector. The oscillator signal from external bus is also fed to the program selector. The three by one program selector routes either one of the mic, line or oscillator signals to the next stages. The selected signal is fed through fader and pan control to the main mix bus of Master 1 or Master 2 on the motherboard. The channel insert provision enables external processing on the selected signal. The signal is also routable, pre or post fade to auxiliary buses 1 & 2 and the PFL bus. The routing to different buses is controlled by switches on the module panel. The fader switch is used to control the CH: ON LED. Logic circuits are provided in the module for ON AIR, READY and OVERLOAD indications and for muting the channel output when talk is initiated from control room. The COUGH logic is used to mute the mic amplifier in the event of the announcer coughing or any other undesirable disturbance. Phantom supply for condenser mic is available in the module and can be energised through appropriate jumper settings. Mono Mic/Line modules with equalizer contains additional circuit for a three-band equalization with centre frequencies at 100 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz. The middle band can be further split into five bands centered around 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz and 4 kHz for selective equalization.

b. Stereo High Level


Stereo High Level modules are of two types, one with remote source selection and the other without remote source selection. The two are identical except for the inclusion of logic circuits for eight by one mono selection or four by one stereo selection remote programs in the later. The two channels, L&R, are separately amplified by a variable gain of 10 dB to + 10 dB and fed to a line/oscillator selector. The oscillator signal from the external bus is balance to unbalance converted and fed to the same selector. The line or oscillator signal is selected depending on the position of the selector switch. The mono selector switch and associated circuits sums the stereo L&R signal to obtain a mono signal for further processing if required. The selected signal is then amplified in Voltage Controlled STI(T) Publication 84 004/IC(Radio)/2001

Multi-function Stereo Console Amplifiers, the dc controls of which are varied in proportion to the settings on the fader. The signals are then routed to the main mix buses of Master 1 and Master 2 after buffering. The signals are also routed to the auxiliary buses 1 & 2 and also to the PFL bus. Auxiliary routing is jumper selectable from pre post fade signals. All the routings are controlled by switches on the module panel. The module also contains logic for CH:ON, ON AIR, READY and OVERLOAD indications.

OUTPUT MODULE
Signals on the Master 1 and Master 2 buses routed from the input modules as left and right channels are mixed separately in the output modules. This signal is then fed to an oscillator/signal selector along with the signal from the test oscillator. The selector circuit, depending on the position of the OSC ON switch, selects either the mixed signal or the oscillator. The high level input provided within the module can also be mixed with the main channel using the routing switch provided in this module. This input is also provided with a gain control and PFL routing. The selected signal is next amplified in a Voltage Controlled Amplifier, the gain of which is varied according to the DC control voltage from the channel fader. The post-faded signals are then fed to the Compressor/Limiter section. Depending on the threshold settings the signal is compressed. Either compressed or non-compressed signal is then fed to the balance converters depending on the selection of Compressor IN/OUT Switch. The balance converted and send to the output XLR connectors on the module as Master outputs, left and right. The L&R signals are also summed together to obtain a mono output. The pre-fade and post-fade signals are routed through a PRE/POST selector and summed together to obtain a mono signal for routing to auxiliary AUX 1 and AUX 2 outputs. The routing to these outputs is enabled by separate switches. The pre-fade signals are also routed to the PFL buses when the PFL ON switch is activated. The module also contains the logic circuits for OVERLOAD and channel ON indication.

MONITOR MODULE
The monitor module of the console contains the hardware for selection and monitoring of different signals on the console. Provision is made for monitoring the signals in mono mode in the console PFL speaker and in stereo mode at the Control Room and Studio on external amplifiers/speakers. The stereo PFL signals from different modules are mixed in this module. The L&R signals are summed to obtain a mono signal for the console-monitoring amplifier. This path also includes provision for mixing of TB return signal. The stereo PFL signal is also available on headphone socket. Signal to the monitoring amplifier gets muted when Announcer mic goes on air, i.e. MIC OAL BUS 1 logic is active. The Control Room Monitor uses an 8x1 selector for selecting signals from three external sources. The program selection logic circuits generate the code for the eight by one selector depending on the source selected. The selected stereo signal is routed via level, dim, mute and balance controls to the Control Room Monitor by activating the PFL TO MON switch. When this switch is ON any PFL switch activates. Channel Module will STI(T) Publication 85 004/IC(Radio)/2001

Induction Course (Radio) route its PFL to Control Room input of the 8x1 select position. The dim control provides 20 dB attenuation to the routed signal when the PFL is selected for monitoring. The mute control gets activated when the Announcer mic goes on air, i.e. MIC OAL BUS 1 is active. The Control Room monitor has a mono/stereo switch for selecting the mode of listening. Studio Monitor can be selected from two inputs Master 1/Master 2 using the Master 2 on switching the module panel. Whenever a talk to the Studio is initiated by pressing the TALK switch the Master signal gets muted and the talkback signal from the TB module gets routed. When the Studio mic is on air, i.e. the MIC OAL BUS 2 logic is active, the monitoring signal to the Studio is muted. However, a mono signal obtained by summing the L&R channels is always available bypassing the mute circuit. This can be used for Studio fold back. This module also contains circuit for sensing correlation between the stereo channels selectable from Master 1/Master 2 and Control Room Monitor signals. An LED on the Console Meter Panel lights when the phase difference between L&R goes above 90 degrees. TALKBACK MODULE The Talkback module of the console houses the hardware for an 8 Stations two-way communication facility. Auxiliary mixers, circuits for signaling and relay operations and the test oscillator are also housed in this module. The oscillator generates sine wave signals at 100 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz at 0 dBu and 70 dBu levels. The frequency is selectable. The 0 dBu signal is fed to the oscillator bus on mother board from where it can be tapped by input and output modules. The 70 dBu signal is terminated on the module jack from where it can be fed to the Mono mic/line modules for testing the mic part using the cable provided. The talkback mic signal after amplification and level control is routed as TB SEND signal through an eight by one selector. The announcer can initiate a talk with any one of the eight stations, Aux 1, Aux 2 or Studio by pressing the TALK switch of the corresponding section. The Return signals from the eight stations mixed and level controlled before sending to the Monitor module for listening. The presence of these signals are indicated on the panel by lighting of LEDs corresponding to each station. This module also contains circuit for summing the auxiliary signals from the input modules routed on AUX1 and AUX 2 buses. After summing, the signals are fed to Talk Switch along with the talkback signal. These selectors will route either the talkback signal or the auxiliary signal to the output. The selected signals are balance converted and send as auxiliary outputs. The module also contains logic circuits and relay drivers for driving LEDs on the console panel and a set of external relays according to the status of the Announcer mic, the Studio mic and the Switching console logic inputs. STI(T) Publication 86 004/IC(Radio)/2001

Multi-function Stereo Console POWER SUPPLY MODULE The Power Supply has outputs of +48 V, +18 V, - 18V and + 5 V. These dc voltages are routed through the motherboard to power the various modules of the Console. The 48 V is used for powering the condenser mics plugged to the mono mic/line modules. CONSOLE METER PANEL The console panel houses the PPM driver and the PFL amplifier PCBs along with the Peak Programme meters, the speaker and a set of LEDs for the console status indication. There are indications for READY, ON AIR, ANNR. LIV, STUDIO LIVE, OSC.ON, PHASE ERROR and POWER SUPPLY. The PFL speaker is mounted at a convenient location for proper listening. REMOTE SOURCE SELECTOR This stand-alone unit is capable of routing any one of eight mono sources or four stereo sources to the output depending on the selection logic sent from the Source Selector Input Module of the console. The interface with the console is of RS 232 standard.

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Induction Course (Radio)

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Multi-function Stereo Console Fig. 1 Multi-function Stereo Transmission Console

STI(T) Publication

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Induction Course (Radio)

STI(T) Publication

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