Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

Balancing Lconomic and Lnvironmental Concerns in the Uplands of Vietnam: A

Continuing Challenge
J



Dang 1hanh Ha
2
and Ma. Victoria O. Lspaldon
3



ABS1RAC1

1hispaperpresentsresultsoacasestudyotheSANRLM'sresearchprojectandtwootherUAlcase
studiesintheCentrallighlandoVietnam. 1hesestudiesusedsimilarparticipatoryresearchapproach
to generate empirical eidences to patterns o land use change as these are inluenced by
multidimensional actors. Lnironmental consequences associated with these land changes were also
reported. 1he paper shows that changes in economic policies, institutions and market access led to a
large transormation o orestland into agriculture. 1he rapid expansion and intensiication o
agricultural production, drien in part by expanding population, places high pressure on the natural
resourcebaseandcauseshighnegatieexternalitiesintheuplands,particularlyinmarginallands.Inall
case studies, rates o degradation o orests, soils, and water remain high and threaten agricultural
sustainability. Recently, national and local goernment took some eorts to oercome negatie
enironmental consequences o agricultural deelopment in the uplands, but their impacts are still
limited.Balancingagriculturaldeelopmentandenironmentalprotectioniscurrentlyamajorchallenge
oruplanddeelopment.lormeetingthischallenge,thepaperemphasizestheneedorsettingenabling
policies and institutional ramework that better promote sustainable agriculture and natural resource
managementpracticesintheuplands.

IN1RODUC1ION

1he series o institutional and policy reorms implemented since the early 80's when Vietnam shited
rom a centrally planned to a market oriented economy ushered a dramatic increase in agricultural
outputs, particularly in rice production. loweer the country continues to cope with both
socioeconomic and enironmental problems such as high rural poerty, increased income disparity
between urban and rural population, high orest loss, and degradation o land and other natural
resources,particularlyintheuplands.

1he upland areas are aced with high rate o deorestation as a result o war and subsequent
reconstruction eorts oer the last decades. More recently, large orest areas were conerted to cash
crops cultiation as part o the oerall deelopment o markets and exports. In many cases, recent
economic deelopment was achieed at the expense o enironmental quality. Rates o depletion and
degradationoorests,soils,andwaterremainhigh.





AuthorContact: Dang1hanhla,Lmail:d.thanh.hahcm.wnn.n
1
Paper presented to the SANRLM CRSP Research Scientiic Synthesis Conerence, Noember 28-30,
2001,Athens,GA.
2
UniersityoAgricultureandlorestry,loChiMinh,Vietnam.

Page 1 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
3
UniersityothePhilippinesLosBanos,College,Laguna

1heGoernment oVietnam, cognizanto theneed or watershed protection,adoptedarious policy
measurestorestorebarrenlandsandprotectitalorestsbutachieedmixedresults.Managingcritical
watersheds continues to challenge resource managers and policy makers. Some parts o Vietnam`s
uplandssuerdryseasonwatershortagesandsocialtensionsaroundwaterallocation,whileothersare
subject to looding, erosion and increased economic and enironmental ulnerability o poor
households. Balancing economic deelopment and enironmental protection is currently one o the
majorchallengesintheuplandareasoVN.

Using results o three case studies conducted in the Central lighland o Vietnam, this paper proide
empiricaleidencestoapatternochangesinlandusesandtheenironmentalconsequencesassociated
with these changes. It also ealuates eorts o national and local goernment to oercome negatie
enironmental consequences o recent trends in agricultural deelopment in the Central lighlands o
Vietnam.

1HL CASL S1UDILS

AllthreecasestudieswereconductedbytheUAlresearchteamsintheCentrallighlandsoVietnam.
OnewasconductedbytheSANRLM'sresearchprojectinDailaocommuneoLamdongProince.1he
other two case studies were the Community-Based Natural Resource Management project in Kado
commune o Lamdong Proince and Managing \ater Resource in a Dynamic Upland Lnironment
conducted in Lal 1ul catchment o Dak Lak proince. 1he location o the study sites is presented in
igure1.

Similar participatory research approach was employed in these studies. In Kado commune, the
Participatory Rural Appraisal ,PRA, method was applied by a multidisciplinary research team to
generateinormationonlandusepatternandarmers'perspectiesinnaturalresourcemanagement.In
Dai Lao commune o Lamdong proince, the research team employed the Participatory Landscape-
Liescape Appraisal ,PLLA,, a rapid, iteratie and system-oriented approach ,Lspaldon and Magsino,
2001,tounderstandtheagro-ecologicalandsocio-economicconditionspreailinginthiscommune.1o
generate the needed inormation, the PLLA team employed a combination o techniques such as oral
history that reconstructs historical eents, use o secondary data, key inormants interiews, armers
proiling,mapsandmapanalysisandocusgroupdiscussions,laetal,2001,.lorthestudyinLa1ul
catchment,theUAlteamadoptedaholistic,participatoryapproachanddrewromexistingexperience
o current and past projects as well as perspectie o dierent stakeholders. By ocusing on water
resource use and management system in a catchment, the research identiied, analyzed, and generated
public discussions o major research andpolicyissues relating to an integrated approacho watershed
management,Gianget.al.2000,.

Page 2 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...

ligure1.Locationothestudysites.

In all studies, meetings and workshop with armers and decision makers rom the commune, district,
andproinceleelswerealsoorganizedtoalidateinormationandtogenerateanoeriewoarming
systems and their major issues and constraints. 1he application o participatory research approach in
these projects was not merely to generate data and inormation needed but also to enhance the
participationolocalillagersandotherstakeholdersintheidentiicationoproblemsandissuesrelated
tosustainableagricultureandnaturalresourcemanagementsystemsandintheexplorationosolutions
tomanyconcerns.

DaiLaocommuneis anexampleoa illagethatunderwentrapidchanges asa resulto multitudeo
actors.Oerthepasttwodecades,thelandscapechangedromdominantlynaturaloreststoprimarily
agriculturalareasordierentcropssuchasrice,mulberry,teaandcoee.Recently,ascoeedeclines
itsproitabilitystarting1999,armersoDaiLaoexhibitsdierentcopingmechanismstoadapttothe
newmarketandenironmentalconditions.Arapidchangeromdominantlynaturaloreststoprimarily
agricultural production, particularly coee, was also obsered in La 1ul catchment o Dak Lak
proince. 1he expansion o coee replaced large areas o orest and other annual crops, which led to
the degradation o land and water resources. Kado represents a commune in transition rom sel-
suiciencytowardscashcropproduction.

1hesestudysitesrepresentbroadlysocio-economicandecologicalconditionsintheCentrallighlands
oVietnam.Allothemarecommunitiesintransition,bothintermsothebiophysicalaspectsaswell
asintermsoitssocioeconomiccontexts.1heyalsodisplaysomecommoneaturesoenironmental
stress and resource degradation associated with uncontrolled expansion and intensiication o
agriculturalactiities.





LAND USL CHANGL AND CAUSLS
Ea Tul Catchment
Kado commune
Dai Lao commune
Page 3 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...

Like many upland areas in the country, these study sites are undergoing rapid economic growth and
structuraltransormationsinceVietnamshitedromacentrallyplannedtoamarketorientedeconomy.
Rapidchangesinlanduseand,orcroppingpatternwerereportedinthecommunesunderstudy.

ligure 2. Land use changes in ,a, Dailao commune, ,b, Kado commune, and ,c, La 1ul catchment.
,Source:Datacollectedduringinteriewsolocaloicials,2000,.

Dai Lao Commune

Dailaocommuneexperiencedarapiddeclineinorestresourceoerthelasttwodecades.1heorests
coeredabout85othetotallandinthecommunein1980butreducedtoabout45in1984dueto
theincreasingagriculturalandtimberharestingactiities.1heremainingorestcontinuedtodecrease
atarateoabout5perannumrom1985to198.\iththeshittothemarketeconomysince1986a
highrateodeorestationcausedbylandclearingtoaccommodatespontaneousmigrantsoccurred.In
1990, the orests remained only 2. Until 1995, most o the orestland suitable or agricultural
cultiationwereclearedandcultiated.1heremainingorestareaothecommunewasreducedtoonly
lessthan15intheyear2000.

Itwasrecordedthatnotonlysmallarmersbutalsostatearmsandorestenterprisesarestakeholders
causingrapiddeorestationinthisarea.\hiletheoperationothestatearmswereplanned,operated
according to goernment program, and was subsidized, small arms were spontaneous and market
drien.

Incontrasttothereductionotheorests,agriculturallandincreasedrapidlyrom15othetotalland
areainyear1980to83inyear2000.1hetotalareaomajorcropssuchasmulberry,tea,andcoee
increased rom 33 ha in year 1980 to 5584 ha in year 2000, an increase o about 6 times. 1he area
expansionwashighestorbothcoeeandtea.Lenwithstrongsupportothesericulture
ndustry deelopment program o the proince, mulberry area reached a maximum o only 240 ha in
1995. Itthendeclinedduetothelowpriceandirrigationwaterconstraints.

\ith better market access and aorable prices, tea and coee area expanded rapidly since 1994. 1his
area expansion was achieed not only by the transormation rom orests that were cleared beore by
Coffee
Tea
Other
crops
Forests
Forests
Coffee
Tea
Other
crops
Grass
land,
bushes
Tea
Coffee
Forests
Other
crops
Forests
Other
crops
Coffee
Forests
Other
crops
Coffee
Forests
Other
crops
Coffee
Other
crops
Coffee
Forests
Other
crops
Coffee
Forests
Other
crops
Coffee
Forests
(a)
(b)
(c)
1980 1990 2000
Page 4 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
illegalloggingbutalsobyashitrommulberry.Motiatedbythehighcoeeprice,abandwagoneect
incoeeplantingwasobseredinthisarea.Manyarmershaeplantedcoeeeenwhentheydonot
haeexperienceincultiatingthiscropordonotknowaboutthearietyandsoilconditionsuitableor
coee. Many een planted coee on ery steep slopes where the soil and water conditions were not
suitableorthiscrop.Asaresult,theyieldwaserylowandcausedhighsoilerosion.

larmersinthecommuneshitedromcropatercropduetotheluctuationinmarketprices.Changes
inpriceshaedierentialeectsonlandusebydierentgroupsoarmers.Itwasreportedthatdueto
the low price o coee and a high price o mulberry in 198-1988, some armers cut down coee to
plant mulberry. As price o mulberry went down in 1994-1995, armers again cut down mulberry or
coee or tea. Crop choice o armers is usually based on current market alue, that lend them to be
more ulnerable to market changes, particularly the poor armers. \ith the decrease in coee price
since 1998, the cultiation o coee is no longer proitable. Large coee armers stopped intensie
inestment in coee. Medium to small armers een want to shit to tea i coee price continues to
decreaseorremainatlowleel.\henthepriceomulberrywentup,manyarmersoundanincentie
toexpandmulberryagain.1heshitromcoeetoothercropsisexpectedtooccurnotonlybecauseo
price luctuationsbutalso due to degradation o the soil, poor soil, slopingland with highrisk osoil
erosion,anddiicultyinwateraccess.1ocopewiththeluctuationinmarketprice,somelocalarmers
diersiy their arming actiities by planting more than one crop and inesting in other lielihood
actiities such as animal production. loweer, the leel o diersiication in arm actiities among
armersisstilllimitedtomoreinnoatieandmoreresource-richarmers.

Kado Commune

1he natural condition in Kado commune is characterized by a high diersity in topography, soil type,
and water aailability. 1he orest in the commune is a watershed that regulates water or the two
important hydroelectric power plants. Compared to the situation in other two case studies, there was
notadramatictransormationromorests,onlyabout6,toagriculturallandoerthesameperiod.
1here was only a small expansion o agricultural land due to a strict enorcement o regulations on
orestconseration,lessaorablemarketaccessandlesssuitablelandorhighaluedcashcropssuch
ascoeeandtea.

Despitetheconstraints,thecommuneisgraduallyshitingromsel-subsistencemodeoproductionto
amorecommercialcashcropproductionthatalsohaesomenegatieimpactsonitsnaturalresource
base.Beore1986,theillageconcentratedontheproductionooodcropstosatisytheneedsothe
local people. Main ood crops o the ethnic minority groups such as the Chil, K'ho, and Churu were
wetlandanduplandrice,localtraditionalmaize,beans,cassaaandotherrootcrops.1heproductiono
cash crops like egetables, beans, and mulberry was not ery intensie due to unaorable market
access. Most households o the ethnic minority groups in the community are ery poor and maintain
theirtraditionalpracticeo shitingcultiation. Only lessthan 10otheirtotalarm productionwas
channeled through the market. \etland rice cultiation is the traditional agricultural system o the
ChurugroupandsomeotheK`hogroup.Shitingcultiationistheirtraditionalcultiationpracticeo
theChilandK'hopeoplethatcontinuesuntilnowadays.


\ithbettermarketaccesssince1986therewasarapidchangeincroppingsystemstowardshighalued
crops. Many armers intensiied egetable production and other cash crops. In year 2000, the
proportionomarketshareincreasedsigniicantlytoabout60percentand94percentothetotalarm
production or ethnic minority armers and Kinh armers, respectiely. 1he computed man-land ratio
suggests the increasing scarcity o agricultural land or cultiation among local residents. \ith only
Page 5 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
limitedlandoragriculturalcultiation,18.5othetotalcommuneland,,thistrendrelectstheeorts
o illagers to use scarce land resources more eiciently to increase income and ood security. 1he
productionareaorsubsistenceoodcropsdecreasedwhilecommercialegetableproductionandother
cashcropslikehybridmaizeandcoee,expandedconsiderably.

Shiting cultiation is an important traditional agricultural system in the area. As this practice is
consideredasharmulortheenironmentbylocalauthorities,theyimplementedastrictenorcement
o orest protection and prohibited shiting cultiation practices. Shiting cultiated lands located on
slopingareaswereconsideredbythestateasareatobeplantedwithpineorestsunderthejurisdiction
o the state orest arms. Poor ethnic armers are now acing two major problems: decreasing
productiity o the shiting cultiation system and institutional pressures against this system. Once a
dominantandsustainableproductionsysteminthisuplandillage,shitingcultiationsystemoethnic
minority armers now has an uncertain uture due to both internal and external actors. 1his policy
limits the opportunities or ethnic minority armers to practice shiting cultiation and reduces their
abilitytoproduceenoughood.

La 1ul Catchment

Oer the last decades, the study area underwent remarkable changes in land use. lorest area was
reduced rom 58 in year 1980 to 20 in year 2000. Many orest areas were replaced irst by annual
ood crops and then by coee plantations. \ith ery ertile balsatic land suitable or growing cash
crops, especially coee, the area is ery attractie or migrants rom other regions in the country to
searchoreconomicopportunities.

1heirstgroupoKinhpeopleromthenorthernproincesoVietnamstartedtomigratetothisarea
in1954.Ater195,someneweconomiczonesandstatearmswereestablishedintheareatoreceie
migrants rom the crowded proinces in the northern and the central coastal region o the country.
Besides the planned migration, spontaneous immigrants began to come to this area in the 80s. \ith
highcoeepriceintheearly90`sthenumberomigrantscameinthearearaisedsharply.Datacollected
duringtheinteriewsinLal1ulcatchmentshowsthatonly34otherespondentscametothisarea
beore1980.Majorityotherespondents,66,migratedtothearealater.Untilnow,thespontaneous
migrationtothisareaisstillgoingonwhichputsmorepressureontheland,waterandotherresources
inthisarea.

\hen armers irst came to the area, they cleared the orest to cultiate maize, beans and other ood
crops to satisy their ood demand. A large orest area was cleared or agricultural production. Beore
1986, agricultural production was semi-commercial. \ith better market access since the early 80`s,
armers'productionbecamemoreorientedtocashcropproduction.1heproductionocoee,ahighly
proitable crop in terms o amily labor and per cubic meter o water, replaced other less proitable
annual crops. At the same time, armers used high leel o mechanization, ertilizer, pesticides and
labor. Since 1994, there has been a large change in the cropping pattern in this area. As the price o
coeeincreasedcoeeareaexpandedrapidly.1herewasalargechangeromannual


cropsandoreststocoee.Coeeproductionnowcontributestothelargestshareoarmhousehold
income in this area. 1o date, agricultural production system in this area is highly monoculture, high
input,highwaterconsumptionandmarket-orientedcoeeproductionsystem.

1he uncontrolled expansion o agricultural production, particularly coee cultiation at the margin o
the remaining orestland was reported in this area. lorest egetation is perceied as a low economic
Page 6 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
land use and beneit rom orest inluences including the regulation o water regime was not clearly
takenintoaccount.

1helandusechangesdescribedinthesecasestudiesrelectthechangesinpolicies,marketconditions,
biophysicalconditionandpopulation.Inthepostwarperiod,thegoernmentpursuedsel-suiciencyin
grains. 1he growth in ood production in the Central lighlands has been due primarily to area
expansionleadingtolargetransormationoorestsintoagriculture.Policiesimplementedinthecentral
highlands ater 195 include the establishment o new economic zones, state arms, and orest
enterprisesandpopulationre-distributionprogram.1heencroachmentonorestareasdrienprimarily
by commercial logging and planned conersion o orestland into agriculture by the state arm
contributedtoalarge-scaledeorestation.Commercialloggingdonebythestateorestenterprisesagain
acilitated agricultural expansion. 1hese policies resulted in remarkable socio-economic and
enironmental transormations. 1his was well relected in the case o Dai Lao and La 1ul catchment
wherelargedeorestationwasreported.

Inthetransitiontowardamarketeconomy,theprocessolandusechanges,especiallytheexpansiono
coee in the Central lighlands relects the goernment's policy or supporting export-oriented cash
crop production and a rational judgement o armers in coping with market situation. Under open
accessorestmanagementregimeduetopoorimplementationoregulationandrules,thepriceboom
o coee in the world and domestic markets attracted more people into the Central highlands. 1he
processomigrationtotheCentralhighlandswaseitherplannedbygoernmentprogram,spontaneous
in nature, or the product o a chain migration. 1his situation led to aorable enironment or orest
clearingandunsustainablepatternsolanduses.AlthoughpopulationdensityintheCentrallighlands
isstillrelatielylowascomparedtolowlandareas,theremainingorestcannotbemaintainedwithouta
strong supporting policy to stop ree immigration. 1he situation is similar in other uplands areas o
Vietnamaswell as in other countryin the SoutheastAsia regionlikein the Philippines,Coxhead and
Glady,2001,.

\ith better market access, armers in the Central lighlands are increasingly integrated with national
and global markets. Changes in prices hae dierential eects on land use by dierent groups o
armers. 1he rapid expansion o coee oer such a large area in the Central lighlands led to
complicated social issues, including social stratiication, resource tenurial changes, and resource
degradation.

LNVIRONMLN1AL CONSLQULNCLS OI LAND USL CHANGL

Resultsothesecasestudiesreealedthattheincreaseinagriculturalproductionandeconomicgrowth
isachieedattheexpenseonaturalecosystem.

Dailao commune

\ithahighrainallandlargeslopingland,Dailaocommuneissubjecttohighriskosoilerosion.1he
clearing o orest or the expansion o mulberry, tea and coee planting, especially in sloping land
usuallymeetthedeelopmentgoalsintheshortterm,butincreasetherisksassociatedwithsoilerosion.
Lrosionratewasreportedtobehighestinthecaseomulberry.\ithinappropriatearmingpractices,
extremely high soil erosion rate ,about 15 to 20 mm o soil loss per year, was recorded or mulberry
plantingonsteepslopes,Duet.al.,2001,.

A seriousproblemo soil erosion occurredduring theperiod rom198to1990whenthe statearm
clearedoreststoexpandmulberryplantationtothehills.Duetohigherosionandlossosoilnutrients,
Page 7 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
mulberry yield decreased rapidly ater cultiating or about 3 years. Aerage yield o mulberry planted
onthetopothehillswaslessthan2.5tonesoreshmulberryleaesperhectarewhiletheyieldonlat
landwasromto10tonesperhectare.Plotswithhighsoillossyieldeenonlylessthan1tonesper
hectare.1herapidreductioninmulberryyieldduetohighsoilandnutrientlossorcedthestatearmto
stopcultiatingmulberryonslopingland.Currently,allmulberryplantationlocatedonthehillswereno
longerexisting.

1hough tea and coee cultiation caused lower soil erosion rate than mulberry, a high rate o soil
erosion o 5-10 mm and een about 10-20mm per year on lands with slope o more than 25 were
obsered in both tea and coee plantations ,Du et. al., 2001,. Some armers reported that the rate o
soilerosioniseenisibleastheycouldseeonthebaseoteaorcoeeplants.Inmanyteaplantations,
soil erosion is so high such that armers hae to replant tea each year. Due to soil erosion, tea and
coeeplantedonsteeplandscouldonlyachieedayieldleelolessthan50othoseplantedonthe
onlatland.

Localauthoritiesreportedthatlandswithaslopeooer30degreeshaetobeunderorestcoerand
are not allowed or agricultural cultiation. But poor management o orest resources and weak
enorcement o regulations resulted in illegally tea or coee cultiation on these lands causing loss o
remainingorestcoer,highsoilerosion,andpoorharest.1heincreasingintensiearmingocoee
andteainthiscommunealsoleadtotheproblemohighsoildegradationandcontaminationosurace
and ground water as a result o an inappropriate or mismanaged agricultural intensiication, such as
ineicientapplicationochemicalertilizersandoeruseopesticides.

It was reealed rom armer group discussion that most o the armers are aware o the soil erosion
problem and its impacts but ew o them realized the actual leels o soil loss. Only ew armers
reportedorclaimedtoeectielymanageorcontrolsoilerosion.

Kado commune

ligh population growth in this commune oer the last decades due to both high natural growth o
population and immigration caused a decline o cultiated land per capita. \ith better market access
and increasing trend in cash crop production, better-o armers within and rom outside the illage
came to buy or rent land rom ethnic minority people to deelop commercial arming such as
egetables or coee. 1he poor ethic armers practicing shiting cultiation are usually those who are
losing land in this process. 1heir arable lands hae been reduced signiicantly orcing them to modiy
their traditional shiting cultiation practices. 1he allow period has been reduced signiicantly.
Sometimes,theydonotallowtheieldsatall.1hereductioninallowperiodcanleadtoahighersoil
erosionrateandlossesinsoilertility.Asteadydeclineincropyields.lormanyethnicminorityarmers,
the production o adequate amount o ood crops on small land holdings, with eer declining arm
productiity,seemstobeimpossible.1heyareparticularlyulnerabletopoerty.Ithistrendcontinues,
one can expect that additional marginal lands will be brought into unsustainable use making the
enironmentaldegradationproblemworst.

Itwasobseredthattheincreasedintensiicationocashcropproductiononsettledcroplandhasboth
positieandnegatieimpactsonthelocalnaturalresources.Ononeside,itincreasedthearmincome
and the opportunity cost o amily labor. 1his made orest-based lielihood actiities and shiting
cultiation on ields ar away rom armer's house less attractie. Some armers changed rom
cultiatinglabor-intensiebuterosieannualcropssuchasuplandriceandmaizetolesslabor-intensie
perennialcropssuchasruittrees. 1hisisexpectedtoreducetheriskromsoilerosion.Ontheother
side,theincreasedcashcropproductionisaccompaniedwithhighinputuse.Somearmersnowgrow
Page 8 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
hybridmaizewithhigherchemicalandpesticidesinputsontheirslopingshitingcultiationland.1his
practiceisexpectedtogenerateproblemswithwaterpollutioninotproperlyregulated.

La 1ul catchment

1helargetransormationoorestlandtoagricultureandtherapidexpansionocoeeoersuchalarge
arearesultedinthescarcityowateracedbyarmersalbeituneenly,andtheoeralldepletionothe
resource-baseinthisarea.

Similarly as in the other preious cases, the expansion o agricultural production, especially coee,
reducedorestarea.larmersnotedthatloodsseemtobeincreasinginrequencyandmagnitude. 1he
natural surace low is also obsered to be decreasing oer the years and soil erosion is increasingly
becomingacommonoccurrence.La1ulcatchmenthasbeenheailyplantedtocoee,withextensie
stretches o oer worked, exposed soil. Small dams and reseroirs, ital or sustainable agricultural
productionaresiltingupatalarmingrates,Riddell,1999,.

1hesourcesoirrigationwaterorcoeeandothercropsaremainlycommon-poolresourcesinnature
suchasreseroirsanddams,runningwater,streams,springs,andgroundwater.Currently,thesupplies
water rom irrigation system in the area cannot keep up with the rising demand or agricultural
production, especially or coee. Irrigation schemes suered rom quick degradation due to poor
managementandlackocapitalorrepairanddredging.lorirrigatingcoee,armersusesuracewater
romcanalsorstreamsaslongasitisaailable.Incaseswheresuracewaterdoesn`tsuiceordriesout,
armers shit to use ground water rom their own wells. \ith increased population pressure and
increased coee production, there is a greater competition and conlict oer land and water resource.
Some conlicts about the use o water during periods o water shortage hae already emerged,
particularlybetweenirrigatorsorriceandcoee,betweentail-endandtop-endirrigators,andbetween
upstreamanddown-streamcommunes.

1he use o ground water or irrigating coee on such a large scale as in the study area and in Daklak
proince is expected to seriously deplete the ground water resources. It was reported that more than
80 o coee armers are using ground water. On the aerage, armers had to irrigate their coee 4
times during the dry season with an aerage amount o about 500 liter per tree each times and about
1100treesperhectare.1hisrequiresanextremelylargeamountowatertoirrigatecoeeduringthedry
season.Groundwateriscurrentlyanopenaccessresourcethatcouldsoonresulttooeruseandseere
depletionotheresourcebase.

Alargenumberowellswereandarebeingspontaneouslydugordeepened,especiallyduringdryyears,
to maximize water extraction. larmers reported that the ground water table is considerably ery low
duringthedryseason.1ocompensateorthedrawdown,manyarmersarecontinuallydeepeningand
broadening their wells. All these actiities will seriously deteriorate the ground water resource in this
area.

Although ground water is being heaily used or coee irrigation, water users are untrained in water
management,i.e.exploitationogroundwaterresourcesiscarriedoutwithoutawell-deinedregulation.
Currently, local authorities are not able to manage the use o ground water or coee irrigation. No
armers reported to register or digging their own well. 1here is still poor awareness o armers
regardingeicientuse owaterandinprotectingwaterresources.1heconcernorthesecurityothe
watershouldbeahighpriorityissuetosustainagriculturalproduction.

On the whole, the situation in SANRLM research site in Bao Loc and by other 2 study areas
Page 9 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
demonstratethatpromotingeconomicgrowththroughagriculturalcommercializationhaesucceeded.
loweer, social and enironmental goals should equally be taken into serious considerations when
planning or agricultural deelopment. 1he eidences collected indicate that there is ongoing
degradation o the natural resources that may threat the long-term sustainability o agricultural
deelopmentintheCentrallighlandsoVietnam.

Most o the resource degradation can be attributed directly or indirectly to the increased population
pressures,unplannedandrapidexpansionandincreasingintensiicationoagriculturalactiitieswithout
theadoptionoappropriatemeasuresorthepreentionosoilerosion,landqualitydeterioration,and
degradationowaterresources.

Particularly,theuncontrolledexpansionoagriculturalproductionintotheragilemarginallandandthe
remaining orest poses a potential threat to the ecosystem with possibly serious consequences. 1hese
problems will be more serious as cultiated areas in the highland watersheds continue to expand.
lurthermorethenewlandisincreasinglymarginalintermsoslope,ertilityandwateraailability.1his
situation is similar to what are happening in other deeloping countries in the region such as in the
Philippines.

LIIOR1 IN PROMO1ING SANRLM

1he rapid changes in land use and the associated enironmental problems in the uplands had made
decisionmakersrealizedthatachieinghighergrowthinagriculturalproductionalonewillnotensurea
sustainableeconomicdeelopment.

At the national level

Sustainableagricultureandnaturalresourcemanagementhaebecomeanimportantissueinpolicyand
economicdeelopmentplanning inthe uplands o Vietnam in recent years. Responsetothese trends,
Vietnamhasadoptedmeasuresaimedatreersingdeorestationtrendanderosion.1heRe-greeningo
theBarrenlillsProgram,Decision32,wasadoptedinSeptember1991.In1998,thegoernmenthas
promulgated the Decision 661 to reorest 5 million hectares by 2010 and the related Decree 2 on the
allocationoorestlandtohouseholds.1heseprogramsrecognizethepotentialtodeelop,reorestand
protectanaturalresourcesystemthroughsoundandcareulmanagementinolinglocalhouseholds.

PerhapsthemostimportantpolicychangeinruralVietnamhasbeentherecognitionolanduseright
irstin1988andthenbyLandLawin1993.1hegoernmenthasalsoreleasedthenewLawon\ater
Resources in1998.Moreattentionhasalso been gientodecentralizationin enironment andnatural
resource management. lor instance, Decree No 29,1998,ND-CP ,Goernment o Vietnam, 1998,
clearlydeoledgeneralenironmentalresponsibilitytothegrassroots.Inthemorespeciiccontexto
waterresources,theLawon\aterResourcesdeoles,equallyclearly,waterresourcemanagementto
thelocalcommunitiesorthemasses.1heGoernmentoVietnam`scurrentsupportorthedeolution
process,greaterdecision-makingandgrassrootsdemocracyatthecommuneleel,andthegrowingrole
oVietnameseOrganizationsinruralareasisexpectedtoalloworcreatieandparticipatoryplanning
processes that is beneicial or all actors, including ulnerable groups. 1he Goernment o Vietnam's
newNationalLnironmentalPlan,2001-2010,pledgestosupportcollaboratieeortswithVietnamese
organizationstowardscost-eectieenironmentaleducationandawarenesscampaigns.

1heseeidenceclearlyshowtheincreasingeortsoVietnamgoernmenttoachieehighereconomic
growth and at the same time to protect the enironment and the natural resources. loweer despite
many impressie achieements in economic growth, approximately 30 million people ,3 o the
Page 10 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
population, continue to lie in poerty. Nearly 25 million people ,60 o the work orce, are either
underemployedorunemployed,whileeachyear,approximately1millionnewpeoplejointheworkorce
,\orld Bank 2000,. Meanwhile enironmental and resource degradation are still a common
phenomenon obsered in many parts o the country. 1hese numbers and acts imply that the
goernmentneedstospendmoreeortstopromotesustainableandnaturalresourcemanagement.

At the local level

Localauthoritieshaeundertakensomeeortstoprotectandenrichtheorestandwaterresourcesand
tocontrolsoilerosion.loweertheresultsaremixed.Dailaocommuneorexamplehasaprogramor
allocating 300 ha o orestland to indiidual households or orest protection, reorestation, and
agroorestry.loweer,theimplementationothisprogramisstillatthebeginningstageandlacksthe
ullparticipationolocalpeople.1hereore,atpresent,itsimpactsarenotreadilyapparentatthelocal
leel.

Someresearchinstitutions,uniersities,andNGOandlocalinstitutionshaealsosupportedarmersto
control soil erosion more eectiely. Demonstration plots were established to introduce soil erosion
measurestoarmers.MulberryarmerswereencouragedtoplantMivo.a ivri.aincontourlineinorder
to preent soil erosion. loweer the number o armers beneited rom such support are still ery
small.Manyarmersdidnotapplythesesoilerosionmeasuresduetothehighcostitimposedandhigh
amily labor requirements. 1he design o soil erosion control measure was done without a ull
participationothearmersandthereorehasalittlechanceoadoption,Du,etal.2001,.Othereorts
o local authorities usually ocused on strengthening enorcement in orest protection and preenting
theconersionoorestlandintoagriculture.

Similar approaches to reduce the negatie impacts o agricultural deelopment were also eident in
Kadoillage.lorreducingshitingcultiation,localauthoritieshaeimplementedresettlementprogram
or ethnic armer. Shiting cultiation were prohibited. Lnorcement o orest protection and
preenting the conersion o orestland into agriculture has been strengthened. loweer the orest
resources management in the area ocuses mainly on orestation and orest protection but pays less
attentiontothemutuallybeneiciallinkagebetweenorestdeelopmentandpoertyalleiationolocal
people ,la, 2000,. Methods applied or presering the orest includes the setting o orest boundary
and enorce exclusion, including patrol guards. As required by local authorities and the state arm,
sloping land o the commune, speciically the traditional shiting cultiation area o ethnic minority
armers, hae to be planted with orest species. Some new orest hae been established on existing
shiting cultiation land o local armers that reduced their opportunity to produce enough ood. 1he
orestlandallocationandreorestationprogramhaealsobeenimplementedwithoutaullparticipation
olocalarmers.

Ascanbederiedromthepreioussection,aseriousoerexploitationosuraceandgroundwateris
takingplacein Lal1ul watershed and itis notlikely tobeless inthenearuture. 1heseproblemsare
relections o ineicient institutional guidelines regarding water and land use and weak enorcement,
notonlyinLal1ulwatershedandDakLakproincebutalsoormanyotheruplandareasoVietnam.

Concerningtherapidlandusechangesandtheenironmentalproblemassociatedwithit,theproince
hastakensomeeortstoaddresstheissues.1heseinclude:

Speedinguptheprocessoproidinglanduserightcertiicatetoarmers.
Lncourage armers to adopt more secure cropping systems and to grow less water consuming
cropsinthearea,especiallytosubstitutethe\inter-Springrice.
Page 11 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
Strengthenenorcementorulesrelatedtowater,landandresettlement.
Participatory Irrigation Management ,PIM, or surace water use in irrigation schemes were
initiated.\aterUserAssociations,\UA,wereestablishedinsomecummunes.
A steering committee o PIM was established to carry out planning and proide guidance o
implementingPIMprogramintheproince.

1he eort o the proince in speeding up the process o proiding land use right certiicate to
indiidual armers is an important step towards enhancing agricultural productiity and better natural
resourcemanagement.loweertheproclamationopriatepropertyrightsalonedonotsimplyleadto
sustainable land use. 1he short-sightedness, and the inability to bear the inestment costs o
conseration are reasons why most armers in this area did not apply any soil and water conseration
mersures. 1he low incenties or reorestation do not encourage local armers to inest in orest
planting. 1he cultiation o coee on the marginal land has also been encouraged by ineicient
institutionalarrangementswithrespecttoorest,land,andwaterresources.

1heproincialDARDencouragesarmerstoplanrubberandrecentlycocoawiththeknowledgethat
thesecropsconsumelesswaterthancoee.loweerthesespeciesarenotattractietolocalarmersin
terms o priate proitability and accessibility to the market. 1here is also not enough incentie to
encouragearmerstoadoptmoresecurecroppingsystemsandtogrowlesswaterconsumingcropsin
the area, especially to substitute the low eicient and high water consumming \inter-Spring rice. 1o
support armers in adopting better use and management o the water resource, local extension and
irrigation oicers should play a acilitating and guiding role, as should hae the Goernment with its
inestmentandwaterpolicy.

1heenorcementothe\aterLawpromulgatedin1998createdtheneedtoassistlocalstakeholdersto
deise eectie and eicient water resource management instruments, include an exploration o the
applicabilityo marketbasedinstrumentsincombinationwithregulatoryinstruments. 1he\aterLaw
clearly indicates the need to change rom the situation o irrigation scheme ocus based on subsidary
style o irrigation management companies to a more integrated approach o watershed management
with the sharing o management responsibilities to local illagers. loweer the water resouce
managementsituationinDakLakproinceclearlyshowthatthereisstillgreateremphasisonirrigation
shemesmanagementandlittleattentionispaidtointergratedwaterresourcemanagementorintegrated
watershed management. In many cases armers hae not practically taken part in the irrigation
management except paying or water ees. At the district and commune leel, although there are
regulationsonmandateandresponsibility,detailedregulationsromtheproincearelackingconcerning
the co-operation between dierent district units as well as between district located in the same
watershed.

1he decentralization spirit o participatory irrigation management ,PIM, has been innitialized in the
proince.1hemostimportantimpactoPIMinitiatieswastheadoptionothisapproachbyDakLak
People`sCommittee.1heproincedecidedtoestablishaSteeringcommitteeoPIMthatwillcarryout
planningandguidanceoimplementingPIMprogramintheproince.1hiscanproideanopportunity
toscaleupPIMinitiatieelaboratedbytheS\RMproject.loweer,theprocessoscalingupoPIM
is undergoing diiculties. Main constraints o decentralization obsered in the water resource
management sector in the study area are the act that sta members o management institutionswere
notwellpreparedoraparticipatorymanagementsystems.Keyinormantsinteriewsreealthatsome
sta may not ully comprehend what decentralization and administratie reorm will entail or how to
increaseparticipation.Someoicialsarestillreliantontop-downdirection.

Lenwhenthereisarelatielyclearpolicyatthenationalleel,thereisnoclearanddetailedpolicyand
Page 12 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...
legalrameworkguiding,supportingandcreatinganenablingenironmentoragricultureandirrigation
sectors deelopment and no comprehensie policy ramework or an integrated water resource
managementatthelocalleel.

At the proincial leel,there is also a lack o detailed regulations to guide the releant agencies in co-
operatingwithoneanothertodeelopandprotectwaterresourcesandirrigationschemes.Amongthe
agencies, there is also a lack o integration in the direction o harmonising orest, land, water and
population.lorexample,theregulationsonmanagementdecentralisationaswellasunctionsandtasks
oirrigationschememanagementarenotwellclariied.1hisleadstoconusioninhandlingwork.lor
aneicientuseothewaterresources,moreeicient institutionalandlegalruleswithrespecttoland
and water and stronger enorcement are needed. 1hese actors, together with a more eicient pricing
system thatrelects the scacityalue o water, will proide an enironment underwhich armers could
maketheirowndecisionsregardingtheuseothewaterresourceinasustainablemanner.

1hesituationdescribedinthreecasestudiesclearlyshowthatlocalarmersandcommunitieswerenot
adequately inole in the management o local natural resources. Natural resource and enironmental
planningandmanagementisstillhighlycentralizedatallleels.Littleattentionhasbeenpaidtocapacity
buildingorenironmentalandnaturalresourcemanagementatthecommunityleel.Currently,many
illagershaeonlylimitedawarenessonenironmentalandnaturalresourcedegradationcausedbytheir
unsustainableagriculturalpractices.Amongdecision-makers,therearealsoagenerallackoinormation
on the socioeconomic and enironmental impacts o their decisions, especially at a watershed scale.
1hereisaneedtoidentiyanduseappropriatedecision-supporttoolsorpolicymakersandtoengage
innaturalresourcemanagementandplanningatbothcommunityandwatershedscales.

CONCLUSIONS

ResultsothecasestudiesconductedintheCentrallighlandsindicatethatthecurrentagricultureand
natural resource management system need to strike a balance between economic deelopment,
enironmental integrity and social welare. Lxperiences in Central lighlands show that top-down
direction and enorcement o regulations are still the common approaches implemented by local
authorities in resource management. loweer enorcement alone seldom worked. In recent years, the
commune is becoming an increasingly important decision-making unit as the goernment push or
greaterdecentralizationandaccountabilityatthelocalleel.Butimplementationhaspresentedcomplex
challenges. Decentralization in natural resource management is uneen across areas. As sustainable
agriculture and natural resource management deals with multiple inter-related aspects including socio-
economic, biophysical, enironmental and institutional aspects, a close inter-institutional collaboration
ishighlydesirable.1hereisaneedtocreateasustainablerameworkorcollaboration,whicheectiely
engages local communities, goernment agencies, and other social organizations in natural resource
management.

1he rapid deelopment o markets, since the country shited towards a market economy, also poses
additional challenges to local administrations as they hae to change their perspecties and redeine
theirrolesinrelationtothechangingeconomicandinstitutionalconditions.1hesituationintheCentral
lighland,particularlyasinthecaseoKadocommune,showsthatthereisalsoaneedorchangesin
perception about upland and upland resource management. Rather than ocusing only on watershed
protectionorthebeneitothelowlandareas,policymakersalsoneedtopromoteproductionsystems
that generate income or local armers and at the same time compatible with the enironmental
objecties. 1he conseration o natural resources would hae more chances o success i it reconciles
withthesocialandeconomicneedsolocalpeople.



Page 13 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...

1oachieesustainabledeelopmentintheuplandwatershedsoVietnambetterpoliciesandplansthat
integrate enironmental, economic and social goals are required. Access to inormation and decision-
supporttoolsisneededtosupportdecision-makersandproidethemwithinormationonthepotential
impactsopoliciesontheeconomyandtheenironmentatawatershedscale.

RLILRLNCLS

Coxhead,I.andGlady,B.,2001.ee/ivg v.taivabtit,: . ,vtbe.i. of Re.earcb iv .^RM CRP
ovtbea.t ..ia, 11.

Du,N.N.,la,D.1.,Phuoc,P.l.D.,1huy,L.V.,lung,P.1.,Lspaldon,L.O.,andMagsino,A.O.
vact. of cbavge. iv otic, ava var/et covaitiov. ov tava v.e, tava vavagevevt ava tiretibooa avovg farver. iv
Cevtrat igbtava. of 1ietvav.Inv.taivivg ^atvrat Re.ovrce. Mavagevevt iv ovtbea.t ..ia.GarciaA.G.,
ed.SLAMLORegionalCenterorGraduateStudyandResearchinAgriculture,SLARCA,,College,
LosBanos,Laguna,Philippines.

Lspaldon,M.V.andA.O.Magsino.2000.ParticipatoryLandscape-LiescapeAppraisal,PLLA,or
CommunityResourceManagement.

Giang,1.1.,l.l.Cai,V.V.1hoan,D.1.la,L.Q.1hong,N.D.Binh,and1.V.My,2001."Coping
\ithComplexity:Managing\aterResourceinaDynamicUplandLnironmentinDakLak."linal
Report,\RI,RLPSI-UAlCollaboratieResearchProject,loChiMinhCity,Vietnam.

la,D.1.,2000.MarketIntegration,loodSecurity,andResourceManagementinanUplandVillage:
theCaseoKadoCommunity.Paperpresentedattheworkshop"AchieementsandChallengesin
NaturalResourcesManagementandRuralLielihoodsImproement"organizedbylanoi
AgriculturalUniersity,InormationCenteroMinistryoAgricultureandRuralDeelopment,

NationalAssociationoVietnameseGardeners,and\orldResourcesInstitute.September15-16,
2000,1amDao,Vietnam.

la,D.1.,2000.Agro-Socio-LconomicSureyinLa1ulCatchment.linalReportsubmittedtothe
Supportto\aterResourceManagement,S\RM,project,Danida-Daklak,Vietnam.

la,D.1.,P.l.D.Phuoc,N.N.1huy,L.V.Du,P.1.lung,L.O.Lspaldon,andA.O.Magsino.2001.
vact. of Cbavge. iv Potic, ava Mar/et Covaitiov. ov ava |.e, ava Mavagevevt ava iretibooa .vovg
arver. iv Cevtrat igbtava. of 1ietvav. Inv.taivivg ^atvrat Re.ovrce. Mavagevevt iv ovtbea.t ..ia.
GarciaA.G.,ed.SLAMLORegionalCenterorGraduateStudyandResearchinAgriculture
,SLARCA,,College,LosBanos,Laguna,Philippines.

Riddell,P.J.,1999.AholisticAnalysisoConstraintsontheSustainableManagemento\ater
ResourcesDakLakProinceandanIntegratedApproachtoRemoe1hem.Lecturegienatthe
initationo\\l,No.1999,BuonMa1huot,Vietnam.

\orldBank,2000.\orlddeelopmentindicators2000.AailableoninternetatURL:
http:,,www.worldbank.org,data,countrydata,littledata,htm.



Page 14 of 14 -----Original Message-----
7/18/2005 http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/conferences/nov2801/sea/BalancEcoEnvConcernViet...