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1.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY

Frederick W Taylor's Scientific Management Theory Frederick Winslow Taylor - Public Domain Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was an American mechanical engineer and he is recognized as the father of Scientific Management Theory. Frederick Taylor forms part of the classical approach to management theory. However whereas Henri Fayol considered the organization from the top of its hierarchical structure, Taylor placed a major emphasis on the lower echelons of the organization. Frederick Taylors Theories of Scientific Management Taylor published the book The Principles of Scientific Management in which he explained his techniques that were adopted to improve the productivity of employees at Bethlehem Steel. His techniques proved to be a great success and as a result Taylor became recognized as the founder of the Work Study movement. According to Taylor, the majority of workers put minimal effort into their work if they knew they could easily get away with it. He referred to this mode of behaviour as soldiering and he attributed this problem with mismanagement of the work at the lowest levels of the organization. This lack of proper organization manifested itself in a lack of productivity. Ads by Google Best practices data Change management lessons learned from 575 organizations www.change-management.com Restaurant Management Online MBA in International Restaurant Management. Apply Now! GlionOnline.com/Hotel-Management At the time it was common practice in industrial organizations that managers adjusted the payments for the employees jobs based on levels of production reached. This meant that an increase in production brought down the pay rates vis--vis production levels. Consequently, it was the workers themselves who determined their productivity levels and this gave the workers the opportunity to keep production levels at a minimum level. Frederick Taylors Scientific Method Taylor adopted a different approach by introducing a step-by-step method to determine best practices or the one best way in performing a job and thereby establishing the proper pay-rates for the job. Taylors scientific

method was of great influence to industrial companies and it completely revolutionized the organization of work in industrial organizations. Taylors methodical approach to determine the one best way to perform a job consisted of the following steps: More on this topic

19th Century Pioneers of Management and Their Contributions Management, Job Satisfaction, and Teamwork Management Theory: What's In and What's Out

1. Select a sample of skilled workers and carefully study the job being done. 2. Carefully list each operation including extensive detail on each task being performed. 3. Utilize a stopwatch to time each task being performed. Repeat this step over a period of time to obtain an average of the time it takes to perform each task. 4. Identify and eliminate any unnecessary tasks that are performed to finalize the job. 5. Identify any improvements, tools or techniques that can be adopted to reduce the time in performing the job. 6. Establish new and informed times and pay-rates for the job. 7. Lastly, all workers are trained to perform the job in the one best way identified. Frederick Taylor's 4 Principles of Scientific Management Following his experiments on the best way to increase productivity in industrial organizations, Taylor proposed his four principles of scientific management: 1. Work methods based on a scientific study of the tasks carried out should be adopted. 2. Employees should be scientifically selected and trained by the management and not left to their own devices. 3. Managers should train workers and audit the workers' performance to ensure that the adopted scientific methods are being properly performed. 4. Work should be divided between managers and workers so that managers can apply the established scientific methods and processes of production, whereas the workers can perform the job according to the established procedures. Taylors scientific method to establish work procedures resulted in reduced timeframes to perform jobs and introduced rules and procedures to industrial management. Taylors method became known as work study and it was embraced by several organizations. It was eventually also applied to office and administrative jobs and it became a precursor to systems analysis. 2. Systematic management theory

3. Organizational theory by Kathryn Barzilai - Organizational theory (OT) is "the study of organizations for the benefit of identifying common themes for the purpose of solving problems, maximizing efficiency and productivity, and meeting the needs of stakeholders."[1] Organizational Theory contains three subtopics: classical perspective, neoclassic perspective and environmental perspective. [2] It complements the studies of organizational behavior and human resource studies. Consider the following scenario in an Emergency Department at Queens Hospital Center andwhat you might do as a public health consultant to improve patient care: Currently 83 percent of patients at the Queens Hospital Center emergency room are treated and released. They wait six to eight hours for treatment. The goal is to decrease waiting time and the number of walkouts and to improve care and patient satisfaction. Current Procedure: (1) Patient seen by triage nurse. (2) Patient sent to registration. (3) Patient waits to be seen by physician. (4) Patient sent for any necessary lab or x-ray. (5) Patient waits for test results to be reviewed by MD. (6) Patient treated, discharged, or admitted.6

This scenario would be a challenge to any public health consultant. Success at the task would most likely depend on how well the consultant grasped some basic principals about organizations. An organization is a structured social system consisting of groups of individuals working together to meet some agreed-on objectives."2 Organizational theory (OT) is the study of organizations for the benefit of identifying common themes for the purpose of solving problems, maximizing efficiency and productivity, and meeting he needs of stakeholders. Broadly OT can be conceptualized as studying three major subtopics: individual processes, group processes and organizational processes.2 Why is OT important for public health professionals? Since organizations pervade the field of public health: from free clinics to refugee crisis support teams to research institutions, an understanding of organizations and how they work, helps public health professionals to be more effective participants in and leaders of organizations. This paper will try to accomplish the enormous task of summarizing major concepts in organizational theory. The three broad concepts that will be explored include: individual processes, including motivation theory, personality theory, and role theory; group processes including working in groups/communication, leadership, and power and influence; and

organizational processes, as it relates to organizational structure, and organizational culture. In the process a rudimentary introduction to select organizational models will also be presented.

Since the hope of the paper is to make OT relevant to work in the public health field, efforts have been made to end the discussion of each broad topic with a discussion of that topics relevance to practice. Following the last section, organizational processes, a suggested solution to the scenario presented at the beginning of the paper, will be provided.

Practitioner Name: Barzilai, Kathryn NURSE PRACTITIONER City: Longmeadow County: Hampden State: Massachusetts Primary Healthcare Field: Physician Assistants & Advanced Practice Nursing Practitioners Primary Healthcare Classification: Nurse Practitioner Primary Specialization: Gerontology Summary: KATHRYN BARZILAI's primary classification is Nurse Practitioner in the field of Physician Assistants & Advanced Practice Nursing Practitioners with a specialization in Gerontology. Their practice location is listed in the city of Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Their office phone number is listed as (413) 567-6213. There is 1 Nurse Practitioner, Gerontology listing for Longmeadow, MA which can be viewed below. Applicable Taxonomy Codes:

4. SOCIAL PROCESS THEORY Another theory is the social process theory, which says that criminal behavior is a function of a socialization process. This included the socio-psychological interaction by the offender with institutions and social organizations. This theory suggests that offenders turn to crime as a result of peer group pressure, family problems, poor school performance, legal entanglements

and other situations that gradually steer them to criminal behaviors. This theory says that anyone can become a criminal. The main support of this theory stems from the effect of the family on youths who engage in delinquent or violent behaviors. Researcher think there is a linkage between childhood experiences of violence and behavioral problems. I these experiences, children can be victims or eyewitnesses. According to Wolfe, children who witness family violence are more likely to display diminished social competence and behavioral problems than those who do not. 5. HAWTHORNE EFFECT

Hawthorne effect
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The Hawthorne effect is a form of reactivity whereby subjects improve or modify an aspect of their behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they know they are being studied,[1][2] not in response to any particular experimental manipulation. The term was coined in 1950 by Henry A. Landsberger[3] when analysing older experiments from 1924-1932 at the Hawthorne Works (a Western Electric factory outside Chicago). Hawthorne Works had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higher or lower levels of light. The workers' productivity seemed to improve when changes were made and slumped when the study was concluded. It was suggested that the productivity gain occurred due to the impact of the motivational effect on the workers as a result of the interest being shown in them. Although illumination research of workplace lighting formed the basis of the Hawthorne effect, other changes such as maintaining clean work stations, clearing floors of obstacles, and even relocating workstations resulted in increased productivity for short periods. Thus the term is used to identify any type of short-lived increase in productivity.[3][
Henry A. Landsberger. Capsule Review. Summer. 1980. Chile At the Turning Point: Lessons of the Socialist Years, 1970-1973

Hawthorne Study A number of sociologists and psychologists made major contributions to the study of the neoclassical perspective, which is also known as the human relations school of thought. Elton Mayo and his colleagues were the most important contributors to this study because of their famous Hawthorne study from the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company between 1927 and 1932.[7]

The Hawthorne study suggested that employees have social and psychological needs along with economic needs in order to be motivated to complete their assigned tasks. This theory of management was a product of the strong opposition against the Scientific and universal management process theory of Taylor and Fayol.[7] This theory was a response to the way employees were treated in companies and how they were deprived of their needs and ambitions. Results from the Hawthorne Studies The Hawthorne studies helped conclude that a human/social element operated in the workplace and that productivity increases were as much an outgrowth of group dynamics as of managerial demands and physical factors.[7] The Hawthorne studies also concluded that although financial motives were important, social factors are just as important in defining the worker-productivity. Hawthorne Effect was the improvement of productivity between the employees, it was characterized by:

The satisfactory interrelationships between the coworkers It classifies personnel as social beings and proposes that sense of belonging in the workplace is important to increase productivity levels in the workforce. An effective management understood the way people interacted and behaved within the group. The management attempts to improve the interpersonal skills through motivations, leading, communication and counseling. This study encourages managers to acquire minimal knowledge of behavioral sciences to be able to understand and improve the interactions between employees

Criticism of the Hawthorne study Critics believed that Mayo gave a lot of importance to the social side of the study rather than addressing the needs of an organization. Also, they believed that the study takes advantage of employees because it influences their emotions by making it seem as if they are satisfied and content, however it is merely a tool that is being used to further advance the productivity of the organization.[7]

6. Management by objectives The father of modern corporate management Peter Drucker is often considered to be the worlds most influential corporate guru. His ideas and thoughts revolutionized corporate management in the later half of the 20th century. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Drucker questioned why in both the classical and human relations schools of management, effectiveness was automatically considered to be a natural and expected outcome. According to him effectiveness was more important than efficiency and was the foundation of every organization. He thereby developed Management by Objectives (MBO) through his 1954 book The Practice of Management. MBO deals with a certain type of interaction, specific to a manager and his employee. MBO is based on the thinking that various hierarchies within companies need to be integrated. There was a need for commitment, responsibility and maturity. There was a need for a common challenge. Here MBO becomes a process by which the objectives of an organization are agreed to and decided between the management and the employees, this way the employees understand what is expected of them and help set their own individual goals. Therefore they attain both their personal goals and the organizations targets.

Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization. The term "management by objectives" was first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book 'The Practice of Management'.[1] The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course of actions and decision making. An important part of the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the employees actual performance with the standards set. Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved with the goal setting and choosing the course of action to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their responsibilities.

According to George S. Odiorne, the system of management by objectives can be described as a process whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.[2]

What is MBO? Management Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources. Stretch Goals It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identify their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives. Management by Objectives (MBO) was first outlined by Peter Drucker in 1954 in his book 'The Practice of Management'. In the 90s, Peter Drucker himself decreased the significance of this organization management method, when he said: "It's just another tool. It is not the great cure for management inefficiency... Management by Objectives works if you know the objectives, 90% of the time you don't." Core Concepts According to Drucker managers should "avoid the activity trap", getting so involved in their day to day activities that they forget their main purpose or objective. Instead of just a few top managers, all managers should: participate in the strategic planning process, in order to improve the implementability of the plan, and implement a range of performance systems, designed to help the organization stay on the right track. Managerial Focus MBO managers focus on the result, not the activity. They delegate tasks by "negotiating a contract of goals" with their subordinates without dictating a detailed roadmap for implementation. Management by Objectives (MBO) is about setting yourself objectives and then breaking these down into more specific goals or key results.

Main Principle The principle behind Management by Objectives (MBO) is to make sure that everybody within the organization has a clear understanding of the aims, or objectives, of that organization, as well as awareness of their own roles and responsibilities in achieving those aims. The complete MBO system is to get managers and empowered employees acting to implement and achieve their plans, which automatically achieve those of the organization. Where to Use MBO The MBO style is appropriate for knowledge-based enterprises when your staff is competent. It is appropriate in situations where you wish to build employees' management and self-leadership skills and tap their entrepreneurial creativity, tacit knowledge and initiative. 7. Descriptive method

8. Managerial roles
Henry Mintzberg (born 1939) is a consistently contrary Canadian academic who sometimes seems to be undermining the very industry that he works in. A professor at McGill University in Montreal for 40 years, he has been controversial at least since his 1975 Harvard Business Review article in which he examined what a number of managers in different industries actually did, day in, day out, and found that they were not the robotic paragons of efficiency that they were usually made out to be.

Mintzberg's Ten Management Roles

This diagram has been recreated by LMC. LMC explains Mintzberg's Ten Management Roles

Mintzberg's Ten Management Roles are a complete set of behaviours or roles within a business environment. Each role is different, thus spanning the variety of all identified management behaviours. When collected together as an integrated whole (gestalt), the capabilities and competencies of a manager can be further evaluated in a role-specific way.

The Ten Management Roles

The ten roles explored in this theory have extensive explanations which are briefly developed here:

Figurehead: All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial obligations. In this light, the manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority. Leader: Duties are at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and include structuring and motivating subordinates, overseeing their progress, promoting and encouraging their development, and balancing effectiveness. Liaison: Describes the information and communication obligations of a manager. One must network and engage in information exchange to gain access to knowledge bases. Monitor: Duties include assessing internal operations, a department's success and the problems and opportunities which may arise. All the information gained in this capacity must be stored and maintained. Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views into the organisation and to subordinates. This requires both filtering and delegation skills. Spokesman: Serves in a PR capacity by informing and lobbying others to keep key stakeholders updated about the operations of the organisation. Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work to delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process. Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organisation is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support. Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocating and overseeing financial, material and personnel resources. Negotiator: Is a specific task which is integral for the spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles.

As a secondary filtering, Mintzberg distinguishes these roles by their responsibilities towards information. Interpersonal roles, categorised as the figurehead, leader and liason, provide information. Informational roles link all managerial work together by processing information. These roles include the monitor, the disseminator and the spokesperson. All the remaining roles are decisional, in that they use information and make decisions on how information is delivered to secondary parties.

Generalist and specialist management


The core of Mitzberg's Ten Managerial Roles is that managers need to be both organisational generalists and specialists. This is due to three reasons:

External frustrations including operational imperfections and environmental pressures. Authority disputes which upset even basic routines. The expected fallibility of the individual and human, manager.

Mintzberg's summary statement may be that the role of a manager is quite varied and contradictory in its demands, and that it is therefore not always the lack of managerial prowess, but the complexity of individual situations demanding a variety of roles, which troubles today's manager. The ten roles, therefore, can be applied to any managerial situation where an examination of the levels to which a manager uses each of the ten 'roles' at his or her disposal is required