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FAQ: How To Adjust a TV

Setting Your Monitor to NTSC Specifications Compiled by Anthony W. Haukap http://myweb.accessus.net/~090/how2adj.html

1.1 OVERVIEW
Calibration is for the most part directed at the Home Theater enthusiasts who want to get the full potential that their television sets can offer. It also has the possibility of adding a 3dimensional realism and a "film like" look to video. When done properly it has the potential to extending the life of rear projectors (R/P's) by limiting and lowering the average light level output. FYI - Most non-calibrated R/P's loose somewhere between 25-30% of their total light output in the first 1000 hours of use. After the first 1000 hours, light output remains almost consistent throughout the remaining life of the picture tubes (about +/- 10,000 hours). These procedures contained here will guide and help you obtain an image closer to the NTSC (US) standard. It is hoped that this FAQ compilation: "HOW TO ADJUST A TV", can provide additional detailed information that is not normally available on the rec.video, alt.hometheater.misc, alt.video.laserdisc, or alt.video.dvd newsgroups, i.e. detailed, researched, and comprehensive answers that are beyond the scope of a normal newsgroup discussion. They are a collection of my own experiences and many others that have been gathered from various sources including but not limited to the many posts in the rec.video newsgroup by Louis A. Carliner [lcarliner@idsonline.com] his knowledge and insights into the area of professional ISF calibration have been most helpful.

1.2 FINDING AN ISF CERTIFIED CALIBRATOR


ISF is The Imaging Science Foundation. It was formed by Joe Kane Jr., and Joel Silver. They train dealers, service techs, and anyone else who wishes to know how to properly calibrate any video product, Direct View (DV), Rear Projection (R/P), Front Projection (F/P), etc. Check the ISF HomePage to see if your area has a ISF/Joe Kane trained calibrator - or you can reach the ISF Florida office at (561) 997-9073 for additional information.

1.3 WHAT TELEVISIONS NEED CALIBRATION


Currently no manufactured television (Direct View or Projection) out-of-the-box offers true NTSC gray scale tracking. Most TV's suffer from overscan, SVM, etc. Calibration can bring most TV's closer to the true NTSC standard. 1.3a REAR PROJECTORS (R/P's) Rear projectors (R/P's) need proper initial setup and calibration if they are to give the degree of focus and clarity comparable to that of a Direct View (tube) set. In general R/P's, geometry, though improved, still needs work. Even with the best possible efforts with the "French horn screws" or s/w equivalent, it is impossible to get the "roller coaster" effect out of the ticker crawls. Also, convergence drift is still a problem. The price of that tremendous light output continues to be more than average viewing hotspots. 1.3b DIRECT VIEWS (TUBE) Mitsubishi does a reasonable job on their direct view sets. However, they give a "ruler flat" 7700 degrees K at the warm color temperature setting (not 6500K). Also, it would be better to leave out scanning velocity modulation (SVM) completely, as it causes problems with DSS artifacts and impairs readability of text on the screen. Toshiba "CxxxF90" series very accurate decoder, incredibly accurate D6500 K color temperature in "Theater" mode.

1.4 WHEN CALIBRATION NEEDS TO BE PERFORMED


Because no television currently comes from the manufacture calibrated to the NTSC standard, an initial calibration is need after the television has been used for a short period of time (breakin period). The calibration when done after the break-in period should hold true for several years, provided that something in the television does not change due to age/heating. Become familiar with the look of the PLUGE with vertical gray scale ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785), using this will help you determine when and if re-calibration is needed. R/P's will need to be re-calibrated if they are moved at anytime, as the moving will probably alter their convergence. FYI - When you move the set, be sure to apply the primary force near the base of the unit. Be careful not to rack the top portion with the mirror back. Any drift (assuming good quality ground zero setup) should be quite easily managed by the crosshair user convergence adjustment facility.

Section 2 CALIBRATION EQUIPMENT


These procedures outlined here are NOT a replacement for professional ISF calibration. ONLY a trained ISF certified calibrator can guarantee TRUE gray scale tracking with a color Analyzer. HOWEVER if you live in an area that currently has no ISF certified calibrator you may have no other choice then to tackle the job yourself. The calibration, when done with VE or AVS is only valid when watching the laser disc player. The reason is that video levels change somewhat from source to source (even network to network). If you have access to SMPTE color bars, PLUGE, etc. from another source (ie. satellite [TVRO, DBS], over-the-air, cable, etc.) use them for adjusting that input.

2.1 WHAT'S NEEDED TO PERFORM THE CALIBRATION


2.1a TELEVISION TELEVISION - Although these procedures are geared towards SONY NTSC products the basic ideas and procedures can be adapted for many other manufactures direct view, rear & front projector television sets. 2.1b TELEVISION SERVICE MANUAL TELEVISION SERVICE MANUAL - The service manual is a must for your particular television set. This is NOT the "User Guide" or "Owners Manual" that came with your television. Service manuals for your television model can be ordered from the manufactures parts department for a small cost (usually $15-50 US). Another source for a service manual might be Howard Sams (1800-GAT-SAMS) - they publish Sams Photofacts service data for almost every model television that has ever been sold it won't be the same manual as you get from the maufacture, but if you expect to do a lot of repairs on the same model you might want both. - if you have a hard time obtaining a service manual you might want to check the local public library, as many of them subscribe to the SAM's series. Ordering the service manual: Sony Electronics Inc. World Repair Parts Center 8281 N.W. 107th Terrace Kansas City, MO 64153 USA (800) 488-7669 (USA Only) (816) 891-7550 (816) 891-2580 (Fax)

2.1c VIDEO ESSENTIALS (VE), A VIDEO STANDARD (AVS) VIDEO ESSENTIALS (VE), A VIDEO STANDARD (AVS) - laser disc or some other source of test material. An index for the Video Essentials laser disc is available from the Video Essentials HomePage. In addition to the Dolby Pro-Logic setup procedure the Video Essentials laser disc also contains a section on Dolby AC-3 (aka. Dolby Digital) setup. Both the VE & AVS laser discs contain a blue filter for use with SMPTE color bars. These laser discs are available from all major laser disc dealers. See the section on "Possible Video Essentials Errors" for additional information before purchasing "Video Essentials". Video Essentials is also available on Digital Video Disc (DVD) format. You will need a DVD Player to use this disc. The DVD version also contains test signals for setting up the 1.78:1 anamorphic video format used by widescreen televisions where the picture is squeezed horizontally to fit a 4:3 rectangle then unsqueezed during playback, and the choice of English or Spanish subtitles. See the Video Essentials HomePage for more information on the DVD version. The errors associated with the LaserDisc version have been fixed in the DVD release. The Video Essentials DVD can be purchased at Amazon.com FYI - There is currently no VHS or S-VHS equalivant of the "Video Essentials" or "A Video Standard" laser disc. Due to the resolution and bandwidth associated with these tape formats the results from a calibration preformed from a VHS or S-VHS tape would be less than ideal. 2.1d LASER DISC PLAYER LASER DISC PLAYER (if using VE or AVS), with good quality S-Video and composite video interconnect cables to determine whether the TV or the Laser Disc player has the better comb filter. 2.1e OPTICAL COMPARATOR OPTICAL COMPARATOR (about $400 US, available from the ISF), or some other known D6500 K light reference. The preferred item for this task is the Color Analyzer (about $7000 US), these are available for rent in some locations.

2.2 OTHER SOURCES OF TEST MATERIAL


Some laser discs titles also contain SMPTE color bars, etc. on the last side of the disc following the credits or supplements. To use them properly you will need a blue filter (Wratten Gelatin Filter 98 - Kodak catalog number 149-6298), if you are not able to turn off the red and green guns on the television. Laser disc's that are known to contain test patterns are:

APOCALYPSE NOW (Re-mastered), Paramount LV2306-2WS, SMPTE color bars, crosshatch patterns, etc. end of side 4 after credits (CAV). CRITERION, all CAV discs "safe-title" color bars.

2.3 DVD Player: 0 IRE vs. 7.5 IRE


The real benefit of 0 IRE blacks is an increased range of blacks, 0-100 IRE vs. 7.5-100 IRE. If you can see the black-than-black bar in Video Essentials then your DVD player is set to 0 IRE or "enhanced" black setting. The standard level for 'black' for all NTSC sources is 7.5 IRE, anything below 7.5 is known as black-than-black.

Section 3 CALIBRATION PROCEDURES


PLEASE NOTE: Your results with these procedures may vary and can NOT be guaranteed to work on your particular television set USE THEM AT YOU OWN RISK. If your television requires you to open the cabinet for any reason please read the following warning:WARNING: BY REMOVING THE CABINET YOU WILL BE EXPOSED TO VERY HIGH VOLTAGE THAT DOES NOT DISSIPATE WHEN THE TV SET IS UNPLUGGED ALWAYS USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN WORKING INSIDE THE CABINET OR IF YOU FEEL UNCOMFORTABLE WORKING AROUND HIGH (LETHAL) VOLTAGE LEAVE IT TO A QUALIFIED PROFESSIONAL. Calibration is not actually all that difficult to perform, but it can be quite technical in nature. A good test might be your VCR clock; if it is still blinking "12:00...12:00...12:00," then you should probably seek a qualified professional and not attempt these procedures yourself. - Note that the blinking VCR clock test does not apply if your VCR clock is set by automatic means though the PBS television network. 3.0a USER MENU VS. SERVICE MODE ADJUSTMENTS Before starting the calibration process it is best to reset all user items (contrast, hue, color, etc.) to the factory default settings, then use the service mode sub-items (spix, shue, scol, etc.) to do the adjustments - if done in this way the user items can be changed without fear of losing the

calibration and can be restored to the calibrated state by resetting the user items to there default positions with the reset option.

3.1 TELEVISION BREAK-IN PERIOD


A new television should be broke-in before calibration to minimize any effects from the electronic components aging - use the TV in a normal manner, 4 to 5 hours a day for at least a week. If you do decide to burn it in, make sure that normal program material is being used, NOT online guides, station logos, etc., and that the contrast control is turned all the way DOWN. You only want to burn in the circuitry, NOT the tube phosphors! Note: The television or monitor should be warmed-up before attempting calibration, this will lessen any effects from the electronic components heating up during normal use. A typical warm-up time should be no less than 30 minutes, 60 minutes may be a preferred warm-up time.

3.2 TURNING OFF SCANNING VELOCITY MODULATION (SVM)


Scanning Velocity Modulation (SVN) is often marketed as a feature on most televisions today, however SVM tends to take the life out of the picture and smear fine shadow detail, it also makes text harder to read. Use the needle-pulse pattern ("Needle Pulse" VEDVD-17/4, Frame VE-46592, AVS-50787) to see the effect SVM has on overall picture quality. If SVM is present, the bottom portion will be bolder or thickened, and the sharpness control will have very little gradation in action. With SVM defeated, you will see a distinct change in the appearance of the needle-pulse pattern and changes in behavior of the sharpness control. SVM must be turned off or disabled if your are trying to calibrate your television. 3.2a SONY On Sony KV32XBR45, scanning velocity modulation is defeated by a service menu adjustment item (in service mode run VMLV down to 0). On Sony KV32XBR96S, cut the SVM internal lead - there is a board labeled VM in the vicinity below the CRT neck board. It also handles dynamic convergence. However, there is a multi-pin flat connector and leads that go to another identical connector on the main board from the VM board. One of the leads is labeled vm-out. It is the fourth blue/gray lead from the bottom (white lead). This is one that has to be cut (with the set unplugged). It can't be unsolder as it is crimped into the connectors. 3.2b HITACHI On Hitachi, the effect of SVM on the Hitachi is mild, so the effect of disconnecting it is subtle. It's usually not worth the effort to try and disconnect SVM.

3.2c TOSHIBA Toshiba "CxxxF90" series. SVM is disabled only in "Theater" mode setting. Toshiba CN32E90 or CX32E70 you will want to open the case to pull a simple two conductor lead from the PWB plugged into the neck of the tube to a coil winding on the neck of the tube itself, this will permanently disable SVM in all modes.

3.3 SETTING HORIZONTAL / VERTICAL FREQUENCY


The best way to adjust HFRE is to tune in a good local station (or a major cable channel, but not on DBS), set AFC to 3 and then set HFRE to make the picture float by as slowly as possible. After you're finished, set AFC back to 0. (If you get a "flagging" effect at the top of the picture when playing video tapes, setting AFC to 1 or 2 may reduce or eliminate that problem.) VSMO (Vertical Pull in Range) - Actually this is a mode switch. With this set to 1 the VFRE control will have no effect, and the picture may be slightly less stable under poor reception conditions. If you need to view PAL or SECAM signals, setting this to 1 will enable that capability in B&W only.

3.4 CORRECTING GEOMETRY


Don't do any geometry adjustments (HPOS) until you've adjusted HFRE as mentioned above. 3.4a ROTATION As screen size has become larger the effects of Earth's magnetic field can be seen as a rotated raster in the picture. There are provisions for reducing this effect on most 27" and larger direct view television sets. Only when the television is orientated in a viewing direction other than the factory default position will this effect be noticed. Before you start with the geometry adjustments, put up one of the crosshatch patterns ("Geometry/Convergence, Full Amplitude" VEDVD-17/17, Frame VE-46611, AVS-50820) if the raster is rotated, then use one of the user adjustments in the compass direction menu to find the one that gives the least amount of rotation. IGNORE the names of the directions in the choices - just pick the one that gives the best results REGARDLESS of your compass direction this should be done with the television orientated in it's normal viewing position. If the television is moved to a different position this procedure will need to be repeated. 3.4b OVERSCAN To some extent, this depends on the stability of your power supply in the television. If it's not "ROCK SOLID" (stable), and tends to sag under heavy load, you'll find your picture changes size somewhat depending on the brightness level of the video being displayed. So more or less overscan will be evident at various times. This is less of a problem once you've had your set calibrated properly (because the brightness and contrast won't be overdriven, making the

power supply's job easier). If you cannot read the third line on either of the CBNC or CNN Headline news ticker that says, "Stock prices delayed 15 minutes", then you have a little too much overscan. Using the "Safe Tile & Action" ("Overscan w/ Safe Action/Title Labels" VEDVD15/8, Frame VE-29115, AVS-_____) or the "Overscan Pattern" ("Overscan Test Pattern" VEDVD15/7, Frame VE-29114, AVS-_____) try for 5% at the top and right, and 3% on the left and bottom. This will give you the best compromised of maximum information with minimal intrusion of non-picture clutter, such as the white vertical bar on the right side that may appear on some time-base correction (TBC) corrected laser discs or de-scrambled output of General Instrument (GI) & Scientific Atlanta (SA) cable boxes, and closed captioning information on the top. However, on the bottom, you may be able to see some fold over on VHS and some S-VHS tape material, such as "America's Funniest Home Videos". If you find non-picture information "leaking" into view with these figures, then you can always back off a little should you feel the need to do so. FYI- Most station logos, (which can be very hazardous to your rear-projection TV) are placed within the 10% overscan (safe title) region - one notable exception to this practice is MTV2 which is set at 0% left and 0% bottom.

3.5 SETTING CONTRAST LEVEL


You must have the contrast turned down enough to be below the point of picture blooming before you start. It is foolish and quite futile to attempt to get a good linear gray scale tracking while the picture tube is being overdriven (blooming). Also try and keep room lighting from reaching the television screen in a way that it compromises the deep black picture elements. The use of the needle-pulse pattern for finding maximum contrast level (as suggested on the Video Essentials LD) is NO longer valid as manufacturers have gotten "wise" and "cheated" by improving the power supply regulation. Use the PLUGE with vertical gray scale pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE46590, AVS-50785), set the brightness level using this pattern and recheck with the one on the color bar pattern ("SMPTE Color Bars" VEDVD-17/7, Frame VE-46599, AVS-50788). If the proper setting is different between these two patterns, use the PLUGE on the color bar pattern ("SMPTE Color Bars" VEDVD-17/7, Frame VE-46599, AVS-50788). Return to the PLUGE w/ gray scale pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785). Look at the top two blocks of the vertical gray scale. If it appears to be wider than the bottom two blocks, then you are seeing the phenomenon of "blooming". Your picture level (contrast setting) is too high. Turn it down. You also can see another effect of too high setting. Just run the control up and down. If the control is too high (especially with older front projectors), the top two blocks will take on a yellow or brownish cast because the blue tube has been pushed beyond its limits. If the contrast level is too low, then you will not be able to see the gradation between the two

bottom blocks. You may have to then compromise. In any case, the brightness (or black level) control may need to be readjusted and the contrast rechecked. FYI - The PLUGE pattern in Frame VEDVD-15/2 VE-29109, AVS-14387 has a very low Average Picture Level (APL) because the entire background is black. The PLUGE pattern in Frame VEDVD17/2, VE-46590, AVS-14390 & 50785 includes a gray scale that produces a medium APL. In Frame VEDVD-17/3, VE-46591, AVS-14393, the PLUGE pattern shares half the frame with a 100 IRE white background providing a high APL. It is unlikely that any current consumer quality monitor can maintain a perfectly constant BLACK LEVEL across this large of an APL range. 3.5a LIGHT OUTPUT LEVEL The SMPTE standard for NTSC (US) displays is 30 Foot Lamberts measured from the center of the display in real time using a 100 IRE window pattern ("100 IRE Window" VEDVD-17/32, Frame VE-46647, AVS-50801) utilizing a photometer. The standard was 35 Foot Lamberts but it was found that NO monitor could reach this point without blooming. For more information on standards check SMPTE Homepage (Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers) - these are the people that set the standards.

3.6 SETTING WHITE LEVEL


Please Note: Without instruments it is almost IMPOSSIBLE to properly set the gray scale and color temperature, the ISF optical comparator with a set of neutral density filters being the minimum needed to accomplish the task and a Color Analyzer being the preferred way. You may need to sacrifice the low end numbers and go warmer at the low end to improve the appearance of the blacks. The following examples are all post-calibration values, your results may vary. Notice that the light output level foot-lamberts (f/l) post-calibration varies by quite a large degree, some of this is due to the difference between rear projection (R/P) & direct view (DV) televisions. Manufacture IRE VALUE F/L
100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 30 20

Mitsubishi VS-5077
6530 n/a 6515 n/a 6445 n/a 6320 6260 6200 6160 6130 6100 6070 6100 6150 9.03

Toshiba

TW56F80
6450 n/a 6520 n/a 6660 n/a 6800 6870 6930 6980 7020 7060 7040 6950 6600 4.85

CX35F70
6505 n/a 6510 n/a 6510 n/a 6520 6505 6500 6500 6490 6475 6455 6450 6490 12.5

Panasonic CT31SF31S
6480 6475 6470 6465 6500 6400 n/a 6400 n/a 6400 n/a 6380 6315 6300 6300 16.38

Hitachi 32UX8B
6555 6529 6511 6501 6502 6512 n/a 6518 n/a 6536 n/a 6556 6590 6577 6516 27.56

Proscan PS80690
6479 6530 6530 6650 6780 6800 n/a 6940 n/a 7100 n/a 6980 6800 6800 6390 4.94

Sony PVM2530
6465 6455 6445 6440 6440 6425 n/a 6425 n/a 6415 n/a 6395 6385 6385 6400 12.17

KV32XBR10
6440 6450 6470 6470 6490 6490 n/a 6415 n/a 6410 n/a 6600 6610 6620 6645 12.48

Mitsubishi CS40503
6490 6470 6450 6430 6430 6400 n/a 6350 n/a 6285 n/a 6230 6220 6170 6170 29.1

3.6a WITH THE ISF OPTICAL COMPARATOR: Basically the Optical Comparator is an empty D-2 tape cassette with two concentric holes cut in it, the one on the rear side of a smaller diameter than the one on the side facing the front of the set. The inside surfaces are painted a neutral gray and a D6500 K circular neon fixture mounted inside. What you basically do is to put up a white field pattern of the same intensity -

100 IRE ("100 IRE Window" VEDVD-17/32, Frame VE-46647, AVS-50801) as that of the light source illumination of the inside surface of the box and observe the color balance of the inside light reference with that on the TV set and use the BAMP and GAMP controls (known commonly as gain, drive or amp and usually adjustments for one of the colors may be omitted here. It is usually the red color, (and slightly less often the blue color) to match the color balance of the TV set with that of the box. Then you use the vertical gray scale pattern ("10 Step Gray Scale" VEDVD-18/1, Frame VE-46667, AVS-_____) and the pluge pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785) itself to set the BCUT and GCUT adjustments to get the blacks looking right then you go back and repeat the process of adjusting the white balance. Too little green will appear as too much red or purple and too little red will appear as too much green. 3.6b WITHOUT OPTICAL COMPARATOR (Option 1): The only (natural) reference to D6500 in real life is the white lighting coming off a completely snow covered scene on an overcast day. (A sunny day white light is 5600) What you can do is open your curtains, put up the pluge with vertical gray scale pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785), or put up a 100 IRE white field pattern ("100 IRE Window" VEDVD-17/32, Frame VE-46647, AVS-50801) and adjust BAMP and GAMP to match the white to that reference, then go to the BCUT and GCUT to get the rest of the gray scale looking like photographic black, and then go back to the BAMP and GAMP and repeat the process of adjusting the white balance. 3.6c WITHOUT OPTICAL COMPARATOR (Option 2): Using a computer monitor that has a D6500 setting (verify that the white field is indeed D6500) then continue as with Option-1 replacing the snow cover with the computer monitor. 3.6d WITHOUT OPTICAL COMPARATOR (Option 3): Substitute another known D6500 white reference for Option-1. One source for this D6500 K light can be found at Radio Shack in a couple of their flashlights that use the F4T5/DL bulb. This bulb is used in their flashlight (RS Cat No. _______) with a fluorescent bulb in the handle and a flashing yellow caution light on one end - this light can also be powered by an optional AC adapter. FYI - Any plain softwhite is around the 2500-3000 deg range.

3.7 SETTING TINT & COLOR LEVEL


3.7a USING SMPTE COLOR BARS Color decoders on consumer sets are far from perfect - because of this, please note the method of adjustment below: (The blue filter must be used for viewing -or- turn off the red & green guns) Put up SMPTE Color Bars ("SMPTE Color Bars" VEDVD-17/7, Frame VE-46599, AVS-50788).

Note the two vertical color bars on either side of the center bar (green not when viewed through the blue filter). Using the HUE control try to match the brightness level of the bars on either side of the center bar. The same should go for the corresponding patches below. As you rock the tint adjustment back and forth, the intensity of the bars will react in a similar manner they mirror opposite that of the corresponding patches below. This will help you find the proper setting. Do NOT attempt to match the bar with it's corresponding patch below (as suggested on the Video Essentials LD/DVD) - this will not work as the manufacturers have gotten "wise" and "cheated" by improving the power supply regulation. - make sure flesh tone and/or color correction is turned off before starting this procedure. Then go back and recheck and readjust the color level using the method as instructed on the Video Essentials/A Video Standard LD/DVD. Then repeat this procedure. You will have to go back and forth one or more times. 3.7b MATCHING GRAY REFERENCE Put up color bars w/gray reference [split bar pattern] ("Color Bars w/75% Gray" VEDVD-18/3, Frame VE-46673, AVS-14415 - NOTE: VE frame 46673 is mis-calibrated, use AVS-14415) What you basically want to do is by using the blue filter (or turn the red & green guns off), adjust the color and hue to get the blue to match each other bar and the bottom gray reference in intensity as close as possible - make sure flesh tone and/or color correction is turned off before starting this procedure. Then you turn red back on and turn blue off. Then match R-YR and R-YB to the gray reference below. This may not happen because the red adjustment items may need a little more range than is provided. Then turn the green back on and the red off and similarly match the green to the gray reference using G-YR and G-YB, you will want to look for yellows that are equal in light intensity to each other and to the gray reference below. The idea of the R-YR and R-YB is to limit the amount of red push. As you can see the higher the value, the less red intensity in the bars. In the case of the R-YB, those bars that have red and blue in them like the cyan and magenta colors, and the R-YR for the yellow color and others with green in it. When you take away red from a white field, you will get a cyan color. When you take away blue from a gray field, you will get yellow or magenta.

3.8 SETTING THE SHARPNESS CONTROL


The sharpness setting procedure on the Video Essentials laser disc works well for LD, TVRO, DBS, basically this is the procedure you should follow, however most TVs have the sharpness

set too high for the clarity of DVD. This exaggerates the high-frequency video and causes distortion for DVD it is recommended the sharpness control be turned off (set to minimum), as the DVD media format does not need the high frequency compensation the other formats require.

3.9 POSSIBLE VIDEO ESSENTIALS ERRORS


These errors appear in both the original Laser Disc (LD) & Digital Video Disc (DVD) versions of Video Essentals. The split bar pattern (color bars w/gray reference) on "Video Essentials" (Frame VE-46673) appears to be incorrect. The one on "A Video Standard" (Frame AVS-14415) is correct. There is a report in the (3/97) "Stereophile Guide to Home Theater" (SGHT) that the audio levels of the Rear Dolby Pro-Logic, AC-3 tracks may be recored 3db too low on "Video Essentials" (Starting Frame VE-42178). See the "Stereophile Guide to Home Theater" issue for more details. Dolby Digital Surround Levels on the Laserdiscs of Video Essentials - The original VE came out in June of 1996, The AC-3 (Dolby Digital) tracks where recorded with an option of Dolby Digital encoding that put each of the left and right surrounds 3 dB below the front channels. The Dolby Digital encode option that was used was designed for movie theatres and did not fit the description of levels called out in the disc. In the theatre specification the combined sound of left and right surround would equal any one of the front channels. In the Home Theatre version of Dolby Digital each of the surrounds is supposed to be at the same level as any one of the front channels. This is the description that was used in the disc. This error was confirmed during the production on the Japanese edition of VE. The Home Theatre option was selected for encoding the Japanese version, then the English language master was fixed. The new English language master was sent to the pressing plant and the re-mastered edition started showing up in retail outlets sometime during the summer of 1997. Identifying the two English language version of Video Essentials - You'll need to play the disc to determine if your copy is the old or new version of VE. Search from Frame 28100 in Chapter 1 on Side 1. If you see an AC-3 in the Dolby Digital logo at the top of the screen it's the first edition. If the AC-3 is not there, it's the corrected version of the program. There are also slight frame number differences between the two editions. The SMPTE resolution chart on "Video Essentials" (Frame VE-46607) appears to be slightly too large. However, when using "Video Essentials" for setting raster size, 4 to 5% on the top and right and 2-3% on the left and bottom gives you the best compromise in maximum viewing area

with minimal intrusion of non-picture information. The SMPTE resolution chart on "A Video Standard" (Frame AVS-_____) is of the correct proportions. There have been some complaints that the grayscale patterns on "Video Essentials" (Starting Frame VE-4667) being color tinged. You can see if this is the case by turning the color level control all the way down (OFF - creating a B/W picture) temporarily.

Section 4 IMPROVING PICTURE


4.1 NOTCH FILTERS
Using the multi-burst pattern ("Multiburst" VEDVD-17/22, Frame VE-46619, AVS-50816), if the two burst patterns on the right side are reproduced with color information rather than black and white, then a notch filter is being used. Then look at a color bar pattern from a live signal source. The still frame feature on a laser disc player may not be appropriate for this. Look for a moving zipper effect (hanging dot) between the color bar and it corresponding patches below. Also, look at the vertical demarcation lines between the bars. A moving sawtooth effect there also indicates use of a cheap glass or CCD variety comb filter. Turning OFF the notch filter reduces dot crawl but at the price of resolution. The Notch Filter mode setting (NOTC) is overridden by the ID1 parameter. Setting this to a value 64 lower or 64 higher than that as shipped, the notch filter will be disabled to get rid of "hanging dot" interference in the picture. Hanging dots seems to be most severe when the colors are 180 degrees apart in chroma phase (ie. green/magenta border area on any NTSC color bar pattern).

4.2 S-VIDEO/COMPOSITE/COMPONENT
S-Video inputs advantage is it keeps the chroma and luminance (Y-C) information separate. However, unless the original video source material and the delivery system also does this (like DBS, S-VHS, HI-8) you really don't get any benefit out of it. When you have both a video source (ie. laser disc player) and a television monitor with S-Video jacks, you then have your choice of where the chroma luminance separation occurs, being either done in the video source or in the television. When you use composite video input to your TV, the TV must still separate the Y-C components to display the video on the screen. The quality of this separation depends upon the quality of the comb filter in your TV.

A comb filter is NOT used for S-Video, this means that a TV with an analog comb filter looks just as good as those with a digital comb filter IF you're using the S-Video input. All the S-Video input does is give you the option of having the video source perform this Y-C separation, instead of having the TV monitor do this. If the video source has a better quality comb filter, then you want to use the S-Video input, if your TV monitor has the better comb filter (ie. digital comb filter) then you will want to use the composite video input. You may want to use the Snell & Wilcox Test Chart #2 [SW2] ("Snell & Wilcox Zone Plate" VEDVD-15/12, Frame VE-29938, AVS-_____) bouncing ball comb filter test material to determine which one is better. With the analog comb filter all of the squares on the top row will have rainbowing. With the 3-line/2d digital variety (if the one in your set is digital, this is the most likely type) the top two or three squares in the top row will have rainbowing. With the adaptive 3-d type, none of the top squares will have rainbowing and the rainbowing on the moving ball disappears when the ball pauses. A complete description of the Snell & Wilcox test chart can be found at the Snell & Wilcox Homepage. A DVD player should be connected using the component (YUV or RGB) output for the highestquality picture. Some DVD players with component outputs use YUV, which is incompatible with RGB found on some television monitors. European DVD players with SCART connectors have RGB outputs. A YUV to RGB converter is available. 4.2a SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS Choose the option that provides the best quality (indicated below, best to worst) that is supported by your monitor and the video source. The following table assumes that the monitor has the better comb filter. DBS = S-Video, Composite, RF DVD = Component, S-Video, Composite, RF HI-8 = S-Video, Composite, RF LD = Composite, S-Video, RF S-VHS = S-Video, Composite, RF TVRO = Composite, S-Video, RF VHS = S-Video, Composite, RF Note: RF video connection should be avoided - the RF output will further reduce picture detail and will add additional noise to the video, plus it will not transmit stereo sound unless the video device has a MTS encoder built-in, this is only a concern if your using the television's built-in speakers for (surround) sound.

4.3 SCREEN BURN-IN


Look at a full white field ("100 IRE Flat Field" VEDVD-18/12, Frame VE-46704, AVS-_____) on the screen examine it for phosphor burns from the likes of negligent repeat playing of letterboxed material, station logos, video games, etc. The following is the warning that appears in the Hitachi 50UX26B and similar model owners manual, the same warning should be applied to all television. PICTURE CAUTIONS ========================================================== WARNING ========= Continuous on-screen displays such as video games, stock market quotations, computer generated graphics, and other fixed (non-moving) patterns can cause permanent damage to projection television receivers. Such "PATTERN BURNS" constitute misuse and are _NOT COVERED_ by your Hitachi Factory Warranty. When using the Picture-in Picture function, the sub-picture should NOT be left permanently in one corner of the screen or a "PATTERN BURN" may develop over a long period of time. ========================================================== 4.3a STATION LOGOS The very worst possible examples of this practice (as of Jan. '97) is MS-NBC, which is a threat to the life of all R/P tubes. An example of a R/P friendly logo is a station that does not leave their logo displayed all the time.

4.4 VIEWING DISTANCE


The size of the screen is not the only factor in the perceived picture size - distance from the screen is equally important. A 32" direct view television picture, can seem just as large as a 60" rear projector picture when the R/P is viewed from a greater distance. However due to the fact that the viewing distance is usually constant for a given room the larger the screen size the picture image is also perceived to be larger. Due to resolution limits, such as those imposed by scanning lines, a viewing distance of about four to four & one-half times the picture's height with a viewing angle of about 10 to 15 degrees from the centerline of the picture usually provides the largest possible picture without

any unnecessary degradation in video quality. This distance will vary with the quality of the television set and the source of the video material and whether or not you use any image enhancing accessories such as a "line doubler", along with your personal tolerance level for picture flaws.

4.5 COLOR/LIGHTING BEHIND TELEVISION


The best source for lighting in a home theater is a fluorescent fixture placed on the floor behind the monitor and angled to light the wall behind the monitor (Direct View) , this will create the proper ambient light level. AVS recommends that this backlighting should not exceed 10% of the total light output of the monitor itself. To achieve this lighting you can use a commonly available "Daylight" type fluorescent bulb - Sylvania manufactures a four foot length called "F40D" where the "D" stands for Daylight. Its color temperature is about 6300 K. You can put filters over bulbs of any color temperature and reach D6500 K if so desired. The exact light level and placement is not critical so long as the TV monitor is not overwhelmed by environmental lighting. The wall surface directly behind the television should be painted a neutral grey or dark grey color - never white or off-white. Purchase a Kodak reference gray card (part #R-27) and match the gray paint to the card. This card is called an "18% Gray Card" or just "Gray Card" and is available at most photo supply stores. It comes packaged as two 8"x10" cards and one 4"x5" card. For best results with a projection screen the room should be dark with no room lighting reaching the screen in such a way that it compromises the deep black picture elements.

4.6 TELEVISION RESOLUTION


The American video transmission standard (NTSC) is 525 lines of horizontal resolution, with an aspect ratio of 4:3. Any number of lines may be employed by the transmitting station usually between 482 and 495, some of these lines are reserved for specific uses. CC (Closed Captioning) transmitted on line 21, can support 8-colors and the use of an italic typeface TeleText - Transmitted on a variable number of lines which is specified in the header which contains basic information such as time, date and channel, starting on line 12 and continuing for 7-8 lines. Can support 8 colors, and limited block graphics. TeleText is not used very much in the US (if at all) but is used extensively in the UK.

4.6a VIDEO SOURCE RESOLUTION Your television's resolution is limited by the video source. Your TV monitor may be able to display 700 lines or more of horizontal resolution, however when viewing VHS tapes the very best you will get is 240 lines (see the chart below). The following resolutions (HORIZONTAL x VERTICAL) are all for NTSC (US) and are the very best that can be expected out of that particular format. HDTV: 1280x720 (Hi-Res 16:9) HDTV: 704x480 (Standard-Res 16:9) DVD: 540x480 (4:3) (progressive scan) ED-Beta: 525x482 TVRO: 525x482 (Live Backhaul) Laser Disc: 425x482 (4:3) DVD: 405x480 (16:9) (progressive scan) S-VHS: 400x482 Broadcast: 330x482 CABLE: 330x482 SUPER BETA: 285x482 BETA: 250x482 VHS: 240x482 DBS: 364x240

4.7 LINE DOUBLERS, IMPROVED DEFINITION TV (IDTV)


Line doublers or IDTV's improve viewing by removing an unwanted artifact of the current NTSC standard - as both direct-view and projection (Front, R/P's) televisions have gotten larger, the scanning lines have become more noticeable. A line doubler or IDTV allows a reduction in the viewing distance at which "scanning lines" will be noticed. Line doublers propose to eliminate interlace by displaying a full frame, all 525 lines is displayed every 1/60th of a second, instead of the normal alternating 262.5 line fields (1/2 frame) every 1/60th. There are two main ways to de-interlace. One is previous field retention, wherein each frame consists of the current field plus the stored and re-displayed previous field. The other method is field-to-frame synthesis, wherein each new field has the absent scan lines computed by interpolating between the adjacent actual lines. The output of a line doubler is usually at least 31.5 kHz non-interlaced RGB. With an external line doubler, your television/monitor must support non-interlaced RGB in - S-Video or composite video will not work with an external line doubler. Some front projectors have a RGB input, as do most broadcast monitors and computer CRT's.

If the line doubler uses field retention it will have to delay the sound for the same amount of time (by one or more frames), in order for the sound to remain in sync with the picture. FYI - The 16:9 anamorphic format, where the picture is squeezed horizontally to fit a 4:3 rectangle then unsqueezed during playback, which is found on Digital Video Disc (DVD) causes no problems with line doublers, since they simply double the lines on their way to the widescreen display which then stretches out the lines to its original width.

4.8 HIGH DEFINITION TV (HDTV)


In December of 1996 the FCC approved the U.S. DTV standard. By the January 1, 2007 all US television stations will be required to abandon NTSC and transmit in the HDTV format only. High Definition Television (HDTV) represents the largest change in television technology since the conversion from black & white to color in 1957. Roll-out Schedule: October, 1998 - New York, Chicago, Washington, Boston, Dallas, Detroit, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Atlanta. April, 1999 - Minneapolis, Seattle, Cleveland, Tampa, Miami, Phoenix, Pittsburg, Orlando, Indianapolis, Hartford, Raleigh, and Houston. October, 1999 - Denver, Sacramento, St. Louis, Portland, San Diego, Charlotte, and Cincinnati.

Additional markets will be added until 2003, when every station across the country will be transmitting an HDTV signal. Here's a few links I think you might like to read: DTV FAQ - from the FCC. Digital TV signals gaining ground - available at the Mecury News. Sony joins digital TV - available at news.com. HDTV clicks - available at news.com. Future DVD products - available at news.com. Networks Ready HDTV - available at abcnews.com. Digital TV Debuts - available at abcnews.com. FCC gives license to HDTV - available at news.com.

A Few HDTV Facts: WRAL-CBS Raleigh, NC. has been broadcasting in the HDTV (digital) format since 1994.

NHK-TV Japan has been broadcasting one (1) HDTV (analog) channel since about 1991. Japan's HDTV (analog) system is not compatible with the U.S. (digital) system. HDTV WILL require a new television set. HDTV televisions sets are currently available in limited quantities in the US - limited rollout fall 1998. All current NTSC video products (VCR, LD, DVD, etc.) WILL need to be replaced with equivalent HDTV equipment. HTDV is not directly supported by the current DVD-Video standard. GI's (aka NextLevel Systems) first generation 4DTV - TVRO satellite receiver does not support HDTV or Dolby-AC3 (Dolby Digital) output. DBS does not support HDTV.

4.9 MAGNETIC (SPEAKER) INTERFERENCE


With the popularity of home theater this has become a common problem that many manufactures have not fully addressed, unless the speakers explicitly state they are magnetically shielded, or approved for center channel use, they are left un-shielded. If an unshielded speaker is placed near the television screen a rainbow type effect will be produced on the screen. FYI - This rainbow effect will usually not damage the picture tube in most cases, however the picture tube may require extensive de-gaussing to remove the effects of the magnetic interference if it is severe. The built-in de-gaussing circuitry found on most televisions will usually remove any mild rainbow effect. Solutions: The simple solution is to simply move the speakers farther away from the TV, however if this is not possible some sort of shielding must be applied either to the TV cabinet, the speaker voice coil enclosure or the speaker cabinet. In severe cases shielding the TV cabinet in addition to the speakers may be required. Surround the magnet area (voice coil) of the speaker with plain sheet steel (ferrous metal). If you look inside the shielded speakers that come with computers you'll see a stamped sheet metal cover over the back side of the speaker. Non-ferrous metals such as aluminium, stainless steel, brass, copper, etc will not work. A material known as "MU-Metal" can be used to shield the case or cabinet, you can purchase a lab kit of "mu-metal" from Magnetic Shielding Corp (630-766-7800) and attached a .025" thick of their version called Co-Netic to the appropriate side of the TV and/or speakers. MU-Metal is very efficient at reducing and/or blocking magnetic fields. MU-Metal is the method that has the best chance of success.

Magnetic shielding can also be accomplished with "bucking magnets" epoxied in reverse pole of the speaker magnet. It WILL NOT shield the front or the sides of the speaker, but it does well in the back (rear) facing direction. Cover the magnet of a speaker with a tin can. Find a can slightly larger than the magnet and silicone it over the magnet and onto the basket of the speaker. Be sure to use enough silicone to keep the can from rattling. - DO NOT use a non-ferrous (aluminium) can, as this will not work.

4.10 16x9 (ANAMORPHIC) VERTICAL SQUEEZE


Someday in the very near future all of our (American NTSC) televisions will have a 16x9 aspect ratio for HDTV. Until the time when your area begins HDTV broadcasts you're probably watching DVDs on a standard 4x3 display, but there's no reason you shouldn't be enjoying the full resolution that DVD can offer today. FYI - A 16x9 enhanced DVD has 33% more resolution than a non-enhanced DVD title. For more information on how to preform the 16x9 squeeze see the "16x9 (Anamorphic) Vertical Squeeze" FAQ that I maintain on my web site. For the SONY Wega series television you will find additional information on how to preform the 16x9 squeeze in the "Sony Wega 16x9 (Anamorphic) Vertical Squeeze" FAQ that I also maintain on my web site.

Section 5 ENTERING SERVICE MODE


Most televisions made today have electronic service adjustments. This means that adjustments like picture geometry, white balance, and color presets are adjusted via on screen displays, using the remote control or front panel controls. For complete details, you'll need a service manual, available from the manufacture's parts department. PLEASE NOTE: SERVICE MODE WARNING: Without proper documentation and training, you can probably do quite a good job of messing up your television set, perhaps even damaging it. Don't mess around with the service mode adjustments unless you know what you're doing and have the service manual to guide you.

Once you enter service mode the first thing you should do is record all the original values BEFORE you change anything! - This is the only way to restore the television to its original (factory default) state should it become necessary to do so. OTHER TELEVISION BRANDS: If you do NOT see the code to enter the service mode on your television: I do NOT have the code to enter service mode for that particular model. There's no point in sending me email asking if I have the code to enter service mode on model "XYZ", because if I had the procedure it would be listed in this section. If you do come across a model or manufacture that I do not have listed here please email it to me so that I can include it in future releases of this document. Your TV monitor uses manual internal adjustments "pots", sometimes found on the back or inside the set - this arrangement is mostly found on older TV's & some (or most) front projectors.

5.1 SONY TELEVISIONS


Service switch - small, round opening in the rear cabinet near the Video inputs or the antenna jack (typically early-90's), push and hold while turning the power on - or if there is no service switch on the rear of the TV use the remote control and press within one second of each other: [PWR OFF] - [DISP], [5], [VOL+], [PWR ON] -or[PWR OFF] - [DISP], [5], [PWR ON] -or[PWR OFF] - [DISP], [5], [VOL+], [PICTURE], [PWR ON] The TV will turn on in service mode. You may need to set the television into 'tuner' mode (instead of Video-1, etc.) before performing the service mode button sequence. NAVIGATE IN SERVICE MODE [1] = Moves to Previous Menu Item [4] = Moves to Next Menu Item [3] = Adjusts Value Up [6] = Adjusts Value Down [MTS] = Toggles Stereo/Mono Audio SAVE NEW SETTING

[MUTE] followed by [ENTER] to store NEW setting to NVRAM RESTORE USER SETTINGS [8],[ENTER] = Restores All *USER* setting to Factory Defaults RESET VALUES [0],[ENTER] = Read Default Value from Stored Settings (Reset) LEAVE SERVICE MODE [PWR OFF] = Leave Service Mode any settings not written will be in effect until TV is unplugged or a Reset is performed. RETURN TO DEFAULT SETTINGS: BEFORE storing NEW settings - unplug TV from wall, wait a few seconds, then plug back in, turn TV set on - All settings not written will have been lost. AFTER storing NEW settings - restore original value from list you made of original values before adjustments and store in NVRAM.

If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material. I also maintain a SONY XBR Service Mode list on my HomePage. For additional information on how to preform the 16x9 squeeze (to view anamorphic DVDs at their full resolution) see the "16x9 (Anamorphic) Vertical Squeeze" or the "Sony Wega 16x9 (Anamorphic) Vertical Squeeze" FAQs that I maintain on my web site. A complete although somewhat outdated list of Sony XBR Service Mode items can be found at http://www.repairfaq.org/~filipg/. This information appears to be for the ~1990 version of the XBR^2 series. Note: Provisions for convergence adjustments are not enabled on 27" or smaller Sony direct view television sets. 5.1a SUGGESTED SONY SETTINGS SONY "XBR" SERIES TRINITONE: NTSC STD - controls color temperature - basically how greys will appear on the monitor. The "High" and "Medium" settings make everything look too blue.

NR: OFF - filters out high-frequency noise, at a slight loss of detail. Turn it OFF and the picture quality improves. It also tends to degrade fine picture detail. DYNAMIC PICTURE: OFF - when turned ON it whitens light areas and darkens shadow areas of the picture, creating a high contrast although less accurate picture. Leave it OFF. COLOR CORRECTION: OFF - when turned ON it tries to correct fleshtones but has a tendency to mix up certain colors and make them look like a prosthetic beige. PROGRAM PALETTE: MOVIE: ON - only the movie mode allows the television set to run with flat and wide video bandwidth. It also shuts OFF scanning velocity modulation (SVM), when VMLV is run down to zero it will shut OFF SVM for the other modes. Each mode (Movie, Sports, etc.) has a separate adjustment memory. SERVICE MODE ITEMS: AXIS VAPI VAPG NRLV VMLV Y-DC R-YR R-YB G-YR G-YB SHPF 0 0 0 0~3 0 0 15 15 11 9 3 Cleans up the red push & oranginess in the yellows Do this for all modes Do this for all modes Find the value 0-3 that gives the best resolution Scanning Velocity Modulation (SVM) OFF=0/ON=1 (do this for all modes) Improves BLACK background level retention the amount of RED Sets the amount of RED Sets the amount of GREEN Sets the amount of GREEN (8 or 10 may be closer) This helps with the sharpness (S-Video)

Setting R-YR and R-YB to 15 will greatly improve color accuracy and tone down the reds. Also, when Y-DC is changed from 1 to 0, DC restoration becomes almost perfect. Sometimes setting items G-YR to 11 and G-YB to 9 may need some more fine tuning using the SMPTE color bars w/gray reference [split bar pattern] ("Color Bar w/75% Gray" VEDVD-18/3, Frame VE-46673, AVS-14415 - NOTE: VE 46673 is mis-calibrated, use AVS-14415) See the section on Setting Tint & Color Level: Matching Gray Reference for the procedure on how to adjust these two settings. SONY "V" SERIES GDRV 18 Green Amp. BDRV 14 Blue Amp. GCUT 4 Green Cutoff

BCUT 1 Blue Cutoff Note: The setting for AMP and CUTOFF appear to be relative and not absolute on the "V" series - thus they may not work for your particular model TV. WEGA SERVICE MODE ITEMS: 4BCT 7 input4 (component) Blue Cutoff (BCUT -1) 4BDR 30 input4 (component) Blue Amp (BDRV +1) 4GCT 5 input4 (component) Green Cutoff (GCUT +0) 4GDR 36 input4 (component) Green Amp ((GDRV +2) BCUT 10 Blue Cutoff BDRV 29 Blue Amp GCUT 10 Green Cutoff GDRV 34 Green Amp DPIX 0 Dynamic Picture Y-DC 0 Improves BLACK background level retention HOSC 11 Fixes problem with color banding on component input SONY "MODEL-ID" SETTINGS These ID setting are different for every chassis - in general here's what they control: ID-0 Controls number of active video jacks. ID-1 This controls video features. Allows notch filter (NOTC) to be turned off outside of service mode. ID-2 This sets up user interface features. Enables Spanish language menus. Allows naming of video inputs. ID-3 Enables / disables Picture-In-Picture (PIP) support. ID-4 Enables / disables Lumisponder option.

5.1b SONY MODEL NUMBERS Model numbers: KV-ddXBRss KV = direct view sets KP = projectors dd = size of the display XBR, V, S, T = model line designation. ss = specific model designation, which appears to be independently unique.

5.1c SONY FRONT PROJECTORS Someday I will have a complete web page devoted to Front Projectors, but until that day here's how to enter service mode on Sony's Front Projectors use: [enter], [enter], [up], [down], [enter] Be sure 'Status' is ON, if 'Status' is OFF, you won't be able to get into service mode. The manual says to make sure the remote is hard-wired, but the IR mode has always worked fine for me. 5.1d SONY PLASMA MONITORS Turn on the power. Press [Enter], [1], [8], [2], from the remote.

5.2 TOSHIBA TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. Sit in front the TV, you will need to be able to access keys on the remote and the TV at the same time. Turn the TV "ON" Turn the volume all the way down to 0. Press and hold the TV's front panel volume down button, and then press and hold the remote's "9" button for about a second. The service mode will appear. \ -orPress "MUTE" on the remote. Press "MUTE" on the remote again, but this time continue to press "MUTE". While still pressing down on "MUTE", press the "MENU" button on the TV front. Release the "MUTE" button. You should now have an S (for service mode) displayed in the upper right corner. Pressing MENU again should bring up the first service option Pressing the Channel Up/Down keys brings up the different service options. Pressing the Volume Up/Down keys changes the associated HEX value. One you have entered the service mode, you can bring up the various test screens by pressing the "TV/VIDEO" button. For example, to minimize screen non-linearities, press the channel down key until PARA appears on the screen, with the associated default value (this is the parabolic adjustment option).

Then, bring up the cross-hatch pattern by repeated pressing of the TV/VIDEO button. You can then use the volume Up/Down buttons to change the PARA settings, this should cause the grid to bow in (concave) and out (convex). Adjust until the grid is the most linear. The numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6 jump to different items. 9 displays SELF CHECK The number 7 displays a grid. There's a blinking cursor in the upper left corner. The numbers 2,4,6,8 move the cursor. 3 cycles the colors (RGB), 5 stops the cursor from blinking, then when you push 2,4,6,8, you are adjusting the convergence at that point for the selected color. Pushing 7 again gives you a "warped" grid for a few moments. Pushing 7 again removes the grid from the screen. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material. You may be able to find additional information at msauve@altavista.net's Toshiba TP61H95 Service/Designer mode settings web page. 5.2a TOSHIBA MODEL NUMBERS Model Numbers: ClssYnn F-------------stripped version X-------------full performance N-------------X plus sound features ss------------picture size (27,32,35) D-------------'95 year's model E-------------'96 year's model nn------------model level (60,70,90)

5.3 ZENITH TELEVISIONS


Using the television's front panel controls: To access the service menus, press and hold the menu button, then press and hold the volume down (or volume up) and channel down (or right adjust) so that all three are depressed simultaneously. The standard menu that was displayed will change to one of the service menus. Now the standard controls are used to search through the menus (the remote can be used to do this). Use "select" to choose a menu item and "adjust" to alter the setting. Enter commits to a setting, and menu itself closes the service menu. When menu is pressed again the standard menu will return, unless the three key sequence is used.

Using the television's remote control: Turn the TV on. Hold down the [MENU] key on the remote until the menu clears or "Welcome to Zenith" appears then release the [MENU] key and within two (2) seconds hit the following five keys: [9], [8], [7], [6], [ENTER] -or[9], [8], [7], [6], [DISPLAY] You will now have access to the service menus. [MENU] = Toggles between two menu pages [UP], [DOWN] cursor = selects the item for adjustment [LEFT], [RIGHT] cursor = varies the value [POWER] = exit service mode and saves any adjustments made The items are appropriately captioned and the ones of interest should be easily spotted. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.4 GE TELEVISIONS / RCA TELEVISIONS / PROSCAN TELEVISIONS


To enter service mode, push and hold the [Menu] button on the set. While holding, push and release the [Power] button, then the [Vol +] button. You will now have some information on the screen: "P0 V0" To actually be able to change these values, you must push [Vol +] on the remote so the information reads V76. Then pushing on the Channel +/- will change the "P" value. P1 - 3 are error codes. If there is a problem with the set that can be self-diagnosed, the "V" will report the code. These codes are available in the RCA repair manual. P4 - 7 control the horizontal size, shift, vertical size and shift. You may also find a summary leaflet for the service tech clipped somewhere inside the chassis. The procedures for getting into the service mode, as well as the service items of interest will be there. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.5 MAGNAVOX
Press: [0], [6], [2], [5], [9], [6], then [MENU]

The channels will change, but when you press MENU, the TV will enter the service menu. Note: The above procedure works only on *SOME* Magnavox TV's [Menu] = Change Adjustments To save your changes, press [POWER] on the TV set. "Preset Memory" will appear, then the set will power down. Note: Before entering service menu mode, make sure you power the TV on, off, and back on from the TV itself (not the remote). This should enable you to use the power-off button on the TV, after you made your changes, allowing you to saving them.

5.6 MITSUBISHI TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. Mitsubishi seems to have a variety of access codes depending on model and manufacture date. Some of the codes are: Press: [MENU], then [1], [2], [5], [7] [MENU], then [1], [2], [5], [9] -or[MENU], then [1], [3], [7], [0] -or[MENU], then [2], [3], [5], [6] [MENU], then [2], [3], [5], [7] [MENU], then [2], [3], [5], [8] [MENU], then [2], [3], [5], [9] -or[MENU], then [8], [2], [5], [7] Then use VIDEO or AUDIO buttons to enter two different groups of adjustments. Video/Audio steps along through the adjustments, and +/- does the adjusting.

Must use [ENTER] to save the change. Hit the [MENU] key twice to exit service mode. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material. You may be able to find additional information at Bob Page's Mitsubishi TV Service Modes web page.

5.7 HITACHI TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. All the available geometry and grayscale tracking adjustments are done by manual controls located inside the set. They may be labelled. A service manual is required to make any adjustment.

5.8 PHILIPS TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. All the adjustments are done by setting jumpers inside the unit - bottom pcb near the tube, pretty easy to access once the back cover is removed. A service manual is required to make any adjustment. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.9 PANASONIC TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. Panasonic uses a hex numbering system, without the service manual it's almost impossible to adjust. You may be able to find additional information at Michael C. Calanan's Panasonic TV Service Modes web page. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.10 SAMSUNG TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. With TV powered off press: [mute], [1], [8], [2], [power]

Television will power up in service mode and GAMMA GAIN1 will be displayed on the screen. Use [mute] and the [menu] button to move values up and down. Use the [volume +] and [volume -] keys to move to other adjustements. Use [add] to save the settings. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.11 JVC TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. With TV powered ON press: [DISPLAY] and [VIDEO STATUS] on the remote at the same time. -orPress the [SLEEP TIMER] key and set the SLEEP TIMER for "0" MIN. While the SLEEP TIMER information is still on screen, press the [DISPLAY] key and [VIDEO STATUS] key of the remote control unit at the same time to enter the SERVICE MENU. Exit the service menu by twice pressing the [EXIT] key on the remote. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.12 TEAC TELEVISIONS


Read the _ SERVICE MODE WARNING _ before proceeding. With TV powered ON press: [Menu] then [4], [7], [2], [5] on the remote. Exit the service menu by twice pressing the [EXIT] key on the remote. If you're attempting to adjust color or geometry errors, you'll need the Video Essentials DVD, Laser Disc or some other source of test material.

5.13 SYMPHONIC TELEVISIONS


Plug set in. if language select comes up, turn off and on again. Temporarily short j1 and j2 on main board together. Press 1 for cut-off adjustment (gives you horizontal line) Press 2 for agc adjustment

Press 4 for h. shift (press ch up and down to change) Press 0 for sub-brightness (monitor voltage at j501 for 4.5v +/- .05v) Press 5 for head switching Channel up and down appears to be adjustment keys for this menu

1.3a REAR PROJECTORS (R/P's) Rear projectors (R/P's) need proper initial setup and calibration if they are to give the degree of focus and clarity comparable to that of a Direct View (tube) set. In general R/P's, geometry, though improved, still needs work. Even with the best possible efforts with the "French horn screws" or s/w equivalent, it is impossible to get the "roller coaster" effect out of the ticker crawls. Also, convergence drift is still a problem. The price of that tremendous light output continues to be more than average viewing hotspots.

1.4 WHEN CALIBRATION NEEDS TO BE PERFORMED


The calibration when done after the break-in period should hold true for several years, provided that something in the television does not change due to age/heating. Become familiar with the look of the PLUGE with vertical gray scale ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785), using this will help you determine when and if re-calibration is needed. R/P's will need to be re-calibrated if they are moved at anytime, as the moving will probably alter their convergence. FYI - When you move the set, be sure to apply the primary force near the base of the unit. Be careful not to rack the top portion with the mirror back. Any drift (assuming good quality ground zero setup) should be quite easily managed by the crosshair user convergence adjustment facility.

2.3 DVD Player: 0 IRE vs. 7.5 IRE


The real benefit of 0 IRE blacks is an increased range of blacks, 0-100 IRE vs. 7.5100 IRE. If you can see the black-than-black bar in Video Essentials then your DVD player is set to 0 IRE or "enhanced" black setting.

The standard level for 'black' for all NTSC sources is 7.5 IRE, anything below 7.5 is known as black-than-black.

3.3 SETTING HORIZONTAL / VERTICAL FREQUENCY


The best way to adjust HFRE is to tune in a good local station (or a major cable channel, but not on DBS), set AFC to 3 and then set HFRE to make the picture float by as slowly as possible. After you're finished, set AFC back to 0. (If you get a "flagging" effect at the top of the picture when playing video tapes, setting AFC to 1 or 2 may reduce or eliminate that problem.) VSMO (Vertical Pull in Range) - Actually this is a mode switch. With this set to 1 the VFRE control will have no effect, and the picture may be slightly less stable under poor reception conditions. If you need to view PAL or SECAM signals, setting this to 1 will enable that capability in B&W only.

3.4 CORRECTING GEOMETRY


Don't do any geometry adjustments (HPOS) until you've adjusted HFRE as mentioned above.

3.5 SETTING CONTRAST LEVEL


You must have the contrast turned down enough to be below the point of picture blooming before you start. It is foolish and quite futile to attempt to get a good linear gray scale tracking while the picture tube is being overdriven (blooming). Also try and keep room lighting from reaching the television screen in a way that it compromises the deep black picture elements. The use of the needle-pulse pattern for finding maximum contrast level (as suggested on the Video Essentials LD) is NO longer valid as manufacturers have gotten "wise" and "cheated" by improving the power supply regulation. Use the PLUGE with vertical gray scale pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785), set the brightness level using this pattern and recheck with the one on the color bar pattern ("SMPTE Color Bars" VEDVD-17/7,

Frame VE-46599, AVS-50788). If the proper setting is different between these two patterns, use the PLUGE on the color bar pattern ("SMPTE Color Bars" VEDVD17/7, Frame VE-46599, AVS-50788). Return to the PLUGE w/ gray scale pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785). Look at the top two blocks of the vertical gray scale. If it appears to be wider than the bottom two blocks, then you are seeing the phenomenon of "blooming". Your picture level (contrast setting) is too high. Turn it down. You also can see another effect of too high setting. Just run the control up and down. If the control is too high (especially with older front projectors), the top two blocks will take on a yellow or brownish cast because the blue tube has been pushed beyond its limits. If the contrast level is too low, then you will not be able to see the gradation between the two bottom blocks. You may have to then compromise. In any case, the brightness (or black level) control may need to be readjusted and the contrast rechecked. FYI - The PLUGE pattern in Frame VEDVD-15/2 VE-29109, AVS-14387 has a very low Average Picture Level (APL) because the entire background is black. The PLUGE pattern in Frame VEDVD-17/2, VE-46590, AVS-14390 & 50785 includes a gray scale that produces a medium APL. In Frame VEDVD-17/3, VE-46591, AVS-14393, the PLUGE pattern shares half the frame with a 100 IRE white background providing a high APL. It is unlikely that any current consumer quality monitor can maintain a perfectly constant BLACK LEVEL across this large of an APL range.

3.6 SETTING WHITE LEVEL


Please Note: Without instruments it is almost IMPOSSIBLE to properly set the gray scale and color temperature, the ISF optical comparator with a set of neutral density filters being the minimum needed to accomplish the task and a Color Analyzer being the preferred way. You may need to sacrifice the low end numbers and go warmer at the low end to improve the appearance of the blacks. The following examples are all post-calibration values, your results may vary. Notice that the light output level foot-lamberts (f/l) post-calibration varies by

quite a large degree, some of this is due to the difference between rear projection (R/P) & direct view (DV) televisions. IRE VALUE Manufactur F/L 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 30 20 e Sony PVM2530 646 645 644 644 644 642 n/ 642 n/ 641 n/ 639 638 638 640 12.17 5 5 5 0 0 5 a 5 a 5 a 5 5 5 0

Sony 644 645 647 647 649 649 n/ 641 n/ 641 n/ 660 661 662 664 12.48 KV32XBR10 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 5 a 0 a 0 0 0 5

3.6b WITHOUT OPTICAL COMPARATOR (Option 1): The only (natural) reference to D6500 in real life is the white lighting coming off a completely snow covered scene on an overcast day. (A sunny day white light is 5600) What you can do is open your curtains, put up the pluge with vertical gray scale pattern ("PLUGE w/ Log Gray" VEDVD-17/2, Frame VE-46590, AVS-50785), or put up a 100 IRE white field pattern ("100 IRE Window" VEDVD-17/32, Frame VE-46647, AVS-50801) and adjust BAMP and GAMP to match the white to that reference, then go to the BCUT and GCUT to get the rest of the gray scale looking like photographic black, and then go back to the BAMP and GAMP and repeat the process of adjusting the white balance. 3.6c WITHOUT OPTICAL COMPARATOR (Option 2): Using a computer monitor that has a D6500 setting (verify that the white field is indeed D6500) then continue as with Option-1 replacing the snow cover with the computer monitor. 3.6d WITHOUT OPTICAL COMPARATOR (Option 3): Substitute another known D6500 white reference for Option-1. One source for this D6500 K light can be found at Radio Shack in a couple of their flashlights that use the F4T5/DL bulb. This bulb is used in their flashlight (RS Cat No. _______)

with a fluorescent bulb in the handle and a flashing yellow caution light on one end - this light can also be powered by an optional AC adapter. FYI - Any plain softwhite is around the 2500-3000 deg range.

3.7 SETTING TINT & COLOR LEVEL


3.7a USING SMPTE COLOR BARS Color decoders on consumer sets are far from perfect - because of this, please note the method of adjustment below: (The blue filter must be used for viewing or- turn off the red & green guns) Put up SMPTE Color Bars ("SMPTE Color Bars" VEDVD-17/7, Frame VE-46599, AVS-50788). Note the two vertical color bars on either side of the center bar (green not when viewed through the blue filter). Using the HUE control try to match the brightness level of the bars on either side of the center bar. The same should go for the corresponding patches below. As you rock the tint adjustment back and forth, the intensity of the bars will react in a similar manner - they mirror opposite that of the corresponding patches below. This will help you find the proper setting. Do NOT attempt to match the bar with it's corresponding patch below (as suggested on the Video Essentials LD/DVD) - this will not work as the manufacturers have gotten "wise" and "cheated" by improving the power supply regulation. - make sure flesh tone and/or color correction is turned off before starting this procedure. Then go back and recheck and readjust the color level using the method as instructed on the Video Essentials/A Video Standard LD/DVD. Then repeat this procedure. You will have to go back and forth one or more times. 3.7b MATCHING GRAY REFERENCE Put up color bars w/gray reference [split bar pattern] ("Color Bars w/75% Gray" VEDVD-18/3, Frame VE-46673, AVS-14415 - NOTE: VE frame 46673 is miscalibrated, use AVS-14415) What you basically want to do is by using the blue filter (or turn the red & green guns off), adjust the color and hue to get the blue to match each other bar and the bottom gray reference in intensity as close as

possible - make sure flesh tone and/or color correction is turned off before starting this procedure. Then you turn red back on and turn blue off. Then match R-YR and R-YB to the gray reference below. This may not happen because the red adjustment items may need a little more range than is provided. Then turn the green back on and the red off and similarly match the green to the gray reference using G-YR and G-YB, you will want to look for yellows that are equal in light intensity to each other and to the gray reference below. The idea of the R-YR and R-YB is to limit the amount of red push. As you can see the higher the value, the less red intensity in the bars. In the case of the R-YB, those bars that have red and blue in them like the cyan and magenta colors, and the R-YR for the yellow color and others with green in it. When you take away red from a white field, you will get a cyan color. When you take away blue from a gray field, you will get yellow or magenta.

3.8 SETTING THE SHARPNESS CONTROL


The sharpness setting procedure on the Video Essentials laser disc works well for LD, TVRO, DBS, basically this is the procedure you should follow, however most TVs have the sharpness set too high for the clarity of DVD. This exaggerates the high-frequency video and causes distortion for DVD it is recommended the sharpness control be turned off (set to minimum), as the DVD media format does not need the high frequency compensation the other formats require.

4.1 NOTCH FILTERS


Using the multi-burst pattern ("Multiburst" VEDVD-17/22, Frame VE-46619, AVS50816), if the two burst patterns on the right side are reproduced with color information rather than black and white, then a notch filter is being used. Then look at a color bar pattern from a live signal source. The still frame feature on a laser disc player may not be appropriate for this. Look for a moving zipper effect (hanging dot) between the color bar and it corresponding patches below.

Also, look at the vertical demarcation lines between the bars. A moving sawtooth effect there also indicates use of a cheap glass or CCD variety comb filter. Turning OFF the notch filter reduces dot crawl but at the price of resolution. The Notch Filter mode setting (NOTC) is overridden by the ID1 parameter. Setting this to a value 64 lower or 64 higher than that as shipped, the notch filter will be disabled to get rid of "hanging dot" interference in the picture. Hanging dots seems to be most severe when the colors are 180 degrees apart in chroma phase (ie. green/magenta border area on any NTSC color bar pattern).

4.2 S-VIDEO/COMPOSITE/COMPONENT
S-Video inputs advantage is it keeps the chroma and luminance (Y-C) information separate. However, unless the original video source material and the delivery system also does this (like DBS, S-VHS, HI-8) you really don't get any benefit out of it. When you have both a video source (ie. laser disc player) and a television monitor with S-Video jacks, you then have your choice of where the chroma luminance separation occurs, being either done in the video source or in the television. When you use composite video input to your TV, the TV must still separate the YC components to display the video on the screen. The quality of this separation depends upon the quality of the comb filter in your TV. A comb filter is NOT used for S-Video, this means that a TV with an analog comb filter looks just as good as those with a digital comb filter IF you're using the SVideo input. All the S-Video input does is give you the option of having the video source perform this Y-C separation, instead of having the TV monitor do this. If the video source has a better quality comb filter, then you want to use the S-Video input, if your TV monitor has the better comb filter (ie. digital comb filter) then you will want to use the composite video input.

You may want to use the Snell & Wilcox Test Chart #2 [SW2] ("Snell & Wilcox Zone Plate" VEDVD-15/12, Frame VE-29938, AVS-_____) bouncing ball comb filter test material to determine which one is better. With the analog comb filter all of the squares on the top row will have rainbowing. With the 3-line/2d digital variety (if the one in your set is digital, this is the most likely type) the top two or three squares in the top row will have rainbowing. With the adaptive 3-d type, none of the top squares will have rainbowing and the rainbowing on the moving ball disappears when the ball pauses. A complete description of the Snell & Wilcox test chart can be found at the Snell & Wilcox Homepage. A DVD player should be connected using the component (YUV or RGB) output for the highest-quality picture. Some DVD players with component outputs use YUV, which is incompatible with RGB found on some television monitors. European DVD players with SCART connectors have RGB outputs. A YUV to RGB converter is available. 4.2a SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS Choose the option that provides the best quality (indicated below, best to worst) that is supported by your monitor and the video source. The following table assumes that the monitor has the better comb filter. DBS = S-Video, Composite, RF DVD = Component, S-Video, Composite, RF HI-8 = S-Video, Composite, RF LD = Composite, S-Video, RF S-VHS = S-Video, Composite, RF TVRO = Composite, S-Video, RF VHS = S-Video, Composite, RF Note: RF video connection should be avoided - the RF output will further reduce picture detail and will add additional noise to the video, plus it will not transmit stereo sound unless the video device has a MTS encoder builtin, this is only a concern if your using the television's built-in speakers for (surround) sound.

4.3 SCREEN BURN-IN


Look at a full white field ("100 IRE Flat Field" VEDVD-18/12, Frame VE-46704, AVS_____) on the screen examine it for phosphor burns from the likes of negligent repeat playing of letterboxed material, station logos, video games, etc. The following is the warning that appears in the Hitachi 50UX26B and similar model owners manual, the same warning should be applied to all television. PICTURE CAUTIONS ==========================================================

WARNING =========

Continuous on-screen displays such as video games, stock market quotations, computer generated graphics, and other fixed (non-moving) patterns can cause permanent damage to projection television receivers. Such "PATTERN BURNS" constitute misuse and are _NOT COVERED_ by your Hitachi Factory Warranty.

When using the Picture-in Picture function, the sub-picture should NOT be left permanently in one corner of the screen

or a "PATTERN BURN" may develop over a long period of time.

========================================================== 4.3a STATION LOGOS The very worst possible examples of this practice (as of Jan. '97) is MS-NBC, which is a threat to the life of all R/P tubes. An example of a R/P friendly logo is a station that does not leave their logo displayed all the time.

4.4 VIEWING DISTANCE


The size of the screen is not the only factor in the perceived picture size - distance from the screen is equally important. A 32" direct view television picture, can seem just as large as a 60" rear projector picture when the R/P is viewed from a greater distance. However due to the fact that the viewing distance is usually constant for a given room the larger the screen size the picture image is also perceived to be larger. Due to resolution limits, such as those imposed by scanning lines, a viewing distance of about four to four & one-half times the picture's height with a viewing angle of about 10 to 15 degrees from the centerline of the picture usually provides the largest possible picture without any unnecessary degradation in video quality. This distance will vary with the quality of the television set and the source of the video material and whether or not you use any image enhancing accessories such as a "line doubler", along with your personal tolerance level for picture flaws.

4.5 COLOR/LIGHTING BEHIND TELEVISION


The best source for lighting in a home theater is a fluorescent fixture placed on the floor behind the monitor and angled to light the wall behind the monitor (Direct View) , this will create the proper ambient light level. AVS recommends that this backlighting should not exceed 10% of the total light output of the monitor itself. To achieve this lighting you can use a commonly available

"Daylight" type fluorescent bulb - Sylvania manufactures a four foot length called "F40D" where the "D" stands for Daylight. Its color temperature is about 6300 K. You can put filters over bulbs of any color temperature and reach D6500 K if so desired. The exact light level and placement is not critical so long as the TV monitor is not overwhelmed by environmental lighting. The wall surface directly behind the television should be painted a neutral grey or dark grey color - never white or off-white. Purchase a Kodak reference gray card (part #R-27) and match the gray paint to the card. This card is called an "18% Gray Card" or just "Gray Card" and is available at most photo supply stores. It comes packaged as two 8"x10" cards and one 4"x5" card. For best results with a projection screen the room should be dark with no room lighting reaching the screen in such a way that it compromises the deep black picture elements.

4.6 TELEVISION RESOLUTION


The American video transmission standard (NTSC) is 525 lines of horizontal resolution, with an aspect ratio of 4:3. Any number of lines may be employed by the transmitting station usually between 482 and 495, some of these lines are reserved for specific uses. CC (Closed Captioning) transmitted on line 21, can support 8-colors and the use of an italic typeface TeleText - Transmitted on a variable number of lines which is specified in the header which contains basic information such as time, date and channel, starting on line 12 and continuing for 7-8 lines. Can support 8 colors, and limited block graphics. TeleText is not used very much in the US (if at all) but is used extensively in the UK.

4.6a VIDEO SOURCE RESOLUTION Your television's resolution is limited by the video source. Your TV monitor may be able to display 700 lines or more of horizontal resolution, however when viewing VHS tapes the very best you will get is 240 lines (see the chart below). The following resolutions (HORIZONTAL x VERTICAL) are all for NTSC (US) and are the very best that can be expected out of that particular format. HDTV: 1280x720 (Hi-Res 16:9) HDTV: 704x480 (Standard-Res 16:9) DVD: 540x480 (4:3) (progressive scan) ED-Beta: 525x482 TVRO: 525x482 (Live Backhaul) Laser Disc: 425x482 (4:3) DVD: 405x480 (16:9) (progressive scan) S-VHS: 400x482 Broadcast: 330x482 CABLE: 330x482 SUPER BETA: 285x482 BETA: 250x482 VHS: 240x482 DBS: 364x240

4.7 LINE DOUBLERS, IMPROVED DEFINITION TV (IDTV)


Line doublers or IDTV's improve viewing by removing an unwanted artifact of the current NTSC standard - as both direct-view and projection (Front, R/P's) televisions have gotten larger, the scanning lines have become more noticeable. A line doubler or IDTV allows a reduction in the viewing distance at which "scanning lines" will be noticed. Line doublers propose to eliminate interlace by displaying a full frame, all 525 lines is displayed every 1/60th of a second, instead of the normal alternating 262.5 line fields (1/2 frame) every 1/60th. There are two main ways to deinterlace. One is previous field retention, wherein each frame consists of the current field plus the stored and re-displayed previous field. The other method is field-to-frame synthesis, wherein each new field has the absent scan lines computed by interpolating between the adjacent actual lines.

The output of a line doubler is usually at least 31.5 kHz non-interlaced RGB. With an external line doubler, your television/monitor must support non-interlaced RGB in - S-Video or composite video will not work with an external line doubler. Some front projectors have a RGB input, as do most broadcast monitors and computer CRT's. If the line doubler uses field retention it will have to delay the sound for the same amount of time (by one or more frames), in order for the sound to remain in sync with the picture. FYI - The 16:9 anamorphic format, where the picture is squeezed horizontally to fit a 4:3 rectangle then unsqueezed during playback, which is found on Digital Video Disc (DVD) causes no problems with line doublers, since they simply double the lines on their way to the widescreen display which then stretches out the lines to its original width.
5.1a SUGGESTED SONY SETTINGS
SONY "XBR" SERIES TRINITONE: NTSC STD - controls color temperature - basically how greys will appear on the monitor. The "High" and "Medium" settings make everything look too blue. NR: OFF - filters out high-frequency noise, at a slight loss of detail. Turn it OFF and the picture quality improves. It also tends to degrade fine picture detail. DYNAMIC PICTURE: OFF - when turned ON it whitens light areas and darkens shadow areas of the picture, creating a high contrast although less accurate picture. Leave it OFF. COLOR CORRECTION: OFF - when turned ON it tries to correct fleshtones but has a tendency to mix up certain colors and make them look like a prosthetic beige. PROGRAM PALETTE: MOVIE: ON - only the movie mode allows the television set to run with flat and wide video bandwidth. It also shuts OFF scanning velocity modulation (SVM), when VMLV is run down to zero it will shut OFF SVM for the other modes. Each mode (Movie, Sports, etc.) has a separate adjustment memory. SERVICE MODE ITEMS: AXIS 0 Cleans up the red push & oranginess in the yellows VAPI 0 Do this for all modes

VAPG 0 Do this for all modes NRLV 0~3 Find the value 0-3 that gives the best resolution VMLV 0 Scanning Velocity Modulation (SVM) OFF=0/ON=1 (do this for all modes) Y-DC 0 Improves BLACK background level retention R-YR 15 Sets the amount of RED R-YB 15 Sets the amount of RED G-YR 11 Sets the amount of GREEN G-YB 9 Sets the amount of GREEN (8 or 10 may be closer) SHPF 3 This helps with the sharpness (S-Video)

Setting R-YR and R-YB to 15 will greatly improve color accuracy and tone down the reds. Also, when Y-DC is changed from 1 to 0, DC restoration becomes almost perfect. Sometimes setting items G-YR to 11 and G-YB to 9 may need some more fine tuning using the SMPTE color bars w/gray reference [split bar pattern] ("Color Bar w/75% Gray" VEDVD-18/3, Frame VE-46673, AVS-14415 - NOTE: VE 46673 is mis-calibrated, use AVS-14415) See the section on Setting Tint & Color Level: Matching Gray Reference for the procedure on how to adjust these two settings. SONY "V" SERIES GDRV 18 Green Amp. BDRV 14 Blue Amp. GCUT 4 Green Cutoff BCUT 1 Blue Cutoff

Note: The setting for AMP and CUTOFF appear to be relative and not absolute on the "V" series - thus they may not work for your particular model TV.

WEGA SERVICE MODE ITEMS: 4BCT 7 input4 (component) Blue Cutoff (BCUT -1) 4BDR 30 input4 (component) Blue Amp (BDRV +1) 4GCT 5 input4 (component) Green Cutoff (GCUT +0) 4GDR 36 input4 (component) Green Amp ((GDRV +2) BCUT 10 Blue Cutoff BDRV 29 Blue Amp GCUT 10 Green Cutoff GDRV 34 Green Amp DPIX 0 Dynamic Picture Y-DC 0 Improves BLACK background level retention HOSC 11 Fixes problem with color banding on component input SONY "MODEL-ID" SETTINGS These ID setting are different for every chassis - in general here's what they control: ID-0 ID-1 Controls number of active video jacks. This controls video features. Allows notch filter (NOTC) to be turned off outside of service mode. ID-2 This sets up user interface features. Enables Spanish language menus. Allows naming of video inputs. ID-3 ID-4 Enables / disables Picture-In-Picture (PIP) support. Enables / disables Lumisponder option.

5.1b SONY MODEL NUMBERS


Model numbers: KV-ddXBRss KV = direct view sets KP = projectors

dd = size of the display XBR, V, S, T = model line designation. ss = specific model designation, which appears to be independently unique.

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LIST OF SETTINGS

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ITEM AFC HFRE VFRE VPOS VSIZ VLIN VSCO HPOS HSIZ PAMP CPIN PPHA UPIN LPIN PPHA HKEY HTRP VCOM VUSN VZOM EHT ASP SCRL HBLK LBLK RBLK GAMP BAMP GDRV BDRV RCUT GCUT TYPICAL 0 42 11 16 18 6 10 6 11 18 4 7 10 10 7 6 8 2 0 0 15 47 31 1 15 3 18 14 18 14 15 4

RANGE 0-3 0-127 0-31 0-31 0-63 0-15 0-15 0-15 0-31 0-31 0-7 0-15 0-31 0-31 0-15 0-15 0-15 0-7 0,1 0,1

DESCRIPTION AFC Loop Gain Horizontal Frequency Vertical Frequency Vertical Picture Position Vertical Picture Size Vertical Picture Linearity Vertical Correction Horizontal Picture Position Horizontal Picture Size Pincushion Amp. Corner Pincushion Pincushion Phase Pincushion upper ends, vertical lines Pincushion lower ends, vertical lines Keystone correction vertical lines Keystone distortion, horizontal lines Keystone correction, horizontal lines Vertical Compensation Shrinks Vertical Height to 16x9 Area Places Bars on Picture to give 16x9 Area Adjust Height of VZOM Vertical Picture Size - Aspect Vertical Picture Position Horizontal Blanking (on/off) Left Blanking Right Blanking Green Amp. Blue Amp. Green Driver Blue Driver Red Cutoff - (lower level) Green Cutoff - (lower level)

0,1

0-31 0-31 0-31 0-31 0-15

BCUT 1 RDRV 21 GDRV 18 BDRV 14 DCOL 1 COFF 0 Y-DC 0 R-YR 15 R-YB 15 G-YG 11 G-YB 9 AXIS 0 DPIX 0 CROM 28 SPIX 30 SCON 30 SHUE 23 SCOL 26 SBRT 22 RGBP 10 SHAP 6 SHPF 3 NRLV 0 VSMO 1 REF 2 ROFF 1 0,1 GOFF BOFF RON GON BON AXPL ABLM NOTC VMLV 1 0,1 1 0,1 1* 0,1 1* 0,1 1* 0,1 0 0,1 0 0,1 1 0,1 0 0,1

Blue Cutoff - (lower level) Red Amp. - (upper level) Green Amp. - (upper level) Blue Amp. - (upper level) 0,1 Color Temperature 0,1 Color On/Off - B/W Picture 0-15 BLACK background level retention 0-15 Sets the amount of RED 0-15 Sets the amount of RED 0-15 Sets the amount of GREEN 0-15 Sets the amount of GREEN 0-15 Cleans up the red & oranginess in yellow 0-3 Dynamic Picture 0-63 Chroma Trap 0-63 Sub-Picture Contrast (Picture) 0-63 Sub-Picture Contrast (Picture) 0-63 Sub-Picture Hue 0-63 Sub-Picture Color 0-63 Sub-Picture Brightness (Black Level) 0-63 RGB Picture 0-15 Sub-Picture Sharpness 0-15 This helps with the S-Video sharpness 0-3 Find the value that gives the best resolution 0,1 Vertical Pull In Range (1 allows PAL in B&W) 0-3 Reference Line Red Gun ON(1)/OFF(0) Green Gun ON(1)/OFF(0) Blue Gun ON(1)/OFF(0) Red Gun ON(1)/OFF(0) Green Gun ON(1)/OFF(0) Blue Gun ON(1)/OFF(0) Cleans up Reds/Yellows Automatic Background or Brightness Limiter Notch Filter ON(1)/OFF(0) Scanning Velocity Modulation ON(1)/OFF(0)

0-15

VAPI VAPG DRGB DISP VTMS DPDV MPIC SVOL SBAL BASS TRE MPX FILO DEEM STEV SAPV PILO SEP VD LVOL RVOL PADJ UYBO LYBO

0 0,1 0 0,1 0 0,1

Sets vert resolution for 3-d comb filter Sets vert resolution for 3-d comb filter On-Screen Display (OSD) Intensity

35 0-63 On-Screen Display (OSD) Menu Placement (L/R) 0 0-3 1 0-3 On Screen Display (OSD) - On/Off Lumipon

8 0-63 Lumipon (depth) 0 0-15 Sub-Volume (0=Max,15=Min.) 7 0-15 Sub-Balance (0=Left,15=Right) 8 0-15 Sub-Bass (0=Min., 15=Max.) 7 0-15 Sub-Treble (0=Mix., 15=Max.) - 0-15 Audio ATT - 0-15 Audio I1 - 0-15 Audio I2 - 0-15 Audio OSC1 - 0-15 Audio OSC2 - 0-15 Audio PILOT - 0-15 Audio WIDE BAND - 0-15 Audio SPECTRAL - 0-15 Audio VOLUME-L - 0-15 Audio VOLUME-R 63 0-255 Hor/Vert Picture Adjustment (total picture) 32 0-63 Upper Y Bow (B/R Top) 27 0-63 Lower Y Bow (B/R Bottom)

HAMP HTIL UCBO UTIL LCBO LTIL DCSH VBOW VANG RTCO PHPO PHUE MSHU MSCOL SSHU SSCO

34 0-63 Horizontal Amp. (B/R OuterLines) 32 0-63 Horizontal Tilt (R/R) 39 0-63 Upper C Bow (B/R Corners Only) 37 0-63 Upper Tilt (Top Corners) 41 0-63 Lower C Bow (B/R Corners Only) 40 0-63 Lower Tilt (Bottom Corners) 36 0-63 DC Shift (Static Convergence All Vertical) 30 0-63 Bow distortion correction vertical lines 30 0-63 Skew correction, vertical lines - 0-63 Raster Rotation 79 0-127 Picture In Picture (PIP) Horizontal Position 0 0-31 Picture In Picture (PIP) Hue - 0-31 Main PIP hue - 0-31 Main PIP color - 0-31 Small PIP Hue - 0-31 Small PIP Color

GV SKEW - 0-63 convergence service item GH SKEW - 0-63 convergence service item GH BOW - 0-63 convergence service item RV SKEW - 0-63 convergence service item BV SKEW - 0-63 convergence service item GH PIN - 0-63 convergence service item GH CENT - 0-63 convergence service item GV CENT - 0-63 convergence service item

RH CENT - 0-63 convergence service item RV CENT - 0-63 convergence service item BH CENT - 0-63 convergence service item BV CENT - 0-63 convergence service item ID0 ID1 ID2 ID3 ID4 ID5 NOTE: 1. Not all ITEMS appear on all televisions models. 2. Provisions for convergence adjustments are not enabled on 27" or smaller Sony direct view television sets. 3. Typical settings may not apply to your particular model and are shown only for reference purposes. 88 0-127 Model ID 127 0-127 Model ID 104 0-127 Model ID 64 0-127 Model ID 19 0-127 Model ID 1 0-127 Model ID

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SUGGESTED SONY SETTINGS

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SONY "XBR" SERIES TRINITONE: NTSC STD - controls color temperature - basically how greys will appear on the monitor. The "High" and "Medium" settings make everything look too blue. NR: OFF - filters out high-frequency noise, at a slight loss of detail. Turn it OFF and the picture quality improves. It also tends to degrade fine picture detail. DYNAMIC PICTURE: OFF - when turned ON it whitens light areas and darkens shadow areas of the picture, creating a high contrast although less accurate picture. Leave it OFF.

COLOR CORRECTION: OFF - when turned ON it tries to correct fleshtones but has a tendency to mix up certain colors and make them look like a prosthetic beige. PROGRAM PALETTE: MOVIE: ON - only the movie mode allows the television set to run with flat and wide video bandwidth. It also shuts OFF scanning velocity modulation (SVM), when VMLV is run down to zero it will shut OFF SVM for the other modes. Each mode (Movie, Sports, etc.) has a separate adjustment memory. SERVICE MODE ITEMS: AXIS 0 Cleans up the red push & oranginess in the yellows VAPI 0 Sets vert resolution for 3-d comb filter (do this for all modes) VAPG 0 Sets vert resolution for 3-d comb filter (do this for all modes) NRLV 0~3 Find the value 0-3 that gives the best resolution VMLV 0 Scanning Velocity Modulation (SVM) OFF=0/ON=1 (do this for all modes) Y-DC 0 Improves BLACK background level retention DCOL 0,1 Color Temperature - Select either 0 or 1 whichever turns off the "blue tinted" whites. DPIX 0 Dynamic Picture AXPL 0 Cleans up Reds/Yellows GDRV 18 (GAMP) Green Amp. - (upper level) BDRV 14 (BAMP) Blue Amp. - (upper level) GCUT 4 Green Cutoff - (lower level) BCUT 1 Blue Cutoff - (lower level) R-YR 15 Sets the amount of RED R-YB 15 Sets the amount of RED

G-YR 11 Sets the amount of GREEN G-YB 9 Sets the amount of GREEN (8 or 10 may be closer) SHPF 3 This helps with the sharpness (S-Video) Setting R-YR and R-YB to 15 will greatly improve color accuracy and tone down the reds. Also, when Y-DC is changed from 1 to 0, DC restoration (black level retention) becomes almost perfect. Sometimes setting items G-YR to 11 and G-YB to 9 may need some more fine tuning using the SMPTE color bars w/gray reference [split bar pattern] (Frame VE-46673, AVS-14415 - NOTE: VE 46673 is mis-calibrated, use AVS-14415) See the section on Setting Tint & Color Level: Matching Gray Reference in the How to Calibrate a Television FAQ for the procedure on how to adjust these two settings. SONY "MODEL-ID" SETTINGS These ID setting are different for every chassis - in general here's what they control: ID-0 ID-1 Controls number of active video jacks. This controls video features. Allows notch filter (NOTC) to be turned off outside of service mode. ID-2 This sets up user interface features. Enables Spanish language menus. Allows naming of video inputs. ID-3 ID-4 Enables / disables Picture-In-Picture (PIP) support. Enables / disables Lumisponder option.

When IC 102 is replaced, these ID values must be reset. The values varies with model and chassis version.