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# 16.810 (16.

## - Structural Design Optimization

Instructor(s) Prof. Olivier de Weck deweck@mit.edu Dr. Il Yong Kim kiy@mit.edu

Design Optimization

Course Concept

today

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## Course Flow Diagram

Learning/Review

Deliverables
Design Sketch v1 Drawing v1 Analysis output v1 Part v1 Experiment data v1

Hand sketching CAD design FEM analysis Produce Part 1 Test Optimization

today

## Produce Part 2 Test

Final Review
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Wednesday

Experiment data v2

## What Is Design Optimization?

Selecting the best design within the available means

## 3. How do we describe different designs?

Design Variables

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Optimization Statement

## Minimize f (x) Subject to g (x) 0 h( x) = 0

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Constraints
- Design requirements
Inequality constraints Equality constraints

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Objective Function
- A criterion for best design (or goodness of a design)

Objective function

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Design Variables
Parameters that are chosen to describe the design of a system Design variables are controlled by the designers

## The position of upper holes along the design freedom line

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Design Variables
For computational design optimization, Objective function and constraints must be expressed as a function of design variables (or design vector X)

## Objective function: f (x)

Cost = f(design) Displacement = f(design) Natural frequency = f(design) Mass = f(design)

## What is f for each case?

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Optimization Statement

## Minimize f (x) Subject to g (x) 0 h( x) = 0

f(x) : Objective function to be minimized g(x) : Inequality constraints h(x) : Equality constraints x : Design variables

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Optimization Procedure
Minimize f (x) Subject to g (x) 0 h( x) = 0

START

## Determine an initial design (x0)

Improve Design
Change x

Computer Simulation

Converge ?
Y

## Does your design meet a termination criterion?

END

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Structural Optimization
Selecting the best structural design

## - Size Optimization - Shape Optimization - Topology Optimization

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Structural Optimization

## minimize f (x) subject to g (x) 0 h(x) = 0

BCs are given 1. To make the structure strong e.g. Minimize displacement at the tip Total mass MC Loads are given

## Min. f(x) g(x) 0

2.

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Size Optimization
Beams
minimize f (x) subject to g (x) 0 h(x) = 0

Design variables (x) x : thickness of each beam Number of design variables (ndv) ndv = 5
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## f(x) : compliance g(x) : mass

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Size Optimization

- Shape Topology

are given

## - Optimize cross sections

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Shape Optimization
B-spline
minimize f (x) subject to g (x) 0 h(x) = 0

## Hermite, Bezier, B-spline, NURBS, etc.

Design variables (x) x : control points of the B-spline (position of each control point) Number of design variables (ndv) ndv = 8
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## f(x) : compliance g(x) : mass

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Shape Optimization
Fillet problem Hook problem Arm problem

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Shape Optimization
Multiobjective & Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization
Objective function 1. Drag coefficient, Analysis 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis 2. Computational Electromagnetic Wave Field Analysis Obtain Pareto Front 2. Amplitude of backscattered wave

Raino A.E. Makinen et al., Multidisciplinary shape optimization in aerodynamics and electromagnetics using genetic algorithms, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 30, pp. 149-159, 1999

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Topology Optimization
Cells
minimize f (x) subject to g (x) 0 h(x) = 0

Design variables (x) x : density of each cell Number of design variables (ndv) ndv = 27
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## f(x) : compliance g(x) : mass

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Topology Optimization
Short Cantilever problem

Initial

Optimized

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Topology Optimization

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Topology Optimization
Bridge problem
Obj = 4.16105

Minimize Subject to

F i z i d ,

Obj = 3.29105

( x ) d M o ,
0 ( x) 1
Obj = 2.88105

## Mass constraints: 35%

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Obj = 2.73105

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Topology Optimization
DongJak Bridge in Seoul, Korea

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Structural Optimization
What determines the type of structural optimization?

## Type of the design variable

(How to describe the design?)

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Optimum Solution
Graphical Representation
f(x) f(x): displacement x: design variable

## Optimum solution (x*)

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Optimization Methods

Heuristic methods

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f(x)
You do not know this function before optimization

Stop!
x

No active constraints

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## Global optimum vs. Local optimum

f(x)

Local optimum

Local optimum

Global optimum

No active constraints

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Heuristic Methods
A Heuristic is simply a rule of thumb that hopefully will find a good answer. Why use a Heuristic?
Heuristics are typically used to solve complex optimization problems that are difficult to solve to optimality.

Heuristics are good at dealing with local optima without getting stuck in them while searching for the global optimum.

Schulz, A.S., Metaheuristics, 15.057 Systems Optimization Course Notes, MIT, 1999.

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Genetic Algorithm
Principle by Charles Darwin - Natural Selection

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Heuristic Methods
Heuristics Often Incorporate Randomization 3 Most Common Heuristic Techniques
Genetic Algorithms Simulated Annealing Tabu Search

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Optimization Software
- iSIGHT - DOT - Matlab (fmincon)

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## Topology Optimization Software

ANSYS
Static Topology Optimization Dynamic Topology Optimization Electromagnetic Topology Optimization Subproblem Approximation Method First Order Method

Design domain

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## Topology Optimization Software

MSC. Visual Nastran FEA
Elements of lowest stress are removed gradually.

Optimization results

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MDO

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## Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

NASA Nexus Spacecraft Concept
Centroid Jitter on Focal Plane [RSS LOS] 60 40 T=5 sec Centroid Y [m] 20 0 14.97 m -20 1 pixel

OTA

## Sunshield Instrument Module

0 1 meters 2 -40 -60 -60

Requirement: Jz,2=5 m
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 Centroid X [m]

Goal: Find a balanced system design, where the flexible structure, the optics and the control systems work together to achieve a desired pointing performance, given various constraints

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## Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

Aircraft Comparison

## Boeing Blended Wing Body Concept

Shown to Same Scale Approx. 480 passengers each Approx. 8,700 nm range each

Operators Empty Weight Maximum Takeoff Weight Goal: Find a design for a family of blended wing aircraft that will combine aerodynamics, structures, propulsion and controls such that a competitive system emerges - as measured by a set of operator metrics. Total Sea-Level Static Thrust Fuel Burn per Seat

BWB A3XX-50R

19%

BWB A3XX-50R

18%

19%

32%

Boeing

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## Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

Ferrari 360 Spider

Goal: High end vehicle shape optimization while improving car safety for fixed performance level and given geometric constraints

Reference: G. Lombardi, A. Vicere, H. Paap, G. Manacorda, Optimized Aerodynamic Design for High Performance Cars, AIAA-984789, MAO Conference, St. Louis, 1998

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## Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

Multidisciplinary System Design Optimization (MSDO)
Prof. Olivier de Weck Prof. Karen Willcox

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Genetic Algorithm

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Baseline Design
Performance Natural frequency analysis Design requirements

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Baseline Design
Performance and cost

1 = 0.070 mm 2 = 0.011 mm
f = 245 Hz m = 0.224 lbs C = 5.16 \$
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Baseline Design
245 Hz 421 Hz

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## Design Requirement for Each Team

# Product name Base line Family economy Family deluxe Cross over City bike Racing Mountain BMX Acrobatic Motor bike mass (m) 0.224 lbs 20% 10% 20% -20% -30% 30% 0% -30% 50% Cost (c) 5.16 \$ -30% -10% 0% -20% 50% 30% 65% 100% 10% Disp (1) 0.070 mm 10% -10% -15% 0% 0% -20% -15% -10% -20% Disp (2) 0.011 mm 10% -10% -15% 0% 0% -20% -15% -10% -20% Nat Freq (f) 245 Hz -20% 10% 20% 0% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% Qual ity 3 2 4 4 3 5 4 4 5 3 F1 (lbs) 50 50 50 50 50 100 50 75 100 50 F2 (lbs) 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 75 F3 (lbs) 100 100 100 75 75 50 50 75 100 100 Const Optim Acc

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

## c c m m c m 1, 2,f 1, 2,f 1, 2,f 1, 2,f

m m c c m 1, 2, f m m m c

## 1, 2,f 1, 2,f 1, 2,f 1, 2,f 1, 2,f c c c c m

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Design Optimization
Topology optimization
Design domain

Shape optimization

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Design Freedom
1 bar

= 2.50 mm

## Volume is the same.

2 bars

= 0.80 mm
17 bars

= 0.63 mm

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Design Freedom
1 bar

= 2.50 mm
2 bars

= 0.80 mm
17 bars
More design freedom (Better performance) More complex (More difficult to optimize)

= 0.63 mm
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## Cost versus Performance

17 bars
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1

Cost [\$]

2 bars

1 bar

1.5

2.5

Displacement [mm]

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## Plan for the rest of the course

Class Survey
Jan 24 (Saturday) 7 am Jan 26 (Monday) 11am

Company tour
Jan 26 (Monday) : 1 pm 4 pm

## Guest Lecture (Prof. Wilson, Bicycle Science)

Jan 28 (Wednesday) : 2 pm 3:30 pm

## Manufacturing Bicycle Frames (Version 2)

Jan 28 (Wednesday) : 9 am 4:30 pm Jan 29 (Thursday) : 9 am 12 pm

Testing
Jan 29 (Thursday) : 10 am 2 pm

GA Games
Jan 29 (Thursday) : 1 pm 5 pm

## Guest Lecture, Student Presentation (5~10 min/team)

Jan 30 (Friday) : 1 pm 4 pm

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References
P. Y. Papalambros, Principles of optimal design, Cambridge University Press, 2000 O. de Weck and K. Willcox, Multidisciplinary System Design Optimization, MIT lecture note, 2003 M. O. Bendsoe and N. Kikuchi, Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a homogenization method, comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng, Vol. 71, pp. 197-224, 1988 Raino A.E. Makinen et al., Multidisciplinary shape optimization in aerodynamics and electromagnetics using genetic algorithms, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 30, pp. 149-159, 1999 Il Yong Kim and Byung Man Kwak, Design space optimization using a numerical design continuation method, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 53, Issue 8, pp. 1979-2002, March 20, 2002.

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## Web-based topology optimization program

Developed and maintained by Dmitri Tcherniak, Ole Sigmund, Thomas A. Poulsen and Thomas Buhl. Features: 1.2-D 2.Rectangular design domain 3.1000 design variables (1000 square elements) 4. Objective function: compliance (F) 5. Constraint: volume

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## Web-based topology optimization program

Objective function -Compliance (F) Constraint -Volume Design variables - Density of each design cell

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## Web-based topology optimization program

No numerical results are obtained. Optimum layout is obtained.

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P 2P 3P

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## Web-based topology optimization program

http://www.topopt.dtu.dk

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