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EXPERIMENTAL BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF GLASS FIBRE EPOXY COMPOSITE LAMINATE

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by MUTHUKUMARAN.T (Reg.No:80810544005)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JAYARAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PAGALAVADI, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI-621014

ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

JUNE-2012

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that the project report titled EFFECT AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF WOVEN ROVINGS COMPOSITE LAMINATE is the bonafide work of MUTHUKUMARAN.T

(Reg.No:80810544005) who carried out the research under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this to any other candidate.

SIGNATURE Associate Prof.SURESH KUMAR.K Mr.VENKATACHALAM, HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT PROFESSOR Department of mechanical engineering mechanical Engineering

SIGNATURE

ASSISTANT Department of

JCET, Pagalavadi P.O., Tiruchirappalli District.

JCET, Pagalavadi P.O., Tiruchirappalli District.

CERTIFICATE OF EVALUATION COLLEGE NAME: TECHNOLOGY SEM & BRANCH: SUBJECT CODE S.N O JAYARAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND IV & MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING : MF 5251- PROJECT WORK TITLE OF THE PROJECT NAME OF THE SUPERVISER WITH DESIGNATION Mr.K.SURESH KUMAR Associate professor EXPERMENTAL BUCKLING MUTHUKUMARA ANALYSIS OF N.T GLASS FIBERReg.No:8081054 EPOXY 4005 COMPOSITE LAMINATES Head of Department of mechanical engineering JCET, Pagalavadi P.O., Tiruchirappalli District.

NAME OF THE STUDENT WHO HAS DONE THE PROJECT WORK

1.

Report of the project work submitted by the above student in partial fulfillment for the award of Master of Engineering degree in Manufacturing Engineering of Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli is confirmed to be the report of the work done by

the above student and then evaluated during the viva-voce examination.

Internal Examiner examiner Date: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

External

Date:

The success of any project work depends upon teamwork

and

co-

operation of many people. I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people whose support and guidance made this project a successful one. I wish to express my sincere thanks to our respected Chairman Er.M.SUBRAMANIAM,M.E., for providing us this golden opportunity. I hereby solemnly submit my earnest and humble thanks to our beloved Principal, Dr.N.KANNAN, M.S., Ph.D., Jayaram College of Engineering & Technology, Pagalavadi. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and profound thanks to Mr.K.SURESH KUMAR, M.Tech.,(Ph.D.,) Head of the department, for his guidance and invaluable suggestions. I wish to express my thanks to our coordinator and my Supervisor Mr.VENKATACHALAM, M.Tech.,(Ph.D.,) Assistant

professor, for having consented to this project and providing me with all necessary facilities with regard to this project. I wish to express my thanks to our staff members in Department of Mechanical engineering for providing me with all necessary guidance with regard to this project.

ABSTRACT Advanced composite materials are widely used in modern industrial fields such as aerospace, biomedical, civil, electrical, instrumentation, marine and mechanical engineering. The structural components made from the composite material systems possess outstanding advantages like reliable mechanical properties, durability, good corrosion resistance, low density, ease of handling and low manufacturing cost when compared to conventional materials. They also exhibit high impact resistance and good damage tolerance. These merits of composite structures draw the attention of scientists, engineers and researchers in contemporary research and development arena. Testing the buckling behavior of plates is a well-established method in research to find the stability of composite structures. Determination of buckling behavior of laminated composite plates subjected to in-plane loads is an important

consideration in the preliminary design of aircraft and launch-vehicle components. The sizing of structural sub-components of these vehicles is often determined by stability constraints. Composite plates with circular, square and rectangular cutouts are widely used as structural members in aircraft and launch-vehicle design. The holes provided in these members can be access holes, pass-through holes for any hardware or holes for windows and doors. In some cases, these holes are produced to reduce the weight of the composite structural components. In this study, buckling experiments were carried out on woven glass epoxy laminated composite plate specimens and the influence of different cut-out shapes, length to thickness ratio, orientation and aspect ratio are examined and determined experimentally. Clamped-free boundary condition is considered for all the experiments. These experiments were carried out on the woven glass epoxy laminated composite plates with circular, square and rectangular cut-outs. The thicknesses of plates were changed by increasing the number of layers. After the buckling experiments, comparisons were made between these two test results. These results show the effect of various cut-out shapes, orientation of fiber, length to thickness ratio and aspect ratio on the buckling load.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO 1 INTRODUCTION


1.1 1.2

PAGE NO.

Introduction Buckling

4 5 7 8 9 10 12

1.3 Short Column fail due to material failure 1.4 Buckling terminology 1.5 Buckling Load Factor 1.6 1.7 General buckling concept Stress Concentration

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY CHAPTER 3 17

AIM AND SCOPE OF STUDY

17

CHAPTER 4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS 4.1 General 4.2 Composite Material 4.3 Example of Composite Materials 4.4 Composite Materials: An Over View 4.5 Epoxies 4.6 Uses 4.7 Polyester Resins 4.8 Introduction of Tensile Testing 4.9 Tensile Specimens & testing machine Tensile specimen 4.10 Resin 4.11 Moulding preparation 4.12 Types of Hardener 4.13 Preparation of Epoxy & Hardener 42 40 41 41 40 40 41 41 41 39 39 40 40

4.14 Specimen preparation for glass fiber 4.15 Specimens 41

41

CHAPTER 5 TESTING 5.1 Universal Testing Machine 5.2 Stress-Strain Curves 5.3 Elastic versus Plastic Deformation 5.4 Machine setup 47 48 49 50 44 45 46

5.5 Compression Shear 5.6 Tension Shear 5.7 Structural vibration CHAPTER 6

GRAPHS AND RESULTS 6.1 Graphs 5.2 Results CHAPTER CONCLUSION CHAPTER 8 7 59 44 45

59

FUTURE SCOPE

61

CHAPTER REFERENCES CHAPTER

9 61 10 69

PHOTOGRAPHS

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO PAGENO 1.1

TITLE

Short columns fail due to material Failure 7

1.2 8 1.3

Long columns failure due to instability

Restraints have large influence on the critical buckling load 9

1.4 12 1.5 29 1.6

Some sample buckling shapes

Force flow around a sharp corner

Force flow around a corner low stress 32

concentration 1. 7 29 1.8

Force flow around a large notch

Force flow around a number of small notches:

low stress concentration 32 1.9 29 1.10 Force flow around a narrow projection low stress concentration 32 Force flow around a wide projection

FIGURE NO PAGENO 1.11

TITLE

Force flow around a sudden change in diameter in a shaft 7

1.12

Force flow around a stress relieving groove 8

4.1 9 4.2 12 4.3 29

Metal vs Composites

Tensile test specimen sample

Tensile specimen Plain

4.4

Tensile test specimen with special notch 12

(Circular) 4.5

Tensile test specimen with special notch

(Rectangular) 29 4.6 32 5.1 5.2 29 5.3 With circular notch specimen loading condition 29 5.4 With Rectangular notch specimen loading 32 Universal Testing Machine Plain Tensile specimen loading condition 29 All specimens (Nine nos)

condition 5.5 29 5.6 5.7

The phase of impact deformation

After breaking condition Plain

32

After breaking condition with Circular Notch 32

5.8 Notch

After breaking condition with Rectangular 32 TITLE

FIGURE NO PAGENO

6.1 7 6.2 7 6.3 7 6.4 6.5 7 6.6 6.7 7 6.8 7 6.9 7 6.10 7 6.11 7

Graph for sample specimen T1

Graph for sample specimen T2

Graph for sample specimen T3

Graph for sample specimen T4 Graph for sample specimen T5

Graph for sample specimen T6 Graph for sample specimen T7

Graph for sample specimen T8

Graph for sample specimen T9

Comparison graphs sample specimen-I

Comparison graphs sample specimen-II

6.11 7

Comparison graphs sample specimen-III

CHAPTER - 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION In many engineering structures such as columns, beams, or plates, their failure develops not only from excessive stresses but also from buckling. Only rectangular thin plates are considered in the present study. When a flat plate is subjected to low in-plane compressive loads, it remains flat and is in equilibrium condition. As the magnitude of the in-plane compressive load increases, however, the equilibrium configuration of the plate is eventually changed to a non-flat configuration and the plate becomes unstable. The magnitude of the compressive load at which the plate becomes unstable is called the critical buckling load. A composite material consist of two or more materials and offers a significant

weight saving in structures in view of its high strength to weight and high stiffness to weight ratios. Further, in a fibrous composite, the mechanical properties can be varied as required by suitably orienting the fibres. In such material the fibres are

the main load bearing members, and the matrix, which has low modulus and high elongation, provides the necessary flexibility and also keeps the fibres in position and protect them from the environment. Development of new applications and new composites is accelerating due to the requirement of materials with unusual combination of properties that cannot be met by conventional monolithic materials. Actually, composite materials are capable of covering this requirement in all means because of their heterogeneous nature. Properties of composite arise as a function of its constituent materials, their distribution and the interaction among them and as a result an unusual combination of material properties can be obtained . Laminated composites are gaining wider use in mechanical and aerospace applications due to their high specific stiffness and high specific strength. Fiberreinforced composites are used extensively in the form of relatively thin plate, and consequently the load carrying capability of composite plate against buckling has been intensively considered by researchers under various loading and boundary conditions. Due to the excellent stiffness and weight characteristics, composites have been receiving more attention from engineers, scientists, and designers. During operation the composite laminate plates are commonly subjected to compression loads that may cause buckling if overloaded. Hence their buckling behaviours are important factors in safe and reliable design of these structures

In view of difficulty of theoretical and numerical analysis for laminated structure behaviours, experimental methods have become important in solving the buckling problem of laminated composite plates. This work deals with buckling analysis of symmetrically and laminated composite plates under clamped -free clamped- free boundary condition. The effects on buckling load by cut out size, length/thickness ratio, ply orientation, and length/breadth ratio are investigated.

1.2 Buckling There are two major categories leading to the sudden failure of a mechanical component: material failure and structural instability, which is often called buckling. For material failures you need to consider the yield stress for ductile materials and the ultimate stress for brittle materials. Those material properties are determined by axial tension tests and axial compression tests of short columns of the material . The geometry of such test specimens has been standardized. Thus, geometry is not specifically addressed in defining material properties, such as yield stress. Geometry enters the problem of determining material failure only indirectly as the stresses are calculated by analytic or numerical methods. 1.3 Short columns fail due to material failure Predicting material failure may be accomplished using linear finite element analysis. That is, by solving a linear algebraic system for the unknown

displacements, K = F. The strains and corresponding stresses obtained from this analysis are compared to design stress (or strain) allowable everywhere within the component. If the finite element solution indicates regions where these allowables are exceeded, it is assumed that material failure has occurred.

Fig (1.1). Short columns fail due to material failure

The load at which buckling occurs depends on the stiffness of a component, not upon the strength of its materials. Buckling refers to the loss of stability of a component and is usually independent of material strength. This loss of stability usually occurs within the elastic range of the material. The two phenomenon are

governed by different differential equations [18]. Buckling failure is primarily characterized by a loss of structural stiffness and is not modeled by the usual linear finite element analysis, but by a finite element eigenvalueeigenvector solution, | K + m KF| m = 0, where m is the buckling load factor (BLF) for the mth mode, KF is the additional geometric stiffness due to the stresses caused by the loading, F, and m is the associated buckling displacement shape for the mth mode. The spatial distribution of the load is important, but its relative magnitude is not. The buckling calculation gives a multiplier that scales the magnitude of the load (up or down) to that required to cause buckling. Slender or thinwalled components under compressive stress are susceptible to buckling. Most people have observed what is called Euler buckling where a long slender member subject to a compressive force moves lateral to the direction of that force, as illustrated in Figure . The force, F, necessary to cause such a buckling motion will vary by a factor of four depending only on how the two ends are restrained. Therefore, buckling studies are much more sensitive to the component restraints that in a normal stress analysis. The theoretical Euler solution will lead to infinite forces in very short columns, and that clearly exceeds the allowed material stress. Thus in practice, Euler column buckling can only be applied in certain regions and empirical transition equations are required for intermediate length

columns. For very long columns the loss of stiffness occurs at stresses far below the material failure.

Fig (1.2). Long columns fail due to instability

There are many analytic solutions for idealized components having elastic instability. About 75 of the most common cases are tabulated in the classic reference Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain [1517], and in the handbook by Pilkey

1.4 Buckling terminology The topic of buckling is still unclear because the keywords of stiffness, long and slender have not been quantified. Most of those concepts were developed historically from 1D study. You need to understand those terms even though finite element analysis lets you conduct buckling studies in 1D, 2D, and 3D. For a material, stiffness refers to either its elastic modulus, E, or to its shear modulus, G = E / (2 + 2 v) where v is Poissons ratio. Slender is a geometric concept of a twodimensional area that is quantified by the radius of gyration. The radius of gyration, r, has the units of length and describes the way in which the area of a crosssection is distributed around its centroidal axis. If the area is concentrated far from the centroidal axis it will have a greater value of r and a greater resistance to buckling. A noncircular crosssection will have two values for its radius of gyration. The section tends to buckle around the axis with the smallest value. The radius of gyration, r, is defined as: r = (I / A)1/2, where I and A are the area moment of inertia, and area of the crosssection. For a circle of radius R, you obtain r = R / 2. For a rectangle of large length R and small length b you obtain r max = R / 23 = 0.29 R and r min = 0.29

b. Solids can have regions that are slender, and if they carry compressive stresses a buckling study is justified. Long is also a geometric concept that is quantified by the nondimensional slenderness ratio L / r, where L denotes the length of the component. The slenderness ratio is defined to be long when it obeys the inequality L / r > ( / k) (2E / y)1/2 where k is a constant that depends on the restraints of the two ends of the column. A long slenderness ratio is typically in the range of >120. The above equation is the dividing point between long (Euler) columns and intermediate (empirical) columns. The critical compressive stress that will cause buckling always decreases as the slenderness ratio increases. Euler long column buckling is quite sensitive to the end restraints. Figure shows five of several cases of end restraints and the associated k value used in both the limiting slenderness ratio and the buckling load or stress. The critical buckling force is F Euler = k 2 E I / L2 = k 2 E A / (L / r)2 So the critical Euler buckling stress is Euler = F Euler / A = k 2 E / (L / r)2 .

Fig(1.3) Restraints have a large influence on the critical buckling load

1.5 Buckling Load Factor The buckling load factor (BLF) is an indicator of the factor of safety against buckling or the ratio of the buckling loads to the currently applied loads. Table 121 Interpretation of the Buckling Load Factor (BLF) illustrates the interpretation of possible BLF values returned by SW Simulation. Since buckling often leads to bad or even catastrophic results, you should utilize a high factor of safety (FOS) for buckling loads. That is, the value of unity in Table 121 Interpretation of the Buckling Load Factor (BLF) should be replaced with the FOS value.

1.6 General buckling concepts Other 1D concepts that relate to stiffness are: axial stiffness, E A / L, flexural (bending) stiffness, E I / L, and torsional stiffness, G J / L, where J is the polar moment of inertia of the crosssectional area (J = Iz = Ix + Iy). Today, stiffness usually refers to the finite element stiffness matrix, which can include all of the above stiffness terms plus general solid or shell stiffness contributions. Analytic buckling studies identify additional classes of instability besides Euler buckling. They include lateral buckling, torsional buckling, and other buckling modes. A finite element buckling study determines the lowest buckling factors and their corresponding displacement modes. The amplitude of a buckling displacement mode, |m|, is arbitrary and not useful, but the shape of the mode can suggest whether lateral, torsional, or other behavior is governing the buckling response of a design

Fig(1.4) Some sample buckling shapes

1.7 STRESS CONCENTRATION


In developing a machine it is impossible to avoid changes in crosssection, holes, notches, shoulders etc.

A number of methods are available to reduce stress concentration in machine Parts. Some of them are as follows: 1. Provide a fillet radius so that the cross-section may change gradually. 2. Sometimes an elliptical fillet is also used. 3. If a notch is unavoidable it is better to provide a number of small notches rather than a long one. This reduces the stress concentration to a large extent. 4. If a projection is unavoidable from design considerations it is preferable to provide a narrow notch than a wide notch. 5. Stress relieving groove are sometimes provided

Fig(1.5) Force flow around a sharp corner with fillet

Fig(1.6) Force flow around a corner Low stress concentration

Fig(1.7) Force flow around a large notch

Fig(1.8) Force flow around a number of small notches: Low stress concentration

Fig(1.9) Force flow around a wide projection

Fig(1.10)Force flow around a narrow projection: Low stress concentration

Fig(1.11) Force flow around a sudden change in diameter in a shaft

Fig(1.12) Force flow around a stress relieving groove

CHAPTER - 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Fiber-reinforced composites are used extensively in the form of relatively thin plate, and consequently the load carrying capability of composite plate against buckling has been intensively considered by researchers under various loading and boundary conditions. Thus far, there have been numerous studies on the fabric woven composite laminated structures which find widespread applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace, biomedical, civil, marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling, good mechanical properties and low fabrication cost. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact resistance. The initial theoretical research into elastic flexural- torsional buckling was preceded by Eulers (1759) treatise on column flexural buckling, which gave the first analytical method of predicting the reduced strengths of slender columns, and by Saint-Venants 1855 memoir on uniform torsion, which gave the first reliable description of the twisting response of members to torsion. However, it was not until 1899 that the first treatments were published of flexural-torsional buckling by Michell and Prandtl, who considered the lateral buckling of beams of narrow rectangular cross-section. Their work was extended by Timoshenko to include the effects of warping torsion in I-section beams.

Most recently the invention of high-speed electronic computers exerted a considerable influence on the static and dynamic analysis of plates. Chen and Bert (1976) investigated optimal design of simply supported rectangular plates laminated to composite material and subjected to uniaxial compressive loading. Numerical results are presented for optimal-design plates laminated of glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and carbon/epoxy composite materials.

Linear elastic buckling of plates that are subjected to in-plane forces is a problem of great practical importance that has been extensively researched over the past 60 years. Elastic instability of flat rectangular plates became an important research area when the design of the lightweight airframes was introduced. Fok (1984), has been applied the theory of thin plates to engineering structures. Some advantages of thin-walled structures are high strength coupled with the ease of manufacturing and the relative low weight. However, thin-walled structures have the characteristic of susceptibility of failure by instability or buckling. It is therefore important to the design engineer that accurate methods are available to determine the critical buckling strength

Laminated plates with strip-type delamination under pure bending were investigated analytically and experimentally by Yeh and Fang (1997). In the analysis, a two dimensional nonlinear finite element code based on updated lagrangian formulation was developed to analyze the bending behaviour of the laminated plates and the local buckling phenomenon of the sub laminates in the delaminated region. The formulation includes large displacements and large rotations needed to describe the local buckling phenomenon of the delaminated region

Radu and Chattopadhyay (2000) used a refined higher order shear deformation theory to investigate the dynamic instability associated with composite plates with delamination that are subject to dynamic compressive loads. Both transverse shear and rotary inertia effects are taken into account. The theory is capable of modelling the independent displacement field above and below the delamination. All stress free boundary conditions at free surfaces as well as delamination interfaces are satisfied by this theory. The procedure is implemented using the finite element method

Buket Okutan Baba (2007) studied the influence of boundary conditions on the buckling load for rectangular plates. Boundary conditions consisting of clamped, pinned, and their combinations are considered. Numerical and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the effect of boundary conditions, length/thickness ratio, and ply orientation on the buckling behaviour of E-glass/epoxy composite plates under in-plane compression load. Buckling analysis of the laminated composites is performed by using finite element analysis software ANSYS. Tests have been carried out on laminated composites with circular and semicircular cutouts under various boundary conditions. Comparisons are made between the test results and predictions based on finite element analysis.

Pein and Zahari (2007) studied the structural behaviour of woven fabric composites subject to compressive load which is lacking. The main objective of this study is to carry out the experiment analysis for the 800gm woven glass-epoxy composite laminated plates with and without holes subjected to quasi-static compressive load. The ultimate load and the structural and material behaviour of the composite laminated plates under compression have also been studied. Finally, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of varying the fibre orientations and different central hole sizes onto the strength of the laminates

CHAPTER - 3 3.0 AIM AND SCOPE OF STUDY

Thus far, there have been numerous studies on the composite laminated structures which find widespread applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace, biomedical, civil, marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling, good mechanical properties and low fabrication cost. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact resistance. From the literature, it is evident that most of the studies are based on the numerical approach. Less attention has been paid on the buckling of composite plates. Due to the practical requirements, cutouts are often required in structural components due to functional requirements, to produce lighter and more efficient structures. Most stability studies of composite plates with cutout have focused on square plates under simply supported conditions to minimize the mathematical complexities. From the literature review it was found that most of the studies were focused on unidirectional fibre. Industry driven woven fibers are being increasingly used in many industries. Hence we have to give more importance on its structural behaviour. It also indicate that the interaction among stacking sequence, cutout shape and length/thickness ratio on the buckling behaviour of woven fiber laminated composites are needed to investigate in more detail. The aim of

performing this research is to extend the knowledge of the structural behaviour of woven fabric composites subject to compressive load which is lacking. The main objective of this study is to carry out the experiment analysis for the woven glassepoxy composite laminated plates with and without holes subjected to static compressive load

CHAPTER 4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS 4.1 GENERAL In recent times laminate composites have been increasingly utilized in such lightweight and high strength structured as ground transportation vehicles, aerospace and space structure. However composite material suffers from some serious limitation. The most significant among them is their response to impact loading. A structure is subjected to an impact force when a foreign object hits it. For instance, the loads imparted by dropped tool on the bonnet cover of car body, bird hit and runway debris on an aircraft engine are typical example of impact loads. The manner in which composite material respond to impact loading and dissipate the incident kinetic energy of the projectile is very different to that of metals. For low and intermediate incident energies of projectile, metals absorb energy through elastic and plastic deformation; its consequences on the load carrying capacity of the components are small. In case of composites the elastic deformations are the major outcome of the energy absorption while the plastic deformation is very minimal. But at high incident impact energies, target perforations may occur and the passages of the impact will generally result in

cracking, debonding and spalling. Such damage will degrade the load bearing ability of the composite structure. The impact property of a material is the capacity of the material to absorb and dissipate energies under shock loading. Impact condition may range from the accidental dropping of hand tools to high speed collisions and the response of the structure may range from localized damage to total disintegration of the structure. The present study is taken up to understand the response of fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates under low energy, and low velocity impacts to simulate the case of a cover plate, in an automobile engine of wing of an aircraft subjected to impact loading. The present study a drop weight impact testing machine is instrumented such that the load history during the impact can be recorded. Here the specimen itself is instrumented so that the actual deflection and hence the load experienced by the specimen cab be recorded. The commercially available impact testing machines are having the sensors provided to the drop weight which is susceptible foe sensor failure would give the impact force only. Further these sensors would require sensitivity to sense the impact force. High strain rate or impact loads may be expected in many engineering applications of composite materials. The suitability of a composite for such

application is therefore, determined not only by usual parameter, but also by impact or energy absorbing properties. Frequently, an attempt to improve the strength properties results in a deterioration of the impact properties. Thus it is important to have a good understanding of impact behaviour of composite for both safe and efficient design of structure and to develop new composite having well impact properties as well as good tensile properties. Severe stress and strain may develop at the point of impact, the study of which is known as the contact phenomena. So long as the stress is below the elastic limit, the deformation is reversible. Often the magnitude of the stresses may be so high that yielding, cracking or cratering may occur. The extent of damage depend not only on the intensity of impact and material behaviour, but also on the shape and the dimension of the bodies in the region of impact, their hardness and wave propagation properties. The different forms of damages that may occur are yielding, delamination, cracking, spalling and deformation. The elastic indentation takes place at low velocity impacts.Yeilding or cracking depends on whether the material is ductile or brittle.penertation is the entrance of one body into without completing its passage through the bod.perforation means complete piercing through the target. Impact load may arise in practical situations from variety of sources with a wide range of velocities, duration of contact, momentum and energy release. The

stress distribution, amplitude of vibration, pattern of wave propagation and the nature of load damages depend on parameter like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. velocity of the impactor duration of the impact mass and shape of the impactor target The distribution and intensity of force developed at the point of impact. 4.2 Composite Material A composite material is a combination of two or more materials which retain their identities as they act in concert. These materials are usually composed of reinforcement such as a fiber and a matrix such as a resin. Nylon, fiberglass and carbon fibers and polyester, acrylic and epoxy resins are the commonly used composite materials in prosthetics and orthotics. Several factors can greatly effect the strength and performance of composite materials. The adhesion at the interface between the resin and fiber, and the mechanical properties of the resin and fiber, greatly effect composite performance. The fiber length, orientation and ratio of fiber to resin, and processing techniques used to fabricate the composite also effect composite properties.

In this project the ratio of fibre glass and epoxy is 1:1 4.3 Examples of Composite Materials Nylon, fiberglass carbon fibers polyester, acrylic epoxy resins The first phase of my testing involved the tensile testing of composites (ASTM D 638). Commonly used fibers with varying orientations (fiberglass, nylon glass, and carbon fiber) were tested in combination with epoxy and acrylic resins. Standard resin transfer molding techniques used in orthotics and prosthetics were used to fabricate test samples. The Table-1 below displays the results of tensile testing. Advantages of Composite Materials: 1. Light weight 2. High strength 3. Toughness 4. Formability 5. Affordability

6. Corrosion resistance 7. Long life 8. Easy to change the properties 4.4 COMPOSITE MATERIALS: AN OVERVIEW Basic requirements for the better performance efficiency of an aircraft are high strength, high stiffness and low weight. The conventional materials such as metals and alloys could satisfy these requirements only to a certain extent. This lead to the need for developing new materials that can whose properties were superior to conventional metals and alloys, were developed. A composite is a structural material which consists of two or more constituents combined at a macroscopic level. The constituents of a composite material are a continuous phase called matrix and a discontinuous phase called reinforcement. Matrix gives shape and protects the reinforcement from the environment. It also makes the individual fibers of the reinforcement act together and provides transverse shear strength and stiffness to the laminated composites. The matrix factors which contribute to the mechanical performance of composites are transverse modulus and strength, shear modulus and strength, compressive

strength, inter-laminar shear strength, thermal expansion co-efficient, thermal resistance and fatigue strength. Reinforcement provides strength and stiffness and controls thermal expansion co-efficient. It also helps to achieve directional properties.

Reinforcements may be in the form of fibers, particles or flakes. The fiber factors which contribute to the mechanical performance of a composite are length, orientation, shape and material. The factor which influences the mechanical performance of composites other than the fiber and the matrix is the fiber-matrix interface. It predicts how well the matrix transfers load to the fibers. Composites are classified by 1. the geometry of the reinforcement as particulate, flakes and fibers 2. the type of matrix as polymer, metal, ceramic and carbon The most commonly used advanced composites are polymer matrix composites. These composites consists of a polymer such as epoxy, polyester, urethane etc., reinforced by thin-diameter fibers such as carbon, graphite, aramids, boron, glass etc. Low cost, high strength and simple manufacturing principles are the reason why they are most commonly used in the repair of aircraft structures.

Fig( 4.1 ) Metal Vs Composites 4.5 Epoxies Epoxies are polymer materials, which begin life as liquid and are converted to the solid polymer by a chemical reaction. An epoxy based polymer is mechanically strong, chemically resistant to degradation in the solid form and highly adhesive during conversion from liquid to solid. These properties, together with the wide range of basic epoxy chemicals from which an epoxy system can be formulated, make them very versatile. Epoxy systems physically comprise two essential components, a resin and a hardener. Sometimes there is a third component, an accelerator, but this is not so common. The resin component is the epoxy part and the hardener is the part it reacts with chemically and is usually a type of amine. Whereas the resin component is usually light, sometimes almost clear coloured and near odourfree,

hardeners are usually dark and have a characteristic ammonia-like odour. When these two components are brought together and mixed intimately in a prescribed way, they will react chemically and link together irreversibly, and when the full reaction has been completed they will form a rigid plastic polymer material. This polymer is called a thermoset plastic because, when cured, it is irreversibly rigid and relatively unaffected by heat. Epoxy polymers have many uses: as industrial adhesives, or as coatings, or as matrices in which to embed reinforcement fibres to form advanced reinforced plastics, and also as encapsulation media. The uses for epoxies span many markets including aerospace, transport, marine, civil engineering and general industry, and such is the versatility of epoxys chemistry that chemists are able to fine tune the formulations for a wide variety of specific tasks. Some epoxies, which are used as coatings, are dispersed in solvents, but the majority used for structural applications are solvent-free, and these are the types which require more care in their use and which are featured here. 4.6 Uses The resin and hardener are usually supplied as two liquids in separate containers. To bring about a reaction, not only must they be combined in exactly the right quantities relative to one another (ratio), but the individual molecules must be

brought into contact with one another by stirring, in order that the reaction is initiated and the cure can proceed. A little too much of either component will adversely affect the chemical link-up which is taking place (the cure) and the user will soon notice that the material has not gone off, the mix remaining softer than it should be. 4.7 Polyester Resins Epoxies must not be confused with another very common group of thermoset polymers, the polyesters, which although they may look similar, have a different curing mechanism involving the use of a catalyst. In a catalytic reaction, the liquid resin component reacts with itself to form the hard plastic polymer, but only when the catalyst has been added. Only a small amount of catalyst (usually 1-2%) is needed to start this type of reaction. Polyester resins characteristically have a smell of styrene which is both a 'solvent' for the polyester and a reactive component. The other component the user adds to initiate the cure reaction is added in very small volumes relative to the resin, which may be varied according to speed of reaction required. As this material is only a catalyst, the quantity added is not critical in the same way that a hardener is to epoxy resin and the two systems must be thought of as being completely different.

4.8 Introduction to Tensile Testing Tensile tests are performed for several reasons. The results of tensile tests are used in selecting materials for engineering applications. Tensile properties frequently are included in material specifications to ensure quality. Tensile properties often are measured during development of new materials and processes, so that different materials and processes can be compared. Finally, tensile properties often are used to predict the behaviour of a material under forms of loading other than uniaxial tension. The strength of a material often is the primary concern. The strength of interest may be measured in terms of either the stress necessary to cause appreciable plastic deformation or the maximum stress that the material can withstand. These measures of strength are used, with appropriate caution (in the form of safety factors), in engineering design. Also of interest is the materials ductility, which is a measure of how much it can be deformed before it fractures. Rarely is ductility incorporated directly in design; rather, it is included in material specifications to ensure quality and toughness. Low ductility in a tensile test often is accompanied by low resistance to fracture under other forms of loading. Elastic properties also may be of interest, but special techniques must be used to measure these properties during tensile testing, and more accurate measurements can be made by ultrasonic techniques.

4.9 Tensile Specimens and Testing Machines Tensile Specimens. Consider the typical tensile specimen shown in Fig. 1. It has enlarged ends or shoulders for gripping. The important part of the specimen is the gage section. The cross-sectional area of the gage section is reduced relative to that of the remainder of the specimen so that deformation and failure will be

Fig(4.2) Tensile Test Specimen Sample localized in this region. The gage length is the region over which measurements are made and is centered within the reduced section. The distances between the ends of the gage section and the shoulders should be great enough so that the larger ends do not constrain deformation within the gage section, and the gage length should be great relative to its diameter. Otherwise, the stress state will be more complex than simple tension. Detailed descriptions of standard specimen shapes are given in Chapter 3 and in subsequent chapters on tensile testing of specific materials. There are various ways of gripping the specimen, some of which are illustrated in Fig.4.2

The end may be screwed into a threaded grip, or it may be pinned; butt ends may be used, or the grip section may be held between wedges. There are still other methods. The most important concern in the selection of a gripping method is to ensure that the specimen can be held at the maximum load without slippage or failure in the grip section. Bending should be minimized.

4.10 RESIN

Resin is to transfer stress between the reinforcement fibers, act as a glue to hold the fiber together. Commonly used resin are: o Epoxy, polyester and vinyl ester o Epoxy LY556 is selected.

4.11 Moulding preparation Two rectangular mild steel plate having dimensions of 100mm 100mm x 4 mm.

Chromium plated to give a smooth finished as well as to protect from rusting.

Four beading are used to cover compress the fiber after the epoxy is applied. Bolt and nuts are used to lock the plate. 4.12 Types of hardener HY951 at room temperature. HT927 temperature ranging from 80C - 130C HT974 - temperature ranging from 70C - 80C HZ978 - temperature ranging from above 100C 4.13 Preparation of Epoxy and Hardener Epoxy LY556 and it mixed with Hardener HY951. Ratio of mixing epoxy and hardener is 10:1 4.14 Specimen preparation for glass fiber

The mould should be well cleaned and dry.

Release agent is applied.

The epoxy mixture is uniformly applied. First woven mat is laid into the moulded. Apply the resin on mat by brush. Second mat is laid to first mat Repeated the process up to 6 layers Mould is closed. 4.15 SPECIMENS

Fig(4.3) Tensile Specimens Plain

Fig(4.4)Tensile Specimens With Special Notch (Circular)

8 Fig(4.5)Tensile Specimens With Special Notch (Rectangular)

Fig(4.6) All Specimens

CHAPTER - 5 5.1 Universal Testing Machine The most common testing machines are universal testers, which test materials in tension, compression, or bending. Their primary function is to create the stress strain curve described in the following section in this chapter. Testing machines are either electromechanical or hydraulic. The principal difference is the method by which the load is applied. Electromechanical machines are based on a variable-speed electric motor; a gear reduction system; and one, two, or four screws that move the crosshead up or down. This motion loads the specimen in tension or compression. Crosshead speeds can be changed by changing the speed of the motor. A microprocessor-based closed-loop servo system can be implemented to accurately control the speed of the crosshead. Hydraulic testing machines (Fig. 5.1) are based on either a single or dual-acting piston that moves the crosshead up or down. However, most static hydraulic testing machines have a single acting piston or ram. In a manually operated machine, the operator adjusts the orifice of a pressure-compensated needle valve to control the rate of loading. In a closed-loop hydraulic servo system, the needle valve is replaced by an electrically operated servo valve for precise control.

5.2 Stress-Strain Curves A tensile test involves mounting the specimen in a machine, such as those described in the previous section, and subjecting it to tension. The tensile force is recorded as a function of the increase in gage length. Figure 4(a) shows a typical curve for a ductile material. Such plots of tensile force versus tensile elongation would be of little value if they were not normalized with respect to specimen dimensions. Engineering stress, or nominal stress, s, is defined as s _ F/A0 where F is the tensile force and A0 is the initial cross-sectional area of the gage section. Engineering strain, or nominal strain, e, is defined as e _ DL/L0 (Eq 2) where L0 is the initial gage length and DL is the change in gage length (L _ L0). When force-elongation data are converted to engineering stress and strain, a stressstrain curve that is identical in shape to the force-elongation curve can be plotted.

The advantage of dealing with stress versus strain rather than load versus elongation is that the stress-strain curve is virtually independent of specimen dimensions. 5.3 Elastic versus Plastic Deformation. When a solid material is subjected to small stresses, the bonds between the atoms are stretched. When the stress is removed, the bonds relax and the material returns to its original shape. This re versible deformation is called elastic deformation. (The deformation of a rubber band is entirely elastic). At higher stresses, planes of atoms slide over one another. This deformation, which is not recovered when the stress is removed, is termed plastic deformation. Note that the term plastic deformation does not mean that the deformed material is a plastic (a polymeric material). Bending of a wire (such as paper-clip wire) with the fingers illustrates the difference. If the wire is bent a little bit, it will snap back when released (top). With larger bends, it will unbend elastically to some extent on release, but there will be a permanent bend because of the plastic deformation (bottom). For most materials, the initial portion of the curve is linear. The slope of this linear region is called the elastic modulus or Youngs modulus: E _ s/e (Eq 3)

In the elastic range, the ratio, t, of the magnitude of the lateral contraction strain to the axial strain is called Poissons ratio: t _ _ey /ex (in an x-direction tensile test) (Eq 4) Because elastic strains are usually very small, reasonably accurate measurement of Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio in a tensile test requires that strain be measured with a very sensitive extensometer. (Strain gages should be used for lateral strains.) Accurate results can also be obtained by velocity-of-sound measurements (unless the modulus is very low or the damping is high, as with polymers).

Fig(5.1 ) Universal Testing Machine versible deformation is called elastic deformation. (The deformation of a rubber band is entirely elastic). At higher stresses, planes of atoms slide over one another.

This deformation, which is not recovered when the stress is removed, is termed plastic deformation. Note that the term plastic deformation does not mean that the deformed material is a plastic (a polymeric material). Bending of a wire (such as paper-clip wire) with the fingers illustrates the difference. 5.4 MACHINE SETUP

Fig(5.2)Plain Tensile Specimen Loading condition

Fig(5.3) with Circular Notch Specimen Loading condition

Fig(5.4) with Rectangular Notch Specimen Loading condition

5.5 COMPRESSIONSHEAR This is the early stage of penetration, where the projectile penetrates a very small thickness of the laminate. As the impactor moves through the composite,

the surrounding materials undergo compressionshear mode of damage.

Fig(5.5) The phase of impact deformation

5.6 TENSIONSHEAR This is the later stage of penetration, where the striker deforms the laminate under membrane tension. Subsequently, the projectile penetrates through the

composite and the deformed material undergoes tensionshear mode of damage. STRUCTURAL VIBRATION This is the end of the penetration process and the laminate is perforated. The striker goes through the composite plate under dynamic friction. The kinetic

energy gained by the composite laminate is dissipated through structural vibration and material damping.

Fig(5.6) After Breaking Condition Plain

Fig(5.7) After Breaking Condition With Circular Notch

Fig(5.8) After Breaking Condition With Rectangular Notch

CHAPTER 6 RESULTS AND GRAPHS 6.1 GRAPHS

Fig (6.1) Graph Sample Specimen T1

Fig (6.2) Graph Sample Specimen T2

Fig (6.3) Graph Sample Specimen T3

Fig (6.4) Graph Sample Specimen T4

Fig (6.5) Graph Sample Specimen T5

Fig (6.6) Graph Sample Specimen T6

Fig (6.7) Graph Sample Specimen T7

Fig (6.8) Graph Sample Specimen T8

Fig (6.9) Graph Sample Specimen T9

Comparison Graph Sample Specimen I

Fig(6.10)

Comparison Graph Sample Specimen II

Fig(6.11)

Comparison Graph Sample Specimen III

Fig(6.12)

6.2 Results

From the obtained results, concluded the plain specimen was given more strength compare than the circular and Rectangular notched specimen.

CHAPTER 7

CONCLULSION This study considers the buckling response of laminated rectangular plates with clamped-free boundary conditions. The laminated composite plates have varying L/T ratio, aspect ratio, cut out shape and ply orientation. From the present analytical , the following conclusions can be made. 1. It was noted that different length to thickness ratio affected the critical buckling load. The buckling load decreases as the L/t ratio increases. The rate of decrease of buckling load is not uniform with the rate of increase of L/t ratio. 2. As the aspect ratio increases, the critical buckling load of the plate decreases. When the aspect ratio changed from 0.5 to 1, the variation in buckling load is almost 24%. The rate of change of buckling load with the aspect ratio is almost uniform. 3. Due to making the special notches, the strength was reduced. 4. Also due to the notches, the weight of the specimen may be reduced. 5. It was seen that the different fiber orientation angles affected the critical buckling load. When the fiber angle increases, the buckling load decreases. 6. From the experimental work why the strength will reduce in special notches specimen.

CHAPTER 8

FUTURE SCOPE

In the present study the buckling load of the laminated plate was determined. The effect of cutout shape, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and fiber orientation on buckling load was studied. The future scope of the present investigation can be expressed as follows

Buckling analysis of delaminated industry driven woven composite plates with and without cutouts. Buckling analysis of laminated woven fiber composite plates with delamination by numerical approach for different boundary conditions Dynamic stability of woven fiber laminated and delaminated composite plates

CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES 1. PULTEX Design Guide, Creative Pultrusions, Alum Bank, PA, 1989. 2. Strongwell Design Manual, Strongwell, Bristol, VA, 1994. 3. Bedford RP Design Guide, Bedford Reinforced Plastics, Inc., Bedford, PA, 1993. 4. Bank, L. C., Flexural and Shear Moduli of Full-Section Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Pultruded Beams, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 17(1), 40-45, 1989. 5. Bank, L. C., and Yin, J., Buckling of Orthotropic Plates with Free and Rotationally Restrained Unloaded Edges, Thin-Walled Structures, 24 83-96 (1996). 6. Bank, L. C., Nadipelli, M., and Gentry, T. R., Local Buckling and Failure of Pultruded Fiber Reinforced Plastic Beams, J. Engineering Materials Technology, 116, 233237 (1994). 7. Bank, L. C., Yin, J., and Nadipelli, M., Local Buckling of Pultruded BeamsNonlinearity,

Anisotropy and Inhomogeneity, Construction and Building Materials, 9(6), 325331 (1995). 8. Barbero, E. J. and J. Tomblin, A Phenomenological Design Equation for FRP Columns with Interaction Between Local and Global Buckling, Thin-Walled Structures, 18, 117- 131, 1994. 9. Zureick, A. and D. Scott, Short-Term Behavior and Design of Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Slender Members under Axial Compression, ASCE\ Journal of Composites for Construction, 14, 140-149, 1997. 10. Galambos, T. V., Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, Column Research Council, 4th ed. John Wiley, New York, 1988 11. A K Sreevastva, R.K Singh. Effect of aspect ratio on buckling of composite plates-. Journal of Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 439-445 12. Buket Okutan Baba and Aysun Baltaci. Buckling characteristics of symmetrically and anti-symmetrically laminated composite plates with central cutout,- Applayed Composite Materials 14(2007):265276 13. C.W. Pein and R. Zahari. Experimental investigation of the damage behaviour of woven fabric glass/epoxy laminated plates with circular cut-outs subjected to

compressive force,- International Journal of Engineering and Technology, (2007)Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.260-265 14. Chavanan supasak, A comparison of experimental buckling load of rectangular plates determined from various measurement method-.Department of mechanical engineering,Bangok,(2006)18-20,2547 15. Chainarin Pannok and Pairod Singhatanadgid . Buckling analysis of composite laminate rectangular and skew plates with various edge support conditions. - The 20th Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand (2006)18-20. 16..David Roylance, Laminated composite plates, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, (2000) MA 02139. 17. D. Bucco and J. Mazumdar, Buckling analysis of plates of arbitrary shape, journal of Austral. Math. Soc. Ser. B 26 (1984), 77-91 8. E. A. Pieczyska, R. B. PecherskI and S.P. Gadaj . Experimental and theoretical investigations of glassfibre reinforced composite subjected to uniaxial compression for a wide spectrum of strain rates. Arch. Mech., 58 (2006), 3, pp. 273291.

CONFERENCE CERTIFICATE

TESTING CERTIFICATES

MANUFACTURING AND TESTING RELEVENT PROFF

MATERIAL USED FOR BONNDING

PREPARATION OF LAMINATION