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B. H.

Sri Hari
June 19, 2012

Introduction

For a continuous-time signal x(t), the Fourier transform X(j) is dened as

X(j) =

ala

.in
(1) (2) (3)

Sampling Theorem

x(t)ejt dt

The Fourier transform pair is denoted as

The bandwidth of a signal x(t) is dened as the highest positive frequency beyond which the Fourier transform of the signal is zero. If the bandwidth of a signal is nite, then it is called band-limited signal.

Sampling Theorem

If a signal x(t) is band-limited to B Hz, then the sampling theorem states that x(t) can be reconstructed from its samples provided the signal is sampled at a rate Fs such that

where FS =

1 is the sampling freuqency and Ts is the sampling interval (length between the consecutive samples). The Ts lower bound F s = 2B is called Nyquist rate. The unit for Fs is samples/sec. From (2), we see that Ts 1 2B

In words, we say for exact reconstruction, sampling rate should be at least 2B samples/sec or the sampling interval should 1 seconds. be at most 2B 2.1 Proof

Consider the spectrum of a bandlimited signal x(t) given in Fig. 1. The sampling process which is done in timedomain is, the multiplication of the continuous-time signal x(t) with a periodic impulse train with period Ts dened as

Ts (t) =

ww
k=

w. Bh
Fs 2B

(t kTs ), resulting in a sampled signal xs (t) given by

xs (t) = x(t)
k=

To see what happens in frequency domain, we have to digress for a while to talk about the Fourier transform of Ts (t) and the multiplication property of the Fourier transform. First of all let us see the Fourier transform of the periodic 1 , thus the impulse train. The Fourier series coecients for periodic impulse train can be found out easily as ar = Ts Fourier series representation is given by 1 j ( 2r )t Ts (t) = e Ts T r= s 1

up
(t kTs ) =
k=

x(t) X(j)

x(kTs )(t kTs )

2.2

Reconstruction Of The Signal

Sampling Theorem

B. H. Sri Hari

X(j) 1

2B

Figure 1: Spectrum of a band-limited signal with bandwidth of B Hz.

Noting that the Fourier transform of ej0 t is 2( 0 ), taking Fourier transform for the above equation we get FT {Ts (t)} = 2 Ts


r=

The multiplication theorem of the Fourier transform says that x(t)h(t) Applying this to Eq. (3), we get

1 [X(j) H(j)] 2

which graphically looks like

up
1 Ts Xs (j) 2B 2 2 2B Ts Ts

Xs (j) =

2 1 2r X(j) 2 Ts r= Ts

ala
= 1 Ts

2r Ts

.in
X 2r Ts (4)

2B

r=

2 + 2B Ts

2B

From the above it is clear that to avoid overlap of the spectra we require, 2 2B 2B Ts

By cancelling the common term 2 we get the result as given in Eq. (2), thus sampling theorem is proved. 2.2 Reconstruction Of The Signal

ww

From Fig. (1), it is clear that the spectrum is spread just from 2 to 2. But the spectrum of xs (t) has periodic replicas 2 of X(j) with period . Thus for extracting X(j) from Xs (j) (in time-domain, this is same as getting back x(t) Ts from xs (t)) we multiply Xs (j) with a rectangular pulse as shown in Fig. (2). This process is called low-pass ltering. Note that sin 2Bt rect t 4B The multiplication in frequency domain corresponds to the convolution of xs (t) and nally results as x(t) = xs (t) sin 2Bt 1 = t Ts

w. Bh
2

Figure 2: Spectrum of sampled signal.

sin 2Bt in time domain which t

x(kTs )
k=

sin 2B(t kTs ) (t kTs )

(5)

2.3

Aliasing

If the condition in Eq. (2) is not satised, the spectra in the Fig. (2) overlap and we call this as aliasing. www.Bhupala.in B. H. Sri Hari