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Introduction of Advanced Carbon-Oxygen Logging

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Key Features of RSTPro


New Spectral Standards Full Spectrum Calibrations Expanded Database Smoother Database Interpolation/Extrapolation High Precision Mode for Field Monitoring Detector Resolution Compensation for Windows Measurements New GeoFrame Based Processing (No more INCRES)

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Enhanced C/O Spectral Standards

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O Tool

RSTA Far Inelastic Standard Spectra

Si

Ca Counts (Arbitrary offsets)

Mg

Two Additional Inelastic Standards Mg & S More Accurate Tool Background Improved Technique for Removing Capture Background Reduced Positive Biases in Low Porosity.

Fe

4 5 Energy (MeV)

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Fan Chart Interpretation

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Lime, 6in. BH, 4.5in. / 10.5 lbm/ft Csg 1 Water in BH 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Oil in BH Database

Lime, 6in. BH, 4.5in. / 10.5 lbm/ft Csg 1 Water in BH 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Oil in BH Database
FCOR

FCOR

20 40 Porosity (p.u.)

60

20 40 Porosity (p.u.)

60

C/O Fan Chart for Former Standards

C/O Fan Chart for New Standards

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

C/O Response for Old and New Standards


C/O Responses: Old & New Standards 0.2
WaterSands (Old Stds) OilSands (Old Stds) Drained OilSands (Old Stds) DrySand (Old Stds) WaterSands (New Stds) OilSands (New Stds) Drained OilSands (New Stds) DrySand (New Stds)

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0.15

C/O Ratio (from spectral yields)

New 0.1 OilSands DrySand (Old) Old

0.05 Drained OilSands

Old

New 0 WaterSands New Old DrySand (New)

0.05 10

15

20

25 Porosity (p.u.)

30

35

40

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Full Spectrum Calibration Function


Sample RST Spectral Calibration Function 1.15
Formation 1 Formation 2 Formation 3 Formation 4 Formation 5 Formation 6 Formation 7 Formation 8 WaterTank

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1.1

Spectral Calibration Function

1.05

0.95

0.9

60

80

100

120 140 160 Energy (channel number)

180

200

220

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Database Measurements
1 .6 8 7 5 -in .
2

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C h a r a c te r iz a tio n s 1
Sandstone Formation 3 Porosities Limestone Formation 3 Porosities Casing Weight (lbm/ft) Formation 4 Fluid

2 .5 - i n .
Casing Size
2

C h a r a c te r iz a tio n s 1
Sandstone Formation Limestone Formation Casing Weight
3 3

Casing Size (in.)

Porosities

Porosities

Formation

Hole Size (in.)

Hole Size

Borehole 4 Fluid

Borehole W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

(lbm/ft)

4 .1 2 5

8 .5

10

12

OH 2 .8 7 5 3 .5 OH 2 .8 7 5 4 .5 5 5 OH 5 .5 6 7 OH 5 6 .6 2 5 7 7 OH 7 7 7 .6 2 5 7 .6 2 5 8 .6 2 5 9 .6 2 5 9 .6 2 5

n /a 6 .4 1 2 .7 n /a 8 .6 1 0 .5 1 1 .5 18 n /a 23 18 32 n /a 2 3 .2 20 23 32 n /a 23 32 2 6 .4 3 3 .7 36 3 2 .3 5 3 .5

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

M M M M M M M M

H H H H H H H H

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

M M M M M M M M

H H H H H H H H

Z M H Z Z Z Z Z Z Z M M M M M M M H H H H H H H

M M M M M Z Z Z Z Z M M M M M M M

H H H H H H H H H H H H

Z M H Z M H Z M H

W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O n /a n /a n /a n /a W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O W O

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

4 .1 2 5 6

OH 3 .5 OH 4 .5 5 5 OH 5 5 6 .6 2 5 7 7 OH 7 7 7 .6 2 5 7 .6 2 5 OH 8 .6 2 5 9 .6 2 5 9 .6 2 5 9 .6 2 5 10

n /a 1 2 .7 1 0 .5 1 1 .5 18 n /a 18 2 3 .2 20 23 32 n /a 23 32 2 6 .4 3 3 .7 n /a 36 3 2 .3 4 3 .5 5 3 .5 33

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

M H M H M M M M M H H H H H

M H M H M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H

W O W O W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Fluid

W O W O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

8 .5

10

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

M M M M M M M

H H H H H H H

12

Z Z Z

M M M M

H H H H

1 2 3

S h a d in g in d ic a t e s n e w d a t a b a s e m e a s u r e m e n t . O H = O p e n H o le Z = Z e ro (0 p .u .), M = M e d iu m ( 1 5 t o 2 0 p . u . ) , H = H ig h ( ~ 3 3 p . u . f o r s a n d , 3 8 t o 4 3 p . u . f o r lim e ) W = F re s h W a te r O = # 2 D ie s e l F u e l

1 2 3

S h a d in g in d ic a te s n e w d a ta b a s e m e a s u r e m e n t. O H = O p e n H o le Z = Z e ro (0 p .u .), M = M e d iu m ( 1 5 to 2 0 p .u .), H = H ig h ( ~ 3 3 p .u . fo r s a n d , 3 8 to 4 3 p .u . fo r lim e ) W = F r e s h W a te r O = # 2 D ie s e l F u e l

T a b le 2
RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Enhanced C/O

Fluid

(in.)

(in.)

Tool Accuracy

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C/O Method Far Yields (RST) Far Yields (RSTPro) Far Windows (RST) Far Windows (RSTPro) Near Yields (RST) Near Yields (RSTPro) Near Windows (RST) Near Windows(RSTPro)

Tool Tool Tool A B C (s.u.) (s.u.) (s.u.) 12.3 -1.3 14.4 2.3 4.2 -0.9 -3.1 9.0 -2.7 7.9 -1.3 -5.6 -7.5 18.5 3.5 15.2 -2.0 10.2 -0.6 6.6 1.5 8.2 -4.1

Tool D (s.u.) 21.5 1.9 20.8 4.7 16.0 7.1 19.1 -0.8

Tool Tool Tool Avg Abs Reduction Error vs in Error vs E F G ENP1 (s.u.) (s.u.) (s.u.) ENP1 (s.u.) 8.6 1.2 12.5 1.9 6.2 5.4 -2.4 -3.3 -9.1 -1.9 -5.9 -1.1 12.3 -1.3 -7.8 -6.5 -3.4 -1.1 5.3 0.6 13.5 8.8 -5.1 -3.8 10.00 1.46 10.16 1.63 7.44 4.46 9.06 2.66 73.4 % 55.4 % 83.7 % 85.4 %

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Gas Response

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C/O Bias in Gas Zones With and Without Gas Correction Logic

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Improvement in Accuracy and Precision

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Improved Precision of Identical Passes using Logos (RST) Processing and Enhanced C/O (RSTPro)

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Calibration Stability
Tool 34 Calibrations
1.10

Schlumberger

1.05

Gain

1.00

0.95

1996 Inelastic 1996 Capture 1997 Inelastic 1997 Capture 1998 Inelastic 1998 Capture Series7 Water Tank 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111 121 131 141 151 161 171 181 191 201 211 221 231 241 251

0.90

Channel

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

5 Pass Tool Precision with Standard Processing

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5 Repeat Passes Logged at 100 ft/hr. 9 7/8 Bit Size 7 29# Casing

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Core Vs Core Repeatability

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Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

5 Pass Repeatability with Recycled Alpha

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5 Passes Using the Same Tool with Recycled Alpha.

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

5 Passes 5 Tools

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Repeatability Test Using 5 Different Tools.

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

4 Passes 4 Tools

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Repeatability Test Using 4 Different Tools with Standard Processing.

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

4 Tools Calibrated Results

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4 Tools Processed Using Enhanced C/O techniques

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Reservoir Monitoring

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Oil Saturation Over 5 Years Vs Original Core Oil Saturation

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

C/O Derived Oil Saturation in the Kern River Field

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Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999

Conclusion

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RSTPro is a new generation C/O logging tool capable of making accurate and precise measurements in a wide variety of environments The number of database points for the RSTPro tool is nearly double the number of points available for the RST RSTPro makes use of the first full spectrum calibration for any tool in the industry resulting in an 85% improvement in accuracy over the RST Accuracy comparable to Coring.

Enhanced C/O

RSTPro Interpretation School 1999