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Group discussion

A way to dig out the best brain

P.Rajdeep(09-239) Y.Appala raju(09-237) P.Chandrika(09-238) P.Raghuveer(09-236) P.Dileep kumar(09-240) Naveen kumar reddy(10-202)


We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and our Head of department. We would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to our respected sir P.POULESH(associate professor of english ) for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project. We would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to our team members for giving such attention and time. We thanks and appreciations also go to my colleagues in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.


Group discussion is a non-formal friendly discussion in which each member of the group is expected to participate. It is a means to assess ones overall personality. It proceeds by means of a natural , friendly, spontaneous, purposive conversation between candidates on an interesting but debatable topic of current importance. It is a usually conducted without appointing any leader so that prospective candidates with leadership qualities emerge on their own and take charge of the proceedings. Group discussion is an important and essential part of the selection procedure in some of the government undertakings, multinational corporations, services selection boards, and other recruitment agencies. It is also a common feature of admission in management institutes. We are confident that this project shall equip one with the needed paraphernaliaviewpoints, intellectual traits, social and communication skills shall boost ones confidence, add poise and grace to ones personality and prepare one to handle any group discussion task successfully and tactfully for different jobs and for competitive examinations.


1) History..5 1.1)Epstein stages.5 1.2)Epstein four stage rocket.8 2) Introduction9 2.1)Importance of group discussion10 2.2)Skills used10 3) Types of group discussion11 3.1)Topic based group discussion12 3.2)Case based group discussion13 4) Classification of group discussion.16 5) During a group discussion18 5.1) Important points...19 6) Purpose of group discussion22 6.1) ground rules22 6.2)group discussion dynamics24 7) FaQ on group discussion.27 8) Group discussion tips.36 8.1)personality traits of group discussion.37 9) Dos and Donts in a group discussion..40 10) Group discussion preparation41 11) Group discussion mistakes.43 12) Group discussion general score sheet45

This is the original task designed by Epstein (1972) to improve discussion skills of any age group. There are some minor adaptations of the original version in the material presented.

Explain to the class that in order to prepare for the groupwork they need to learn what it takes to have a good group discussion. Divide the class into fiveperson groups. Give the groups a highly interesting task to discuss. (Two sample discussion tasks are given after this discussion.) The teacher circulates, listening' observing, and taking notes on examples of good and bad discussion technique. The groups are allowed to discuss for five minutes.

Practicing the four stages

After the pretest, hold a group discussion on what makes for good discussion and what the barriers are. Tell the class that they are going to practice four skills that are necessary so that a discussion can take off like a rocket (use an illustration of a rocket with four stages) by following the instructions given below.

Stage I, Conciseness-"Getting quickly to the point and not beating around the bush." Select a timekeeper who will watch the clock and keep time for the group. Keep on discussing the subject for five minutes. The timekeeper makes sure that each person talks for only fifteen

seconds. Stage II, Listening-"Paying attention to what is being said." Select a new timekeeper. Keep on discussing the same subject for five more minutes, again making sure that each person talks for only fifteen seconds. This time, however, each person must wait three seconds after the person before has spoken before he or she may speak. Stage III, Reflecting-"Repeating out loud to the group something of what the person before you has said." Select a new timekeeper. Keep on discussing the same subject, making sure that each person talks for only fifteen seconds and that he or she waits three seconds after the person before has spo- ken before he or she speaks. In addition, everyone who speaks must begin by repeating to the group something that was said by the person who spoke immediately before. This is called reflecting. The person who had spoken before has to nod his or her head to mean yes if he or she thinks this reflection is right. The new speaker may not continue until he or she correctly reflects what the person before has said. Stage IV, Everyone contributes-"All the people in the group have to speak" Select a new timekeeper. Keep on discussing the same subject for five more minutes. All previous rules apply, as well as a new one. No one may speak a second time until everyone in the group has spoken.

After each stage ask each timekeeper to report on how well their group did on the skill being practiced. The timekeeper may have other observations to make about how difficult it was and what happened. Remind the class why each skill is important.

Posttest :
Select a person as observer who has not yet had a chance to play a role like timekeeper. Hold five more minutes of discussion without having to observe the rules but trying to use the skills of conciseness, listening, reflecting, and contributions by everyone. Observers will note down every time they see good examples of each of these behaviors. You may want to create a scoring sheet. After the posttest, ask observers to tell what they observed. Also ask the whole class what were some of the differences between the pretest and the posttest. Note: Unless the class has had some previous experience with discussion, you will find that they will finish discussion tasks very rapidly. You will need to have alternative questions or tasks prepared.

STAGE III: Developing the Argument Dig deeply into the topic being discussed.After the first speaker of the round has made an argument, all contributors must stick to the same subject, developing and deepening the argument.

STAGE IV: Everyone Contributes

"All the people in the group have to speak."No one may speak a second time until everyone in the group has spoken.

STAGE II: Listening Pay close attention to what is being said.Each person must wait three seconds after the last person has spoken before he or she may speak.

STAGE 1: Conciseness Get to the point quickly and dont beat around the bush. The timekeeper makes sure that each person talks for only fifteen seconds. 8

Group Discussion like an interview is essentially a conversation, not as some consider, an argument. You could find yourself in a group discussion situation any where- informally in your club or peer group, talking casually about a film you liked, a hobby you pursue or a passion you have; or you could be a part of a formal group in your organization where you might be discussing some very important business strategy or trouble shooting. Most job seeking individuals, though, have come to associate GD with the methodology designed by employers to ascertain certain personality traits and skills.

What is a Group Discussion?

A Group Discussion is a method that is used to find whether the candidate possess certain qualities and skills that the organization is looking for. In this method, all the candidates are given with a topic or a scenario, given some time to think on the topic, and then they are asked to discuss about it among themselves for a certain period of time. The concept of Group Discussion has not been a part of the regular academic curriculum in Colleges and Universities. So, students usually face a lot of problem in this area of the Selection Process. Let us first understand why Group Discussion is conducted.

What is its importance?

Group Discussion has become a part of recruitment process in todays competitive world. It plays a very vital role in choosing the right candidate among the participants. It helps in the selection of the most socially suitable person for the position. Having high score in the academics, students those who get selected for the position may get equal priority. Even after considering their age, qualification, and their experience, sometimes they may be still on equal position. In this case, it is required to conduct additional screening for selecting a few candidates among all. Its here, Group Discussion helps choosing the best candidate among the best. As being not a part of academic curriculum in many universities and colleges, Group Discussion sounds like a problematic issue to students. They face a lot of discomfort during Group Discussion part of Selection Process. Most organizations today are very clear about the skills and knowledge that they look for in a candidate while screening. This was not the case a couple of years

ago. Group Discussion has been a part of the Selection process for admission into most of the top Business Schools. Earlier, some of the Pharmaceutical Companies like Ranbaxy, Glaxo, Cipla, Lupin, etc used to conduct Group Discussions as a part of their Screening Process for Selection of candidates as Medical Representatives. Most of the other companies also used to conduct GD while selecting candidates for marketing related Posts. Today, almost every company, (including TCS, SATYAM, WIPRO, INFOSYS, INFOTECH, ORACLE, CTS, CANBAY, POLARIS, etc) both IT and non-IT has GD as part of their Selection Process. Nowadays, most of the companies are clear about the knowledge and skills that they want in the candidate during screening. Earlier it was not like this, Group Discussion was only a part of admission processes of the top ranked Business Schools. Few other companies used to follow Group Discussion in order to select candidates for the marketing posts. But, today, all the IT and Non-IT companies are conducting Group Discussion as the part of their selection process for most of the positions.


The following are the skills which are typically assessed during a Group Discussion: 1) Communication Skills 2) Leadership Skills 3) Interpersonal Skills 4) Assertiveness 5) Initiative 6) Flexibility 7) Team Building Skills 8) Motivational Skills 9) Presentation Skills 10) Listening Skills 11) Ability to Tolerate 12) Tolerance to Ambiguity 13) Divergent Thinking 14) Analytical / Logical skills So, it's important to assess your current strengths in all these areas and accordingly put efforts to strenthen your weaknesses.


Types of group discussion:

Group Discussions are divided into two broad categories based on the topic / issue given for discussion. Topic-based Group Discussions, and Case-based Group Discussions (also called Case Studies). In topic-based Group Discussions, the group discusses a topic that is typically in the form of a statement. By the end of the discussion, the group should strive to arrive at a consensus on the issue that is covered by the topic In case studies, a short description of a situation is given to all the participants. The participants have to study the case, analyse the problem, and then discuss their views about the possible solution to the problem with the other members of the group.






Topic-based Group Discussion: In a topic-based group discussion either one topic of any type- factual, controversial, or abstract- is given or multiple topics of the same nature are given. Where a single topic is given, the candidates start discussion after composing their ideas. Where multiple topics (2-3 in number) are given, the candidates are expected to arrive at a topic through consensus or majority votes depending on the outcome the group deliberation. The basic logic behind multiple topic system is to test the candidates ability to arrive at a definite conclusion after their deliberation. This logic has been drawn from actual work practices. At the workplace, group of employees either from the same department or from different departments of an organization is expected to arrive at a conclusion on the issue of their discussion; cannot go discussing the issue indefinitely. Due to this reason, multiple topics system scores over single topic system. However, since multiple topics system is more time-consuming, only few organizations adopt this system. In group discussions, topics may be factual, controversial, or abstract.

Topic-based is further divided into three types, Factual Topics, Controversial Topics, and Abstract Topics
1. Factual Topics: As the name says, it is based on the practical things that an ordinary man has knowledge in his daily life. Usually these are of socio-economic topics. A factual topic in a discussion offers a chance to the candidate to prove himself that he is sensitive to and aware of his environment. Factual topics are those which contain facts of certain phenomena, for example, education status in India, public sector in India, and so on. Topics may relate to those phenomena which might be in news recently or these may be unibound by time. A factual topic for group discussion provides an opportunity to the candidates to prove that they are sensitive to their environment and are aware about what is happening in the environment. E.g. Education System in India , Indian Tourism. 2. Controversial topics: Controversial topics are those which are argumentative as opinions of group members may differ considerably. Such topics may be in the form of questions, for example, should reservation of any type be removed? Or does liberalization of economy lack human face? These topics may be in the form of statements, for example, the topics mentioned above may be in the form of reservation of any type should be abolished or liberalization of Indian economy lacks human face. The idea behind giving such a topic is to evaluate how much maturity the candidates show in discussing the topic, how they react if their

argument has counter-arguments, and what type of rational and non-emotional stand they take. Such topics are more common in group discussion. Controversial Topics are argumentative type. These are meant to bring controversy. When these type of topics are given in a group discussion, you will observe a high noise level in the discussion. Usually these topics are given to analyze how much a candidate is mature enough to control his temper, and how he still continues the argument logically and rationally. E.g. Girls do well in the academics, Reservations should be removed, Women make better manager. 3.Abstract Topics: Abstract topics relate to intangible things. On the surface level, such topics do not make much sense, for example, z is the last alphabet of English language, we get what we give, etc. Generally, such topics are not very common in group discussions. These are about indefinable things. Mostly these topics are not given for a group discussion, still there is a possibility. Abstract topics help the interviewer to test the creativity and lateral thinking of the candidate. Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity. E.g. B is an alphabet, The number 9, Twinkle twinkle little star.

Case-based Group Discussion:

Instead of giving a topic, a small case with leading questions at the end is given to the candidates. Discussion of various questions is based on the facts presented in the case. A case is a written description of a situation or event containing information about its numerous facets; its history, type of problem, factors causing the problem, etc. Case-based group discussion tries to evaluate problem-solving approach that is defining problem correctly, generating various alternatives to solve the problem, evaluating the worth of each alternative, suggesting the best available alternative through which the problem can be solved. The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The objective in the case study is to get you to think about the situation from various angles. Here a case is used instead of a topic. The case study usually suggests a real-life scenario. You will be given with the information about the situation, and as a group you will be asked to resolve the situation. The idea of this type of group discussion is to make you think about the case study from various angles. Since a problem can be solved by more than one way, there may be divergence of solutions presented by different candidates. Evaluators do not evaluate whether a candidate has suggested correct or incorrect solutions as there is nothing like

incorrect or perfect solutions of a problem but they evaluate him on the basis of how he has approached to the problem and its solution. Case-based group discussions are very common in selecting candidates for jobs. Few educational institutions also prefer case-based group discussions for selecting candidates for admission to professional courses like MBA. In the case of other educational institutions, case-based group discussions are not very common.

In topic-based Group Discussions, what types of topics will be given?

Knowledge-based topics: are such that you need to have some knowledge
about the topic to be able to speak on the topic. An example for this type of topics is "India should withdraw from WTO".

Economic topics: A significant proportion of the topics given by a number of

organisations is based on Economics, either pertaining to India or international in dimension. Topics like "India should slow down the pace of Liberalisation" or "The economics of technology-driven systems do not help developing nations". You should be familiar with critical economic indicators such as GDP, the plan outlay, sectoral allocations from the budget, trade and fiscal balances, export & import items and values, banking concepts, and interest rates, stock indices, etc.

Social topics: Topics like "Dowry continues to haunt Indian brides" or

"Education should become a fundamental duty", etc., are examples of social topics. While discussing social topics, you should be clear about both the 'generic' nature of the topic and the 'specific' manifestations of the social issue.

Political topics: If a given topic is "Coalition politics in a poor country like India
is a drain on the national Economy," you need to know the nature of coalition politics, the political and social ramifications, the economic fall-out of coalition politics, and the economic problems of India as affected by the political state of affairs.

Sports / Films-related topics: Recently concluded tournaments / cups like

the Olympic Games can be the subject matter for a number of GD topics. The topics may be direct and encompass the discipline in general like "Should India announce a Sports holiday?" or they could be specific to a particular game like "Indian cricket has reached the point of no return". The topic could be interdisciplinary in nature like "Too much of consumer time and money is spent on cricket. This is leading to wastage of national resources".


IT-based: "We need more money to fertilise crops rather than to increase
bandwidth" or "The IT bubble has finally burst - even in India". Ideas like egovernance and networking are all potential topics.

Abstract Topics are such that you do not really need any knowledge about the
topic to speak on the topic. Your worldly knowledge and common sense will help you in speaking on the topic. Topics like "The farther we look the closer we are" and "Poverty and richness will eventually mean the same" are examples of abstract topics. Abstract topics can be best discussed using appropriate exemplification. For current issues, you should go through good magazines - of the last 8 to 10 months. This should include at least one business magazine (Business India, Business Today or Business world) and one general magazine (India Today, Outlook, Frontline, etc.). Your focus should be on the "why and how" rather than on the "when and where" of the issues.



SPEAKING GROUP DISCUSSION CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CAREGORIES: 1)Structured and Unstructured Group Discussion : Now-a-days most of
the selectors stick with structured form of Group Discussion. Structured Group Discussion is a style where topic is thrown to the candidates by the selectors. On the contrary, in unstructured Group Discussion candidates themselves have to decide the topic with mutual consent. Unstructured Group Discussion is rarely being used today. We will focus only on structured group form of Group Discussion. However, for better comprehension we will also include a specific situation where the Group has to select a topic.

2)Chairman type of Group Discussion : Normally a Group Discussion is of

egalitarian nature, where a;; candidates are being treated equally. The idea is to find a natural leader in the group. But in the chairman type of Group Discussion a candidate s nominated as the chairperson. The chairperson of the group can also be elected by the members of the group.


3)Role Play: In this type of Group Discussion candidates are given a

problematic situation. Each candidate in the group is then assigned a specific role or character to play. They need to solve the problem. For example, a situation could be given where in a spacecraft is wrecked on the moon with nine people ( or as many people as there are group members ) stranded. All nine people are described usually by occupation. There is small spacecraft available which can carry back only one person to safety. Each person is assigned the role of one of those nine stranded persons and has to persuade the rest of the group as to why he should be the one allowed to return the earth in the smaller spacecraft and act according to their characters.



Whenever you are in a face to face group discussion be confident, understand the topic and then put on your views. At times, we jump into a discussion without bothering much about the subject matter, thats where we go wrong! Well, a very important factor that you must keep an eye on is your confidence. In order to face a group discussion and make a stand at it, you must do the following things - Have a basic knowledge about your area of interest. - Prepare well about the possible questionnaires. - Do a little bit research on the subject matter before going on to a discussion. - Be clear in your thoughts and communicate your point well. - Avoid being harsh or imposing your point on some one. You may keep your point in front of others by giving it subsequent evidence but, cannot tell others to believe it. - Be strong in your voice yet polite in your execution of words. - If you keep these few tips in mind, you surely will crack the face to face group discussion in a more apt way. - Also, once you appear in a G.D you might feel a bit nervous. But, do not let that stress you out, relax, take a deep breathe, feel confident and take it on! If you believe in yourself and have a basic knowledge of the topic, you can easily bring out your view point in front of everyone else. - Even if you get a topic that you are not familiar with, try and think about it, make out the possible points of discussion and go on! In either case, whatever you speak should be valid and make sure to speak out in full poise.


What are the important points during a Group Discussions ? A group discussion consists of: 1) Communication Skills 2) Knowledge and ideas regarding a given subject 3) Capability to co-ordinate and lead 4) Exchange of thoughts 5) Addressing the group as a whole 6) Thorough preparations

1) Communication Skills:
The first aspect is one's power of expression. In a group discussion, a candidate has to talk effectively so that he is able to convince others. For convincing, one has to speak forcefully and at the same time create an impact by his knowledge of the subject. A candidate who is successful in holding the attention of the audience creates a positive impact. It is necessary that you should be precise and clear. As a rule evaluators do not look for the wordage produced. Your knowledge on a given subject, your precision and clarity of thought are the things that are evaluated. Irrelevant talks lead you nowhere. You should speak as much as necessary, neither more nor less. Group discussions are not debating stages. Ability to listen is also what evaluators judge. They look for your ability to react on what other participants say. Hence, it is necessary that you listen carefully to others and then react or proceed to add some more points. Your behavior in the group is also put to test to judge whether you are a loner or can work in a group. You should be able to convey your thoughts satisfactorily and convincingly before a group of people. Confidence and level headedness in doing so is necessary. These add value to your presentation. In case you are not good at it, you might gain by joining an institute that offers specialized courses in public speaking. For instance, British Council Division's English Language Teaching Centre offers a wide range of courses like conversation skills, business communication skills, business writing, negotiation skills and presentation skills. Mostly people attend these courses to improve their communication skills. Students here are involved in activities which use communication skills and teachers provide inputs, monitor and facilitate the classes. The course at the

Centre makes you confident enough to speak before people without any nervousness.

2) Knowledge and Ideas Regarding a Given Subject:

Knowledge of the subject under discussion and clarity of ideas are important. Knowledge comes from consistent reading on various topics ranging from science and technology to politics. In-depth knowledge makes one confident and enthusiastic and this in turn, makes one sound convincing and confident.

3) Leadership and Coordinating Capabilities:

The basic aim of a group discussion is to judge a candidate's leadership qualities. The examiner withdraws and becomes a silent spectator once the discussion starts. A candidate should display tactfulness, skill, understanding and knowledge on varied topics, enterprise, forcefulness and other leadership qualities to motivate and influence other candidates who may be almost equally competent.

4) Exchange of Thoughts:
A group discussion is an exchange of thoughts and ideas among members of a group. These discussions are held for selecting personnel in organizations where there is a high level of competition. The number of participants in a group can vary between 8 and 15. Mostly a topic or a situation is given to group members who have to discuss it within 10 to 20 minutes. The purpose is to get an idea about candidates in a short time and make assessments about their skills, which normally cannot be evaluated in an interview. These skills may be team membership, leadership skills, listening and articulation skills. A note is made of your contributions to the discussion, comprehension of the main idea, the rapport you strike, patience, assertion, accommodation, amenability, etc. Body language and eye contact too are important points which are to be considered. .

5) Addressing the Group as a Whole:

In a group discussion it is not necessary to address anyone by name. Even otherwise you may not know everyone's names. It better to address the group as a whole. Address the person farthest from you. If he can hear you everyone else too can. Needless to add, as for the interview, attend the group discussion in formal dress. The language used should also be formal, not the language used in normal

conversations. For instance, words and phrases like "yar", "chalta hai", "CP", "I dunno", etc. are out. This is not to say you should use a high sounding, pedantic language. Avoiding both, just use formal, plain and simple language. Hinglish, (mixture of Hindi and English) should be discarded. Confidence and coolness while presenting your viewpoint are of help. See that you do not keep repeating a point. Do not use more words than necessary. Do not be superfluous. Try to be specific. Do not exaggerate.

6) Thorough Preparation:
Start making preparations for interview and group discussions right away, without waiting till the eleventh hour, this is, if and when called for them. Then the time left may not be adequate. It is important to concentrate on subject knowledge and general awareness. Hence, the prime need for thorough preparation. Remember, the competition is very tough. Only 460 candidates make it to the final list from 2.75 lakh civil service aspirants each year. It may so happen that you are called for interviews and group discussions from three or four organizations but are not selected by any. The reason obviously lies in your not being well-prepared. In a group discussion you may be given a topic and asked to express your views on it. Or in a case study GD, students have to read a case study and suggest ways of tackling the problem. For this you should have a good general knowledge, need to be abreast with current affairs, should regularly read newspapers and magazines. Your group behavior and communication skills are on test, i.e. how you convince the others and how clearly you are able to express your points of view. You should be articulate, generate ideas, not sound boring, should allow others to speak, and adopt a stand on a given subject. During the course of the GD this stand can even be changed, giving the impression that you are open to accommodate others' viewpoints.


Purpose of group discussion: Groundrules:

Well-managed groups have clear ground-rules agreed on by all members at the beginning of the group assignment. A few examples of these ground-rules might be: Group members will treat each other with courtesy. Every group member will contribute to the best of their ability. Timelines for assignments will be closely adhered to. Everyone is encouraged to express their own opinion and to seriously consider the opinions of others. A timetable for out-of-class meetings will take into consideration the preferences and other commitments of all members. All members will attend out-of-class meetings. Cultural differences will be respected and members will make the effort to understand the cultural conventions of others. By discussing and setting ground-rules early in the assignment process, groups save time and avoid misunderstandings later.

Why do we have group discussion?

Group discussion allows you to exchange information and ideas and gives you the experience of working in a team. In the work place, discussions enable management to draw on the ideas and expertise of staff, and to acknowledge the staff as valued members of a team. Reasons for having a GD It helps you to understand a subject more deeply. It improves your ability to think critically. It helps in solving a particular problem. It helps the group to make a particular decision. It gives you the chance to hear other students' ideas. It improves your listening skills. It increases your confidence in speaking. It can change your attitudes. Strategies for Improving GD Skills for Tutorials & Seminars Asking questions and joining in discussions are important skills for university

study. If you find it difficult to speak or ask questions in tutorials, try the following strategies.

What can I get out of group discussion?

Some advantages of group discussion are: Ideas can be generated. Ideas can be shared. Ideas can be 'tried out'. Ideas can be responded to by others. When the dynamics are right, groups provide a supportive and nurturing environment for academic and professional endeavour. Group discussion skills have many professional applications. Working in groups is fun!


Group discussion dynamics: Group Enterprise roles

Group enterprise roles are the behaviours needed to achieve a particular performance goal or purpose; the focus is on the success of an enterprise of some kind. Useful roles are: Initiator - gets the discussion started Information seeker - asks relevant questions about the discussion topic Information giver - suggests possible answers, gives relevant information Procedure facilitator - takes notes and keeps the discussion on-track Opinion seeker - encourages group members to speak out Opinion giver - shares thoughts, ideas, and opinions with the group Clarifier - keeps track of the discussion and identifies what needs to be done next Summariser - draws together the main points of the discussion EXAMPLE: Here is the dialogue that might accompany these enterprise roles in a group discussion on the topic of environmental responsibility of Australian companies. Initiator: "Let's take a local perspective on environmental responsibility. Maybe a fast-food outlet?" Information seeker: "Does anyone know what Bentley Beta Burgers does with its garbage? Does it recycle?" Information giver: "They won a local government award last year for running an environmentally friendly operation." Procedure facilitator: "I'll write this down to keep track of our discussion." Opinion seeker: "Do you think they're really responsible or is it just a bit of good PR?" Opinion giver: "I think it's a combination of the two, but at least they're taking the issue seriously." Clarifier: "We need to get hold of Betta Burgers' annual report to get a better picture of what they're doing."


Summariser: "O.K. We're taking a local perspective, using Bentley Betta Burgers as our example, and we'll have a look at last year's annual report to see in what way they practised environmental responsibility."

Group development roles:

Group development roles are the behaviours needed to develop cohesion the group; the focus is on the relationship between group members. Useful roles are: social supporter, harmoniser, tension reliever, energiser, compromiser, gatekeeper. These become particularly important as the discussion develops and opposing points of view begin to emerge. EXAMPLE: Here is the dialogue that might accompany these development roles in a group discussion about 'environmental responsibility of Australian companies'. Social Supporter: "We're coming up with some good ideas here." Harmoniser: "Jane and Tsen have looked at the issue from opposing points of view. Let's see if we can take something from both points of view." Tension Reliever:"This discussion's really dynamic. It's good that we have so many different valid angles on the issue." Energiser: "Hey, the point that Ahmed made has really got me thinking. Let's explore his idea some more." Compromiser: "Half the group supports Jane's view and half supports Tsen's. Now we need to formulate a compromise that we can all live with." Gatekeeper: "How do you feel about the issue, Greg? Your contribution here would be really valuable. During an effective group discussion each participant may take up a number of enterprise and maintenance roles to keep the discussion moving productively.

Disfunctional roles:
As well as these positive roles, there are a number of dysfunctional roles which are SOMETIMES taken up in group discussion. You should avoid taking up these roles yourself and learn to identify them in other group members. The discussion group may adopt the ground-rule that dysfunctional role behaviour will be censured by members of the group.

Described below are some dysfunctional roles to be avoided. Disgruntled (non)participant: Someone who does not contribute and whose presence inhibits the participation of other group members. Attacker: someone who acts aggressively by expressing disapproval of other members and their contributions to the discussion. Dominator: someone who takes control of the discussion by talking too much, interrupting other members, or behaving in a patronising way. Clown: someone who 'shows off', refuses to take the discussion seriously, or disrupts it with inappropriate humour. Social loafer: someone who puts in less than 100% effort when they work in a group, assuming that the combined group effort will carry them.



Q1. How should I take my chance to Speak? Ans. It sometimes happens in GD exercise that a candidate starts speaking and taking too long. I such a case, there is nothing wrong in interrupting him politely. He can well be told that he must keep his speach brief as it is in the interest of not only himself but also the group as a whole. But don't ever interrupt a fellow if he is taking proper time or there is sufficient time left for the remaining candidates. The point is, your interruption should not be taken as unnecessary but not interrupting a fellow, unable to raise voice against wrong actions. As soon as the speaker finishes his speach, you can take it from him but not in such a hurry as if you are not caring for the rights of other fellows. Keep in mind that you are to demonstrate your leadership qualities and try to systematize the flow of GD. If, possible, the members should be asked to create a consensus and speak in ascending or descending order. In this way, everybody will have his chance and you will also get your chance to speak. Q2. How do I communicate in a GD Ans. Speak politely, briefly and to the point. Your arguments should be fact based and consice. Your tone should reflect your confidence, assertiveness and a convincing way. The average duration of the GD provides an average of about 2-3 minutes per participation to speak and you should try to speak about 3-4 times. Also remember not to be upset if anybody tries to object or interrupt you, keep patience. Q3. How do I communicate in a GD? Ans. A number of candidates think that in GD the group should reach a consensus. It should be understood well that some of the topics have been eternal debates and there is no way you can get a consensus in 25 minutes. The objective is not to reach a consensus but conclude the discussion smoothly where everyone contributes


within prescribed time limit. just put forth your views logically, based on facts in a polite and assertive manner, nothing more. Q4. How to make a first good impression Ans. You cn make a first good impression with your content and communication skills when you initate a GD. But if you fumble/stammer/stutter and quote wrong facts and figures, the damage mught be irreparable. Most of the candidates feel that initiating a GD is a good way to create first noticeable impression. They are right but as advised you earlier, initiating GD is a risky game. When you start a GD, you should put it through the right perspective and try to get a concluded smoothly. So initiate only if you have thorough knowledge of the topic. There are various ways and techniques to initiate a GD and make a good first impression. (i) Quotes/Proverbs/Sayings Initiating a GD with quote or proverb or sayings in an effective way of creating a first good impression (ii) Defining an important term of the topic. Beginning your speech with definition of an important term is also a right aprroach to create a good first impression in GD. (iii) Asking a question This is also a good way of initiating your speech i GD. It is not simply asking but replying self, in order to keep the command of GD in your own hand. Question should not hamper the flow but it should speed up the flow of GD in the desired direction. (iv) Shocking statement Initiating a GD with shocking statement is sometimes the best way to grab immediate attention of the panel and the other members too. (v) Statisstical igures/ data etc. If you have current figures relating to the topic, then you can well start your speech with statisstical figures or data. Make sure that the figures quoted should be authentic.


(vi) Short story Sometimes telling a short story also creates a good first impression. In a GD topic like 'Knowledge is power', you can use a story. (vii) Different approach In some cases a statement different from other's line of action can give you a good lead. Q5. Should the GD begin by appointting a leader amongst ourselves? Ans. No, leader is niether nominated nor appointed by the group members or the organisation in GD. Leadership qualities are evaluated in a GD through one's performance . Q6. Are the candidates allowed to carry a piece of paper during the GD for noting down important points? Ans. Generally candidates are allowed to carry a piece of paper but some organisations do not allow any paper in the GD room. Q7. Is there any particular seating arrangement that is favourable to the participant? Ans. Normally the participants are asked to sit ina circle. semi-circle or rectangular arranged seats. All the seats are equally good. Q8. Can we take a definite stand at the start od the GD and later on take another stand during the GD? Ans. In normal case, one should not change his stand. One should take his stand very cautiously and carefully. But during the GD if you get convinced by some other participants's arguments or say you find that the stand taken by you was a mistake, then you can change your stand. In that case, you accept his arguments and explain to the group how you earlier stand was also correct in the micro perspective while the stand now taken by you is correct in macro perspective. This reflects your reflects your adaptability and flexibility. Q9. If you do not undestand the meaning of the topic, should I ask the moderator to explain it?


Ans. You must not ask the moderator or any other candidate, meaning of the topic. It is better to wait for some other participant to initiate the discussion. Listen to the views of other participants, you will be able to understand the topic well. When you have gained exact meaning of the topic, participate in the discussion. Q10. Should I address the other members of the group by thier names or by thier allotted numbers? Ans. It is better to address the other participants by thier allotted members, that is what the identity known to all the participants and the observers also. It is better to use pronouns such as 'he', 'she', 'you' etc. While referring to the other members of your group. Phrases like 'my friend here' can also be used occassionally. Q11. Which is right time to enter in a GD to ensure that I am heard properly? Ans. In any Gd there are instances when there is maximum noise or when there is utmost silence, just murmurring is heard. At that time when there ia almost silence, it is best time to enter the GD. But normally in competetive GDs, the silence time is rare. It is usually in the beginning so you can avail ht oppurtunity at the beginning of the GD. Q12. How do I participate when the noise level is high? Ans. If the noise level is too high, you should either keep silence or join in by raising your voice to be heard above the din. Your voice should be firm, asserttive, and strong enough to be heard. However, you should understand the difference between assertive (strong) and shouting. Do not shout. Q13. For how long should I participate? Ans. In a 20-25 minutes GD with 8 to 10 participants, you should participate at least four times with each entry lasting for at least 30-90 seconds. you could participate as many times as you get the oppurtunity to speak. Q14. How important is the use of body language in a GD?

Ans. Use of body language affectively will be an advantage. some of the important ways in which you can use your body effectively are as following:

Look at the members when you speak to them. Focus on the whole group and not on specific individuals.

Sit straight and lean forward while speaking.

When listening, nod your head, so that the speaker realises that you understand him.

Make effective use of hands to emphasize your statements and to persuade others to listen to you. Do not gesture wildly.

Do not put your hands in front of your mouth while speaking. It inhibits speech and shows self-consciousness.

Di not use your palm to support your chin, when listening.

Do not point your finger or pen at anyone aggressively. These give intimidating look.

Keep your hands on the table when you are not using them to emphasize your points.


Do not wink when speaking or listening. Many candidates are seen winking eyes while talking.

Q15. What should I do if someone alse has already said all that I wanted to say? Ans. You have two choices 1. You may express your agreement with the point made by other member. You can also add on to it by explaining the applicability of the arguments in different situations. by doing so, you will broaden the scope of the argument. 2. Drop the point the think of something new to say. Q16. What are the acceptable ways of interrupting somebody else, so that I may make my point? Ans. You can interrupt in the following ways: a. "Excuse me, I feel that what you are saying in not totally true, the truth is..." b. "Yes I agree with your idea, but I would like to add further..." c. "excuse me, will you please clarufy this point further?" asking for clarification wil give you chance to speak, but the clarification you seek shouldd be logical. Q17. What is the normal duration of a GD? Ans. A GD is generally of 20-25 minutes duration. Q18. How many panel members are essential for evaluation of a GD? Ans. There are usually 3-4 panel members that are called moderators also. Q19. Is there time given for preparation after the topic is given and before starting the GD?

Ans. Usually a time slot of 2 to 5 minutes is given to collect one's thoughts, but there could be instances when this is not specified . The group is given the topic by the moderator and specify the time allowed for discussion and he leaves. Now it is the members of the group to conclude the GD as per thier choice. Q20. Should I address the panel or the group members? Ans. The panel is usually not visible. even if the panel members are visible, you must not address the panel. The GD is between you and the other members, not the panel members. You must avoid even looking at the panel members while the GD is in progress. Just ignore their existance and address the group members. Q21. Suppose I have a lot to say on the topic, should I say all of it? Ans. Your speech should be relevent, to the point and concise. Keeping in view the average time you should share viz-a-viz the total number of members and the time allotted for Gd. The quality and not the quantity of your contribution is important. Q22. Should I encourage others to speak up? Ans. It is a plus point if you encourage others to speak, but don't insist on someone if he is consistently silent by asking him/her to speak up. If someone has tried to speak but cutoof by some one, you may encourage him/her to continue with his/her point. Q23. Are the group members supposed to keep track of the time or will the panel keep track? Ans. It would be good and required if you keep track of the time, but not to the point of getting so worried that you keep looking at your watch again and again. the panel will also take care if the Gd is not off within the prescribed time. Q24. Should we distribute the total time available to all the participants to ensure that everybody gets a chance to speak? Ans. The total time allotted is 20 to 25 minutes, so it is better if every member speaks two minutes in first round of discussion, and if there

remains some time, then can be utilized for concluding the GD. This may be advised to all the members so that the GD is conducted smoothlu. Q25. Are we expected to stick to the normally accepted line of thought or can we come up with something radical? Ans. You can take any line of action yu wish,but keep in mind you must be able to put your views in logical and convincing manner and make sure it is relavent to the topic. Q26. If I feel strongly about an issue, should I voice the feelings? Ans. Be calm and cool while submitting your views. Do not react emotionally. Control your emotions during the GD. you should be logical and non emotional in a Gd. Q27. Can I use the technical terms or jargon, which is clear to me, but may not be clear to the group? Ans. You can very well use the technical terms that are relevant to the topic. Do not use abbreviations. After mentioning the term in full, you should explain to the group what it means. Q28. Do I begin my participation by requesting the group's permission to do so? Ans. There is no point of seeking any permission from the group. you all are on the equal footing and for a specific purpose. I will go against you as it reflects your lack of confidence. Q29. Do I have to be cautious about other participants feelings on sensitive issues like religion, caste etc. Ans. Yes of course! It is demand of courtesy as well. It would go against you if you hurt the feelings of your fellow members. Q30. How critical is my fluency in English to my performance? Ans. For good communications, command over english is certainly necessary. Fluency in english speaking plus good knowledge of the

topic will surely make your performance better. if your content is good then even if your english might not be so fluent. You must speak it out, you will get credit for soundness of knowledge. Q31. How necessary is it to use examples for illustrating an idea? Ans. Use of examples will surely help you in elaborating your ideas and attracting the attention of the panel members, but keep in mind the time available with you. Please remember to keep it short and simple. Q32. Is it good to be humorous in a GD? Ans. Yes can be humorous that can relax the situation, but being humorous doesn't mean cutting jokes or making fun of a member.



Maintain Eye Contact While Speaking: Do not just look at the evaluators. Maintain eye-to-eye contact with all the group members while speaking. Initiate the Group Discussion: Initiating the Group Discussion can make a big plus point for you. But remember, take the initiation only if you understood the group discussion point, and only if you have proper knowledge and awareness of the topic. Speaking without proper knowledge can bring a bad impression on you. Allow Other Participants to Speak: Do not try to interrupt someone while speaking. Even if you do not agree with their points or thoughts, do not try to grab the chance to speak. Instead, you can take notes while they are speaking, and raise the point and clear it out during your turn. Speak Clearly: You should speak loudly, still politely and clearly, so that you can be heard by everyone. Try to use simple words that can be understood by everyone. Do not try to put heavy vocabulary thinking that it can bring a plus. Group discussion not to evaluate your language, rather it is to evaluate your communication skills, where it is necessary to be understood by everyone. Even if you do not like someones point, or if someones point hurt you, try to express yourself calmly and politely, instead of being aggressive. Dont Deviate from the Topic: Do not try to bring points that are irrelevant to topic. Even by chance someone tries to distract the team from the topic; it is a good move for you to take the initiative to bring the subject back to the topic. Positive attitude: Speak confidently. Dont try to dominate other participants. Maintain positive body language.


Speak sensibly: Do not speak too much, just to add time to your speaking duration. It is not about how long you speak, it is about how sensibly you spoke. Though you speak for less time, it should be of sensible and relevant, and should try give an aim to the topic. Be a Good Listener : Pay attention while other members are speaking. This makes you involve in the group positively, and it brings a coherent discussion. No Need of Statistics: The discussion is about how much you are aware of the topic. You do not need to come up with exact figures and numbers. As you have very limited time, just be precise and try to convey your thoughts in a short and simple language. Formal dressing: You should always attend a group discussion in a formal wear. No funny and fancy dressing. It is just like a personal interview. PERSONALITY TRAITS FOR GROUP DISCUSSION While following the above tips, it is better for you to be aware of some personality traits that an evaluator looks for in the candidate, during a group discussion. Here is the list of the most essential personality traits that the candidates need to possess while participating in a Group Discussion. Team Player: Business Schools and Organizations put a great importance on this factor because it is very important for managers or any other professionals to be good team players, because managers or other professionals always work in teams, and from team member he can become a team leader one day. Candidates who lack good team skills cannot become good team leaders. Reasoning Ability: Reasoning ability also plays an important place while expressing your ideas and opinions at a Group Discussion. It is always good to give proper reasoning for your ideas and opinions. It shows your reasoning ability and makes your points reasonable and can be highlighted among the group.


Leadership: Usually three types of situations arise in a Group Discussion. A Group Discussion where participants are not able to speak much or not able to coordinate properly A Group Discussion where participants may get emotionally excited and the Group Discussion gets chaotic A Group Discussion where participants discuss aggressively on the topic Here, there is a need of a leader who can facilitate the third situation at a Group Discussion A leader should have the following traits: Get the group back to the track while the group go away the topic Coordinate different team members efforts in the Group Discussion Contribute to the Group Discussion regularly with his/her valuable approach Inspire and motivate other members to express their ideas and views Along with the above, you should also try to steer the discussion towards the goal. Flexibility: The candidate should be open to others ideas as well, and balance them with your own ideas. This is what flexibility is about. But it is not at all good idea to start a group discussion with a conclusion or a stand. For instance, if the topic is Should India declare war with Pakisthan?, most of the candidates tend to get emotional and take a conclusion either against or in favor to the topic, like Yes, India should declare or No, India should not declare. By concluding, you are already expression your decision, so there is no need of discussion about the topic, i.e. you are indirectly saying you are not interested in considering other participants views. Also, when you encounter a strong point of opposition during the conversation, you will face trouble with the conclusion that you made in the beginning If you change your view from your conclusion, you will be considered as a fickle minded If you do not change your view even when there is a clear explanation by someone on the topic, you will be considered as stubborn and inflexible candidate. Assertiveness The participant should always express the point in a vigorous, confident and

positive manner. Assertiveness is often confused with aggressiveness. Aggressiveness is about forcing your views on the second person, and can look like a threat. Aggressive participant displays negative body language, where as the assertive person displays positive body language. Initiative: A general belief among all is that, it is a good move to take initiation in the Group Discussion, but it has a risk-high return strategy. You are suggested to take the initiation in a group discussion, only if you are very much aware of the topic. If you start the topic, and if you are not able to contribute in the discussion at regular intervals, it gives an impression to the evaluators that you initiated the Group Discussion just to score marks for the initiation. Creativity/ Out of the box thinking: A perspective or an idea that opens new possibilities for the discussion is always appreciated. If you express a new idea that is discussed at a long length by the remaining participants, you can be found in the good books of the evaluator. Inspiring ability: A group discussion is considered as good, when views of all the group members are incorporated. If you see someone trying to say something but are not able to express themselves, by giving them an opportunity to express their opinions and ideas, which will be considered as a positive trait by the evaluator. Listening: This is where many of the participants get negative remark. Everyone wants to express themselves, but is never ready to listen to others point of view. You need to try to balance between expressing your opinions and considering others. Awareness: The candidate must be well versed with both the macro and micro environment. Your awareness on the environment helps you a lot on the Group Discussion content, which carries maximum score.


Dos and donts in a group discussion:

Dos of participating in a GD:

Listen to the subject carefully Put down your thoughts on a paper Initiate the discussion if you know the subject well Listen to others if you dont know the subject Support you point with some facts and figures Make short contribution of 25-30 seconds 3-4 times Give others a chance to speak Speak politely and pleasantly. Respect contribution from other members. Disagree politely and agree with what is right. Summarize the discussion if the group has not reached a conclusion.

Donts of participating in a Group Discussion :

Initiate the discussion if you do not have sufficient knowledge about the given topic. Over speak, intervene and snatch others chance to speak. Argue and shout during the GD Look at the evaluators or a particular group member Talk irrelevant things and distract the discussion Pose negative body gestures like touching the nose, leaning back on the chair, knocking the table with a pen etc. Mention erratic statistics. Display low self confidence with shaky voice and trembling hands. Try to dominate the discussion Put others in an embarrassing situation by asking them to speak if they dont want.


Group discussion preparation

Real time demonstration of behavioural skills is the basic rationale behind the inclusion of group discussion as one of the selection techniques. None of the other techniques test the candidates managerial skills like communication skills, knowledge and ideas regarding a given subject, capability to co-ordinate and lead, etc. as well as a group discussion. Involvement of strangers in the discussion, lower familiarity with the GD topic and limited preparation time makes the job easier for the selection panel while making things difficult for the candidates. A group discussion, by definition involves speaking before a group of people. This puts in some aspects of public speaking i.e. speaking and content. However, due to its interactive nature, a group discussion also involves listening to other peoples ideas. A typical group discussion has 812 participants and lasts for 15 to 20 minutes. It means each participant gets an average of around 2 minutes to talk; the rest of the time is spent listening. Consequently, group discussion preparation revolves around these three basic aspects. Group Speaking Preparation: In a group discussion, a candidate should be able to convey his/her thoughts satisfactorily and convincingly before a group of people. Knowledge on a given subject, precision and clarity of thought are the things that are evaluated. One should speak only as much as necessary and try to avoid irrelevant talks and being verbose. 1. To enhance fluency, tone of voice and articulation, start by reading aloud from a book or an editorial for around 15 minutes daily. Once a week, try speaking in front of a mirror on some topic. This would also help in collecting your thoughts in an organized manner. 2. Most of us may be very vocal in a one to one conversation but are less so when we interact with a group; especially if it is a group of strangers. So, start having some discussions with a group made from your friends. Such discussions are a good way to begin as they allow students to focus on speaking without being distracted by the extremely competitive environment of a formal group discussion. 3. After content preparation for one or two weeks, start attending competitive group discussions with like minded groups.


Group Content Preparation: Presence of content will be a primary determinant of how you perform in any group discussion. If you are making a content heavy point, especially with some facts and numbers, then everybody else will listen to what you have to say. This generally helps in making subsequent entries in the discussion. For someone who keeps himself updated with current affairs, content preparation may not be an issue. For others, I advise the following: 1. Pick around 6 7 current affair topics, (events that took place in the past year) and start researching on these. Understand the event from different perspectives like personal, social, political, cultural, academic etc. 2. While reading magazines or newspapers, focus should primarily be on well covered articles or stories. Reading articles from the Sunday Express, the Mint, Business Standard and the Economist is a good preparation for group discussions. One may also look at some blogs that contain a few well researched articles. 3. While researching on topics, try to remember important facts and figures and form some opinions with justification. 4. In many discussions ranging from the recession to China as a threat to India for outsourcing; comparison between India and China or US is inevitable. So, it is advisable to know a lot of economic and demographic details of these countries like GDP, population, social structure, major industries etc. Group Listening Preparation: A crucial but ignored part of group discussion preparation is listening. Often we undermine benefits of listening. A good listener would summarize discussions well; he/she may score by presenting a good case over an idea originated by another participant but lost in high decibel noise. Listening seems very easy; but what takes some preparation is to be able to listen and at the same time, structure your own thoughts. 1. Participate in some discussions as an observer. Listening exercise during such practice discussions would help you understand the dynamics of a typical GD that involves high-low noise levels. Such an exercise would provide you with some hints as to optimum moments for entering into discussions. 2. Listening to other peoples ideas may help to evolve ones thought processes by adding different perspectives.


Group discussion mistakes:

Some students actually do not speak up during group discussions and personal interviews because they are too scared of committing a blunder. All men make mistakes, but only wise men learn from their mistakes, said Winston Churchill. Most of the worlds greatest discoveries including Columbus discovery of America were a result of a mistake. But what has this got to do with your performance in GD? The moral of the story is that you should not be scared of making mistakes even during GD. That is what mistakes are for. They become a part of your experience. If you go on and on making the same mistakes without learning what it has to teach you then you better not speak at all. You will discover new ways only when you think through your mistakes and work on them. So if you are going for a GD or interview do speak up and make your share of mistakes. Because the next GD you will be called for you will know what not to do. However, if possible, you should not even take the risk of messing up a single group discussion or personal interview. You cannot afford to do that in todays highly competitive environment. This article will acquaint you with the four common mistakes made by the applicants during GD.


Five Common Mi stakes Made by Candidates in GD:

1. Emotional outbursts : This is the biggest mistakes done by students during Group Discussion. Sometimes topic is close to their heart and hence they sway from the topic. They usually get emotional while discussing such topics and thus, tend to forget for a while that they are being evaluated. They aggravate other members on purpose, once they find out what a person is particularly touchy about. This is one of the common mistakes done in group discussion and personal interview. 2. Talking endlessly : In some cases students enter the room determined to talk non-stop without considering what they are saying. Other candidates do not get a chance. But they end up forming a negative impression upon the panelists and sometimes the rest of the group. Moreover, unless you make a meaningful contribution to the Group Discussion, the panelists know that you are speaking just for the sake of it. You cannot prioritize quantity over quality. 3. Insecurities : Sometimes student show that they have a good knowledge about topic and they underestimate other students. Hence ensure that you are not among those students who get plagued with their own insecurities and consequently do not give themselves a fair shot. Students usually complain that the other participants were too good and they could not even think of competing with them. Have some faith in your capabilities and do not let such thoughts keep you down. 4. Language : Many students participate in GD and PI without working on their language, accent, grammar and communication skills. Sometimes even if students study hard, they are not able to talk properly which makes it impossible for them to communicate the knowledge they have. Students lacking communication skills are nervous in their GD and PI rounds. To make a valuable and meaningful contribution you need to work on your communication skills. 5. Quantity vs Quantity : Assessment is not only on your communication skills but also on your ability to be a team player. Evaluation is based on quality, and not on quantity. Your contribution must be relevant. Avoid all these common mistakes in group discussion and personal interview.



PURPOSE OF DISCUSSION Unachieved Listless Tense, Hostile Dogmatic, Uncooperative Little use of information Frequently off the subject Superficial Aimless, Confused Often interrupt each other Long contributions 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 PURPOSE OF DISCUSSION 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 THOUGHT 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 5 BEHAVIOUR 3 4 3 4 Achieved Animated Friendly atmosphere Very Cooperative Adequate information Relevant Thought, deep Methodical; group has sense of direction

Orderly, attentive
Brief contributions


ASSESSMENT A - Appearance T - Temperament G - Gesture Outstanding(O) 5 5 5 Very Good Good(A) Average(B+) (A+) PERSONALITY 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 THOUGHT 4 3 2 4 3 2 20 15 10 4 4 4 4 4 20 4 4 4 4 4 20 4 4 4 4 4 20 80 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 15 60 2 2 2 2 2 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 40 Poor(B Very Poor(C+) 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Avoidable(C) -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -5 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -5 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -5 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -5 --20

MS- Mental State 5 Ol - Overall Impression5 Total : 25 KNOWLEDGE D - Depth 5 R - Range 5 AA - Analytical Ability 5 O - Organisation of 5 ideas Ol - Overall Impression5 Total : 25 COMMUNICATION SKILL LS - Listening Skills 5 F - Fluency 5 L - Language 5 PA - Phonetic Ability 5 Ol - Overall Impression5 Total : 25 LEADERSHIP I - Initiative TS - Team Spirit E - Endurance DM - Decision Making Ol -Overall Impression Total : Grand Total 5 5 5 5 5 25 100