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Explain functions of equalizing Pulses, front porch & back porch of horizontal sync pulses. Q. 3 Explain why the Blanking pulses are not used as sync pulses. Q. 4 What is resolution?(Explain vertical & horizontal resolution). Derive an expression for the highest video frequency in TV system. Show that it is 5 MHz in CCIR-B system. Q.5 Explain VSB modulation. Q.6 Explain advantages & disadvantages of VSB. Q. 7 Explain how the VSB reception of TV signal is compensated for its frequency response. Q. 8 Explain the term kell factor & blanking standard. Q. 9 Explain sync & blanking standards. Q.10 Explain what is interlaced scanning? What are its advantages? Q.11 Explain how bandwidth is reduced by interlaced scanning. Q.12 Give periods of normal, active & retrace intervals of horizontal & vertical scanning. Q.13 What is relative amplitude of picture carrier for a) Max. white, b) Tip of sync, c) Blanking level, d) Black in picture. Q.14 Why is the total no. of scanning lines kept odd in all TV systems? Q. 15 What is the significance of choosing the no. of lines as 625 & not 624 or 627. Q. 16 Why range of TV reception is limited to line of sight. Q. 17 Why it is necessary to use VHF or high frequency for transmitting TV signal or radio wave? Q.18 Explain the basis for keeping the P-S ratio about 7:3. Q.19 Justify the choice of a rectangular frame with width to height ratio = 4/3 for TV transmission & reception. Q.20 How many horizontal lines get traced during each vertical retrace? Q.21 What will happen if linear amplification is provided by receiver to vestigial side band signal? How is this rectified by modifying receiver response? Q.22 Describe standard scanning sequence used in TV? Q.23 With which section & how problem will arise in the receiver if pre-equalizing & post-equalizing pulses are not added in V-sync standards? Q.24 Sketch frequency distribution of the channel & mark location of picture carrier & sound carrier frequencies. Q.25 Justify the need for pre & post equalizing pulses. Q.26 Justify the choice of P/S ratio = 10/4 in the composite video signal. Q.27 What is VSB transmission & why is it used for transmission of TV picture signals? Q.28 Write technical note on:-----

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i. Kell factor ii. Persistence of vision iii. Field of vision. iv. Tonal gradation v. Viewing distance. Explain how characteristics of human eye have been cleverly utilized to specify standards for present day black & white TV system. What is the effect of finite of beam spot on the resolution of the picture. Explain the terms:--i. Horizontal forward scanning ii. Horizontal blanking period iii. Horizontal sync tube iv. Back porch v. Front porch with suitable sketches. Define the following terms in relation to Television:--i. Aspect Ratio ii. Contrast iii. Brightness iv. Resolution Explain the need of VSB in picture transmission in TV system. Sketch the details of Horizontal blanking & sync pulses as well as Vertical blanking & sync pulses as per CCIR system B. What are the main features of human vision, which has helped us to develop entertainment TV system? Explain what you mean by Aspect Ratio & how we have arrived at this figure? What has been done to avoid flicker in watching TV? Why vertical sync pulse is serrated? Sketch & explain labeled desired response of TV receiver that includes necessary correction on the account of discrepancy caused by VSB transmission. why is it necessary to modulate the picture & sound signal before transmission?

UNIT 2 Q. 1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12 What are the types of target plates used in image orthicon, vidicon & plumbicon. Explain photoconduction & photoemission. State the materials which shows photoconduction & photoemission properties. Draw sketch of any one camera tube based on photoconduction property. Explain image orthicon with neat sketch. State its advantages over plumbicon. Explain multidiode vidicon. Explain plumbicon camera tube indicating the voltage s applied to the diffetent electrodes. Explain functions of anti-coment gun Explain in detail lens system of cameras. Explain CCD camera. With the help of neat sketch explain the principle of operation of vidicon camera tube. Explain:---i. Dark current ii. Photoconductive lag iii. Hallow effect iv. I. O. ghost v. Beam lag vi. Speeking in plumbicon vii. Image burn viii. Image lag Explain circle of confusion nearest & farthest limit in focus. Explain staticon camera tubes. What is meant by gamma of camera tube? Explain how the gamma of camera tube, the camera signal chain & picture tube are matched to get overall faithful reproduction of picture. Define Visual angle of the lens, depth of field, circle of confusion, Hyperfocal distance of lens & resolving power of lens. Discuss the processing of the video signal from the camera tube to obtain a composite video signal in the video chain. Explain the methods of protection of picture against screen burn flashover & ion trap. Compare the performance of a) Image orthicon b) Plumbicon c) Silicon diode array d) CCD devices. Give the construction of the deflection unit of a camera tube & discuss the action of the coils in it. Sketch the sectional view of picture tube. Explain briefly , how the electron bam is focused on the tube screen. What is meant by crossover point in the electron gun? Draw the block diagram of black & white TV transmitter. Give the bandwidth requirement of monochrome TV transmission.

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List out the various design principles of monochrome TV transmitter & compare Them. How does parasitic element beside a dipole act as a director or a reflector? Explain Turnstile antenna & dipole antenna systems for transmission of TV signal. Write short note on Antenna feeder. Discuss the merits & demerits of positive & negative modulation. Justify the choice of negative modulation in most TV systems. Explain how in multicamera system synchronization is maintained between the camera and control monitor. Explain diplexer unit working used in TV transmitter. Explain:--i. Co-channel interference ii. Balun transformer. Describe, giving block diagrams, the operation of a TV transmitter using i. High level modulation ii. IF modulation. What are the advantages of IF modulation over direct modulation in a TV transmitter? Explain in detail. Compare the construction & characteristics of the image orthicon & vidicon camera tubes with the help of neat sketch. Explain the working of Visual exciter, Aural exciter & diplexer used in TV transmitters. What are the requirements of transmitting antenna of a TV broadcasting station? Explain: i. Turnstile antenna ii. Stacked turnstile antenna iii. Super turnstile antenna and iv. Dipole antenna panel. What do you understand by dark current in vidicon? Explain how the inherent smear effect in a vidicon is overcome in plumbicon. Draw a block diagram to show how the video signal in TV system? Why are pre-emphasis & de-emphasis circuits provided at FM transmitter & receiver respectively?

UNIT 3 Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Explain block diagram of RF tuner section. What does AFT mean? Draw transistor keyed AGC circuit. What do you mean by video bandwidth compensation in relation to filter of video detector? Describe transistor line output stage. Why AFC is employed in horizontal sync section of TV receiver? Draw IF response of a receiver showing details of levels of amplification. Write functional operation of the following:-i. Spot killer switch in video amplifier. ii. Keying pulses for AGC from horizontal output stage. iii. 5.5MHz IF trap circuit. iv. Stagger tuning & synchronous tuning of IF amplifier stages. v. Video Band width compensation in video detector. Describe briefly how EHT & boosted B+ voltage s are developed from horizontal output circuit of the sweet amplifier. A VDR is shunted across the primary of vertical output stage in transistor circuits, why? Draw circuit diagram of multivibrator to explain their use as control oscillator for deflection drive. Explain various methods of traps to be introduced in Video IF amplifier circuits. Why RF stage is most suited for AGC control? Why is trapezoidal voltage waveform necessary to drive the vertical deflection coil? How is basic sawtooth waveform is modified to get desired driving voltage waveform? Draw & explain basic circuit of Electronic tuning. What do you understand by intercarrier sound system? Where & how is the intercarrier sound signal separated from the video signal? Discuss the factors that influenced the choice of picture IF=38.9MHz & sound IF=33.4MHz in 625-B monochrome TV system. Explain with the circuit diagram how the high voltage pulses induced in the o/p transformer windings are used to generate EHT supply. Draw & explain the frequency response curve showing all details of video IF section. Discuss various coupling circuits to achieve this curve. Explain linearity correction in Horizontal deflection circuit. How is it affected by linearity coil? What are the considerations for choice of the differentiating & integrating circuit used for separating H & V pulses. Draw circuit & waveform. Draw the block diagram of a monochrome TV receiver with the signal waveforms at various points. Explain the function of each block in detail of monochrome receiver. What are the functional requirements of RF tuner? Why the tuner is very well shielded in a completely closed box?

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Explain the role of video amplifier in a TV receiver in terms of the input signal, frequency response & output signal it is required to handle. How do you test the response of a video stage of a TV receiver? How do AGC requirements of a broadcast AM radio & TV receiver differ? Explain for:-i. Keyed AGC ii. Forward AGC iii. Reverse AGC Used in the TV receiver design with their merits. Why can the sync separator be considered part of the signal circuits? Explain the purpose of a wave trap. Why is an LC circuit used? Describe the video detector circuit. What decides the choice of diode capacitor & resistor used here? How do you restore the DC component? Draw the block diagram of a VHF tuner & explain the working of various parts in it. What is the frequency response of the stage? Draw & explain the circuit of IF amplifier & RF amplifier. Explain the procedure of RF & IF alignment. Explain delayed AGC?

UNIT 4 Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 What are the features of colour TV systems that make it compatible with monochrome system? Define compatibility & reverse compatibility. Why a higher EHT is essential in colour picture tube than in monochrome tube? Explain compatibility & reverse compatibility of colour & monochrome TV system. Explain the terms:--i. Primary Colours ii. Hue iii. Saturation iv. Dichroic mirrors v. Colour circle vi. Frequency interleaving. What are the advantages of in line cathode? Give construction & working of:-i. shadow mask tube ii. In-line colour tube. What are the features of Trintron colour picture tube. Why a burst of subcarrier is sent along with the sync & blanking pulses. Explain how luminance & colour difference signals are developed from camera outputs. Why is the Y signal set equal to 0.3R+0.59G+0.11B? Distinguish between Delta gun & Trintron colour picture tubes. Explain how synchronous demodulation is used to derive chroma components from quadrature modulated colour subcarrie. Write short note on degaussing? Why (G-Y) difference signal not transmitted? Explain how (G-Y) signal is obtained in the receiver. What is pincushion correction & explain how both E-W & N-S pincushion corrections are carried out? How colours are represented in chromaticity diagram? Explain how synchronous demodulation is used to derive the chroma components from quadrature modulated colour subcarrier. Write short note on Automatic degaussing. Write short note on static & dynamic convergence. Describe dichroic mirror & dichroc prism arrangement used in CTV cameras. Explain the terms:--i. Complementary colours ii. Additive mixing iii. Subtractive mixing Draw Chromaticity diagram. Explain the characteristics of colour. Explain the working of Delta gun picture tube.

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Explain the working of PIL picture tube. Explain the working of Trintron picture tubes. Give the comparison of different picture tubes. Explain the terms purity & convergence & the need for static & dynamic convergence. Show that only two signals are enough to send along with luma signal in order to obtain three primary signals.

UNIT 5 Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Give block diagram of PAL-D encoder & decoder. what is the basic difference between the SECAM and other colour TV system? Explain. Explain working of PAL decoder. What is the principle of delay line in PAL? State the colour processing function of typical chroma decoder IC. Discuss the main features of PAL colour TV system. Explain the following terms:-i. Chrominance signal ii. Q & I signals in NTSC iii. U & V Signals in PAL iv. Colour burst How are chrominance signals transmitted in PAL-D, NTSC, SECAM system? How phase error are cancelled in PAL? Draw3 & explain the block diagram of PAL encoder & decoder. Compare its performances with NTSC system. What is quadrature modulation? Why is it employed? What is the difference between GAM used in NTSC & CCIR (PAL) systems? What do you have to say about the bandwidth of the colour difference signal employed in NTSC & PAL systems? Explain the principle of SECAM method of transmission of colour starting from the camera output upto modulation of the respective colour sub-carriers. Compare the PAL with NTSC & SECAM systems. Explain how by frequency interleaving the colour information is accommodated within the same channel bandwidth of 7 MHZ.

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UNIT 6 Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12 Q.13 Q.14 Q.15 Q.16 Q.17 Q.18 Q.19 Q.20 Q.21 Q.22 What is need of HDTV? Review briefly the developments made so far to evolve HDTV & the standards. Describe the advantages of Infrared remote control & give the block diagram of same. Give block diagram of VHS cassette Recorder. What are the methods of remote control of TV receiver? Describe the advantages of Infrared remote control & discuss the technique. How is signal distributed to monitors at various locations? How does length of cable affect signal distribution? Explain development of video cassette recorders from U matic to 8 mm video. Explain modern methods of video recording on disc. Draw a set up of DBS reception unit. Explain functional requirement of Head-end processor in cable TV system. Describe the most advantageous method of remote control of TV receiver. Give brief account of HDTV. Write short note on MATV. Write short note on CATV. Write short note on CCTV. Write short note on Remote control. Write short note on Video Tape Recording. State frequency bands used for CATV. Describe different design variations in construction of industrial or educational CCTV System Write note on playback circuits.

QUESTION BANK TELEVISION ENGINEERING OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS UNIT 1 1. Aspect ratio is--------a. 5/4, b. 2/4, c. 4/3, d. 3/2. 2. P/S ratio is--------a. 10:2, b. 10:7, c. 4:3, d. 10:4. 3. Total line period is------a. 52s, b. 61s, c. 64s, d.62s. 4. Total frame period is-------a. 50ms, b. 20ms, c. 25ms, d. 40ms. 5. Total active line period is--------a. 12s, b. 24s, c. 52s, d. 64s. 6. Total retrace line time is------------a. 10s, b. 12s, c. 52s, d. 64s. 7. Total vertical trace period is------a. 20ms, b. 18.720ms, c. 1.280ms, d. 18ms. 8. Total vertical retrace period is------a. 18.720ms, b. 1.280ms, c. 25ms, d. 20 ms. 9. Total no. of scanning lines in Indian TV system are----a. 525 lines, b. 625 lines, c. 718 lines, d. 312.5 lines. 10. Total no. of scanning lines in each fields are---a. 625 lines, b. 312.5 lines, c. 525 lines, d. 313 lines. 11. How many lines are lost during the vertical retrace? a. 25 lines, b. 20 lines, c. 5 lines, d. 312.5 lines. 12. Equalizing pulses are of length-----a. 10 lines, b. 5 lines, c. 20 lines, d. 10 lines. 13. Duration of the back porch is----a. 64s, b. 4.7s, c. 5.8s, d. 12s. 14. Duration of front porch is-----a. 12s, b. 5.8s, c. 1.5s, d. 4.7s. 15. Duration of Horizontal sync pulses are-----a. 12s, b. 1.5s, c. 5.8s, d. 4.7s. 16. Horizontal blanking period is of ------a. 64s, b. 52s, c. 12s, d. 10s. 17. Visible line time is-----a. 64s, b. 52s, c. 12s, d. 62s. 18. Total no. of active lines are-------a. 625 lines, b. 585 lines, c. 540 lines, d. 620 lines. 19. Highest modulating frequency is ---a. 10 MHz, b. 5MHz, c. 7MHz, d. 2.5 MHz.

20. Line frequency is --a. 50 Hz, b. 15625 Hz, d. 31250 Hz, d. 5 MHz. 21. Field frequency is -----a. 50 Hz, b. 15625 Hz, d. 31250 Hz, d. 5 MHz.

UNIT 2 1. 2. 3. 4. List the elements of Yagi-uda antenna. List the parameters of antenna. Define Antenna. An antenna is a device a. That converts electromagnetic energy into RF signal b. That converts RF signal into electromagnetic energy c. That converts guided EM waves into free space EM waves & vice versa d. None of these. 5. Antenna reciprocity is put to use in a. TV broadcasting system b. Commercial radio broadcast c. Radar systems d. None of these 6. An antenna behaves as a resonant circuit only when its length is a. /2 b. /4 c. /2 or its integral multiple d. None of these 7. A half wave dipole produces a. A figure 0 pattern b. An end-fire pattern c. A broad side pattern d. None of these 8. An antenna should have a. A very high SWR b. A very small SWR c. A moderate vale of SWR d. None of these 9. The input impedance of a center-fed half wave dipole is a. 300 b. 288 c. 75 d. None of these 10. An antenna placed in a horizontal plane produces a. Horizontally polarized waves b. Vertically polarized waves c. Elliptically polarized waves d. None of these 11. An antenna placed in a vertical plane produces a. Horizontal polarized waves b. Vertically polarized waves c. Elliptically polarized waves

d. None of theses. 12. Define Photoconductivity. 13. Define Photoemission. 14. State the camera tubes which uses the photoconduction principal. 15. State the camera tubes which uses the photoemission principal. 16. List the different block of TV Transmitter. 17. Define zoom lens. 18. Define modulation. 19. Define amplitude modulation. 20. Define frequency modulation. 21. What is the type of the target plate of Image Orthicon? 22. What is the type of the target plate of Plumbicon? 23. What is the type of the target plate of Vidicon? 24. Which camera tube is more advantages? 25. Which camera tube is used in the Indian TV system? 26. How much is the frequency of VSB Transmission signal in TV? 27. How much is the frequency for DSB Signal transmission in TV? 28. Define positive modulation. 29. Define negative modulation. 30. Draw the frequency response for the VSB transmission.

UNIT 3 1. Define Balun. 2. Define Tuner. 3. Which are the different arrangements of Balun? 4. What is the function of Mixer? 5. What is the frequency of SIF? 6. What is the frequency of PIF? 7. Find out the local oscillator frequency for channel 4. 8. Find out the local oscillator frequency for channel 5. 9. List the factors considered for tuner designing. 10. What is meant by contrast control? 11. What is meant by brightness control? 12. What is meant by AGC? 13. What is meant by AFC? 14. True or false Picture IF is less than the sound IF . 15. What is mean by pre-emphasis? 16. What is mean by de-emphasis? 17. What is meant by intercarrier sound system? 18. List the blocks of monochrome TV receiver. 19. List the types of AGC. 20. What is the function of sync separator? 21. Why local oscillator frequency is higher than the received carrier frequency?

UNIT 4 1. Define compatibility. 2. Define reverse compatibility. 3. Differences between colour & monochrome TV. 4. What is meant by hue? 5. What is meant by saturation? 6. What is meant by luminance? 7. What is meant by chrominance or chroma? 8. What is meant by chromaticity diagram? 9. List the different colour picture tubes. 10. Define additive mixing. 11. Define subtractive mixing. 12. Give the percentage of R, G & B for the 1 lumane signal. 13. Which colour difference signals are transmitter? 14. What is meant by purity magnet? 15. What is meant by convergence magnet? 16. What is necessity of diachronic mirror? 17. What are the advantages of PIL? 18. What are the features of Delta Gun picture tubes? 19. What are the Features of Trintron? 20. What are the characteristics of colour signal?

UNIT 5 1. What is mean by frequency interleaving? 2. Draw the colour signal bandwidth. 3. What are the long forms of PAL, NTSC, SECAM? 4. What is the difference between colour & monochrome TV transmission? 5. What is the difference between colour & monochrome TV reception? 6. What is the difference between PAL & PAL-D? 7. What are the features of PAL encoder? 8. What are the features of PAL decoder? 9. What are the features of NTSC encoder? 10. What are the features of NTSC decoder? 11. What are the features of SECAM encoder? 12. What are the features of SECAM decoder? 13. Which system is used in India & why? 14. What is mean by colour burst signal? 15. What are the merits of PAL system? 16. What are the demerits of PAL system? 17. What are the merits of NTSC system? 18. What are the demerits of NTSC system? 19. What are the merits of SECAM system? 20. What are the demerits of SECAM system? 21. What is mean by U & V signal? 22. What is mean by Q & I signal? 23. List the factor which influence the choice of sub-carrier frequency.

UNIT 6 1. What is the long form of MATV? 2. What is the long form of CATV? 3. What is the long form of CCTV? 4. What is the long form of HDTV? 5. What is the principle of Remote control? 6. What are different types of remote controlling? 7. What is the principle of VCR? 8. What is the difference between VCR & VTR? 9. What is mean by Head- end? 10. Give the different applications of CCTV? 11. What are applications of MATV? 12. What are the applications of CATV? 13. What are the applications of HDTV? 14. What is the function of splitter? 15. What is the function of combining network? 16. What are the different types of subscriber tabs? 17. What is the necessity of 4 way hybrid? 18. What are the features of coaxial cable? 19. What is the purpose of distribution amplifier? 20. What is the purpose of Equalizer?