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MOBILITY OF WOMEN ADMINISTRATORS IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR IN KEDAH A thesis submitted to the
MOBILITY OF WOMEN ADMINISTRATORS IN THE
EDUCATION SECTOR IN KEDAH
A thesis submitted to the Graduate School in partial
fblfilment of the requirements for the degree
Master of Science (Management),
Universiti Utara Malaysia
bY Hjh. Dewi Rosnah bt. Hj. Radin Suhadi
bY
Hjh. Dewi Rosnah bt. Hj. Radin Suhadi
for the degree Master of Science (Management), Universiti Utara Malaysia bY Hjh. Dewi Rosnah bt. Hj.
Sekolah Siswazah  

Sekolah

Siswazah

 

(Graduate School)

Universiti

Utara

Malaysia

PERAKUAN KER JA TESIS

 
 

(Certification Of Thesis Work)

Kami, yang bertandatangan, memperakukan bahawa (We, the undersigned, certify that) DEW1 ROSNAH BT. RADIN SUHADI

calon
calon

untuk ijazah

 

(candidate for

the degree ofi Master of Science (Management)

(candidate for t h e d e g r e e o f i Master of
 

telah mengemukakan tesisnya yang bertajuk (has presented his/her thesis of the following title)

 

MOBILITY OF WOMEN ADMINISTRATORS IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR

 

IN KEDAH.

 
 

seperti yang tercatat di muka surat tajuk dan kulit tesis (as it appears on the title page and front cover of thesis)

 
bahawa tesis tersebut boleh diterima dari segi bentuk serta kandungan, dan meliputi

bahawa tesis tersebut boleh diterima dari segi bentuk serta kandungan, dan meliputi

bidang

ilmu

dengan

memuaskan.

 
~ (that the thesis is acceptable in form and content, and that a satisfactory knowledge
~ (that the thesis is acceptable in form and content, and that a satisfactory knowledge

~ (that the thesis is acceptable in form and content, and that a satisfactory knowledge of the

 

field is coverd by the thesis).

 

AJK Tesis

(Thesis

Committee)

~ Nama , (Name) Dr. Che Ani

b.

Mad

 
Tandatangan (Signature)
Tandatangan
(Signature)

Tandatangan

I

(Penyelia Utanra/Prirwipal

Superuisor)

Nama (Name) Tn. Hj. Abdul Ekhwin b. Mxtafa

Nama (Name) Tn. Hj. Abdul Ekhwin b. Mxtafa
Nama (Name) Tn. Hj. Abdul Ekhwin b. Mxtafa

Nama

(Name)

 

(Signature)

 
 
 

Tarikh

(Date)

(Date)
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Permission to Use Abstract (Bahasa Malaysia) i ii Abstract (English) 111
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Permission to Use
Abstract (Bahasa Malaysia)
i
ii
Abstract
(English)
111
Acknowledgements
iv
V
List of Tables
List of Figures
vii
CHAPTER
ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 An Overview of Women Employment in Malaysia
1
1.2 Context of the Problem
10
1.3 Research Objectives
15
1.4 Research
Questions
16
1.5 Research Hypotheses
18
1.6 Significance of the Study
19
1.7 Limitations and Scope of the Study
20
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 The Function of a Manager and its Relationship to the
Role of a School Administrator
23
2.2 Female-male Leadership Differences
25
2.3 The Absence of Women from Education Management
26
2.4 Barriers Towards Women’s Mobility to Top Positions
29
2.5 Demographic Characteristics of Women Administrators
33
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Paradigm
35
3.2 Data Collection Procedures
35
3.2.1
Unit of Analysis
37
3.2.2
Population, Sample and Sampling Technique
37
Data Collection Techniques
39
3.2.3
3.2.4
The Instrument
42
3.3 The Pilot Study
44
3.4 Data Analysis Technique
46
47

CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS

4.1 The Respondents

 

49

4.2 A Profile of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

51

4.3 A Comparison in Mobility between Female and Male Administrators

72

4.4 Factors that have Facilitated or Hindered the Advancement of the Women Administrators to Top Administrative Position

76

CHAPTER V:

SUMMAR Y, CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS

AND

5.1 An Overview

 

83

5.2 Conclusion

89

5.3 Recommendation

 

92

BIBLIOGRAPHY

97

APPENDIX 1

101

APPENDIX 2

104

APPENDIX 3

106

APPENDIX 4

107

APPENDIX 5

108

APPENDIX 6

109

APPENDIX 7

117

APPENDIX 8

127

APPENDIX 9

132

APPENDIX 10

140

APPENDIX 11

142

APPENDIX 12

143

APPENDIX 13

144

APPENDIX 14

145

PERMISSION

TO

USE

In presenting this thesis in partial fullfilment of the requirements for a Post Graduate degree Corn the Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the Library of this University may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor(s) or in their absence, by the Dean of the Graduate School where I did my thesis. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts there of for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to the Universiti Utara Malaysia in any scholarly use which may be made of any material in my thesis.

Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of material in this thesis in whole or in part should be addressed to:

Dean of Graduate School

Universiti Utara Malaysia

06010

Sintok

Kedah Darul Aman

i

ABSTRAK

Tujuan utama kajian ini ialah untuk mendapat satu profil tentang pentadbir-pentadbir wanita di sekolah menengah seluruh negeri Kedah. Penekanan kajian ialah terhadap ciri-ciri

negeri Kedah. Penekanan kajian ialah terhadap ciri-ciri juga demografi dan poh mobiliti (prgerakan) dari guru
juga
juga

demografi dan poh mobiliti (prgerakan)

dari guru biasa sehingga menjadi Pengetua. Ia

(prgerakan) dari guru biasa sehingga menjadi Pengetua. Ia ini berbeza secara bertujuan untuk melihat sama ada

ini berbeza secara

bertujuan untuk melihat sama ada pentadbir-pentadbir wanita

siginiflkan berbanding pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam keduadua aspek di atas.

pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam keduadua aspek di atas. Populasi kajian ini terdiri daripada Pengetua, Penolong
pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam keduadua aspek di atas. Populasi kajian ini terdiri daripada Pengetua, Penolong
pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam keduadua aspek di atas. Populasi kajian ini terdiri daripada Pengetua, Penolong

Populasi kajian ini terdiri daripada Pengetua, Penolong Kanan dan Guru Kanan Bidang yang sedang bertugas di sekolah-sekolah meneqah negeri Kedah pada tahun 19%. Mereka dipilih secara rawak. Instrumen yang digunakan ialah satu set soal selidik yang mengandungi 47 item. Soalan-soalan ini dibina sendiri oleh pengkaji dan bertujuan tmtuk mendapatkan maklumat tentang (1) Ciri-ciri peribadi, (2) Latar belakang pendidikan, (3) Faktor-faktor rumah tangga, (4) Kualiti spesifik dan (5) Poh mobiliti. Data yang dikumpulkan kemudiannya dianalisa menggu&an program SAS.

kemudiannya dianalisa menggu&an program SAS. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pentadbir-pentadbir wanita
kemudiannya dianalisa menggu&an program SAS. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pentadbir-pentadbir wanita
kemudiannya dianalisa menggu&an program SAS. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pentadbir-pentadbir wanita
kemudiannya dianalisa menggu&an program SAS. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pentadbir-pentadbir wanita

Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pentadbir-pentadbir wanita tidak berbeza secara sinifikan

berbanding pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam ciri-ciri demografi dan pola mobiliti. Secara am, seorang pentadbir wanita adalah berkahwin, berusia dalam lingkungan 40an dan mempunyai Ijazah Sarjana Muda. 65.9% daripada mereka telah berkhidmat sebagai guru biasa di antara

mereka telah berkhidmat sebagai guru biasa di antara 10 hingga 19 tahun dari 5 tahun. manakala
10 hingga 19 tahun
10 hingga
19 tahun
dari 5 tahun.
dari
5
tahun.

manakala

61.0% telah

beretugas

sebagai

pentadbir

kurang

46.9% belum pemah mengikuti sebarang program latihan be&&an pentadbiran sekolah sama ada sebehun atau pun selepas menjawat jawatan sekarang.

ada sebehun atau pun selepas menjawat jawatan sekarang. terhadap mobiliti mendapati bahawa 40.99% pentadbir wanita

terhadap mobiliti mendapati bahawa 40.99% pentadbir wanita kekal berkhidmatada sebehun atau pun selepas menjawat jawatan sekarang. segagai guru biasa di daerah kelahiran mereka manakala

mendapati bahawa 40.99% pentadbir wanita kekal berkhidmat segagai guru biasa di daerah kelahiran mereka manakala

segagai guru biasa di daerah kelahiran mereka manakala 36.2 1% pula kekal sebagai

daerah kelahiran mereka manakala 36.2 1% pula kekal sebagai pentadbir di daerah yang sama. Mereka kurang

pentadbir di daerah yang sama. Mereka kurang berminat untuk berpindah. Kajian terhadap

faktor-f&r

keluarga

pula

mendapati

bahawa

80.6%

daripada

mereka

dapat

melaksanakan

tanggung

jawab

sebagai

isteri

dan

89.7% dapat

menjadi

ibu

dengan

baik.

Mereka

menerima

sokongan moral yang kuat daripada suami terhadap kerjaya (91.3%) dan kenaikan pangkat (87.9%). Kebanyakan daripada mereka dibantu oleh pembantu rumah, suami atau saudara

mereka dibantu oleh pembantu rumah, suami atau saudara mara untuk menguruskan hal-hal rumah tangga serta menjaga

mara untuk menguruskan hal-hal rumah tangga serta menjaga anak-anak.

Mereka juga

didapati tidak berbeza dari segi umur, tahun menerima ijazah, tempoh perkhidmatan dan pengalaman sebagai pentadbir berbanding dengan pentadbir lelaki.

Walaupun pentadbir-pentadbir wanita ini mempunyai pengetahuan yang baik dalam pentadbiran sekolah, kemahiran dan sikap mereka terhadap pentadbiran agak sederhana. Ramai yang teragak-agak untuk menerima tawaran sebagai Pengetua. Halangan utamanya ialah kekangan tanggung jawab terhadap keluarga, kurang yakin untuk menjalankan tugas dan keengganan umtuk berpindah dari kediaman temp. Bagaimana pun, apabila mereka menerima tawaran tersebut, mereka sent&a mencuba sedaya upaya untuk menjalankan tugas sebaik mungkin sehingga mereka tidak kelihatan berbeza daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi.

daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi. ii
daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi. ii
daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi. ii
daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi. ii
daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi. ii
daripada pentadbir-pentadbir lelaki dalam pelbagai aspek termasuk pengetahuan, prestasi dan ciri-ciri demografi. ii

ii

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to draw a profile of the women administrators of the seuuxhy schools in Kedah. The emphasis was on their demographic characteristics and . . mobility pattern. The second aim was to investigate whether the women

admm@aWrs
admm@aWrs

differ significantly in both aspects above from their male counterparts.

The

population

of

this

study

were

the

Principals,

Senior

Assistants

and

Senior

Subject

Teachers of the secondary schools in the whole state of Kedah. They were randomly

chosen using the Statified Random Sampling Method. The

item selfconstructed questionnaire mailed to the respondents. It was designed to collect the following informations: (1) Personal characteristics, (2) Educational background, (3) Home-related &ctors, (4) Specific qualities and (5) Mobility pattern of the administrators. The data collected were analyzed using the SAS programme.

The data collected were analyzed using the SAS programme. research instrument was a 47- The findings

research instrument was a 47-

using the SAS programme. research instrument was a 47- The findings of this study show that
using the SAS programme. research instrument was a 47- The findings of this study show that

The findings of this study show that women administrators do not d@r significantly in

demographic characteristics and mobility pattern as compared to their male counterparts. Generally, a typical woman administrator is married, in the 40’s and has a Bachelor’s Degree. 65.9% of them have served as ordinary teachers between 10 to 19, years while 61.0% have served as an administrator for less than 5 years. 49.6% of them have not

administrator for less than 5 years. 49.6% of them have not attended any training programme concerning
administrator for less than 5 years. 49.6% of them have not attended any training programme concerning

attended

any

training

programme

concerning

school

administration before and after being

promoted

to

their

present

position.

Looking at the mobility pattern, 40.99% of the female administrators remain as teachers in their own districts of origin while 36.2 1% remain as administrators in the same area. They are less mobile and do not prefer to be transfered. When family matters are concerned, and do not prefer to be transfered. When family matters are 80.6% and 89.7% of them 80.6% and 89.7% of them manage to carry out their role as responsible wives and mothers, respectively. They receive good moral support from their husbands both in terms of career-making (91.3%) and promotion (87.9%). Most of them obtain great help either from paid helpers, husband or relatives to do their household chores and manage their children. They do not differ in terms of age, year of graduation, length of service and experience as compared to their male counterparts.

and experience as compared to their male counterparts. Although the female administrators have a good knowledge

Although the female administrators have a good knowledge in school administration, their skill and attitude towards current position are only fair. Most of them face several problems regarding mobility towards becoming a Principal. The most frequent obstacles reported are family constraints, lack of confidence and transfer from permanent residence. However, once they accept the offer, the women give their very best to cany Out their duties. They do not differ from their male counterparts in many aspects, including the level of their knowledge, performance and demographic characteristics.

in many aspects, including the level of their knowledge, performance and demographic characteristics. . . .
in many aspects, including the level of their knowledge, performance and demographic characteristics. . . .

.

.

.

111

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“Syukur alhamdulillah

.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “Syukur alhamdulillah . .” for at last I have managed to complete this thesis in

.” for

at

last I have managed to complete this thesis in time.

I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the following individuals who were

my

first supervisor, for his advice, guidance and valuable criticism throughout this work. He has

generously allocated and shared his limited time to enable me to complete this study an has been an invaluable source of counsel and confidence throughout my research effort. His patience and generous&y has motivated me to complete this study in time. To my second supervisor, Tuan Fiji Abdul Rahman bin Mu&&, for his personal assistance, cooperation and support in the progress

extended his insights and introduced me to certain

people to help me in my statistical analysis. His tolerance in listening to my arguments and editing

the essay is very much appreciated.

directly involved with the development and completion of this study: To Dr.

with the development and completion of this study: To Dr. and completion of this study. He
with the development and completion of this study: To Dr. and completion of this study. He
with the development and completion of this study: To Dr. and completion of this study. He

and completion of this study. He has curteously

Che Ani bin Mad,

of this study. He has curteously Che Ani bin Mad, I invaluable ideas and continued interests,

I

invaluable ideas and continued interests, especially in the research methodology sessions and the

preparation of the research proposal.

would also like to extend my appreciation to Prof. Dr. Milandre Nini Bulgarin Rusgal for her

to Prof. Dr. Milandre Nini Bulgarin Rusgal for her I also owe a great deal to

I also owe a great deal to many people who have provided assistance during the process of

collecting the data: the officers and staff of the Kedah State Education Department, especially En. Rosle, for providing the data and lists of school administrators in Kedah; the officers and staffs of the Kubang Pasu District Education Office, especially En. Najib and Pn. Fozinah, for their assistance in duplicating and collecting the questionnaires; and to the Principals, Senior Assistants and Senior Subject Teachers of the selected secondary schools in Kedah for responding to the questionnaire items.

in Kedah for responding to the questionnaire items. A special thank you is further expressed to
in Kedah for responding to the questionnaire items. A special thank you is further expressed to

A special thank you is further expressed to En. Imran, En. Osman, En. Halim and En. Fuad for

to En. Imran, En. Osman, En. Halim and En. Fuad for statistical consultation and help in

statistical consultation and help in progr amming;

Cik Roziah and Pn. Khairul for technical and

computer support particularly in data tabulation and graphics; Pn. Zuriyati and Pn. Zabedah for proof reading, Pn. Harison for final print-out and my colleagues of the 3rd Cohort, IAB/UUM Twinning Programme for their long hours of intellectual and social interactions, brain storming and wonderful ideas throughout our one year study stint.

and wonderful ideas throughout our one year study stint. Last but not least, I am immensely
and wonderful ideas throughout our one year study stint. Last but not least, I am immensely

Last but not least, I am immensely grateful to my husband, Haji Morazuki bin Haji Hashim, for his tender love, understanding, support and sacrifice; to my children, for their laughter and humours; my mother, mother and father-in-law and the rest of the family for their prayers and well wishers. To everyone else, thanks a million, and may Allah bless us all!

iv

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1.1: Total and Percentage Number of Staff in the Goverment Sector,

 

by Sex (1980

- 1991)

- 1991)

Table 1.2: Employment Distribution by Industry and Sex, 1990 and 1995

Table 1.3 : Employment Distribution by Sex and Industry, 1990 and 1995

Table 1.4: Employment Distribution by Sex and Industry, 1990 and 1995

Table 1.5: Number of Employees in the Civil Service (1995)

 

Table 1.6: Total Population of Employees in the Education Sector in Kedah 1995

Table 1.7: Total Population in the Education Sector: Academic Staff (Administrative and Teaching) and Non Academic Staff (Rank and File)

Table 1.8: Distribution of Employees by Rank in the Secondary and

 

Primary Schools, Kedah Dar&man

According to Gender

(1995)

Table 1.9: Distribution of Employees in the Education Offices, Kedah Darulaman According to Gender (1995)

Table 2.1: Distribution of Population and Sample

 

Table 4.1: Distribution of Respondents

Table 4.2: Age of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Table 4.3: Marital Status of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Table 4.4: Rank in Family of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah.

V

Table 4.5: Length of Service of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah (As Ordinary Teachers)
Table 4.5: Length of Service of the Secondary School Administrators in
Kedah (As Ordinary Teachers)
Table 4.6: Length of Service of Secondary School Administrators in
Kedah
Table 4.7: Highest Educational Attainment of the Secondary School
Administrators in Kedah
Table 4.8: Year of Graduation of the Secondary School Administrators in
Kedah
Table 4.9: Training Programmes attended by the Secondary School
Administrators in Kedah
Table 4.10: Organizers of Training Programmes Attended by the
Secondary School Administrators in Kedah
Table 4.11: Number and Percentage of Male and Female Administrators
Remaining in their District of Origin
Table
4.12:
Family-Related
Matters
of
the
Secondary
School
Administrators in Kedah
Table 4.13: Knowledge, Skill and Attitude of the Secondary School
Administrators in Kedah
Table 4.14: Mean, Standard Deviation, t, P and 2 Value for Mobility of
the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah
Table 4.15 : Means and Standard Deviation for Factors that Facilitate or
Hinder
Career
Advancement
of
the
Male
and
Female
Administrators
vi

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1: Total Number of Staff in The Goverment Sector By Sex (1980

Figure 1.1: Total Number of Staff in The Goverment Sector By Sex (1980 -

Number of Staff in The Goverment Sector By Sex (1980 - 1991) Figure 1.2: Percentage of

1991)

Figure 1.2: Percentage of Staff in The Goverment Sector By Sex

1991)

(1980 -

of Staff in The Goverment Sector By Sex 1991) (1980 - Figure 1.3 : Number and

Figure 1.3 : Number and Percentage of Male and Female Teachers (1995)

Figure 3.1: Schematic Diagram showing the Correlates of the Mobility of Women Administrator in the Education Sector in Kedah.

Figure 4.1:

Distribution

of

Respondents

Figure 4.2:

Age of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Figure 4.3:

Marital

Status of the Secondary School

Administrators in

Kedah

Figure 4.4:

Rank in Family of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah.

Figure 4.5: Length of Service of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah (As Ordinary Teachers)

Figure 4.6:

Length of Service of Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Figure 4.7: Highest Educational Attainment of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Figure 4.8: Year of Graduation of the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Figure 4.9:

Training Programmes Attended by the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Figure 4.10: Organizers of Training Programmes Attended by the Secondary School Administrators in Kedah

Figure4.11:
Figure4.11:

Number and Percentage of Male and Female Administrators Remaining in their District of Origin

vii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 An Overview of Women Employment in Malaysia

Women in Malaysia have long been involved in ‘employment”. Previous studies by

long been involved in ‘employment”. Previous studies by Husna Sulaiman (1984), Rohany Nasir (1984), and Anfield

Husna Sulaiman (1984), Rohany Nasir

(1984),
(1984),
studies by Husna Sulaiman (1984), Rohany Nasir (1984), and Anfield (1989) showed that besides being housewives,

and Anfield (1989) showed that besides

being housewives, the Malay peasant society women have traditionally participated in

economic activities such as farming, handicrafts and sales of goods in local markets.

However, they were only engaged in such ‘unpaid employment” or household

production dealing with their own properties and for their own family.

Later, with the economic and social changes in the country especially during the early

1920’s,
1920’s,

women were slowly engaged in the paid workforce. Acording to historical

records, there were 1,903 women employed as labourers in 1921. Most of them were

brought from India by the British and were paid to work in the plantations. The Chinese

women on the other hand were the immigrants who came to work in the luring mining

industries.There was a negligible number of Malay women involved in wage employment

during that time.

1

This situation has slowly evolved especially after independence. Women first started

joining systematically into the civil service, particularly in the education sector, when a

few of them were sent to Kirby, England to be trained as teachers in the 1950’s. Since

then, there was a steady increase in the number of women in the government agencies.

Most of them were concentrated in the education service as teachers, in hospitals as

nurses or attendants and other feminine jobs such as clerks, typists, telephone operators

and social workers.

Reviewing Malaysian Women’s Status coordinated by Professor Datin Dr. Jamilah

Ariffin (1994) has revealed several factors which helped to explain the increase in the

participation of women in the government service. The most important factor was

education. The other key factor was the gradual change in parents’ attitude towards

giving their daughters equal opportunities, motivation and encouragement to pursue

formal education. These factors have contributed a lot in the increase of education

levels of women. With the availability of basic education, knowledge and skills, women

have greater opportunities to gain entry into employment. This has also changed their

attitudes towards other challenging options, rather than just being housewives.

Another important factor is due to the various activities and pronouncements made by

the government itself The expansion of the government sector and scope of activities

from regulatory functions to that which is connected with social, infrastructural and

economic developments such as the New Economic Policy has created an increase in

2
2

demands for women employees especially in the teaching, clerical and secretarial fields.

The activities were further enhanced through the establishment of The National Advisory

Council on the Integration of Women in Development (NACIWID), the Women’s

Integration of Women in Development (NACIWID), the Women’s Affairs Division (HAWA) and several Non-Government

Affairs Division (HAWA)

and several Non-Government Organizations (NGG’s)

(HAWA) and several Non-Government Organizations (NGG’s) which work together as the national machinery for the

which

work together as the national machinery for the advancement of women’s status in

Malaysia. The NACIWID helps to increase women’s participation in employment by

coordinating and acting as consultative and advisory body on women’s affairs besides

promoting women’s issues at the national level through its linkages with policy-makers.

The HAWA appointed liason officers at the state and district levels to monitor the

implementation and impact of projects for women. It also undertook gender analysis

training and sensitization for policy-makers and programme implementors in the public

sector and initiated similar programmes for the private sector.

To complement the efforts of government agencies, about 220 women’s NGQ’s

were

of government agencies, about 220 women’s NGQ’s were established throughout the country. These NGG’s

established throughout the country. These NGG’s implemented a wide range of activities

and programmes aimed at promoting the interests of women including welfare,

education, sports, religion, social, professional and political. Therefore, there was an

ever rising number of women’s participation in employment.

The number of women employees has also increased intensively in line with the

economic progress. In 1980, there were 131,954 (27.0%) women staffs in the

government sector as shown in Table 1.1 on the next page. The data shows a steady

3

e
e

Table 1.1:

TOTAL

AND

PERCENTAGE

NUMBER

OF

STAFF

IN

THE

GOVERMENT

SECTOR

BY

SEX /1980-19911

NUMBER OF STAFF IN THE GOVERMENT SECTOR BY SEX /1980-19911 S E X 1 Number of
NUMBER OF STAFF IN THE GOVERMENT SECTOR BY SEX /1980-19911 S E X 1 Number of

SEX

1

Number of Staff

1980

1981

1982

 

1983

1984

1985

 

1986

-x-pi-

-x-pi-

1989

1 1990

1 1991

 

1

356775

385910

468214

 

468296

496485

501515

503704

~487691 1468637 1470603 I

73.0

72.4

1

72.3

1

71.8

I

71.2

[

70.7

1

70.2

68.5

1

67

I

66.4
66.4

I

131954

146884

179761

 

190852

201204

207669

213420

131954 146884 179761   190852 201204 207669 213420 224050 1 229785 1 238415 1

224050 1229785 1238415 1

           

27.0

27.6

27.7

 

28.2

28.8

29.3

 

29.8

31.5

 

33

 

33.6

 
     

I

 

488729

532794 647975 I I
532794
647975
I
I

I

I

677148

I

697689

I

709184

I

717124

488729 532794 647975 I I I I 677148 I 697689 I 709184 I 717124 711741 698422

711741

698422

709018

 

I

I

I

 

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

100.0

I- Male
I-
Male
Total t- I % I
Total
t-
I
%
I
100.0 100.0   100.0 I- Male Total t- I % I Source: Norma Mansor and Nik

Source: Norma Mansor

100.0   100.0 I- Male Total t- I % I Source: Norma Mansor and Nik Rosnah

and Nik Rosnah (1993) IN Jmillah ArifJin (1993).

Source: Table 1.1 lqlpre 1.2: % Source: Table 1.1 5
Source: Table 1.1 lqlpre 1.2: % Source: Table 1.1 5
Source: Table 1.1 lqlpre 1.2: % Source: Table 1.1 5
Source: Table 1.1
Source:
Table
1.1

lqlpre 1.2:

%
%
Source: Table 1.1 lqlpre 1.2: % Source: Table 1.1 5
Source: Table 1.1 lqlpre 1.2: % Source: Table 1.1 5
Source: Table 1.1
Source:
Table
1.1

5

increase every year. The increase reached 238,415 (33.6%) in 1991 (see also Figure 1.1

and Figure 1.2).

Women continued to make strides in various fields af national development between

1991 and 1995 as reported in the Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996). According to the

report, the number of women employed during that period increased from 3 1.4 per cent

employed during that period increased from 3 1.4 per cent of total employed in 1990 to

of total employed in 1990 to an estimated 33.7 per cent in 1995, as shown in Table 1.2.

An interesting trend observed during the period was the decline in the proportion of

women relative to men working in the primary and secondary sectors, and the

progressive increase in their participation in the tertiary sector, particularly the

distributive trade and financial sectors.

Table

1.2:

EMPLOYMENT

DISTRIBUTION

BY

INDUSTRY

AND

SEX,

1990

AND

1995

 

1990

1995

Industry

Male
Male

Female

Male

Female

Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing Mining & Quarrying Manufacuuing Coustmction Electricity, Gas

Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing Mining & Quarrying Manufacuuing Coustmction Electricity, Gas & Water Transport, Storage & Communications Wholesale & Retail Trade Finance, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services Other Services Social and Related Community Services Personal and Household Services Public Administration

Services Other Services Social and Related Community Services Personal and Household Services Public Administration
Services Other Services Social and Related Community Services Personal and Household Services Public Administration

65.6

34.4

71.6

28.4

87.1

53.6

93.1

95.7

61.4

88.9

65.8

12.9

46.4

6.9

4.3

38.6

11.1

34.2

88.1

56.6

87.6

92.2

88.8

62.4

59.7

11.9

43.4

12.4

7.8

11.2

37.6

40.3

62.1

37.9

60.8

39.2

47.2

52.8

44.9

55.1

47.0

53.0

49.4

50.6

81.5

18.5

78.4

21.6

TOTAL (%)

TOTAL (%)

68.8

31.2

66.3

33.7

50.6 81.5 18.5 78.4 21.6 TOTAL (%) 68.8 31.2 66.3 33.7 Source: Seventh Mafaysiu Plan. 6

Source: Seventh Mafaysiu

Plan.

6

Overall, the manufacturing sector continued to absorb the largest share of employed

women, accounting for about 30.1 per cent of all female workers in 1995 compared to

29.5 percent in 1990. This was followed by other services: wholesale and retail trade,

hotels and restaurants; and agricultural sectors as shown in Table 1.3. In terms of

occupational structure, the proportion of women in the professional, technical as well as

administrative and managerial occupational categories increased significantly from 9.4

per cent and 0.6 percent in 1990 to 13.5 per cent and 1.9 per cent in 1995, respectively

(see Table 1.4).

Table 1.3: EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY SEX AND INDUSTRY. 1990 AND 1995

Table 1.3:

EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY SEX AND INDUSTRY. 1990 AND 1995

 

1990

1995

 

Industry

Male

Female

Male

Female

Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing Mining & Quarrying Mauufacturing

Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing Mining & Quarrying Mauufacturing

Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing Mining & Quarrying Mauufacturing

24.8

28.5

20.3

15.9

0.7

0.2

0.5

0.1

15.6

29.5

20.0

30.1

Construction

 

8.6

1.4

0.8

0.2

Electricity, Gas & Water Transport, Storage & Communications Wholesale & Retail Trade Finance, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services Other Services

Communications Wholesale & Retail Trade Finance, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services Other Services

1.0

0.2

10.7

1.8

4.0

5.6

7.2

1.8

23.6

6.4

16.3

19.3

3.7

4.2

4.3

5.6

18.0

24.0

19.9

25.2

TOTAL

 

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

5.6 18.0 24.0 19.9 25.2 TOTAL   100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Seventh Makysia Hun. 7

Source: Seventh Makysia

Hun.

7

Table 1.4: 1.4:

EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY SEX AND INDUSTRY, 1990 AND 1995

EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY SEX AND INDUSTRY, 1990 AND 1995 1990 1995 Industry Male 1Female Male 1Female
1990 1995 Industry Male 1Female Male 1Female Professional, Technical & Related Workers Administrative &
1990
1995
Industry
Male 1Female
Male
1Female
Professional, Technical & Related Workers
Administrative & Managerial Workers
Clerical & Related Workers
Sales & Related Workers
serives workers
Agriculture Workers
Production & Relates Workers
6.4
1
9.4
8.4
I 13.5
2.8
0.6
4.4
1.9
7.0
14.1
7.3
17.6
11.4
11.4
10.9
11.3
9.9
14.1
9.9
13.4
29.4
28.1
20.9
15.8
33.1
22.3
38.2
26.5
TOTAL
100.0
100.0
100.0
~evenrn
maraysw
man.

A closer look at certain departments today shows that female staffs have infact

outnumbered the males (see Table 1.5). Taking the education sector in particular, there

are 23,656 female teachers in 1995 compared to 18,269 male teachers

( see also Figure

in 1995 compared to 18,269 male teachers ( see also Figure 1.3). The overall number of

1.3). The overall number of 53,757 female staffs

has outnumbered the overall 39,886

males. (Data excluding the nurses, Armed Forces and Police Departments).

In line with Table 1.5, Fatimah Kari (1993)

confirmed that the existing structure of the

civil service is not even, She found that even though women officers are given the rights

and equal opportunity to achieve high position in the bureaucracy, but., .

‘

the number of top level posts allocated to women ofleers

is minimal in comparison to

the overall. Secondly, these posts that are actually held by women are seen to be ‘feminine positions” such as administrative, personnel and services. In general, it can

administrative, personnel and services. In general, it can thus be concluded that even today, women oQicers

thus be concluded that even today, women oQicers

only amount to being a very small

proportion of the numerous and varied top positions available and that even these are

the ‘soft”

positions available and that even these are the ‘soft” process. ” positions, which do not therefore

process.

positions, which do not therefore have a direct impact on the policy-making

8

1.5:NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CIVIL SERVICE (1995) Service Scale Male Female Total Arcllitect 198

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CIVIL SERVICE

(1995)
(1995)
Service Scale Male Female Total Arcllitect 198 82 280 Engineer 2690 247 2937 Quantiti Surveyor
Service
Scale
Male
Female
Total
Arcllitect
198
82
280
Engineer
2690
247
2937
Quantiti Surveyor
126
114
240
Statistician
105
16
166
senior statistic oftim
78
105
183
Assistant
Statistic
Officer
550
492
1,042
System Analyst
I
457
1
360
1
817
1
Progra mmer
367 1
521 1
888 1
!
OMPD
& Computer Operator
388
3222
3,610
Accountant
326
205
531
Senior
Accountant
640
851
1,491
Assistant
Accountant
325
642
967
9c-m
‘)?fJ
11c
Law Ofker
J7L ,
LIJ
,
““J
Law
Assistant
134 1
108 1
242 1
I
Doctor
I
3,316
1
2,622
1
5,938
Dentist
204
1
522
1
726
Firemen
support 2
I
7,361
1
56
1
7,417
1
~llrsfs
Not
Available
.-“-”
I iupport
1
1
96
1
15,390
1
15,486
support
2
71
3,012
1
3,019
?lk&h&rs
18,269. f
23,656
41,925
Administrative and Diplomatic Ofiicer
3192
725
3917
JUDGES
225
63
288
L’1 ?L?
t-a?LA?
TOTAL
39,886
*Data excluding
the Nurses, Police and Armed Forces
39,886 *Data excluding the Nurses, Police and Armed Forces Source: Civil Service Department (JPA) in CITRA

Source: Civil Service Department (JPA) in CITRA

9

July 1996.

Figure

1.3:

5443%

Number and PerceWge

Figure 1.3: 5443% Number and PerceWge of Male and Female Teachers (l%EQ . . . .

of Male and Female

Teachers (l%EQ

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
~.~
::.
.
.
.
.
.
.
*
.
1
.,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
~.~.~.~.~.~
~.~.~
~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.‘.~.~.~.~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:.:.:.~:.:.:.:.~:.:,:.:.~~:.:.:.:.~~.:.:.~:.~:.~:.
.
.~.‘.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.‘.~.~.~.~,~.~.’.~.~.~.’.~.‘.~.~
.:.:.:,:.:.:.:.:.:.:.~.:.:.:.:.:.:.~:.:.~~~:.:.:.:.:.:
.
.
.
.
*
:.:.~:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.~:.:.
.
.
,‘.~.~.‘.‘.~.‘.~.‘.~.~.~.~.~.~,~.~.’.
~
~
~
~
~ ~ ~ ~ Source: Table 1.5 1.2 Context of the Problem The primary
~ ~ ~ ~ Source: Table 1.5 1.2 Context of the Problem The primary

Source: Table 1.5

1.2 Context of the Problem

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the mobility of women administrators

in the education sector in Kedah. Specifically, it will attempt to study the demographic

characteristics and to draw a profile of the women administrators who have overcome

the barriers to administrative advancements.

This study is important because it intends to validate Fatimah Kari’s (1993) finding of

sex inequality (in the education sector) where women constitute a great proportion as

i’ *
i’ *

10

teachers. For instance, data compiled from the Kedah State Education Department as

data compiled from the Kedah State Education Department as shown in Table 1.6 indicates that out

shown in Table 1.6 indicates that out of 2 1,121 staffs in 1995, there were 11,055 or

52.34 per cent females compared to 10,066 or 47.66 per cent males. Is it true that, in

our society, women face a lot of barriers and constraints to achieve job advancement?

Table

1.6:

TOTAL POPULATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR IN

 
 

KEDAH

1995

ADMINISTRATIVELEVEL

 

MALE

%

FEMALE

%

TOTAL*

1. State Education Offke (JPN)

1. State Education Offke

(JPN)

110

0.52

92

0.44

202 (207)

2. District Education OfJfices

(PPD)
(PPD)

70

0.33

15

0.07

85 Pa
85
Pa

3. Educational Resource Centre (PSPN)

3. Educational Resource Centre (PSPN)

29

0.14

5

0.02

34

(38)

4.

Secondary

Schools

4193

19.85

3843

18.19

8036

(8048)

5.

Primary

and

Pre-Schools

5664

26.82

7100

33.62

12,764

(12,772)

TOTAL

 

10,066

47.66

11,055

52.34

21,121

 

(21,155)

* Fiiures in () show the exact number of posts.

(21,155) * Fiiures in () show the exact number of posts. Source: Kedizh Education Department. Table

Source:

Kedizh

Education

Department.

Table 1.7 indicates that only 403 of the women academic staff were involved in top

management; 237 in secondary schools and 160 in primary schools. Table 1.8 further

strenghten the contention that analysis on the secondary school lady administrators

clearly shows that most of them were allocated in the lower level as Senior Subject

Teachers or in the middle management level as the Senior Assistants. Very few of them

managed to reach the top ceiling to be the Principal. This position consisted of only 22

ladies; 8 of them were Principals in grade A secondary schools and 14 others in grade B

11

secondary schools. There were no top level women administrators in the District

Education Offices or State Education Department (see Table 1.9) but there was one in

the State Educational Resource Centre who has retired in February 1995.

Table

1.7:

TOTAL POPULATION IN TEE EDUCATION SECTOR : ACADEMIC STAFF

JADMINISTRATIVE
JADMINISTRATIVE

AND TEACHING) AND NON ACADEMIC STAFF (RANK

ADMINWl’RATIVE ACADEMIC STAFF NON ACADEMIC GRAND LEVEL ADMINISTRATIVE TEACHING STAFF (Rank & File) TOTAL
ADMINWl’RATIVE
ACADEMIC STAFF
NON
ACADEMIC
GRAND
LEVEL
ADMINISTRATIVE
TEACHING
STAFF (Rank &
File)
TOTAL
Total
Total
M
F
Total
-
1. State
Education
55
60
87
147
Department (JPN)
2. District
Education
41
41
29
15
44
85
Offices
(PPD)
3. Educational
Resource
17
1
18
4
16
34
Centre (PSPN)
4. Secondary Schools
486
237
723
2768
8036
5.
Primary & Pre-
940
160
1100
3982
6312
742
628
12764
Schools
TOTAL
6750
9487
16237
1782
1165
PERCENTAGE
76.88

Source:

Kedai
Kedai

Education Depahnent.

12

  4DMINI!3TR4TIVE LEVEL/RANK MALE % FEMALE % TOTA L 1 kcondary Schools  
 
4DMINI!3TR4TIVE
4DMINI!3TR4TIVE

LEVEL/RANK

MALE

%

FEMALE

%

TOTA
TOTA

L

1 kcondary
1
kcondary

Schools

           

a)

Top

level

/Principals

(A

Schools)

 

51

0.64

8

0.10

59

b) level/Principals

Top

@
@

Schools)

52

0.65

14

0.13

66

c) Middle level/Senior Assistant (A Schools Only)

113

1.41

41

0.51

154

d) Middle level/Senior Assistant (B Schools Only)

d) Middle level/Senior Assistant (B Schools Only) e) Low level/Senior Subject

e) Low

level/Senior

Subject

155

1.92

60

0.74

215

Teachers (A School Only)

115

1.43

114

1.42

229

f) Teachers

f) Teachers

 

2768

34.40

3175

39.52

5943

g)

Non-Teachers

(Rank

and

939

11.68

431

5.38

1370

File)

TOTAL

4193

52.13

3843

47.8

8036

2 Primary Schools

           

a) level

Top

/Headmaster

(A

Schools)

 

153

1.20

33

0.26

186

b) level

Top

/Headmasters

(I3 Schools only)

(I3 Schools only)

 

272

2.14

32

0.24

304

c) Low level

Senior

Assistants

940

4.04

160

0.75

610

(A

Schools only)

 

d) Primary

School

Teachers

3977

31.16

6187

48.43

10164

e) Pre-School

Teachers

5

0.04

125

0.98

130

f) Non-Teachers (Rank and File)

f) Non-Teachers (Rank and File)

742

5.82

628

4.95

1370

TOTAL

5664

44.40

7100

55.61

12764

GRAND
GRAND

TOTAL

 

9857

 

10943

 

20800

‘onrce:

Kedah

Education

Department.

 

13

KEDAH DARULAMAN ACCORDING TO GENDER WWS) ADMlNI!STRATIVE LEVEL TOTAL State Education Department (JPN) a) Top

KEDAH DARULAMAN ACCORDING TO GENDER WWS)

ADMlNI!STRATIVE LEVEL TOTAL State Education Department (JPN) a) Top level (Director and Deputy Directors) 3
ADMlNI!STRATIVE
LEVEL
TOTAL
State Education Department (JPN)
a) Top level (Director
and Deputy Directors)
3
1.46
3
b) Middle level (chief
Assistant
Directors)
10
4.95
10
c) Low level (Assistant
Directors,
Supervisors
and Administrative
Officers
37
18.32
5
2.47
42
d)
Rauk andFile
60
29.72
87
43.07
147
TOTAL
110
54.45
92
45.54
202
District Education Oftice
(PPD)
a) Top level (District
Education Officer)
7
8.24
7
b) Middle level (Assistant
District
Education
14
16.47
14
OEcers)
c) Low level (Supervisor)
20
23.53
20
d) Rank and File
29
34.12
15
17.65
44
TOTAL
70
82.35
15
17.65
85
State Educational Resource Centre
PSPN)
a) Top level (Chief Assistant
Director)
2.94
1
v
b) Middle level (Assistant
Directors)
7
20.58
7
c) Low level (Supervisors)
10
29.44
10
d) Rank and File
12
35.28
11.76
16
TOTAL
29
85.30
5
14.70
34

1

-

2

3

&ce: Kedizh
&ce:
Kedizh

Education Deparhnent.

14

Various pronouncements has been made by the government about the importance of

women’s role regarding their leadership and managerial capabilities either in economy,

politics, education or entrepreneurship. The National Policy was aimed to .integrate

women in all economic sectors. The Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996) has emphasized on

strategies to incorporate women in the process of development. The ninth challenge of

Vision 2020 has highlighted women’s participation in economy. Even the Prime Minister,

Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad said that women has a natural tendency for

management and the country will face an acute shortage of manpower if women were

relegated to doing only housework (NST: 6th April 1996).

relegated to doing only housework (NST: 6th April 1996). Another important event is the appointment of

Another important event is the appointment of Datin Seri Dr. Siti Hasmah Mohd Ali as

the Chairman of the Regional Steering Committee for Rural and Island Women of Asia-

Pacific. This has become the world focus for a distinct model of women’s leadership and

capabilities for development. Most recently, Malaysia’s commitment at last year’s

“Beijing Conference on Women” has been enforced by the presentation of the “National

Action Plan” at the 1996 Women’s Day celebration on August 25th. Lately, this issue

was again highlighted in the Wanita UMNO general meeting in October 1996.

In Malaysia, there has been a continued and consistent interest on issues related to

women (Rohany, 1984). However, research pertaining to this area is very limited.

1. The “National Action Plan” was presented to the Deputy Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim by the National Unity and Social Development Minister, Datin Paduka Zaleha Ismail. The plan was a follow-up of the “Beijing Conference on Women” which detailed 12 main fields in which women could play a more active role. The most important fields are in the areas of health, education, economy, medical and religion. Its main focus is to achieve a 30 per cent target for women in decision-making positions in the political, public and private sectors.

is to achieve a 30 per cent target for women in decision-making positions in the political,
is to achieve a 30 per cent target for women in decision-making positions in the political,

15

Previous studies on women in Malaysia were mainly focused on health, family planning,

and social aspects (Jamilah Ariffin, 1992). Later, a review of their status and a collection

of Readings on Women ‘s Development in Malaysia (Jamilah Ariffin, 1994) has covered

Development in Malaysia (Jamilah Ariffin, 1994) has covered certain aspects including women’s involvement and

certain aspects including women’s involvement and participation in the government

sector, politics, medical as well as the impact of education on the development process.

Since there was no previous research particularly emphasizing on the mobility of women

administrators, it is hoped that this study will stimulate the generation of knowledge to

better understand this phenomenon in the Malaysian context.

1.3 Research Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of women

administrators in the education sector in Kedah, particularly, in the secondary schools. It

shall attempt to:

1. draw a profile of the women administrators as a whole, as well as the female

and male administrators separately;

2. compare their demographic characteristics with their male counterparts;

3. determine the significant factors that have facilitated or hindered women

administrators from holding top administrative position along:

16

l

age

l

length of service as a teacher

l

length of service as an administrator

l

year of graduation

0

0

number of promotion

l

experience as a Principal, Senior Assistant or Senior Subject Teacher.

1.4

Research

Questions

The number of women is very significant in the teaching profession which is considered

as a female dominated job. This is well understood as teaching is very closely related to

the feminine task of mothers to educate and look after the well-beings of the children. It

is also generally accepted by the Malaysian society that teaching is among the most

suitable profession for women due to the nature of the job itself and its working hours.

This has resulted in the ever increasing number of women in this sector.

However, it is noticed that despite their greater population as compared to men in this

sector, only a small proportion of the women has been promoted to hold top

administrative positions especially as school Principals. Therefore, it is a great interest of

the researcher to conduct this study in an attempt to understand this phenomenon. In

order to obtain the answers, this study was guided by the following major questions:

17

1.

What are the personal characteristics of women administrators in the

education sector in Kedah? Is there a pattern of personal characteristic

variables that discriminate between female administrators and their male

counterparts? The specific variables examined were age, marital status, rank

in the family and length of service as ordinary teachers and as administrators.

2. What is the educational background of the women administrators in the

education sector in Kedah? Is there any difference in educational background

between the female administrators compared to the male administrators as

measured by their highest academic qualification and administrative training

attended?

3. Is the mobility pattern of women administrators in the education sector in

Kedah affected by their home-related factors? Again, do these factors have a

similar impact on the male administrators? The specific variables connected to

their home-related factors studied were their family background (which

include their district of origin and where they served most as teachers and

administrators) and their family related factors which could hinder their

advancement (which include their role as a wife or husband, their role as a

mother or father, moral support given by the spouse and percentage of helps

available to manage their household chores).

18

4.

Is the mobility of the women administrators in the education sector in Kedah

highly depended on their specific qualities and other significant factors? Do

their specific qualities and other significant factors? Do they differ in specific qualities as compared to

they differ in specific qualities as compared to their male counterparts?. These

specific qualities include knowledge, skill, and attitude regarding their

administrative

position,

while

other

significant

factors

are

the

recruitment

and retention undergone by them before holding top positions.

5. Corollarily, is the mobility pattern of the female administrators differ

significantly from their male counterparts along age, length of service, year of

graduation, number of promotion offered and experience?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Firstly, this study was aimed to draw a profile of the women administrators in the

education sector in Kedah along their personal characteristics, educational background,

home-related factors and specific qualities. Secondly, this study was an effort to

determine whether there were sigificant differences between the female administrators

compared to the males in the same aspects. The main hypotheses formulated for this

study were:

Ho1 : Women administrators do not differ significantly in demographic

characteristics as compared to the male administrators.

19

1.6

Ho2: Women administrators do not differ significantly in mobility pattern

do not differ significantly in mobility pattern compared to the male administrators. Significance of the

compared to the male administrators.

Significance of the Study

Firstly, it is hoped that this study would help to generate knowledge about the factors

related to the mobility of woman administrators in the secondary schools in Kedah. It is

anticipated that the results would be useful especially to the female teachers to create a

better

understanding

and

positive

attitude

towards

their

career

planning,

opportunities

and advancement as school administrators. The profiles developed and the patterns

discovered would serve as a career development aid by which they may assess and aim

their ascent.

Secondly, it is also hoped that this study would generate data and information which will

help the policy makers and implementors in the Ministry of Education, State Education

Departments and District Education Offices to manage the policy formulation, program

planning and implementation towards a better and fairer mobility advancement among

women administrators, just as their male counterparts.

Thirdly, it is further hoped that this study will serve other future researchers to develop

a new framework or hypothesis to the research problem in the context of the current

progress in Malaysia. Information gathered through this research will stimulate the

20

formation of a new set of questionnaire or instrument which will be used to measure the

specific indicators in an attempt to look out for other factors, differences or similarities

between female and male administrators’ mobility.

1.8 Limitations and Scope of the Study

Initially, the researcher intended to conduct the study on senior women administrators in

all the ministries in Kedah. However due to time factors, it was later diverted to the

senior woman administrators in the education sector: the State Education Department,

the State Educational Resource Centre and the District Education Of&es.

Nevertheless ,

after scanning through the list of administrators, it was found that the number of woman

in top positions were rather negligible, thereby, limiting the potential respondents.

Therefore, the researcher finally dicided to study on the woman administrators in the

secondary schools comprising of the Principals, Senior Assistants and Senior Subject

Teachers.

Potential sources of error might occur in conducting this studies due to the limitations as

follows:

21

Time Constraints

The maximum time available to the researcher to spend on data collection process

including running the pilot test was between 15th July and 28th October 1996 which is

about three and a half months only, while the analysis of data and write up was targeted

to be completed before 30th November 1996. Therefore, the researcher only used

mailed questionnaires instead of field interviews.

Generalizabilitv of Findings

Since the research study was the first one to be conducted,

and carried out only in

Kedah, the findings might not reflect the whole current scenario in Malaysia.

Furthermore, conclusions were made mainly based on the analysis of the answered

questionnaire items. Therefore, limitations and potential errors related to the nature of

the instrument could have occured. However, in order to minimize these effects, several

field interviews were conducted in the district of Kubang Pasu to gain more insight and

opinions of the respondents regarding the topic.

22
22

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Traditionally, the image of females has been viewed primarily as housewives: caretaker of

the home, children and husband. However,

the increased rights and opportunities

obtained by women to choose education and profession have resulted in the influx of

women in the workforce (Asplund, 1988). Today, women have been found participating

successfully in almost all walks of life including education, politics, science, international

aids organizations, business and even in the corporate world. However, the number of

women who has managed to hold top positions in administration and decision-making

process is still not significant as compared to their numbers in the workforce.

Based on the nature of the study, the researcher tries to organize this chapter based on

the researcher tries to organize this chapter based on two major questions: What are the characteristics

two major questions: What are the characteristics of the women tiinistrators

in

the

are the characteristics of the women tiinistrators in the education sector in Kedah in terms of

education sector in Kedah in terms

tiinistrators in the education sector in Kedah in terms of personal characteristics, edizational background,

of personal characteristics, edizational

background,

home-relatedfactors and specific qualities and how far do they differ in the same aspects

from their male counterparts?

22

A search of the literature was done based on these questions and summarized according to

five headings. First, the researcher summarizes the key functions of a manager and relates

it to the role and characteristics of a school administrator. This is followed by some

relevant reviews on female-male leadership differences. Then, the researcher tries to

highlight some research findings on the absence of women from higher-education

administration and the barriers towards women’s mobility to top positions. Lastly, a few

demographic characteristics on women administrators as observed

researchers are displayed.

by previous

2.1 The Function of a Manager and its Relationship to the Role of a School

Administrator

and its Relationship to the Role of a School Administrator According to Robbins (1993), managers are

According to Robbins (1993), managers are persons who achieve goals through other

people. Academically, according to management textbooks, planning, organizing,

leading and controlling are the 4 key management functions. Drucker (1977) further

identified five key operations in the work of managers: setting objectives, organizing,

motivating and communicating, establishing measurements, as well as developing

people.

Since management or administration is highly related to leadership, Mintzberg

or administration is highly related to leadership, Mintzberg (1973), classified the manager’s activities into three

(1973), classified the manager’s activities into three groupings namely interpersonal

relationship (figurehead, leader and liaison),

transfer

of

information

(monitor,

disseminator

and

spokesperson)

and

decision-making

(entrepreneur,

disturbance

handler,

resource allocator and negotiator).

23
23

The major functions and roles of the school administrators are based on the guidelines

endorsed by the Ministry of Education, 1990 (Appendix 1). Basically, it is seen to be in

line with the management function of managers as described by Robbins, Drucker and

function of managers as described by Robbins, Drucker and Mintzberg. Another way of considering the function

Mintzberg.

Another way of considering the function of a manager (administrator) is to look at the

skills and competencies they need to successfully achieve their goals. As identified by Katz

to successfully achieve their goals. As identified by Katz and Kahn (1977) IN Miles (1985), a

and Kahn (1977) IN Miles (1985),

a manager has to acquire three essential management

skills:

technical (the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise), human (the

ability to work with, understand and motivate other people, both individually and in

groups) and conceptual (the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations).

In the context of this study, it is therefore important to investigate the characteristics of

the school administrators based on their personal and educational background, home

related factors and specific qualities in knowledge, skill and attitude towards their present

job and position and its impact on job mobility.

24

2.2

Female-male

Leadership

Differences.

Studies concerning the questions on whether women are really different Corn men in

leadership behaviours have been explored by many researchers. The findings and

conclusions were however varied, mixed and contradictory.

In general, several studies concerning the sex-role identities on managers found that

“good” managers were perceived to have characteristics associated with masculine sex-

to have characteristics associated with masculine sex- role stereotypes: assertive, achieving, competitive,

role stereotypes: assertive, achieving, competitive, rational and independent (Miles, 1985).

Nevertheless, it has also been argued that the “good” female managers might differ in

leadership styles compared to “good” male managers. A research study by Brodsky

(1989),
(1989),

has discussed the arguments on the similarities and differences in female-male

leadership. According to her reviews, females have been stereotypically perceived as more

submissive,

dependent,

emotional,

excitable,

irrational,

conforming,

affectionate,

kind,

sensitive, warm, sympathetic, understanding, gentle, nurturant and yielding. On the other

hand, males have been stereotypically perceived as being more dominant, independent,

ambitious, competitive, aggressive, intellectualistic, decisive, athletic, logical, unemotional,

self-confident, analytic, objective and self-reliant.

Many other researchers disagreed with the idea of leadership differences between male and

female administrators. One example is the study on values and attitudes of fifty-one

successful women managers in Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas by Hodgetts (1978). She found

25

that these women have similar value profiles with the males. A further review by Brodsky

(1989) found that in contrast to the stereotypes of the female managers;

“

woman managers were found to be energetic (Sheppard, 1981),

managers were found to be energetic (Sheppard, 1981), analytical, rationally oriented and personally competitive
managers were found to be energetic (Sheppard, 1981), analytical, rationally oriented and personally competitive

analytical, rationally oriented and personally competitive (White, Crino &

oriented and personally competitive (White, Crino & DeSanctis, 1981) Women rated themselves as having high

DeSanctis,

1981)
1981)

Women rated themselves as having high ability and

1981) Women rated themselves as having high ability and intelligence (Bunker & Bender, 1980; Deaux, 1979),
1981) Women rated themselves as having high ability and intelligence (Bunker & Bender, 1980; Deaux, 1979),

intelligence (Bunker & Bender, 1980; Deaux, 1979),

.

.

. and saw

themselves

as

being

more

objective,

decisive,

logical,

consistent,

having

being more objective, decisive, logical, consistent, having leadership ability, beingflrm, assertive and skilled ” It

leadership ability, beingflrm,

assertive and skilled

”

It has thus become the interest of the researcher to investigate whether the characteristics

of the school administrators in Kedah differ according to gender. However, due to time

constraints, only the demographic characteristics of the administrators will be emphasized.

As a general rule, the researcher agrees to the conclusion made by Bass (1981) as

summarized by Miles (1986) that;

once enthrailed in leadership position, women actually do not behavemade by Bass (1981) as summarized by Miles (1986) that; 2.3 di;ifferent&fiom men. ” The Absence

2.3

di;ifferent&fiom
di;ifferent&fiom
women actually do not behave 2.3 di;ifferent&fiom men. ” The Absence of Women from Educational Management

men.

The Absence of Women from Educational

Management

Research on women in higher education is not as extensive as that for women in

management. Most of the studies reviewed including the following examples have been

inclined to the following themes: the status

26

of woman in administration in terms of

numbers and positions held, profiles concerning career paths, barriers hindering women

to attain top administrative positions and leadership characteristics of woman

administrators.

and leadership characteristics of woman administrators. A study on the status and profiles of woman administrators

A study on the status and profiles of woman administrators in education by Ozga (1993),

has revealed that women form the majority of the workforce in education but they are

underrepresented in the management. According to her, women are more visible in the

management of education offered to younger pupils. In higher education, especially in the

universities, woman managers are almost invisible.

Similar topic has also been discussed by White (1992), who found that sexism is a bar to

advancement in many fields. Even in the realm of academia which is considered as the

“accepted” environment for women, the numbers are just dismal. She quoted that

according

to

the

American

Association

of

University

Women,

although

approximately

two-thirds of all public school teachers were women, only 5 per cent of the nation’s

Superintendents were female and fewer than 350 of the nation’s approximately 3,000

institutions of higher learning are headed by women.

3,000 institutions of higher learning are headed by women. In the University of the Philippines, a

In the University of the Philippines, a study on women executives by Bautista (1991),

revealed that male faculty members have occupied key management positions in spite of

the fact that female faculty members were more dominant in number. In 1990, 56.8 per

21
21

cent of the total of 1,367 faculty members were constituted by females. However only 46

faculty members were constituted by females. However only 46 per cent of the total number of

per cent of the total number of its executives were of the same gender.

Relating this phenomena to the current Malaysian education sector, it is observed that the

same trend occurs. There has been no women Education Minister or Deputy Education

Minister. Only very recently, a woman was appointed as the Director of the Wilayah

Persekutuan Education Departments and another one as the District Education Officer of

Petaling. An example in Kedah is the Darulaman Teachers Training Institute (IPDA)

Kedah is the Darulaman Teachers Training Institute (IPDA) which is headed by a lady Principal who

which is headed by a lady Principal who has been in that position for nearly 4 years.

Before that, she was appointed as the Deputy Director of the Kedah State Education

Department which lasted for only a few months.

Even though there is a growing minority of women Senior Education Officers, they are

only assigned to positions with a close nature of a female. For example, in the Kedah State

Education Department, there is a woman Assistant Director in charge of the Domestic or

Home Economy Unit. Another one is filling up the post that is allocated for women: in

charge of the Physical Education Unit and to manage the physical education requirements

for female students. Similarly, in schools, many of them are only assigned to the position

of the Senior Assistant for Students Affairs and Senior Subject Teachers.

In Malaysia, although studies with a specific focus on women has slowly emerged but

most were on health and nutrition, plantation and industrial labour

28

workforce and social

problems. Recently, more studies has been focused to their role in business, politics,

entrepreneurship and leadership. Rohany Nasir (1984) studied the sex-role attitudes and

some selected background characteristics of women in nontraditional careers, women in

traditional careers and the homemakers in Malaysia. Studies focusing on women’s role in

education sector alone has not been given much attention except by Manjit Kaur (1994).

She reviewed the trends of women involvement in education in Malaysia and the pattern

of women’s participation in the education system. In line with that, she highlighted its

relevance to the development of women’s position and status, particularly with reference

to female labour force participation.

Another study on women managers in public and non-profit making organizations

women managers in public and non-profit making organizations undertaken by the University of Malaya (199 l),

undertaken by the University of Malaya (199 l),

concluded

that

the

factors

contributing

to success were due to personal efforts, natural talent and intellectual capabilities,

efforts, natural talent and intellectual capabilities, competence from solid, formal training and personal

competence from solid, formal training and personal values.

Other factors were

education, support given by bosses and/or mentors and encouragement from husband and

relatives.

2.4

Barriers

Towards

Women’s

Mobility

to

Top

Positions

Despite evidence of women’s managerial potential, there appears to be persistent

resistance to their participation in managerial careers. Previous studies conducted in

Europe and the United States have revealed many factors relating to the obstacles

29
29

towards women mobility to top positions. Most of the researchers under this topic were

mainly concerned with the barriers themselves and the strategies to overcome these

obstacles.

The main barriers to women’s advancement are classified as: internal barriers, which

include personal characteristics, motivation and behaviour; and external

barriers,

which

include societal and traditional structural obstacles such as sex-role stereotyping, lack of

network or mentoring relationships, and lack of role model or professional preparation

(Miles, 1986; White, 1992; and Davidson and Cooper, 1992).

(Miles, 1986; White, 1992; and Davidson and Cooper, 1992). Asplund (1988), reported that the scarcity of

Asplund (1988), reported that the scarcity of women managers are due to the type of

organization and how

it works along power

and

decision-making,

informations

available, norms, promotion bar and loyalty as among the external barriers. Other reasons

include historical perspective, social developments and the attitudes and values of the

women themselves.

Other researchers such as Seidmann (1978),

Fogarty,
Fogarty,
Other researchers such as Seidmann (1978), Fogarty, Allen and Walters (1981), Davidson and Cooper (1992 and

Allen and Walters (1981), Davidson

and Cooper (1992 and Winkler (1994) put the blame on gender discrimination, gender

bias and prejudice towards women as a major deterrent to career development.

One particular study by Ozga (1992) about women in education administration revealed

Ozga (1992) about women in education administration revealed that women’s absence from top management include

that women’s absence from top management include assumptions about women’s

30
30

inadequacies and in capacities on education management and structural explanations which

emphasize on male as playing better management roles.

On the other hand, many researchers have proved that families and home-related factors

have a great influence on the woman administrators’ career. The most frequently reported

obstacles to administrative advancement for women were due to their responsibilities

towards their family (Winkler, 1994) as well as family strains due to household chores and

children (Seidmann, 1978). Another major block to accept promotion is due to problems

arising from family inmobility especially when the husband is not supportive or having

another career.

when the husband is not supportive or having another career. As summarized by Izraeli, Banai and

As summarized by Izraeli, Banai and Zeira (1985), women; either married or single, a

mother or childless, are still viewed as problematic. Very often, single women are said to

be open to harassment, while married ones are often associated to problems with their

husbands and children. To achieve job satisfaction and acquire high positions, they have to

sacrifice, or otherwise, face marital conflicts.

As for women in Malaysia, the obstacles to achieve top positions have been the underlying

issue of both women leaders and researchers. There were no particular study on mobility

but some relevant materials concerning women development shows that despite the same

education level and qualifications, women are still underrepresented in top positions. An

interview with Puan Sri Datuk Dr. Fatimah Hamid Don in commemoration of the 1996

31

Women’s Day celebration (NST: 26th August) reported that the factors that have

hindered women from getting to the top are that many women are too comfortable with

their status quo to want to change. Many of them do not really want to be at the top; they

find that they work better in partnership with men - as equal partners - with opportunities

with men - as equal partners - with opportunities to participate and contribute to decision-making. Secondly,
with men - as equal partners - with opportunities to participate and contribute to decision-making. Secondly,

to participate and contribute to decision-making.

Secondly, the Malaysian society strongly expects the successful career women to also be a

superb parent and home-maker. Therefore, women’s multiple responsibilities is a big

hindrance to mobility unless there is more equitable sharing of family duties, community

support services and changes in the work environment, employment or corporate

structure. Other factors include personal, societal, cultural and religious backgrounds

(such as the belief that women should not be in leadership over men).

In the same interview, Datin Professor Dr. Sharifah Hapsah Shahabuddin was reported

quoting that the lack of objectivity in promotion criteria, recruitment and selection

(whereby in some positions there is already a quota which limits the equal recruitment of

women), unequal access to training opportunities for f%ther

development, lack of gender

responsive planning, cultural beliefs and traditions (that the wife cannot be more

beliefs and traditions (that the wife cannot be more accomplished career-wise than the husband), lack of
beliefs and traditions (that the wife cannot be more accomplished career-wise than the husband), lack of

accomplished career-wise than the husband), lack of support from spouse, lack of self-

esteem and organizational structures and progress have contributed very much to the

absence of top managerial women.

32

Several strategies have been suggested by previous researchers to overcome these

barriers. They include developing understanding and skills in management, establishing ties

and getting involved with administration, networking with other female contemporaries,

adapting alternative working styles, in-service training on administrative issues and

communication

techniques

and

increasing

aggressiveness

in

striving

for

administrative

positions such as pursuing further career opportunities at an early age (Gordon and Ball,

1977; Loomis and Wild, 1978; Davidson and Cooper, 1992; Ozga, 1992; and Tabb,

1994).

2.5

Demographic

Characteristics

of

Women

Administrators

A study by Tabb (1994) has managed to draw a profile of females who have been

successful in obtaining an administrative position in Mississippi. The study revealed the

factors of educational and employment background, career goals and aspirations, career

paths and concern of the women administrators about their mobility and promotions. The

results showed that they are likely to be whites, in the mid or late forties, married, have

children 15 - 18 years old or no children, hold advanced degrees above master’s degree

no children, hold advanced degrees above master’s degree and are motivated to seek administrative certification and

and are motivated to seek administrative certification and position.

Similarly, Winkler (1994) provided a demographic information on 30 women

superintendents in Pennsylvania’s public schools. She declared that 73.3 per cent ranged in

age from 40 to over 60 years and grew up in Pennsylvania. Their birth order included ten

33

first born and only child, seven middle children, and five last born children. Seven were in

the position for one year or less, three for eleven years and one for twelve years. None

reported work interruptions during administrative career. Majority were not motivated by

higher income or prestige, More than 60 per cent said that they could do the job as well as

others. Another study by Rusher (1995) to examine the recruitment, retention and

promotion patterns of 154 African American women in higher education in the United

States found that they were mostly over 40 years old, married with children, felt good

about working at their institutions and have mentors.

2.6

Summary

Another similar study conducted by Sogra (1992) in Bangladesh showed that the female

managers were young, highly qualified and motivated. However, their major barrier is not

lack of competence but a lack of proper work environment. They need management

training.

The literature reviewed have in fact strongly motivated the researcher to investigate the

factors which have contributed to the limited number of women administrators, especially

the Principals in the secondary schools in Kedah. Only 4 factors were emphasized in the

study: personal characteristics, educational background, home-related factors and specific

qualities. Information gathered were then used to draw a profile of the administrators and

to compare between that of the female and their male counterparts.

34

CHAPTER IH

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the procedures of this research. First, it gives the details on the

research paradigm. Then, it describes the method of collecting the data, followed by a

description of the pilot test. Lastly, the data analysis techniques used in analyzing the data

is highlighted.

3.1 Research Paradigm

Based on the literature reviewed and the recommendations of previous research studies,

the research model on the next page was used to investigate the results expected by this

study (Figure 1).

3.2 Data Collection Procedures

Primary and secondary sources of data were sought in conducting the study. Primary

sources of data were obtained through mailed questionnaire as well as field interviews.

35
35

F&we 3.1: Schematic Diagram Showing the Correlates of the

3.1: Schematic Diagram Showing the Correlates of the Administrator in the Education sector in Kedah Mobility

Administrator in the Education

sector
sector
Correlates of the Administrator in the Education sector in Kedah Mobility of Women *&F *Gender

in Kedah

Mobility of Women

*&F *Gender *Maritalstatus *RtUlkilltiItdly * length of service as ordinary teachers *
*&F *Gender *Maritalstatus *RtUlkilltiItdly * length of service as ordinary teachers * Length of service

*&F *Gender *Maritalstatus *RtUlkilltiItdly * length of service as ordinary teachers * Length of service as

*Gender

*Maritalstatus
*Maritalstatus

*RtUlkilltiItdly

* length of service as ordinary teachers

* Length of service as administrators

as ordinary teachers * Length of service as administrators Educathal Backgroimd 1. Educational Qualification *
Educathal
Educathal
Backgroimd
Backgroimd

1. Educational Qualification

* Highest educational attainment

* Year of acquisition

* hxtitution attended

2.

Training * Training or courses attended

2. Training * Training or courses attended

Home

Related

Factors

1. Family Background *Distlictofori#jn

* Residence as teachers

Factors 1. Family Background *Distlictofori#jn * Residence as teachers * Residence as adminismrs 2. Family commitments

* Residence as adminismrs

2. Family commitments

1. Knowledge * Administration of school * Management principles 2. skill * Leade&ip/ma +commtication *

1. Knowledge

* Administration of school

* Management principles

2. skill

*Leade&ip/ma

+commtication

* Situational

3. Attitude

* Job Involvement * Job Perfbrmance

* orpanizational conlmitment
* orpanizational
conlmitment
3. Attitude * Job Involvement * Job Perfbrmance * orpanizational conlmitment Mobility of Women Administrators

Mobility

of

Women

3. Attitude * Job Involvement * Job Perfbrmance * orpanizational conlmitment Mobility of Women Administrators

Administrators

3. Attitude * Job Involvement * Job Perfbrmance * orpanizational conlmitment Mobility of Women Administrators

36

Secondary sources of data

were obtained from the documents of the Education

Department, District Education Offices and school records.

3.2.1 Unit of Analysis

The subjects of this study comprised of the current (1996) working male and

female administrators of secondary schools in the state of Kedah. They were the

Principals, Senior Assistants and Senior Subject Teachers. The Principals represent

the top management level, the Senior Assistants represent the middle management

level while the Senior Subject Teachers represent the lower management level of

the schools. Initially, the researcher intended to focus the study on the Principals

only. However, due to the limited number of female Principals who were supposed

to be the most appropriate respondents, the Senior Assistants and the Senior

Subject Teachers were also involved.

3.2.2 Population, Sample and Sampling Technique

The population of this study consisted of three groups of administrators: the

Principals, Senior Assistants and Senior Subject Teachers in Kedah (see Table

3.1). The sample comprised of 102 Principals, 239 Senior Assistants and 172

Senior Subjects Teachers selected at random.

37

Table
Table
Table 2.1: Distribution of Pouulation and SamDIe Total1 Subjects Male Female I N n N n

2.1: Distribution of Pouulation

and SamDIe

Total1 Subjects Male Female I N n N n N n I Principals 103 80
Total1
Subjects
Male
Female
I
N
n
N
n
N
n
I
Principals
103
80
22
22
125
102
Senior Assistants
268
159
101
80
369
239
Senior Subject Teachers
115
86
114
86
229
172
GFLWD TOTAL
486
325
237
188