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Clauses What is a clause? A clause is a part of a sentence.

. There are two main types: independent (main clauses), dependent (subordinate clauses). Independent Clauses An independent clause is a complete sentence; it contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning. For example: The door opened. Independent clauses can be joined by a coordinating conjunction to form complex or compound sentences.

Coordinating Conjunctions And but for or nor so yet For example: Take two independent clauses and join them together with the conjunction and: The door opened. The man walked in. Ans: The door opened and the man walked in. Dependent Clauses A dependent (subordinate) clause is part of a sentence; it contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. They can make sense on their own, but, they are dependent on the rest of the sentence for context and meaning. They are usually joined to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. Dependent clauses often begin with a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun (see below) that makes the clause unable to stand alone.

Subordinating Conjunctions After although as because before even if even though if that rather than where since so that than wherever in order that once provided when

that though unless until whether while why



For example: The door opened because the man pushed it. Dependent clauses can be nominal, adverbial or adjectival. A nominal clause (noun clause) functions like a noun or noun phrase. It is a group of words containing a subject and a finite verb of its own and contains one of the following: that | if | whether For example: I wondered whether the homework was necessary. Noun clauses answer questions like "who(m)?" or "what?" An adverbial clause (adverb clause) is a word or expression in the sentence that functions as an adverb; that is, it tells you something about how the action in the verb was done. An adverbial clause is separated from the other clauses by any of the following subordinating conjunctions: after | although | as | because | before | if | since | that | though | till | unless | until | when | where | while For example: They will visit you before they go to the airport. Adverbial clauses can also be placed before the main clause without changing the meaning. For example:

Before they go to the airport, they will visit you.

!Note - When an adverb clause introduces the sentence (as this one does), it is set off with a comma. Adverb clauses answer questions like "when?", "where?", "why?" An adjectival clause (adjective clause or relative clause) does the work of an adjective and describes a noun, it's usually introduced by a relative pronoun: who | whom | whose | that | which For example:

I went to the show that was very popular.

For example: The car that is parked in front of the gates will be towed away. (Defining relative clause.) Information contained in the defining relative clause is absolutely essential in order for us to be able to identify the car in question. My dog, who is grey and white, chased the postman. ( Non-defining relative clause) A non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. If you take away the non-defining clause the basic meaning of the sentence remains intact. For example: My dog chased the postman. Adjective clauses answer questions like "which?" or "what kind of?" Exercise 1: Complete the sentences with WHO /WHICH/whose 1) Who's te young lady.. is standing out there?

2) An atlas is a book.. is full of different maps. 3) The teenagers.. are queuing want tickets for next's week concert. 4) What was the name of the man.. discovered Machu Pichu? 5) A compass is a device.. shows direction. 6) Shakespeare was a British writer.. wrote Romeo and Juliet. 7) Penguins are birds.. cannot fly. 8) Lady Di was the Welsh princess.. died in a terrible car accident. 9) Henri Becquerel was the scientist.. discovered X-rays.

Exercise 2: Complete using WHO/WHICH/ THAT/WHOSE/WHERE. 1) A kangaroo is an animal.. lives in Australia. 2) In 1998 I travelled to Paris, .. I met my husband. 3) Marie Curie, .. was born in Poland in 1867, was a scientist. 4) Karen, .. surname is Johnson, is a beautiful model. 5) Van Gogh was a painter.. paintings are worldwide. 6) A camel is an animal.. lives in the desert. 7) Radium is a metal.. shines in the dark. 8) That is the girl.. brother is a famous footballer. 9) He lived in New York, .. he worked for the New York Times. 10) The Coliseum was an amphitheatre.. Romans enjoyed plays, chariot races and gladiator fights many centuries ago.

Exercise 3: Complete using WHO/WHICH/ THAT/WHOSE/WHERE. a) The boywon the prize felt really happy about it. b) The boy parents are talking to the teacher is sitting over there. c) David, owns a very fast car, is a careless driver. d) Those jeans you want to buy are really expensive. e) My cousin, school grades are outstanding, is always studying.

f) That girl is carrying the red handbag is new at school. g) These three books, the teacher recommended us to read, are really interesting. h) All the children parents are waiting outside can go home. i) Lewis, plays tennis professionally, is an excellent player. j) My grandmother, dream is to do a parachute jump, is a very active woman.

Exercise 4: Rewrite the sentences using a relative pronoun (who, which, whose), add commas where necessary. a) The film had already started when we arrived. It was very romantic..

b) My grandfather is a very optimistic man. His third wife died three years ago..

c) I bought all the ingredients. I needed them to prepare a cake..

d) Tom and Sara went to the cinema last weekend. They usually come to the pub..

e) Alice went to the police station yesterday. Her handbag was stolen in Oxford Street.

f) My classmates went to the Natural History Museum last Friday. They love nature..

g) My grandfather has lived in Oxford all his life. He was born in Italy.

h) Alice is sad because she has lost her handbag. It was new.

i) My grandmother told me her secret recipe for the chocolate cake. It is delicious..

j) The Natural History Museum in London is full of dinosaur skeletons. It is my favourite museum.


1. That is the man

helped me when I fell down in the street. is parked just opposite the bank.

2. Is that your car? No, mine is the one 3. That is the woman 4. This is the park 5. So, James is the man

complained about the room service. we first met. Do you remember? son came on the school trip with us? I din't know. is standing at the desk. She'll help you. bit the boy. It was too dangerous. surname begins with a "k". we used to go as students? can fix it?

6. If you have any question, ask the girl 7. They had to put away the dog 8. I'm looking for a person 9. Do you still go to that pub

10. The heating is not working. Do you know anyone


1. The girl is my sister. I'm talking to the girl. The girl

is my sister.

2. This is the chair. The carpenter repaired it last week. This is the chair 3. She is married to a man. He is richer than her. She is married to a man 4. She is the friend. She helped me with my homework. She is the friend 5. That is the swimming-pool. I used to go swimming there. That is the swimming-pool 6. That is the man. His wife is a famous actress. This is the man 7. A doctor examined me last Friday. He was really kind. The doctor 8. The woman called the police. Her car had been stolen. The woman was really kind.

called the polic

9. I went to a restaurant last week. It was very expensive. The restaurant 10. I saw a film last night. It was very interesting. The film C.- ARE THESE RELATIVE CLAUSES DEFINING OR NON-DEFINING?

was very expens was very interesting.

1. London, which is the capital of England, is one of the largest cities in the world. 2. This is the dress my mother has made for me. 3. Queen Elizabeth II, who is 83, has been the queen of England for 57 years now. 4. That's the dog that bit me. 5. Tom Cruise, who has starred a lot of films, is a famous American actor. 6. The village where I grew up is very small. 7. Greg, whose job involves travelling a lot, has been in nearly all the countries in the world. 8. The office I have just rented is near my home. 9. This is the officer that arrested the burglar. 10. Lady Gaga, who is a well-known pop star, is only 24 D.- CHOOSE THE RIGHT RELATIVE PRONOUN TO COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES.

1. Jim, 2. My new coat, 3. My boss,

I've known for years, is my best friend. I bought in New York, is very warm and comfortable. wife is French, travels to Paris regularly. I found really rude. I've never been before.

4. He didn't even say "thank you", 5. Next summer I'm going to India, 6. My sister, 7. Galileo Galilei,

is five years younger than me, is a lawyer. suppported the heliocentric theory, was arrested by the Inquisition.


1. My school is very big. It is in Madrid. My school

is very big.

2. Robert Pattinson is an actor. He plays Edward Cullen in the Twilight saga. Robert Pattinson is 3. Robert Pattinson is a British actor. He plays Edward Cullen in the Twilight saga. Robert Pattinson British actor. 4. I bought this cake yesterday. It tastes delicious. The cake 5. Michael is a policeman. His father is a judge. Michael 6. I bought a computer last month. It doesn't work properly. The computer tastes delicious. is a policeman.

doesn't work p

7. Prince Charles will be the king of England one day. His mother is Queen Elizabeth. Prince Charles England one day. 8. I was given a dog. It is very friendly. The dog is very friendly.

9. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was written by Mark Twain. I enjoyed it a lot. The Adventures of Hu written by Mark Twain. 10. Mrs Kelly is the woman. She took me to hospital when I fainted at school. Mrs Kelly is the woman

WHO....WHICH .....WHERE ??? A Complete the sentences with the correct relative pronoun.


The fish

you like has been served


I am a teacher

understands your problems.


The house

is in the park is Pauls.


are the photos we took in Australia?


I like students

have a good sense of humour


I dont like men

are in love with their cars.


This is the country

I live.


The tourist centre

you are is very interesnting.


I am a woman

believes in promises.


Those books

are on the table, are mine.

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