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RISA-3D

Rapid Interactive Structural Analysis 3-Dimensional

Users Guide

26632 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 210 Foothill Ranch, CA 92610 (949) 951-5815 (949) 951-5848 (FAX) www.risatech.com

Copyright 2011, RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. RISA-3D is a trademark of RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. RISA, as applied to structural engineering software, is a trademark of RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. All other trademarks mentioned in this publication are the property of their respective owners. Every effort has been made to make this publication as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty of fitness is implied. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this publication are for illustrative and educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC, assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................... 1
How to Use this Book ....................................................................................................1 Using the Online Help ...................................................................................................3 Technical Support Information .....................................................................................4 RISA Technologies Online .............................................................................................4

Before You Begin ............................................................................................. 5


RISA-3D Overview .........................................................................................................5 Hardware Requirements ...............................................................................................6 Program Limits ..............................................................................................................6 License Agreement .......................................................................................................7 Installation ....................................................................................................................8

First Look at RISA-3D ........................................................................................ 9


Starting RISA-3D ............................................................................................................9 Menus .........................................................................................................................11 Toolbars ......................................................................................................................12

Tutorial 1 Modeling ..................................................................................... 17


Create a New Model ...................................................................................................19 Members .....................................................................................................................25 Material Properties .....................................................................................................35 Design Rules Size / UC ..............................................................................................36 Boundary Conditions...................................................................................................49

Tutorial 2 Modify ........................................................................................ 53


Modify Members ........................................................................................................63 Drawing Wall Panels and Additional Framing.............................................................68 Drawing Plates ............................................................................................................78 Sub-meshing Plates .....................................................................................................79

Tutorial 3 Loading ....................................................................................... 89


Area Loads...................................................................................................................91 Surface Loads ..............................................................................................................95 Distributed Loads ........................................................................................................96

Table of Contents

Basic Load Case Spreadsheet ......................................................................................98 Self-weight ................................................................................................................101 Load Categories.........................................................................................................101 Load Combinations ...................................................................................................102

Tutorial 4 Solving & Results ....................................................................... 111


Solving the Model .....................................................................................................112 Graphic Results .........................................................................................................114 Batch Solution ...........................................................................................................121 Envelope Solution .....................................................................................................123 Optimizing Member Sizes .........................................................................................124

Tutorial 5 Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................... 129


Dynamic Solution ......................................................................................................130 Frequencies and Mode Shapes .................................................................................131 Response Spectra Analysis ........................................................................................132

Tutorial 6 Interoperability ......................................................................... 139


RISA-Revit Structure Link ..........................................................................................139 CIS/2 Translator ........................................................................................................141 RISA-3D & CAD ..........................................................................................................142 Conclusion.................................................................................................................144

Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons ........................................................ 145


RISA Toolbar ..............................................................................................................145 Window Toolbar .......................................................................................................147 Drawing Toolbar........................................................................................................151 Selection Toolbar ......................................................................................................153

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Introduction

Introduction
How to Use this Book
Welcome to the RISA-3D Users Guide. If you are a first-time user of RISA-3D, we recommend that you start with this book. This book contains step-by-step tutorials that guide you through the entire modeling process using most RISA-3D features. You will create a real-world example of building and solving a model, making changes, and optimizing the model. Several tips and shortcuts will also be demonstrated along the way. Begin by reviewing First Look at RISA-3D on page 9 to familiarize yourself with the toolbars and shortcuts, then proceed to the step-by-step tutorials. To complete all the tutorials will take only a few hours. However, you can speed up the process even further if you skip the supporting text and concentrate only on the action steps, which are indicated with diamond-shaped bullets, as shown below: In order for you to achieve accurate results, it is important that you do not miss any of these action steps while performing the tutorials. The tutorials build upon themselves from start to finish. You have the option of performing them all at one time, or performing each one separately. To make this possible, RISA provides model files for you to load at the beginning of each tutorial. These starter files are located in the RISA program folder under Tutorials, and are named Tutorial 2 Starter.r3d, Tutorial 3 Starter.r3d, etc. After you have gone through the tutorials in the this Users Guide, you can use Help menu and the RISA3D General Reference Manual for complete, detailed information on every topic relating to RISA-3D. The topics are arranged in alphabetical order and are thoroughly indexed. If you are a more experienced user and are not sure which book will be most helpful your situation, consider that the tutorials in this Users Guide are intended to teach the basics of defining and solving models in RISA-3D, how and when to apply RISA-3D features to help you be most productive, and how to review the results. However, the more in-depth analytical aspects of RISA-3D will be covered in RISA3D General Reference Manual and the Help menu. For example, various material (hot rolled steel, wood, concrete) code checks will be performed in this Guide, but the specifics of how those code checks are calculated is covered in detail in the Help menu and the RISA-3D General Reference Manual (specifically the sections titled Hot Rolled Steel Design, Wood Design, and Concrete Design).

Where to Download RISA-3D Book Updates


Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this book at the time of publication. The latest edition of all books and documents relating to this product are available in Adobe PDF format at http://www.risa.com. Click Downloads, Product Documentation, then RISA-3D.

Introduction

Document Conventions
The following conventions are used throughout this book: This convention: CAPITAL LETTERS KEY+KEY Italic text Bold text Boxed text Indicates: Names of keys on the keyboard for example, SHIFT, CTRL, or ALT. One key should be held down and then another key pressed for example, CTRL+P or ALT+F4. New terms, other publications, and variable expressions for example, filename.txt. User interface options for example, File menu. Notes or modeling tip information. Tutorial action item for building the model.

Introduction

Using the Online Help


Whether you need help on general topics, specific features, or toolbars, it is all built in to the extensive RISA-3D online Help system. The RISA-3D Help menu was designed to enable you to pinpoint the Help information you need quickly, by offering different ways for you to access and locate that Help, as described below: Help on general topics On the RISA Toolbar, click the Help button . This is the fastest way to get help on general topics. You can also go to the Main menu and click Help, then select Help Topics. Once you enter the Help, notice the three tabs on the left: Contents, Index, and Search. You can explore the Help by topic using either Contents or Index, or explore the Help using your own specific keywords using Search.

Help on a specific feature (contextsensitive help)

As you work, notice the Help buttons at the bottom of many of the dialog boxes. These provide direct access to the Help information related to the task you are performing. This context-sensitive help may be accessed by pressing the Help button on the dialog box or by pressing the F1 key.

Help on toolbar buttons

Are you uncertain what a toolbar button is for? Simply hold your mouse pointer over that button (without clicking), and a description of that button will be displayed.

Introduction

Technical Support Information


Technical support is an integral part of the software packages offered by RISA Technologies, and is available to all registered licensees at no additional charge. Our knowledgeable support team is ready to answer your most challenging questions. Before contacting technical support, you may want to take a few minutes to do the following: Search the Help and all user documentation available for the product. Search our FAQ database by visiting our website at http://www.risa.com. Click Support, then Frequently Asked Questions, then choose the product. When you are ready to make a support request, please be prepared to send us your model, and include the following information:

Your name, company name, and phone number; Product name and serial number or Key ID; A detailed problem description; and Your model (filename.r3d) as an e-mail attachment. If your model contains multiple members, plates, or load combinations, please specify which ones we should look at. You can contact Technical Support by e-mail, phone, or mail, as follows:

E-mail: support@risatech.com E-mail is usually the best way to communicate with us when sending a model. Please include all the information listed above. Phone: (949) 951-5815 or (800) 332-RISA (7472) Technical support personnel are available from 6:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Pacific Standard Time, Monday through Friday. Mail: If you prefer support via mail, please enclose all information listed above, and mail to: RISA Technologies, Technical Support 26632 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 210 Foothill Ranch, CA 92610

RISA Technologies Online


Visit RISA Technologies online at http://www.risa.com for:

Answers to frequently asked questions. Downloads of user documentation and tutorials. Software updates Any known problems are posted on the website, along with possible work-around procedures and/or service releases to update your software. Software verification problems.

Before You Begin

Before You Begin


RISA-3D Overview
RISA-3D was designed to accelerate the time it takes to perform structural design. Computer-aided structural design is typically a three step process: (1) define your model, (2) solve the model to obtain solution results, then (3) review those solution results to see how the model performed and determine if changes are needed. Usually, this cycle must be repeated several times before arriving at a final, optimized design. One main reason RISA-3D is able to speed up the design process so successfully is because of its unique ability to define the model and make revisions both graphically (using the drawing tools) and numerically (using the customized spreadsheets). In RISA-3D, these two methods of entering and editing data work seamlessly together. Everything designed or drawn graphically is automatically recorded in the spreadsheets (which may be viewed and edited at any time)and everything entered in the spreadsheets may be viewed and edited graphically at any time. As you perform the step-by-step tutorials in this guide, you will be exploring both methods using the drawing tools and the spreadsheets.

Modeling Tips
Keep in mind that almost all the model data can be edited either graphically (using the drawing tools) or numerically (using the spreadsheets). In most cases, it is simply a matter of preference as to which method you decide to use. Here are a few tips to consider when making your decision: Some data such as cross-section properties, load combinations, oddball joint coordinates, etc., are most easily entered numerically using a spreadsheet. Other data such as regularly spaced joints, member connectivity, regular loadings, and wholesale changes are better handled using graphic editing tools. Typically you may want to use the spreadsheets to define some preliminary information such as material and section properties, then proceed to the drawing grid and graphically draw the bulk of your model and apply loads. Other graphic editing features are built around RISA-3Ds graphic selection tools. These features let you graphically edit the model or parts of it. For example, to modify boundary conditions, you would choose the condition you want to apply and select the joints to modify.

Solving the Model and Tips for Reviewing Results


Once you have the model defined, continue by solving the model. RISA-3D features fast 32-bit solution speed, so your model solutions should not take long. Once the model is solved you will be presented with the results. Once again, you can review your results graphically or with the spreadsheets. Spreadsheet solution results (displacements, forces, stresses, etc.) are listed on the Results menu. You can sort and filter these results to find exactly what you want. In the graphic views, click Plot Options and choose the results that you want to display (force diagrams, plate contours, deflected shapes, etc.).

Before You Begin

Hardware Requirements
Minimum

Any Windows compatible computer with a Pentium 3 or better processor Windows XP\Vista\Windows 7 256 MB of RAM 200 MB of hard disk space Two or three button mouse USB port (required for Stand-Alone version or the Network Host computer)

Recommended

Windows XP\Vista\Windows 7 As much extended RAM as possible As much free disk space as possible Two button mouse with wheel

Note: The amount of space needed by RISA-3D to solve a structural model is dependent on the size of the model. In general, 500 MB of RAM is adequate to solve most problems, but the more the better, especially if you will be solving large problems. RISA-3D has been designed to use as much available RAM as possible. If there is not enough RAM, RISA-3D will use hard drive space until enough memory is obtained to solve the problem (causing the solution to run much slower).

Program Limits
Joints Members Plates Solids Section Sets Materials Custom Wood Species Diaphragms Basic Load Cases Loads Moving Loads Load Combinations Mode Shapes 100,000 32,000 100,000 100,000 5,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 200,000 500 5,000 500

Demonstration Version: While you can open and solve a larger model, the largest model that can be saved to disk with the demonstration version is limited to 40 Joints, 40 Members, and 40 Plates.

Before You Begin

License Agreement
END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC SOFTWARE: The RISA-3D software product (SOFTWARE PRODUCT) includes computer software, the associated media, any printed materials, and any electronic documentation. By installing, copying or otherwise using the SOFTWARE PRODUCT, you agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. If you do not agree with the terms of this agreement RISA Technologies, LLC is unwilling to license the SOFTWARE PRODUCT to you. In such event you must delete any installations and destroy any copies of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT and return the SOFTWARE PRODUCT to RISA Technologies, LLC within 60 days of purchase for a full refund. Copyright 2011 by RISA Technologies, LLC. All rights reserved. The SOFTWARE PRODUCT is protected by United States copyright laws and various international treaties. All rights not specifically granted under this agreement are reserved by RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. 1. SOFTWARE LICENSE. The SOFTWARE PRODUCT is licensed, not sold. All right, title and interest is and remains vested in RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. You may not rent, lease, or lend the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. You are specifically granted a license to the use of this program on no more than one CPU at any given time. The Network Version of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT is licensed for simultaneous use on a certain maximum number of network stations that varies on a per license basis. As part of the license to use the SOFTWARE PRODUCT, the program user acknowledges the reading, understanding and acceptance of all terms of this agreement. The SOFTWARE PRODUCT may not be reviewed, compared or evaluated in any manner in any publication without expressed written consent of RISA Technologies, LLC. You may not disassemble, decompile, reverse engineer or modify in any way the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. If the SOFTWARE PRODUCT was purchased at a discounted price for educational purposes it may in no event be used for professional design purposes. The terms of this license agreement are binding in perpetuity. 2. DISCLAIMER. We intend that the information contained in the SOFTWARE PRODUCT be accurate and reliable, but it is entirely the responsibility of the program user to verify the accuracy and applicability of any results obtained from the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. The SOFTWARE PRODUCT is intended for use by professional engineers and architects who possess an understanding of structural mechanics. In no event will RISA Technologies, LLC or its officers be liable to anyone for any damages, including any lost profits, lost savings or lost data. In no event will RISA Technologies, LLC or its officers be liable for incidental, special, punitive or consequential damages or professional malpractice arising out of or in connection with the usage of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT, even if RISA Technologies, LLC or its officers have been advised of or should be aware of the possibility of such damages. RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC' entire liability shall be limited to the purchase price of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. 3. LIMITED WARRANTY. RISA Technologies, LLC warrants that the SOFTWARE PRODUCT will operate but does not warrant that the SOFTWARE PRODUCT will operate error free or without interruption. RISA Technologies, LLC sole obligation and your exclusive remedy under this warranty will be to receive software support from RISA Technologies, LLC via telephone, e-mail or fax. RISA Technologies, LLC shall only be obligated to provide support for the most recent version of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. If your version of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT is not the most recent version RISA Technologies, LLC shall have no obligation to provide support in any form. Except as stated above the SOFTWARE PRODUCT is provided without warranty, express or implied, including without limitation the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. 4. PROTECTION DEVICE. In the event the SOFTWARE PRODUCT requires the use of a PROTECTION DEVICE to operate, you are specifically prohibited from attempting to bypass the functionality of the

Before You Begin

PROTECTION DEVICE by any means. If the PROTECTION DEVICE becomes broken or inoperable it should be returned to RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC for a replacement. The replacement will not be provided if RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC cannot affirm that the broken PROTECTION DEVICE was originally provided by RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC for use with the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. A lost or stolen PROTECTION DEVICE will not be replaced by RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC. 5. TERMINATION. RISA TECHNOLOGIES, LLC may terminate your right to use the SOFTWARE PRODUCT if you fail to comply with the terms and conditions of this agreement. In such event you must delete any installations and destroy any copies of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT and promptly return the SOFTWARE PRODUCT to RISA Technologies, LLC. 6. CHOICE OF LAW. By entering into this Agreement in accordance with Paragraph 1, you have agreed to the exclusive jurisdiction of the State and Federal courts of the State of California, USA for resolution of any dispute you have relating to the SOFTWARE PRODUCT or related goods and services provided by RISA Technologies, LLC. All disputes therefore shall be resolved in accordance with the laws of the State of California, USA and all parties to this Agreement expressly agree to exclusive jurisdiction within the State of California, USA. No choice of law rules of any jurisdiction apply. "RISA" as applied to structural engineering software is a trademark of RISA Technologies, LLC.

Installation
Installation Instructions
To install RISA-3D:

Place the RISA-3D CD in your computer CD drive. If the CD starts automatically, skip the remaining steps, and follow the on-screen instructions. If the CD does not start after 10 seconds, click the Windows Start button and select Run. In the Run dialog box, type d:\launchsetup (where d is the label of your CD drive), and then click the OK button. Follow the on-screen instructions.

RISA-3D Customization--Important Assumption!


Please ensure that when performing these tutorials, RISA-3D has not been customized in any way, and is in the default, installed state. If the installation of RISA-3D has been customized, you may reset the program defaults as follows: on the Tools menu, select Preferences, click the Reset Customization Options to Their Original Settings button.

Maintenance
Program maintenance provides all upgrades to RISA-3D, discounts on new products, and top priority for technical support. When your maintenance expires, you will be given the opportunity to continue program maintenance on an annual basis. You are under no obligation to continue program maintenance, of course, but if you decide to discontinue maintenance you will no longer receive RISA-3D program upgrades and you will not be eligible for technical support once the version of the program you ended with becomes obsolete.

First Look at RISA-3D

First Look at RISA-3D


Starting RISA-3D
This section describes the RISA-3D user interface, the toolbars, and shortcuts. We recommend that you review this section before you begin the tutorials. However, if you are already familiar with the RISA-3D user interface, feel free to skip ahead to Tutorial 1 on page 17. Start RISA-3D as follows: On the Start button, click All Programs, select RISA, then select RISA-3D.

The RISA-3D Windows and Dialog Boxes


Title Bar Main Menu RISA Toolbar Minimize Maximize/Restore Close

Data Entry Toolbar Status Bar Workspace

First Look at RISA-3D

Title bar

The title bar at the top of your RISA-3D window can be very useful. Besides containing the name of the file that is currently open, it can also be used to move the window and minimize, maximize, and resize the window.

To move the window, press and hold the title bar with your mouse, then drag to the desired location. Minimize, Maximize, Close The three buttons on the right of the title bar control the RISA-3D window as follows:

Click Minimize to minimize the window to a button on the taskbar. Click Maximize to maximize the window to full screen. Once it is full screen, click Restore Down to restore the window down to its original size. Click Close to close the window.

Workspace

The actual work that you do in RISA-3D will be in the main area on the screen, the workspace. Currently the workspace contains a white model view with the default drawing grid and the Starting a Model options (you will see how to change the default grid and many other defaults as you go through the tutorials). As you create new model views and spreadsheets, they will also appear in the workspace. The Status bar at the bottom of your screen will report information about your model as you work in RISA-3D. The bar has four parts:

Status bar

The left side of the bar has the letters S, D, and R to indicate the solved state of the model for Static, Dynamic, and Response Spectra solutions. If the letters are dimmed, a solution has not been performed. After performing a solution, the letters will become blue in color with a red checkmark on them (as shown below).

To the right of the solved status flags are three status boxes which display information while you work:

The first status box displays general information relative to the task you are performing. The second (middle) status box reports the units of the current spreadsheet cell. As you move from cell to cell, look to the middle status box for the appropriate units. This box is empty if you are not working in a spreadsheet. The third status box (on the far right) reports the cursor coordinates as you work in the model view. This will be demonstrated throughout the tutorial.

Dialog boxes

Dialog boxes are windows that help you perform a specific function within RISA-3D. For example, on the File menu, click Open and the dialog box below will display which helps you locate the file you would like to open. Many of the dialog boxes also contain Help buttons that will direct you to the related topic in Help.

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First Look at RISA-3D

Menus
Main Menu
The Main menu and its submenus provide access to all features RISA-3D has to offer, as summarized below: File Edit Provides access to file operations such as opening, saving, importing, exporting, and appending files. Provides editing tools that help you modify and manipulate the spreadsheets. You may use this menu to add or remove information from the spreadsheets or to sort and mathematically manipulate current spreadsheet data. Allows you to set options that apply to the entire model such as design codes, shear deformation and warping effects, p-delta options, model descriptions, and notes. Allows you to set units or convert existing units. Allows you to open a new model view or adjust the current model view. Used to insert joints, members, plates, and loads into the model. All of these items may be drawn graphically or entered in the spreadsheets. This menu provides access to the graphical methods while the Spreadsheets menu provides access to the spreadsheets. Allows access to the graphic editing features and may be used to modify existing joints, members, plates, and loads. Allows access to the analysis options provided with RISA-3D. Allows access to all analysis result spreadsheets. This button is dimmed when no results are available, such as before you run a solution. Provides tools to help you organize, identify, and correct problems as you model the structure. Preferences are also located here. Manages all of the windows that you have open in RISA-3D, whether they are spreadsheets or model views. Special tiling options are also available that relate to specific modeling tasks. Allows access to the RISA-3D online Help. For more information on this, see the Using the Online Help section of the Help menu. If you are connected to the internet, you may also check to see if any product updates are available. If your RISA-3D model is linked to a RISAFloor model or a RISAFoundation model, this menu allows you to switch between programs.

Global

Units View Insert

Modify

Spreadsheets Opens the spreadsheets. Solve Results Tools Window

Help

Director

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First Look at RISA-3D

Toolbars
The most commonly used features available on the Main menu are also available on the toolbars as toolbar buttons. The toolbars are designed to speed up your workflow by placing these tools close to your workspace and making them easily visible. If at any time you are not sure what a particular toolbar button does, simply position your mouse over the button and a short definition will display. Note: You will discover many options to access the features available in RISA-3D. The methods you choosewhether menus, toolbars, or keyboard shortcutswill simply be a matter of personal preference.

RISA Toolbar
The RISA toolbar is located directly below the Main menu. Unlike some of the other toolbars, the RISA toolbar never changes. These buttons perform general actions such as opening and closing files, changing design parameters, printing, and solving the model.

Window Toolbar
in Model View The window toolbar is located directly below the RISA toolbar. When working in a graphic model view, the buttons provide model viewing tools, such as rotate and zoom, and others. in Spreadsheet View

When you are working in a spreadsheet, this toolbar provides spreadsheet editing tools, such as Block Fill and Block Math.

Drawing Toolbar

The drawing toolbar provides tools to assist with creating and modifying your model graphically. This toolbar may be turned on and off (CTRL+G) as needed.

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First Look at RISA-3D

Selection Toolbar
only visible in Model View The Selection toolbar is the vertical toolbar along the left side of the screen. It provides selection tools to help you work with parts of the model. You will need to make selections when you do things like graphically edit only part of the model or print only part of the results.

Spreadsheet Toolbars (Data Entry and Results Toolbars)


These two toolbars provide quick access to the spreadsheets. You can turn them on and off on the RISA toolbar by clicking the Data Entry button or the Results button . The Data Entry toolbar is a vertical toolbar on the right of your screen. It looks different than the other toolbars because its buttons consist of text instead of images. The Results toolbar is very similar. It appears after the model has been solved and provides quick access to the results spreadsheets. Both toolbars allow you to access the spreadsheets very quickly while building and solving your model. The buttons appear in the general order as you may need them.

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First Look at RISA-3D

Managing Windows
As you work in RISA-3D, you will be working within model views and spreadsheets, each in their own window that may be moved around the workspace and resized as you wish. A powerful feature of RISA3D is the ability to have multiple model views and spreadsheets open at one time. The Window menu provides many options to help manage the display of these windows.
Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons

Scroll arrows & scroll bar Scroll bar to view information outside of the windows viewable area, drag the scroll bar to move the display.

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First Look at RISA-3D

Managing Model Views


You may open as many model view windows as you like. This is especially helpful when working zoomed in on large models. You might have one overall view and a few views zoomed in and rotated to where you are currently working. You may have different information plotted in each view. Remember that the toolbars displayed by RISA-3D vary depending on which window is active (the window with a colored title bar is the active window). For example, if your active window is a spreadsheet, and you are looking for the zoom toolbar, you will not be able to locate it until you click on your model, switching to model view. Then you will be able to access the zooming tools, and all the other tools related to modeling.

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First Look at RISA-3D

Working in Spreadsheets
Spreadsheets provide a means to enter and edit model data numerically. Spreadsheets are comprised of rows and columns of cells. To add or edit data in a cell, click on the cell, making it the active cell, then type. There is always only one active cell at a time, and is indicated with green color. Notice you can change which cell is active using the LEFT ARROW, RIGHT ARROW, PAGE UP, PAGE DOWN, HOME keys, etc. You may also select blocks of cells to work on. To select a block of cells, click and hold the mouse button in the first cell in the block, drag to the last cell in the block, then release the mouse. To select an entire row or column, simply click the row or column label. To select multiple rows or columns, click and drag the mouse across multiple row or column buttons.
Scroll arrows Active cell Column label To select the entire column, click the label. To resize the column, click the line to the right of the label and drag to the right.

Scroll bar

Row of cells Click the row label (at left) to select the entire row.

Column of cells

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Tutorial 1 Modeling

Tutorial 1 Modeling

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Tutorial 1 Modeling

Now, if you are ready to get started, start RISA-3D if you have not already done so: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. The Starting a Model dialog box will display, which allows you to create a new model or open an existing file.

Note: The appearance of your menus and toolbars may look slightly different than the above image, depending on your computer screen resolution and font sizes.

Starting a Model Options


The Starting a Model dialog box presents you with several startup options, along with a blank drawing grid placed in the workspace. You can choose to start drawing your model (by defining members, plates, or using a template to generate it automatically), open an existing model, or work on your own (by clicking Close ).

Automatically Generating with Templates


RISA-3D has powerful templates that automate the generation of structures. Although these templates are not used in the tutorials, we believe that once you understand how to model structures without the templates, you will easily understand the benefit of the templates for your future modeling projects, making RISA-3D even more powerful. These templates can be accessed as follows: On the Insert menu, click Structure (Generate). -OROn the RISA toolbar, click the Perform High Level Generation button .

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Tutorial 1 Modeling

Some of the templates are very specific, such as the Rectangular Tank with Stiffeners or the General Truss generator. Some are general, such as the Circular Disk With Plates. Using these templates, you can generate almost any typical or repetitive model or model component.

Create a New Model


You will now begin to model your structure by first creating a 2D frame, defining your Global Parameters, your Drawing Grid, and be introduced to some basic graphical modeling. In the Starting a Model dialog, under Create a New Model, make sure the Open the Global Parameters window also check box is selected. This will save you a step by opening the Global Parameters dialog box once you make your starting selection. Select Click here to immediately start drawing members The Global Parameters dialog box should now display.
Tip: Press TAB to advance to the next field.

Type any notes you would like to keep with the model in the Notes area.

Global Parameters are settings that apply to the model as a whole.

Set Global Parameters


Set the Global Parameters as follows: Type the model title, company name, and your name, as shown above. Click Apply. The dialog box will remain open. Review and modify the Solution parameters: Click the Solution tab. In the Number of Sections box, type 7 (or you may use the up/down arrows to increase/decrease the value). Make sure the the INTERNAL Sections selection is set to 100. Click Apply.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling

The dialog box will remain open, and should now look like this:

Below is a description of all the available Solution parameters: Number of Sections Specify how many locations along each member are to be used for the reporting of forces, stresses, and deflections. For this tutorial, you will specify the calculations be reported at 7 section locations. Controls how many places along each member RISA-3D calculates and stores results, such as deflections and code checks. The member force diagrams displayed in the model view and the detail plot are also drawn from these results. This check box indicates whether or not shear deformation considerations are to be included in the model solution. This check box is usually selected and is the default setting. This check box indicates whether or not torsional warping effects are considered when calculating stiffness and stress values for wide flange and channel shapes. This check box indicates whether or not to transfer loads between perpendicular wall panels framing into each other.

Internal Sections

Shear Deformation

Torsional Warping

Transfer Load Between Intersecting Wood Wall

Increase Nailing Capacity This checkbox indicates if you want to increase the shear capacity of wood for Wind wall panels and diaphragms by 1.4 for all load combinations that contain wind loads.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling

Area Load Mesh Merge Tolerance

Controls how the load is broken down for attribution to the members. Defines the maximum distance two joints can be apart from each other yet still be merged together. Also used when scanning for crossing members and for unattached joints along the spans of members. Used to set the convergence tolerance for the P-Delta analysis. This checkbox indicates whether or not to include P-Delta analysis for wall panels. If this box is checked, the P-Delta analysis will only be performed on load combinations which include P-Delta. Controls the base mesh size to be used when wall panel elements are solved. Used to convert loads into masses for the purpose of dynamic analysis. Used to set how close a subsequent solution must be to the previous solution for a mode to be considered converged (during dynamic analysis). Indicates which of the three global axes (X, Y or Z) is to be considered the vertical axis. Select the solver to be used during solution. Please see the help menu for more information on this option.

P-Delta Tolerance Include P-Delta for Walls

Wall Mesh Size Gravity Acceleration Eigensolution Convergence Tolerance Vertical Axis Solver

Review the options for the Code parameters: Click the Codes tab. For this tutorial, the default settings will be used.

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These settings control how code checking is performed, as described below: Hot Rolled Steel Code choices include AISC 13th (360-05) ASD & LRFD, 9th Edition ASD, 2nd Edition LRFD, 3rd Edition LRFD, and several international steel codes. If the AISC 360-05 code is selected (either ASD or LRFD), the Adjust Stiffness menu will appear. The options in this menu control the stiffness reduction provisions per Appendix 7 of the code. Code choices are AISI NAS-07: ASD & LRFD, AISI NAS-04: ASD & LRFD, AISI NAS-01: ASD & LRFD, AISI 1999: ASD & LRFD, and several international codes. Code choices are AF&PA NDS-05/08:ASD, AF&PA NDS-01:ASD, AF&PA NDS-97: ASD. Code choices are ACI 318-08, ACI 318-05, ACI 318-02, ACI 318-99, and several international codes. Code choices are ACI 530-05/08:ASD, ACI 530-05/08:Strength, ACI 530-02:ASD, ACI 530-02:Strength, ACI 530-99:ASD,UBC 1997: ASD & Strength. Code choices include ADM1- 05:ASD Building & Bridge. The Building and Bridge options refer to the safety factors that are used in the model.

Cold Formed Steel Wood Concrete Masonry Alumninum

Review and modify the options for the Concrete parameters: Click the Concrete tab. Under Concrete Stress Options, click Parabolic Stress Block. This method is the more accurate of the two methods. Click Apply.

Save as Defaults At any time during the modeling process, you can click this button to save all the settings to become the new default settings for all future models. Click the Help button to open the Help Menu to the relavent topic.

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These settings contain options related to the analysis and design of concrete members as described below: Shear Tie Allows you to control the number of shear regions that will be used when detailing a beam or column span. It also allows you to specify an increment when increasing or reducing the spacing of the shear ties. Controls which method will be used to determine the biaxial column capacity: the Exact Integration Method is more accurate than the PCA Load Contour Method and does not require you to make an estimate of the Parme Beta Factor. Allows you to choose what type of stress block to consider in your analysis. The options are the constant Rectangular Stress Block and the Parabolic Stress Block. Since the Parabolic Block is more accurate, you will select this stress distribution for your design. Specify the grade of rebar you wish to use. You can also specify a Minimum % Steel and Maximum % Steel for column reinforcement. Used Cracked Sections - modifies the member stiffnesses by the Icr factor. For more information, refer to RISA-3D General Reference. Bad Framing Warnings - helps you detect modeling errors during solution. It produces a message in the error log whenever an unsupported member is detected at either of its end joints (can be common for models that contain cantilevers, rafters, etc.) Unused Force Warnings - produces messages on the member detail report when weak axis and torsional moments have been neglected. Minimum 1 Bar Dia Spacing - allows a minimum spacing of one bar diameter between parallel bars. Otherwise, RISA-3D will default to a two bar diameter or one inch clear spacing, whichever is greater, to allow for lap splices and continue to maintain adequate spacing between parallel bars.

Biaxial Column Design Concrete Stress Options

Concrete Rebar Set Concrete check boxes

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Review and modify the options for the Seismic parameters: Click the Seismic tab. For this tutorial, the default settings will be used.

This tab contains options that are specifically related to the calculation of code presecribed seismic loading, and seismic detailing checks. This information can be used to generate the lateral loading on your structure if you choose to use the Seismic Load Generator. You will not use this feature in this tutorial, however you may access the Help menu for more information on this feature.

Before closing the Global Parameters dialog box, notice you will also see a tab labeled Footings. If you have RISAFoot installed, this will allow you control over footing design input. If you do not have RISAFoot installed, this tab will only state that you need to install the program in order to utilize the integration. For more information on this integration, please click Help or refer to RISA-3D General Reference Manual. You may now close the Global Parameters dialog box. Click OK to exit.

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Members
Once you close the Global Parameters dialog box, the Draw Members dialog box will display:

Before drawing the members, first define the material type to be used: Hot Rolled, Cold Formed, Wood, Concrete, Aluminum, or General. Once the materials are stored in RISA-3D, the spreadsheets and solution results will be sorted based on that material. When performing a solution, RISA-3D will only analyze and/or design members for load combinations that are appropriate for that material (this will be discussed in more detail in Tutorial 3 Loading). Define concrete as the material type for your new members you will be creating: Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Concrete. Next, you need to decide how you want to define the cross-sectional properties of the member. You can assign a shape directly, or define your properties based on section sets. For now, start with a 12x12 column, and assign your concrete shapes directly. (Later you will use Section Sets for your wood truss and steel members.) Click Assign Shape Directly. This bypasses the Section Sets and allows you to assign an explicit shape for these new members: Under Start Shape, type: CRECT12X12 Under Design List, select Rectangular. Under Type, select Column.

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The dialog box should now look like this:

The Release Codes selection designates how each member is considered connected at its end joints.

Tip: Use Release Codes to specify how members are attached to one another. Later, youll explore using Boundary Conditions to specify how the structure is attached to its external points of support (reactions).

Member Releases
You may now begin drawing columns. Click Apply to begin drawing columns. Note: When you enter the drawing mode, your cursor changes to notice the Draw New Members button is pressed in . . Also, on the Drawing toolbar,

Drawing Grid
Before you begin drawing, notice that RISA-3D will always open a default 30x30 grid spaced at one foot. To make it easier to find your column and beam locations for this tutorial, redefine the grid as follows: On the Drawing toolbar, click the Modify Drawing Grid button Drawing Grid tab should already be selected. to redefine the grid. The

The drawing grid may be specified in plane or in either elevation. For this model, leave the drawing grid in the XY plane, and change the grid settings as follows: Under Rectangular Grid Increments, in the first column under X Axis, highlight and delete any current data and type: 3,4@3.75,3 (including the commas). In the first column under Y Axis, highlight and delete any current data and type: 10,8.5,4 (including the commas).

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The dialog should now look like this:

Close the Drawing Grids dialog box and the Data Entry toolbar. Click OK to close the dialog box. Click Close to close the Data Entry toolbar (upper right corner of your workspace).

Drawing Members
As you move your cursor around the drawing grid (specifically over grid intersections), notice RISA-3D displays the coordinate location of the cursor in the lower right corner of the Status bar.

Status bar

Coordinates of the current grid intersection location of the mouse

The coordinates displayed on the Status bar are the coordinates of the grid point or joint location closest to the cursor. Notice the coordinates change as you move the mouse around. Also, when you are in the drawing mode (as you are now), the points are highlighted by a red asterisk any time the tip of your mouse approaches the point.

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As you continue the tutorial, ensure that you draw the members in the specified location by watching the Status bar to verify the exact coordinate location.

Grid Locations: Point A (0,0,0) Point B (0,18.5,0)

Start by drawing a line from point A to point B, as shown in the image above: Place the cursor on the lower left corner of the grid to create point A (coordinates 0,0,0) and click once. (Notice a joint has been created and labeled N1.) Next, move the mouse straight up to point B (coordinates 0,18.5,0) and click again. (Another joint has been created and labeled N2.) Note: After drawing a beam, your cursor remains linked until you either draw another beam or terminate drawing. To terminate drawing beams, right-click the mouse or press ESC. When finished drawing the line, press the right mouse button to release the mouse.

To release the mouse: Press the right mouse button or ESC when done drawing.

To undo any mistakes: Press the Undo button or CTRL+Z.

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Grid locations: Point A (21,0,0) Point B (21,18.5,0)

Draw another line from point A to point B, as shown in the image above: To create point A, place the cursor on the lower right corner of the grid (coordinates 21,0,0) and click once. (The new joint has been created and labeled N3.) Next, move the mouse straight up to point B (coordinates 21,18.5,0) and click again. (The new joint has been created and labeled N4.) When finished drawing the line, press the right mouse button to release the mouse. Click the right mouse button a second time to exit the drawing mode. Now you should have a column on the left, extending from joint N1 to joint N2, and another on the right, from joint N3 to N4. Before drawing the truss, take a moment to change the way that members are shown and color-code them by their section sets. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options .

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The Plot Options will be discussed in more detail later. For now, just change the color coding: In the dialog box, click the Members tab. Click Color Coded. Under Color Basis, select Section Set. Under Labeling, select No Labeling.

Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the plot. The members should now be displayed in color and a legend is now displayed in the upper right corner of the workspace (underneath where the Data Entry toolbar was). Notice that the description appears in the legend as na because the Section Sets have not yet been defined.

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Now that the columns are defined, move ahead to the truss members. To resume drawing: On the Drawing toolbar, click the Draw New Members button .

You will now define your truss members as you would a section set. This allows you to group similar members for easier modeling and modifying. Because you have not yet defined any section sets, you will first place the members in the sets as you build the model, then define the properties (section sets) later. Under Member Material Type and Shape, select Hot Rolled. Then click Assign a Section Set to assign a section set for your new members. (The available options for Hot Rolled Steel will appear.)

Click Apply to return to the model view and resume drawing.

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Grid Locations: Point A (0,18.5,0) Point B (21,18.5,0) Point C (18,22.5,0) Point D (3,22.5,0)

Draw the truss chord, as shown on the image above: Draw members from points A to B, then B to C, then C to D, and lastly from D to A. Click the right mouse button or ESC to release the mouse. Click the right mouse button or ESC again to exit the drawing mode. Next, you will draw the web members using the HR1 section set again. Later, you will modify this to differentiate the web members from the truss chords using separate section sets. Click the right mouse button (from anywhere in your workspace) to activate the shortcut menu.

Press the right mouse button to activate the Shortcut menu.

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The Shortcut menu displays options available that relate to the tasks you are performing. These options are specific to your current view. For example, if you were viewing a spreadsheet, the choices would be relevant to spreadsheets. Select Recall Last Dialog to display the Draw Members dialog box again. Under Release Codes, click Pinned at Both Ends. The dialog box now looks like this:

Exit the dialog box: Click Apply.

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Draw the web members, as shown below:


Grid Locations: Point A (3,22.5,0) Point B (3,18.5,0) Point C (6.75,22.5,0) Point D (6.75,18.5,0) Point E (10.5,22.5,0) Point F (10.5,18.5,0)

Draw members from points A to B, B to C, C to D, D to E, then lastly from E to F. Click the right mouse button or press ESC to release the mouse. Choose a new starting point for the next series of members.
Grid Locations: Point A (18,22.5,0) Point B (18,18.5,0) Point C (14.25,22.5,0) Point D (14.25,18.5,0) Point E (10.5,22.5,0)

Draw the next series of members, as shown above. Draw members from points A to B, B to C, C to D, then lastly from D to E. Click the right mouse button or press ESC to release the mouse.

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The image should now look like this:

Physical Members
Notice that you have defined your truss chords with one member, rather than multiple members between each joint. RISA-3Ds Physical Member feature allows you to quickly draw in members this way, rather than making you draw every member as split between nodes. Physical Members automatically connect the members and nodes that frame into them along their midspan. Therefore, you do not have to use multiple members to model what is one Physical Member in the field. Then, if you later have to make changes to your model, you do not have to apply changes to multiple smaller members. Most important, the results values for this continous member will not be spread out over multiple members, making it difficult to find design values, it will instead be presented as that of only one member.

Material Properties
The material properties are defined in the Materials spreadsheet. This spreadsheet contains default material properties that are common for design in the United States. However, you can always edit or add to this spreadsheet at any time if you use different properties. Re-open the Data Entry toolbar you closed earlier: On the RISA toolbar, click the Spreadsheet Shortcuts (Data Entry) button Entry toolbar. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Materials. to display the Data

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Tutorial 1 Modeling The Materials spreadsheet will display.


Notice the tabs contain the various material types. Click to review the information under each tab: Hot Rolled, Cold Formed, etc. Click on any cell. Notice the Status bar (bottom of the screen) gives an explanation of the current column.

Review each of the different material tabs and the default program values. For this tutorial, we will use the default values, so do not make any changes. Note: The United States default material values are built in to RISA-3D. However, you can create new default values for your future models by adding those materials into any spreadsheet and, on the Window toolbar, clicking Save as Defaults . For example, if you are working on a Canadian job with a steel that conforms to the G40.21 specification, you can add that material and save it for use on future models. On the Window toolbar, click Save as Defaults . Any new models will start with this steel material automatically.

Design Rules Size / UC


In an effort to optimize hot rolled, cold formed, wood, concrete, aluminum, and masonry members, RISA-3D will suggest a lighter, more efficient shape for each of the members. When suggesting an alternate shape, RISA-3D will only consider shapes that are included in the designated Design List. The Design List is a set of members that will be used in the design and optimization of a member. You may edit the default redesign lists at any time to create custom lists of your own. These lists are contained in C:\RISA\risa_redesign_lists and you may open/edit them in a text formatting program, such as Notepad. For example, a Section Set could be defined with the Wide Flange Design List. This list references the redesign list which contains the US list of wide flange sections from the AISC Manual of Steel Construction. In this case, RISA-3D will never suggest that a channel or H pile would be a more efficient shape. For information about editing the existing Design Lists or creating your own custom Design Lists, refer to RISA-3D General Reference. Next, designate specific sections you would like redesigned by RISA-3D using the optimization parameters set in the Design Rules spreadsheet. On the Data Entry toolbar, select Member Design Rules. The Member Design Rules spreadsheet will display:

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Enter the following data in row 1: In row 1, under Label, type Col-Rules. (Press the TAB key two times.) Under Min Depth, type 14. (Press the TAB key two times.) Under Min Width, type 14. Press ENTER. Enter the following data in row 2 (continue pressing the TAB key to advance between columns): In row 2, under Label, type Steel-Bms. Under Min Depth, type 12. Press ENTER. Enter the following data in row 3: In row 3, under Label, type Conc-Bms. Under Min Depth, type 12. Under Min Width, type 10. Press ENTER. Enter the following data in row 4: In row 4, under Label, type Truss Rules. Under Max Depth, type 6. Under Min Depth, type 3.5. Under Max Width, type 6. Under Min Width, type 3. Press ENTER. Enter the following data in row 5: In row 5, under Label, type Glulam. Under Max Depth, type 14. Under Min Width, type 5. This spreadsheet should look like this:

Notice there are several parameters available to control the suggested alternate shapes. You can define acceptable member depth and width ranges, and also code check ranges.

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Design Rules Concrete Rebar


In addition to controlling the size of your concrete members, RISA-3D also allows you to control the type of reinforcement and cover to be used. Click on the Concrete Rebar tab. This spreadsheet controls the size and placement of the flexural and shear reinforcement used in the design of your concrete beams and columns. Change the minimum bar size for Col-Rules: In the Col-Rules row click the first cell in the Min Flex Bar column. Click a second time in the cell to reveal the list of options, and select #6. Note: It may be helpful to lengthen the column heading to read the full column label. Change the maximum bar size for Conc-Bms: In the Conc-Bms row click the cell under Max Flex Bar column. Click a second time in the cell to reveal the list of options, and select #9.

Note: Although rules for concrete rebar are given for each Design Rule row, these rebar entries will be ignored if they are applied to anything other than concrete members.

Section Sets Spreadsheet


RISA-3D starts you off with one default Section Set for each basic material type. To differentiate between the new members being created, you will create new Section Sets for each as you go along, using the Section Sets spreadsheet. While in this spreadsheet, you will also define the section properties for the members you have defined so far. Open the Section Sets spreadsheet. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Section Sets. The Section Sets spreadsheet should look like this:

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Section sets provide an easy way to manage members that are repetitive. This will become even more apparent when you have RISA-3D choose new and/or optimized member sizes. So far, your truss has only nine web members. But, what if you had three trusses and were required to change the section (as you will do in Tutorial 2). Changing 27 member properties one at a time could take some time. By defining Section Sets, you will be able to globally change the truss web member properties by changing only one section on the spreadsheet.

Hot Rolled Sections and Database


You currently have one Section Set for each material type. Next, you will add some Section Sets and change the labels so that they are more useful. The active cell (denoted by green color) should contain the text HR1A. You used that section to draw in the truss members. Give the section a more descriptive label: In the row labeled 1, under the Label column, type Chord. Next, change the material: Click the cell under the Material column. Click the cell a second time to display the available hot rolled materials (these come directly from the default entries in the Hot Rolled tab in the Materials spreadsheet). Select A992 for the beam material as shown below:

Notice that the Section Set data consists of a number of entries. The Shape column entry indicates the current size that will be used for the member. The Design List and Design Rules entries define the list of shapes to be used and the design restrictions to impose when redesigning and/or optimizing the member. For more information on customizing design lists, refer to Appendix A in RISA-3D General Reference. Modify the Design Rules: Click the cell under the Design Rules column. Click the cell a second time to reveal the list of available options. Select Truss Rules. The Type column entry indicates whether the member is a beam, column, or brace. This is especially important for the design of concrete sections. Finally, the A, Iyy, Izz, and J columns list the area, moments of inertia, and torsional constant for the current shape. By default the current shape is a W8X10. This is because it is the first shape available in the Wide Flange Design List. Since this is not realistic for your steel truss, you will want to change it. If you know what shape you want to use, you may type it in directly. Or, if you are not sure, you may open the database and review the full list of available shapes.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Define the Hot Rolled shape: Click the first cell under the Shape column. The spreadsheet should look like this:

Open the Hot Rolled shape database: Click the red arrow on the right to open the Hot Rolled tab in the Shape Selection database. The Hot Rolled tab Shape Selection database looks like this:

You may want to review the Shape Type and Database/Manufacturer settings for future reference. The left side of the dialog box contains a list of available shapes. The selected shape is currently W8X10. Change the shape selection: Select Double Angle as your Shape Type. Notice that the list of available shapes populates now with all the available double angle sections. Select LL6X6X12X3 from the list and click OK to return to the spreadsheet. On the Section Sets spreadsheet, notice that LL6X6X12X3 is now in the Shape column. Press the TAB key to advance to the next cell and update the geometric properties (A, Iyy, Izz, J). Click in the Design List cell of the first row. Chose Double Angle from the menu.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Now add two more section sets for the truss web members and the steel beam: Click ENTER to create a new line. In the row labeled 2, under the Label column, type Web. Note: Clicking ENTER creates a new line with all entries (except the Label) identical to that of the line above it. Because of this, it is not neccessary for you to modify the Material and Design Rule entries for your second row in this spreadsheet. Change the shape selection: Click in the Shape cell in the second row and click the red arrow to open the Hot Rolled tab in the Shape Selection database. Select Single Angle as your Shape Type. Select L4X4X4 from the list and click OK to return to the spreadsheet. Click in the Design List cell of the second row. Chose Single Angle from the menu. Last, enter in your steel beam: Click ENTER to create a new line. In the row labeled 3, under the Label column, type Beam-Z. Change the shape selection: Click in the Shape cell in the third row and click the red arrow to open the Hot Rolled tab in the Shape Selection database. Select WF as your Shape Type. Select W12X19 and click OK to return to the Section Sets spreadsheet. Click in the Design List cell of the third row. Chose Wide Flange from the menu. Lastly, click in the Design Rules cell of the third row and select Steel-Bms. When you are finished, the spreadsheet should look like this:

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Cold Formed Sections and Database


Now, you will add in your Cold Formed Section Set. Open the Cold Formed tab: Click the Cold Formed tab. Under Label, type Girt to make the label more informative. Your screen should now look like this:

Once again, select your shape from the shape selection database. Click the first cell under the Shape column. Click the red arrow on the right to open the Cold Formed tab of the Shape Selection database. The Cold Formed tab is very similar to the Hot Rolled tab, and looks like this:

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Review and modify the shape settings: Under Shape Type, select CS. Under the list of available shapes (on the left), select 12CS3.5x105.

Click OK to return to the Section Sets spreadsheet. To ensure that when performing member redesign and/or optimization, RISA-3D will suggest a new CS from the appropriate list of shapes, modify the design list as follows. Note: When selecting cells in a spreadsheet, you may click directly in the cell or press the TAB to advance from cell to cell. On the Section Sets spreadsheet, click in the cell under the Design List column, making this the active cell. Click the cell a second time to display the available design lists. Select CS. Next, modify the Design Rules: Click in the cell under the Design Rules column two times to display the available design lists. Select Steel-Bms. When finished, your spreadsheet should look like this:

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Wood Sections and Database


Moving now to wood, define the section used for the glulam beams. Click the Wood tab. Under Label, in row 1, type Glulam. The spread sheet should now look like this:

Next, enter in your full sawn member size: Click in the Shape cell. Click the red arrow to open the Wood tab of the Shape Selection database. Under Shape Type, select Use Full Sawn Size (thick X width). Type in 5.25 X 12, as shown in the image below:

C Now you can return to the Section Sets spreadsheet: Click OK.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling You have now changed the current shape to a full sawn glulam size. If you want RISA-3D to suggest appropriate full sawn shapes when performing member redesign and/or optimization, you must also change the Design List. Click under the Design List column to make it the active cell. Click the cell a second time to view the available design lists. (You may need to expand the Design List column to view the longer labels.) Select Glulam_Western. These settings ensure that when RISA-3D performs member redesign and/or optimization, it will suggest an appopriate member for your beams. To limit the depth and thickness of the suggested shapes, you will now change the Design Rules. On the Wood Section Sets spreadsheet, click the first cell under the Design Rules column to make this the active cell. Click the cell a second time to view the available Design Rules. Select Glulam. Your spreadsheet should now look like this:

Concrete Sections
Open the Concrete tab: Click the Concrete tab. Because you initially defined your concrete member using Assign Shape Directly (rather than using section sets), you will not need to define any members using the section sets listed under the Concrete tab. Take a minute to review the information listed under the Concrete tab. It is similar to the information in the other tabs for steel and wood.

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Multiple Windows

At this point, you should have a model view and three spreadsheets open and visible on your screen. Notice the active window is denoted by a colored title bar (in this case, the Concrete Section Sets spreadsheet). The title bars of the other inactive windows are dimmed. The windows are tiled in the order that you opened them. You can return to any of the windows by clicking anywhere on them, preferably on the title bars, so you do not accidentally click a button or a grid point. To move a window, press and hold the title bar with your mouse, then drag to the desired location.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling You can also access the open windows and dialog boxes through the Window menu. This menu allows you access to windows that may be hidden from view. Click on the Window menu from the Main menu. The Window menu looks like this:
The Window menu presents some window arrangement and tiling options.

The open windows are listed in the order they were opened. You can select any of the open windows to make it active. The active window is denoted by a check mark.

Change the active window to model view: On the Window menu, select 1 Model View. The model view becomes the active window and moves to the front of the other windows. The spreadsheets are still open beneath the model view window, but not currently visible. You can also recall open windows the same way you originally opened them (by selecting from a menu or clicking a toolbar button). For example, to make the currently open Section Sets spreadsheet become the active window so you can work on it: On the Data Entry toolbar, click Section Sets to open the Section Sets spreadsheet. Close the active window: Click Close or press CTRL+F4 to close the Section Sets spreadsheet. Now, the model view should be your active window. Notice that RISA-3D resumes where you left off for all open windows. Open the Draw Members dialog box and prepare to draw the crossbeam: Press CTRL+D to recall the Draw Members dialog box. Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Concrete. Bypass the section sets and assign this shape directly: Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Assign Shape Directly. Under Start Shape, type CRECT12X8. In the Type list, click Beam. Under Release Codes, click Fully Fixed at Both Ends.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling The Draw Members dialog box should now look like this:

Exit the dialog box and return to the model view. Click Apply. Begin drawing the cross beams: Draw members from point A to point B using the grid locations shown below. Click the right mouse button or press ESC to release the mouse.

Grid Locations: Point A (0,10,0) Point B (21,10,0)

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Your image should now look like this:

Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions define how the model is constrained. All models must be attached to some external point(s) of support otherwise the program will produce an error message telling you that your model is unstable. Prepare to add boundary conditions: On the Drawing toolbar, click Boundary Conditions The following dialog box will display: .

Boundary conditions can be applied to any joint. There are six degrees of freedom for each joint; therefore, there are six releases provided; one for each direction.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Review the options for assigning boundary conditions. Each option is described below: In the X Translation list, click the down arrow to see the available boundary condition options.

Free Reaction

No restraint. Specifies full restraint for the indicated direction. No movement will be allowed in the indicated direction for this joint. A reaction force will be calculated and reported. Also specifies full restraint for the joint in the indicated direction; however, no reaction force is calculated. This setting actually removes the degree of freedom from the solution. If you are not interested in reactions, using this option will result in a slightly smaller model. This option models a spring attached to the joint in the indicated direction and must be accompanied by a spring stiffness. The units for the spring stiffness depend upon whether the spring is translational or rotational and are displayed next to the edit box. For example, to specify a spring of stiffness 100 kips per inch, select Spring from the list and type 100 in the adjacent box.

Fixed

Spring

Compression Spring

This option models a compression-only spring and must be accompanied by a spring stiffness. This type of spring will only resist compression (negative displacement); if a tension force (positive displacement) is applied to it, it will release and provide no resistance. This option models a tension-only spring and must be accompanied by a spring stiffness. This type of spring will only resist tension (positive displacements); if a compression force (negative displacement) is applied to it, it will release and provide no resistance. This option slaves the degree of freedom of one joint to another that you specify.

Tension Spring

Slave

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Next, specify pin supports at the base of your columns. For this tutorial, the X, Y, and Z translations will be restrained, but the three rotations will be unrestrained. This is a common boundary condition that is built in to RISA-3D, and can be applied as shown below: Click the Pinned button and the boundary condition settings described above will be completed for you. The dialog box now looks like this:

The Use? check boxes must be selected for a modification to be applied. This allows you to change a condition for just one of the parameters, instead of requiring all six to match.

The Assign Footing option allows you to place a footing at a joint if you also have RISAFoot authorized and installed on your computer. Use the menu to select the footing from those specified in the Footing Definitions spreadsheet.

Finish your selections and close the dialog box: Under What happens when Apply is pressed?, select Apply Entries by Clicking/Boxing Joints. Click Apply. Note: Your cursor will change to you click on any joint. , indicating you are ready to apply the boundary condition when

Apply the boundary condition to the base of both columns at joints N1 and N3. Click joint N1 and then on joint N3.

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Tutorial 1 Modeling Now that you are finished adding the boundary conditions, your model should look like this:

Review how the boundary condition data you just entered graphically was recorded on the Boundary Conditions spreadsheet: On the Data Entry toolbar, click Boundary Conditions to open the spreadsheet.

RISA-3D allows you to edit existing boundary conditions here, or add new ones. To add a new boundary condition, simply type directly on the spreadsheet (you can type just the first letter such as R for reaction, then press ENTER). Or, you can click on the red arrow to view the available options. This is the end of Tutorial 1. The next tutorial demonstrates how to make modifications to the model. You may save your model to be used as the starting point for the next tutorial, or begin the next tutorial using the .r3d starter file in the RISA-3D Tutorials folder. To save the model: On the File menu, click Save As and enter a file name. Note that it will have an .r3d extension.

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Tutorial 2 Modify
In this tutorial, you will modify the 2D frame you defined in Tutorial 1 and use RISA-3Ds graphic editing features to expand it into a complete 3D frame. This tutorial continues where the previous tutorial ended, so follow these steps to get your model up and running: If you are continuing from the previous tutorial: From the Window menu, select Single View. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button toolbar. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Close Skip ahead to the next page. -OR- If you are starting here from scratch, follow the steps below to load the starter file provided by RISA Technologies: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. Click Open Model . Double-click the Tutorials folder, select Tutorial 2 Starter.r3d and click Open. Click Close (or Cancel) to exit the Global Parameters dialog box. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button toolbar. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Close Your screen should look like this: to close it. to activate the Drawing to close it. to activate the Drawing

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To get started, you will modify the end conditions at the tops of the columns. Notice that the web members of the truss are pinned at the ends (indicated by the circle at the end of each member). All other members are fixed at the end. You will modify the column top ends so that they are pinned as well.

Modifying an Item
RISA-3D provides a quick and easy way to view and edit properties of any item in the model. You may simply double-click any joint, member, or plate to view and edit all of the information for that item. Double-click the left column (anywhere between N1 and N2) to open the following dialog box:

Modify the end releases for the first column: Click the End Releases tab. Under J End Release Codes, click Bending Moment Released (Torsion Fixed). Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the model view. Next, double click the column on the right to define the end releases for that column: Double-click the right column (anywhere between N3 and N4). Click the End Releases tab. Under J End Release Codes, click Bending Moment Released (Torsion Fixed). Click OK to close the dialog box.

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Your model should look like this:

The open circles at the top of each column represent pinned end releases

Note: If you do not see the open circles at the top of each column, click the You can make modifications to any joint, member, or plate by simply double-clicking on it. I End-J End button a few times to make sure the I-J end flags are on.

Before proceeding, inspect one of the joints: Double-click the bottom left joint (N1) to review the information. Click Cancel to close the dialog box without making any changes. Note: This method of reviewing and editing model information is sufficient when modifying one or two items in your model. However, to modify several members at once, it is easier and more efficient to use the graphical selection and editing tools, described next.

Editing the Model View


This section explains how to modify the model view using the graphical selection and editing tools. Since you are currently working in a model view the Window toolbar will look like this:

The first button on the left is the Plot Options button be explained in more detail later.

(used earlier to color the members). This will

Rotating the Model


The Rotate buttons are used to rotate the model counter-clockwise or clockwise

about the global axes. The Snap View buttons are used to snap the view to the default isometric view, or the XY, XZ, or YZ planar view, respectively. Click some of the Rotate and Snap View buttons (shown above) and experiment with rotating and snapping the plot to different views.

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As you click the Rotate and Snap View buttons, notice the direction the plot is rotating. It may help to reference the global axes icon at the top left corner of your model that looks like this:

When you are finished experimenting, place the model in an isometric view: Click Isometric .

Zooming the Model


The Zoom buttons are used to zoom the model view in and out. The first two Zoom In , allows you to zoom in on a and Zoom Out of the model as a whole. The third, Box Zoom specific area of interest. Try the box zoom now: Click the Box Zoom button mouse. Release the mouse. Return to your normal model view: Click Redraw to redraw the full model view.

, then box any area in your model by pressing and dragging your

Panning
If your mouse has a wheel, you will be able to use RISA-3Ds panning feature. Simply press down on the wheel anywhere on your model, then move the mouse to the desired location. RISA-3D grabs the model at the current location and moves the model to the new location. Try the panning feature, then zoom in and out: Position your mouse anywhere on your model. Press down on the mouse wheel and drag to the left. Your model should move to the new location. Zoom in and out by rolling the mouse wheel up and down. Return to your normal view: Click Redraw to redraw the full model view.

Drawing with the Graphic Editing Toolbar


The Graphic Editing Toolbar button model view. is used to toggle the Drawing toolbar on and off in the current two times. Notice the Drawing toolbar will toggle

Click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button off and on again.

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Saving Views
If you create a customized view that you think you may use again, you can save it for future recall using the Save or Recall View button . (It may even be a good idea to use this feature whenever you create a view that takes some time.) Simply click the Save or Recall View button and assign a name to the saved view. All of the plot options will be recorded and saved for later recall.

Cloning Views
Cloning a view, using the Clone button , creates a new window and makes an identical copy of the current model view. Cloning allows you to keep your original model view intact and make graphical adjustments to the copy (in the new window). Clone your current view and use the new model view (the copy) to explore the rest of the toolbar. On the Window toolbar, click Clone . The new window should be the active window (denoted by the colored title bar). You should also be able to see the original window tiled beneath it. You are now working in a new model view (in a new window). The former model view will remain intact and unchanged.

Load Viewing Operations


Load viewing functionality is provided to help you display and switch the loads. This will be discussed in more detail after your loads are defined.

Remaining Viewing Buttons


The remaining toolbar buttons control identifying information in the new view. Click each item a few times to turn the viewing buttons on and off.

Customizing the Window Toolbar


All the viewing buttons described above are the defaults of RISA-3D. However, once you become more familiar with RISA-3D, you may decide to add or remove buttons to customize the Window toolbar to make it more useful for your modeling needs. On the Tools menu, select Customize Toolbar.

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The Customize Toolbar dialog box looks like this:

Note: Please use care not to customize any of the Window toolbar buttons at this time. For the tutorials to be performed accurately, it is imperative that the Window toolbar remain in its default state. Click Close without making any changes to the toolbar. Close the cloned view: Press Ctrl-F4 to close the cloned view and return to the original view.

Plot Options
The Plot Options dialog box allows you to control the information displayed on your plot. On the Window toolbar, click the Plot Options button Notice the tabs separating the various types of information. Click the Members tab. Under Draw Members As, click each option (Wireframe, Color Coded, and Rendered) one at a time. Notice the dimming of available options changes depending on your selections. .

Because the model has not been solved, everything under Member Results is dimmed and unavailable. OK Apply changes and close the dialog box. Cancel Cancel changes and close the dialog box. Apply Apply changes and leave the dialog open. Help Open the Help Menu for this dialog box.

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Next, define the plot options for your model: Under Draw Members As, click Color Coded. Under Color Basis, select Section Set. Under Labeling, select No Labeling. Click Apply to apply the changes and leave the dialog box open. Finish by exploring the options on the other tabs, reviewing the many available options. Be sure to click the Misc tab. You may make any of these options your default for future plots by pressing the button at the bottom, Make the Current Plot Settings the Default. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Multiple Views
Previously, you saw that you could have more than one view using the clone feature. With the clone feature, each view is independent and can be rotated, rendered, selected, etc., without affecting other views. Now you will open a New Model View which simply opens a new model view in the default view, such as you see when you first open the file. On the RISA toolbar, click New Model View and you will be presented with a new model view its the original state (as if you just opened the file). In other words, no rendering or view changes will be shown. Feel free to use the buttons on the Window toolbar. You will see that you can adjust this view without affecting your original view.

The importance of multiple views cannot be stressed enough. If you do not want to change your existing view, but need to view the other side of the model, simply open a new window to view the other side. You can have a different drawing grid open in each view. For example, you can draw beams on one grid in one view and columns in another.

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As you move between each view, RISA-3D will even keep track of any modeling/model modifications in the new view and update the other views. For example, you might be drawing new beam members in one view, new columns in another view, and plates in a third view and these modeling changes are made in all views. Only the view state (selection state, plot options, etc.) is kept separate for each new view. Any modeling changes are considered global and are made to all views. Multiple views are also useful when looking at the results because you can plot different information in each view. The options are endless, so make sure that you put this feature to work for you. Click Close to close the second view.

Selection Tools
Selection tools are necessary to identify and isolate specific parts of the model. Note: Currently, your cursor looks like this , indicating you are in the default selection mode. While in this mode, click any item to select or unselect it. Selected items appear in Color Fill view. Unselected items appear as grey wireframe lines. Next, compare the two. Currently, all your model elements are selected. Unselect the crossbeam: Click the crossbeam (between N15 and N16) to unselect it. The color fill beam will become light grey in color, denoting that it is now unselected. Your model should now look like this:

The crossbeam is now unselected.

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Making Selections One at a Time


Experiment with selecting and unselecting members and joint locations, and viewing information on them. Click a few of the lines to see how the members can be unselected, and then again to select them. Click a joint location to select/unselect the joint. Double click on a member to open the Information dialog box. Click Close or Cancel.

Using the Selection Toolbar to Make Selections


Rather than clicking to select one item at a time, you may use RISA-3Ds Selection toolbar to help you quickly achieve any selection you want. The Selection toolbar is the vertical toolbar along the left side of the screen. It provides selection tools to help you work with parts of the model. The toolbar is visible when your model is the active window (it will not be visible when working on a spreadsheet). Experiment with making selections using the selection tools. Feel free to try all of them as you cannot affect the model solely by selecting items. Note: When using the select and unselect tools, the cursor will remain in that selection tool mode so that you can make multiple selections. To terminate the chosen selection mode, click the right mouse button.

The selection tools are described below: Select All and Unselect All Select/unselect the entire model. Box Select and Box Unselect Draw a box around the part to be selected/unselected. Only items that are entirely in the box will be affected. Polygon Select and Polygon Unselect Draw a polygon around the part to be selected/unselected (double click to end). When you have finished drawing the polygon, double click to complete the selection. Line Select and Line Unselect Draw a line through all items to be selected or unselected. Simply click the mouse to begin drawing the line, drag to draw the line, then release the mouse to complete the selection. This tool is ideal for selecting the columns or web members in a truss. Invert Selected Used to invert, or reverse, the selected state of the model. All selected items are made unselected, and all unselected items are made selected. This can be very useful when just a few items are to be selected in a large model; just click to unselect the items, then click Invert Selected to invert (or flip) the selection.

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Criteria Selection Allows you to use other criteria to make your selections. Using the Select Items for Current View dialog box, you can: (1) Select items between defined coordinates; (2) Select items using their labels, such as all joints from N7 to N15; (3) Select members by defining multiple types of criteria such as orientation, section set, database shape, and material; and (4) Select plates by defining material, thickness, and orientation. Save/Recall Selection Save or recall selection states of the model. If the model is altered after a selection state has been saved, the saved selection state will also be altered. After saving a selection state, any new items (joints, members, etc.) will be set to selected. To save a selection state, click Save and provide a name for the saved selection. You can have up to 16 different saved selections in a model. To retrieve a saved selection, choose the selection state from the list and click Retrieve. To delete a saved selection, choose the selection state from the list and click Delete. Lock Unselected (unlocked) and (locked) Lock all currently unselected parts of the model. When Lock Unselected is pressed, this selection tool changes to . When locked, all unselected parts of the model will remain unselected and invisible--no matter what other selection buttons are pressed. To turn the lock off, press Lock Unselected a second time (returning it to the unlocked position ). This is useful to isolate one part of the model from the rest. For example, if you are designing one particular floor in a multi-story building, and you need to select and unselect different parts of that floor, lock the part of the model you do not want affected. Specifically: click Unselect All to unselect the entire model; click Box Select to select the floor; then press Lock Unselected (the button will change to ). The rest of the model will now remain unselected until you press again to unlock it. When you are finished experimenting with the selection tools: Ensure that the Lock Unselected button is unlocked.

Now that you have explored the various selection tools, use them to modify the model.

Making Changes to Selections


Unselect the entire model and change the viewing plane: On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All elevation. Then click Redraw to unselect the entire model. to change the model view to an XY

On the Window toolbar, click the XY Planar button

to maximize the viewing plane.

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Make some selections using the Line Select button: Click the Line Select button the line selection mode. . Your cursor will change to , indicating that you are now in

Draw a line through the truss web members, as shown below. Click your mouse to begin drawing the line near the leftmost truss web member, and drag past the rightmost web member, then release the mouse.

Notice the section set for all of your web members is listed as Chord. This is because you only had one Hot Rolled section set available to you when you first drew your truss.

All of the truss web members should now be selected. You could now easily modify those selected members, as you will do in the next section.

Modify Members
In this section, you will use the Modify tools to rotate your columns. On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw New Members Select the Modify Properties tab. Note: Each section of the dialog box contains a Use? check box. Selecting any of these Use? check boxes determines whether or not the parameter will be applied. This dialog box looks similar to the Draw Members dialog box because, after the members are drawn, this dialog box allows you to change any of those initial parameters. Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Hot Rolled. Click Assign a Section Set, and select Web. At the top of the Member Material Type and Shape section, select the Use? check box. Once selected, the text will turn red. Under What Happens when Apply is pressed? click Apply Entries to All Selected Members. .

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The dialog box should now look like this:

Apply the changes and close the dialog box: Click Apply. Modify the section set for all of the selected members: On the Selection toolbar, click Select All On the Window toolbar, click Isometric Your model should now look like this: to select the entire model. to display an isometric view of the entire structure.

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Model Rendering
A powerful graphics tool in RISA-3D is the ability to display a rendered image of the model. A rendered image shows each member plotted using a true scale representation of the shape assigned to the member. A rendered view offers some important benefits: besides producing a very detailed image, it also allows you to easily review member orientations and member connectivity. There are also rendering options (within the Members tab of the Plot Options dialog box) that allow you to adjust pullback length and rendering transparency. Turn on the model rendering: On the Window toolbar, click Rendering .

Copying Model Elements


RISA-3D allows you to copy selected portions of the model. You will use this feature to turn your twodimensional model into a three-bay structure. On the Drawing toolbar, click Linear Offset Copy to open the Copy Selected Items dialog box. This feature is used to copy the currently selected portion of the model (in increments) in any or all three of the global directions. Notice there are several fields used to specify increments in the X, Y, and Z directions. Use the @ symbol to specify multiple equal increments. For this tutorial, replicate your model in the Z direction. Under Axis Increments, in the first Z inc. column, type 2@15.

Click Apply.

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Because your entire frame was selected, all of the frames will be copied. If you had any loads on the frames, they would have also been copied. Your structure should look like this:

Next you will add a masonry wall panel to the back side of your structure. But before you draw the wall panel, delete the concrete columns from this side of the structure: On the Window toolbar, click Redraw to view the entire model. .

On the Selection toolbar, click Un-Select All

Now that the entire model is unselected, use the Selection Criteria tool to select just the back three columns. On the Selection toolbar, click the Criteria Selection button . Click the Coordinates tab.

Under Coordinate Bounds, in the X Coordinate box, type 0 in both the Minimum and Maximum columns. Near the bottom of the Coordinate Selection Criteria section, click to clear the Select/Unselect Joints check box so that joints on the columns will not be selected.

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Your dialog window should look like this:

Close the dialog box and return to the model view. Click OK. Notice that just the back three columns are selected:

Now, delete these columns. On the Drawing toolbar, click Delete Click Apply. Notice that the three columns have now been deleted. Click Select All to select the entire model once again. to open the Delete Items dialog box.

Click Delete Based on This Criteria, then select the Delete Selected Members check box.

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Drawing Wall Panels and Additional Framing


Now, draw in the wall panel: On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw New Wall Panels .

Click Apply to draw in the wall panel using the default values.

Note: Your cursor will now change to Begin drawing the wall panel:

, indicating you are ready to draw your wall panel.

Click each node to define the four corners of the structure: start with N33 at front lower left (coordinates 0,0,30), then move clockwise to N34 (coordinates 0,18.5,30), N2 (coordinates 0,18.5,0), and finally N1 (coordinates 0,0,0). When finished drawing the wall panel, press the right mouse button or ESC to exit the drawing mode.

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Your screen should now look like this:

Coordinate Locations: N33 (0,0,30) N34 (0,18.5,30) N2 (0,18.5,0) N1 (0,0,0)

Notice the default rendered wall panel does not fully extend to its corner nodes. This is because the default view for wall panels has a rendered size of 80%. Change this to a size of 100% for a better view: On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options . Select the Panels tab.

Under Draw Wall Panels As, click Rendered. In the Size list, click 100%. Click OK to exit the dialog box and return to your model. Your wall should now be rendered at 100%.

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Notice that the three pinned boundary conditions still are present at the base of the wall. During solution, the wall panel elements will automatically generate a continuous boundary condition at the base, therefore you will want to delete these three boundary conditions to avoid duplicate restraint.

Nodes to delete: N1 (0,0,0) N17 (0,0,15) N33 (0,0,30)

Make note of the boundary condition labels and then delete them directly out of the Boundary Conditions spreadsheet: On the Spreadsheets menu, select Boundary Conditions. Click in the N1 cell to highlight it in green as shown below:

Right-click your mouse and select Delete Current Line from the shortcut menu.

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Repeat for the remaining two boundary conditions (N17 and N33). When complete, your Boundary Conditions spreadsheet should be left with just three entries, as shown below:

Close the spreadsheet. This was just a simple overview of the masonry wall panel feature. For more detailed information on this feature and how to use it to set up design rules, regions, and openings for both masonry and wood walls, refer to the Wall Panel Tutorials available on our website: http://www.risa.com/d_documentation.html. Next, prepare to draw the beams on the front of the structure. First, click the Toggle Rendering button once to go back to wireframe view. .

On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw New Members Click the Draw Members tab.

Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Hot Rolled. Click Assign a Section Set and select Beam-Z from the list. Under Release Codes, click Fully Fixed at Both Ends. Click Apply, and get ready to draw. Draw the beams: Click the joint in the middle of the front column, N48 (coordinates 21,10,30), to define the I-end of the first member. Then click the middle joint on the middle column, N32 (coordinates 21,10,15) to define the J-end of the first member and the I-end of the second member. Finally, click the middle joint of the right-most column, N16 (coordinates 21,10,0), to define the J-end of the second member.

Coordinate Locations: N48: (21,10,30) N32: (21,10,15) N16: (21,10,0)

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Now, draw in glulam beams bewteen the top nodes of the same columns. Click CTRL+D to reopen the Draw Members dialog window. Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Wood. Click Assign a Section Set and select Glulam from the list. Under Release Codes, click Fully Fixed at Both Ends. Click Apply, and get ready to draw. Draw the beams: Click the joint in the middle of the front column, N36 (coordinates 21,18.5,30), to define the Iend of the first member. Then click the middle joint on the middle column, N20 (coordinates 21,18.5,15) to define the J-end of the first member and the I-end of the second member. Finally, click the middle joint of the right-most column, N4 (coordinates 21,18.5,0), to define the J-end of the second member.

Coordinate Locations: N36: (21,18.5,30) N20: (21,18.5,15) N4: (21,18.5,0)

When finished, click ESC twice to exit the drawing mode.

Drawing Along Members


Next, you will add cold formed steel girts to the columns between the beams. Because there are no joints at these locations, you can either create a drawing grid (as you did in Tutorial 1), or you can insert joints on the columns (as you will do next). On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw New Members Click Specific Location and type 14 in the box. Under Physical, click Just Add Joints to Physical Members. Under What happens when Apply is pressed?, click Apply Entries by Clicking Members Individually. . Click the Split Members tab.

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Your dialog box should now look like this:

Close the dialog box and begin to draw: Click Apply. Click once on each of the three columns in the front (the same columns you just connected with beams). New nodes will appear on the upper half of the columns between the two beams. You may use the mouse wheel to zoom in to see them closer. Press CTRL+D to re-open the Draw New Members dialog box. Click the Draw Members tab. Under Member Material Type and Shape, click Cold Formed. Click Assign a Section Set, and select Girt from the list. Under Release Codes, click Pinned at Both Ends. You also want the cold formed members to be turned so that their strong axis resists wind load. Specify the rotation before drawing them: Under Orientation/Rotate Options, in the Angle box, type 90.

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Close the dialog box and prepare to draw again. Click Apply and you are ready to draw. Click on the three new nodes, from left to right, N49 (coordinates 21,14,30), N50 (coordinates 21,14,15), and N51 (coordinates 21,14,0). The three new nodes are shown circled in the figure below. When finished, right click to release the mouse.

Coordinate Locations: N49: (21,14,30) N50: (21,14,15) N51: (21,14,0)

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Next, modify the drawing grid to make the addition of the next members easier. These settings allow you to set up a grid of graphical editing points along any orthogonal plane. They also allow you to automatically snap to the quarter or third points of existing members. On the Drawing toolbar, click Modify Drawing Grid . Click the Snap To Options tab.

Under Member Snap Locations, select the Quarter Points and Third Points check boxes (if not already selected). Under Universal Snap Increments, make sure the Use Universal Increments check box is cleared, as shown below:

Continue drawing your cold formed girts: Click Ok to close the dialog box and begin drawing.

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When you move your cursor over graphical editing points, a red dot appears. Check the Status bar to view the coordinate location of each point.

Your cursor indicates that you are in drawing mode.

Graphical editing point

Status bar coordinate display

Draw the lower girts using the drawing points defined at the quarter points of the columns. Click the left column coordinate (21, 4.625, 30). Then click the middle column coordinate (21, 4.625, 15) and the right column coordinate (21, 4.625, 0). When you are finished drawing, right click to release the mouse. Right click a second time to exit the drawing mode. Click the Toggle Rendering button twice to return to rendered view.

When you are finished your screen should look like this:

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Selecting Planes
Next, you will add a floor composed of plate elements. Use Criteria Selection again to select the joints to facilitate drawing at the 10 foot elevation. This selection option allows you to select elevations, plans, or any block of the model. Unselect the entire model and define the coordinate elevation as follows: On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All . .

Also on the Selection toolbar, click Criteria Selection Select the Coordinates tab.

Click the Clear Selection Criteria button to clear the entries from the previous selection. Under Coordinate Bounds, in the Y Coordinate box (in the Minimum column), type 10. Press TAB to move to the Maximum column and type 10 again. The dialog box should look like this:

Close the dialog box: Click OK.

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Items at the 10 foot elevation are selected like this:

Drawing Plates
Next, define the floor by drawing and submeshing plates. On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw New Plates The dialog box should look like this: .

In the Material Set box, select gen_Conc3NW. In the Thickness box, type 3.

Close the dialog box and return to wireframe view for easier drawing. Click Apply to close the dialog box and enter the drawing mode. Note: The cursor changes to , indicating you are in the plate drawing mode.

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Click the Toggle Rendering button Now draw in the plates.

once to return to wireframe view.

To begin, click the closest corner joint (N48) then move counter-clockwise and click the joints (N16), (N15), and finally (N47). As you move, notice the double lines defining the interior of the plate element. Right click to exit the drawing mode. Click the Toggle Rendering button twice to return to rendered view.

The first plate appears in rendered form with its thickness shown to scale, as shown below:

Coordinate Locations: N48: (21,10,30) N16: (21,10,0) N15: (0,10,0) N47: (0,10,30)

Sub-meshing Plates
How many plate elements do you need to get accurate results? Many books have been written addressing the topic of mesh size. The finite element method is an approaching method. This means the more fine your mesh, the more accurate your results. See the RISA-3D General Reference for parametric studies that demonstrate this, along with some design examples for shear walls, horizontal diaphragms, and spread footings. Our studies have shown that, to get accurate results, you should try to have a 4x4 mesh of plates between points of support and load concentrations. RISA-3D provides two distinct submeshing options: Automesh and Quad Submesh. Automesh is the most advanced of the two options. This feature allows you to draw any arbitrary polygon and have RISA-3D fill the polygon with well-sized quadrilateral plates. The AutoMesh feature will not be demonstrated in this tutorial; however, you are encouraged to learn more about AutoMesh in the RISA-3D General Reference. Quad Submesh is the simpler option. It involves creating a single plate and then replacing that plate with a submesh of smaller plates. You will use this option to mesh the plates next. Press CTRL+D to display the dialog box again. Click the Quad Submesh tab.

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The default entries would divide your plates into a 4x4 submesh which would create rectangular submeshed plates, so modify it to create square plates for more accurate results. In the Number of Pieces Along A-B Side box, type 8. Click Apply Split to All Selected Plates. Click Apply.

You should now have a 4x4 mesh of plates in each bay, as shown below:

C Select the model and continue: On the Selection toolbar, click Select All .

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You should now see:

Notice that submeshing the plates has added new joints along the existing beam members. Because of the Physical Member feature, these new joints are automatically attached. The plates are shown at 80% rendered view, which can be adjusted in the Plot Options dialog box. The shrink factors only apply to the length and width of the plates, not the thickness. The full thickness is always shown. You may also notice that duplicate joints have been created at the middle columns. Later, you will use the Model Merge feature to eliminate those.

Viewing Plates
Remove the labels and display the plot options for plates: On the Window toolbar, click Joint Labels to turn them off. . Select the Plates tab.

Also, on the Window toolbar, click Plot Options

These options control how the plates are displayed graphically, and are similar to the member display buttons.
The four main drawing options: Wireframe view in wireframe. Color Filled view in color fill and plotted as a surface. Rendered renders the plot Dont Draw will not draw the plates.

Note: Both Color Filled and Rendered may have a transparancy factor applied. 0% = fully opaque 100% = completely transparent

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Display the plates in wireframe and take a closer look at them: Under Draw Plates As, click Wireframe. Under Labeling, select X Symbol. Click OK. Now, zoom in and take a closer look at the wireframe plates. Press the PLUS SIGN [+] on the numeric keypad four times to zoom in. You should now see this:

Return to full model view: On the Window toolbar, click Redraw .

Model Merge
The Model Merge feature searches for duplicate nodes and members (with the same coordinates) and merges them into one. Use Model Merge to merge the duplicate nodes and members: On the Drawing toolbar, click Model Merge The Model Merge dialog box will appear:
Merge Crossing Members - Members crossing each other will be merged (a typical case might be X-bracing).

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You have the option of merging the entire model or only a selected part of the model. Click Apply. You will be presented with the results of the merge. Click OK to close the Model Merge Results dialog box.

Scaling Elements
Assume your client has just submitted a change order to raise the truss from 18'-6" to 22'-9", and would like the frame 25% wider (from 21' to 26'-3"). The client would like the completed design this afternoon! These are significant changes to the model. If you were using a batch input program or a program heavily reliant on parametric data generators, you would probably be required to start the data entry process completely from scratch to create the new model. A major strength of RISA-3D is the ability to make these types of changes to existing data, realizing that data modification is probably one of the most common repetitive tasks, it is therefore the true test of any software product. RISA-3D allows you to make all the requested changes graphically (using the builtin graphical editing tools), or numerically (using the spreadsheets), or a combination of bothwhichever you prefer. For this tutorial, you will make the changes graphically. Later, an explanation will be given about how you could have accomplished the same changes within the spreadsheets. To begin, widen the truss using the Scale feature. Click the Modify menu and select Scale. Note: On the Drawing toolbar, there is also a Scale Factor Move button To widen the truss, scale the model in the global X direction: Under Scale Factor, in the X Factor box, type 1.25. .

The Scale Origin is the point that will remain stationary as the selected items are scaled. Scale Factor defines the scale factors in each global direction.

Click Apply.

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You are now finished widening the truss. Next, you will raise the truss. You cannot use Scale feature to raise the truss because it would also lift the crossbeam. So instead, use the Move feature. Because you want to move the truss and nothing else, you must first make a selection of the truss. It will be easier to work with an elevation, so change the elevation, then select your truss: On the Window toolbar, click XY Planar . Then, click Redraw . . Draw a box around

On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All . Then, click Box Select the entire truss. Right-click to release the selection tool. Your selection of the truss should look like this:

Change the elevation as follows: On the Drawing toolbar, click Linear Translation Move . A dialog box will appear.

Under Move Distance (ft), double-click in the Y box and type 4.25.

Click Apply.

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Note: You could have also used the Block Math feature to accomplish both modifications numerically in the spreadsheets. To widen the structure, you would have simply multiplied the joint X coordinates by 1.25. To raise the truss, you would have first sorted the Y coordinates and then selected the coordinates that are at an elevation of 8.5 ft or higher. The final step would have been to use the Block Math feature to add 4.25 to these selected Y coordinates. Now, select the model and change your view to prepare for the next step: On the Selection toolbar, click Select All On the Window toolbar, click Isometric . . Then, click Redraw .

Design Parameters
Before solving the model, steel and timber design code parameters, such as unbraced lengths, must be specified. Once again, you will assign these values graphically. To view the parameters for any one member you can also double-click that member. The values will be recorded on the Member Design Parameters spreadsheet. On the Modify menu, select Design Parameters. Click the Modify Design tab (if it is not already selected). Under Axial/Torsional Properties, in the Lbyy/le2/Luyy box, type Segment (or Seg). Also, select the Use? check box. (It will display in red once it is selected.) Under What happens when Apply is pressed?, click Apply Entries to All Selected Members as shown below:

Many parameters have three labels separated by a slash (/), indicating steel/ timber/concrete design parameters. Each field is described below. Refer to the Help or RISA-3D General Reference for more information.

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Currently, all the options are blank except the first. For the options left blank, RISA-3D will use the default values when the code check calculations are performed. For weak axis bending, as a result of using the Segment code, each node will be treated as a brace point. Click Apply. To actually see the settings for the unbraced lengths, you can double-click any member and review the Unbraced Lengths in the Design tab. This information is also accessible from the Members spreadsheet. RISA-3D calculates most of these parameters for you, although you may choose to specify your own values. The table on the next page explains how each parameter is handled, enabling you to take advantage of the capabilities of RISA-3D. Lb/le/Lu Lb-comp/le-bend K factors Sway Flags Unbraced lengths with respect to column type buckling. These are used in the KL/r calculations as well as the allowable axial strength. Unbraced lengths of the compression flanges for buckling due to flexure. These are used in the calculation of allowable bending strength. Effective length factors for column type buckling. These flags indicate whether the member is to be considered subject to sidesway or not. These are considered in the calculation of K factors, Cm and Cb factors. This is the Cr factor used in NDS wood design. Design rule for design optimization. Beam reinforcement layout for flexural design. This can be set to default for program design, or set to a custom rebar layout. Column reinforcement layout for flexural design. This can be set to default for program design, or set to a custom rebar layout. Interactive bending coefficients. CH is the NDS Timber design shear stress factor. Lateral-torsional buckling modification factors. Per section C3.1.3 of the AISI. Used to calculate the moment capacity of cold formed beams that have one flange fastened to decking. Cracked moment of inertia factor for concrete design. This is the Cv (volume) factor used for NDS wood design. Effective widths for concrete T-beam and L-beam design. Slab thicknesses for concrete T-beam and L-beam design. Function for stiffness reduction per the AISC 13th Edition Steel Code Direct Analysis Method design. Beam reinforcement layout for shear design. This can be set to default for program design, or set to a custom rebar layout.

Repetitive Member Design Rules Beam Layouts Column Layouts Cm/w1/CH Cb/w2/B R (AISI) Icr Factor (ACI) Cv (NDS) Eff Widths (ACI) Slab Thicknesses (ACI) Function Shear Layouts

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Sorting
Next, you will sort information in your model using the Joint Coordinates spreadsheet for the first time. You will also use a special window arrangment to do this. On the RISA toolbar, click the Tiling button.

Select Joints Input. Click OK. This tiling option has opened the Joint Coordinates spreadsheet in the upper left corner and placed the Joint Boundary Conditions spreadsheet below it.

The joints are listed in the order in which they were created as you defined your model. However, it would be more useful to list them based on their coordinate locations. Sort the joints in ascending X coordinate order: On the Joint Coordinates spreadsheet, click anywhere in the X column. On the Window toolbar, click Sort , select Sort Low to High, and click OK.

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Next, add a Z-coordinate sort: Click anywhere in the Z column. Right-click the mouse, select Sort Last, sort on the Y-coordinate: Click anywhere in the Y column. Right-click the mouse, select Sort , click Sort Low to High, and click OK. , click Sort Low to High, and click OK.

Now you have the joints in ascending Y coordinate order, and at each Y coordinate level. They are also sorted in ascending Z and X coordinate order. Notice that the labels stayed with their assigned joints, and the model plot looks exactly the same. Relabel the joints as follows: On the Tools menu, select ReLabel Joints. Click OK. As you can see from the model view window, the joints are now relabeled from the bottom up. Next, sort the members. On the RISA toolbar, click Tiling again. Select Members Input. Click OK. This displays all spreadsheets that contribute to the definition of members. The Members spreadsheet is located in the lower left corner. Use this to sort the members, first by their I-Joint: On the Member Primary Data spreadsheet, click anywhere in the I-Joint column. Right-click the mouse, select Sort Then sort by the section set: Click anywhere in the Section/Shape column. Right-click the mouse, select Sort , click Sort Low to High, and click OK. , click Sort Low to High, and click OK.

Again, the member labels remain with the same members and the view has not been affected by the sort (because nothing has actually changed other than how the members are arranged in the spreadsheet). Next, sort your beams by section. This will make them easier to identify and work with in your next operation (assigning parameters for steel and wood design): On the Tools menu, select Relabel Members. Click OK. This is the end of Tutorial 2. The next tutorial demonstrates how to load the model. You may save your model to be used as the starting point for the next tutorial, or begin the next tutorial using the .r3d starter file in the RISA-3D Tutorials folder. To save the model: On the File menu, click Save As and enter a file name.

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Tutorial 3 Loading
In this tutorial, you will apply loads and explore how to generate load combinations from pre-defined load cases. This tutorial continues where the previous tutorial ended, so follow these steps to get your model up and running: If you are continuing from the previous tutorial: From the Window menu, select Single View. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button toolbar. Skip ahead to the next page. -OR- If you are starting here from scratch, follow the steps below to load the starter file provided by RISA Technologies: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. Click Open Model . Double-click the Tutorials folder, select Tutorial 3 Starter.r3d and click Open. Click Close (or Cancel) to exit the Global Parameters dialog box. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button toolbar. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Close Your screen should look like this: to close it. to activate the Drawing to activate the Drawing

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Load Cases, Categories, and Combinations


Before you load the model, it is important to understand how RISA-3D manages loads. When loads are defined in RISA-3D, they are assigned to a Basic Load Case, which is simply a set of loads. You can have up to 1000 separate Basic Load Cases (BLCs) defined in the Basic Load Cases spreadsheet. RISA-3D also provides an option to assign the BLCs to categories (DL, LL, etc.), which allows you to easily combine them later in the load combinations. When you are ready to solve the model, the BLCs (or BLC categories) are combined with multipliers to create load combinations in the Load Combinations spreadsheet. In order to keep your loads organized, first define your Basic Load Cases. Then, when you apply your loads, specify which Load Case each will be assigned to. Although a description is not required by RISA3D, below you will give a description for the first five BLCs. On the Spreadsheets menu, click Basic Load Cases to open the spreadsheet. Under BLC Description, in row 1, type Roof Load. Press ENTER. In row 2, type Wind Load. Press ENTER. In row 3, type Live Load. Press ENTER. In row 4, type Dead Load. Press ENTER. In row 5, type Cladding. Press ENTER. Your spreadsheet should now look like this:

The remainder of the spreadsheet is now blank because you have no loads applied.

Next, you will apply the loads and then come back to this spreadsheet to discuss it further. Click Close to exit the spreadsheet.

Load Direction Options


RISA-3D allows you to specify the direction of your loads in different ways. The three basic choices are: Apply loads aligned with global axes, designated with upper case labels such as X, Y, and Z. Apply loads aligned with member or plate local axes, designated with lower case labels such as x, y, and z. Apply projected loads along global axes, designated with upper case labels such as PX, PY, and PZ. There is no need to worry about remembering the options, as you will be presented with this list each time you define the loads in RISA-3D. Also, the Help menu will provide explanations as needed.

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Area Loads
The roof load and the wind load will be applied as area loads. This means you will specify a load over an area and RISA-3D will attribute that load to the appropriate members. RISA -3D gives the option of oneor two-way load attribution for area loads. One-way loads are attributed to the closest member in a certain direction; and two-way loads are attributed to the closest member, regardless of direction. For this tutorial, the roof load will be a 20 psf vertical load attributed to the truss top chords with a oneway area load. The wind load will be a 40 psf lateral load attributed to the members on the side of the structure with a two-way area load. To apply the load, start by selecting just the roof plane: On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All Criteria Selection button to unselect the entire model. Then, click the

. A dialog box will appear. Click the Coordinates tab.

Click the Clear Selection Criteria button (at the bottom). Then, under Coordinate Bounds, in the Y Coordinate row, in the Minimum column, type 26.75. Note: The Maximum value can be left blank, since there is nothing above that elevation. The dialog box should look like this:

Close the dialog box: Click OK.

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Items at the top chord elevation are now selected, as shown below:

Next, draw the roof load area: On the Insert menu, select Area (Member) Load. In the Magnitude box, type -0.02. In the Distribution list, select A-B to specify the direction. The Basic Load Case list should already be set to Roof Load. Click Apply to begin drawing the roof load area. Because you selected A-B for the Distribution direction, the first two clicks (A to B) define the direction of the load attribution. You can verify this graphically by checking the direction of the arrow on the load graphic. First, click the leftmost node, N89 (coordinates 3.75,26.75,30), and then proceed clockwise clicking on the corner nodes N79 (coordinates 3.75,26.75,0), N83 (coordinates 22.5,26.75,0), and finally N93 (coordinates 22.5,26.75,30) to define the area. Now, your model should look like this:

Note: The arrow denotes the load attribution direction.

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Next, you will select the wind load plane. On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All Criteria Selection button to unselect the entire model. Then, click the

. Make sure the Coordinates tab is still selected.

Again, click the Clear Selection Criteria button (at the bottom). Then, under Coordinate Bounds, in the X Coordinate row, in the Minimum column, type 26.25. Note: The Maximum value can again be left blank, since there is nothing above that elevation. The dialog box should look like this:

Close the dialog box. Click OK. The front face elements are now selected. Next, change the load direction: Press Ctrl+D to recall the Area Loads for Members dialog box. In the Load Direction list, select X. In the Magnitude box, type -0.04. In the Distribution Direction list, select Two Way. In the Basic Load Case list, select 2: Wind Load. Click Apply to draw wind load area.

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Return to your model to define the area: First, click the bottom-most node, N6, and then proceed clockwise clicking on the corner nodes N78, N64, and finally N2, as shown below.

Coordinate Locations: N6: (26.25,0,30) N78: (26.25,22.75,30) N64: (26.25,22.75,0) N2: (26.25,0,0)

Your screen should now show the wind load applied as shown below:

Because you selected a Two Way Distribution direction, the load is now denoted by a star (rather than a directional arrow). The star indicates that the area load will be attributed in both directions.

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Surface Loads
Next, you will apply surface loads on the plates. You will apply a uniform 0.1 ksf (100 psf) load to all plates, as part of Basic Load Case 3. The surface load will be applied uniformly over the surface of the plate. Select the entire model and remove the labels: Click Select All . . This will toggle off the display of the joint labels. .

On the Window toolbar, click Joint Labels

On the Drawing toolbar, click Surface Loads for Plates

In the Direction list, select Y (be sure to select the upper case Y for the global Y direction). In the Magnitude box, type -0.1. In the Basic Load Case list, select 3: Live Load. Finally, click Apply Load to All Selected Plates.

Click Apply. The loads will now be applied to all plates, as shown below.

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Distributed Loads
The cladding on the structure will be applied as a 300 plf distributed vertical load on the Glulam beams and the Beam-Z members. Apply these loads by clicking on the members to demonstrate this method. On the Drawing toolbar, click Distributed Loads . In the Start Magnitude box, type -0.3. Notice the same value is automatically entered as the End Magnitude value. In the Basic Load Case box, select 5: Cladding.

Close the dialog box and prepare to select the members. Click Apply and you can now select the members. At this point, you could simply click the four members to apply the load. However, for demonstration purposes, make a selection that designates the correct members. On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All Select the Members tab. Click Apply and the members will be selected. Repeat to select the Glulam beams: Under Member Properties, in the Section Set/Shape list, choose Glulam. Click OK and the members will be selected and the dialog window will close. . Then, click the Criteria Selection button .

Under Member Properties, in the Section Set/Shape list, choose Beam-Z.

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Now, click these four members to load them with the distributed cladding load: Click each of the four members one at a time. The loading will be applied. Press ESC to stop drawing. When you are finished, your screen should look like this:

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Basic Load Case Spreadsheet


To verify that the loads you have applied graphically are correct, review them in the spreadsheets. On the Spreadsheets menu, select Basic Load Cases to open the Basic Load Cases spreadsheet. The Basic Load Cases spreadsheet is where you named your basic load cases earlier. Notice that there are now some numbers on the right side of the spreadsheet. These numbers summarize the loads you just defined: the first two lines contain a 1 which represents the one area load that you placed in each case; the 32 indicates you have 32 plates loaded with surface loads; and the 4 represents the 4 cladding loads you just applied. They are greyed, indicating they cannot be edited in this spreadsheet. But, clicking on any of the entries will cause the appropriate spreadsheet to open, where any editing can be performed.
The greyed out numbers cannot be edited from this spreadsheet. However, you may click on the entry to open the appropriate spreadsheet where the editing can be performed.

Note: You may also click on blank cells to open spreadsheets for load cases not yet defined. This linking provides an easy way for you to get an overall view of the loads with the Basic Load Cases spreadsheet and then quickly open the specific load spreadsheets for further investigation.

Open the distributed loads with the loads that were assigned to BLC 5. Click the number 4 (in the Distributed column of the Cladding case). The Member Distributed Loads spreadsheet will open. Notice the member list (at the top of the spreadsheet) now displays BLC 5: Cladding. You can also use this list to view distributed loads that belong to another BLC. Click Close to close the Distributed Loads spreadsheet and return to the Basic Load Cases spreadsheet.

Copying Loads
After taking the time to define a complex load case, you may realize that another load case is very similar to it. To save time when defining the second load case, you may find it useful to copy the first load case and modify the copy rather than start from scratch. For this purpose, RISA-3D provides the Copy BLC tool that allows you to copy all or part of a basic load case to another basic load case. Use the Copy BLC tool to create a 90 psf dead load from the 100 psf live load that you just created. On the Window toolbar, click the Copy BLC button appear. . The Copy Basic Load Case dialog box will

Under Copy the Loads FROM this Basic Load Case, select 3: Live Load.

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Under INTO this Basic Load Case, select 4: Dead Load. The dialog box should look like this:

Close the dialog box: Click OK.

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There is now a 32 in the Surface column of the Dead Load case. Click the 32 to open the Surface Loads spreadsheet, where BLC 4: Dead Load will be displayed in the load list.

Use the Block Math feature to change this load from 100 psf to 90 psf, or 90% of the copied live load. First, select all of the cells in the Magnitude column. A fast way to select the entire column is to click on the Magnitude column heading. The entire column is now selected and is colored magenta. On the Window toolbar, click Block Math Click MULTIPLY the block by the operator. The dialog box should look like this: .

Under Please enter the block math operand, type 0.9.

Click Ok. The surface loads now have a magnitude of -0.09 ksf (90 psf downward). Press Ctrl+F4 to close the Plate Surface Loads spreadsheet.

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Self-weight
The last step in defining your loads is to define the self weight of the structure. You will add it to the same basic load case where you just placed the surface dead loads. To accomplish this, simply enter a factor in the Y Gravity column on the Dead Load basic load case. Click in the Y Gravity column of the Dead Load case (row 4) and type -1. RISA-3D will now calculate and include the self-weight of the model during solution. The factor entered is a multiplier for the self-weight. In this case, -1 is used because you want the full self-weight applied downward (the negative Y-direction). You may apply self-weight multipliers in the X, Y, and/or Z directions.

Load Categories
The final thing to do on the Basic Load Cases spreadsheet is to assign each load case to a category. Categories make it easier to later combine them for Load Combinations. In this model, the loads are quite manageable and you could just refer to them by their BLC number. Many structures, however, will be modeled with many separate load cases that are part of the same family. Assign the associated categories to each of our Basic Load Cases: Click in the Category column of the Roof Load case. Select RLL (Roof Live Load). Click in the Category column of the Wind Load case. Select WL (Wind Load). Click in the Category column of the Live Load case. Select LL (Live Load). Click in the Category column of the Dead Load case. Select DL (Dead Load). Click in the Category column of the Cladding case. Select DL (Dead Load). The spreadsheet is now complete and looks like this:

Close the spreadsheet: Click Close to close the spreadsheet.

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Load Combinations
You will now define how the loads are to be combined. The Load Combinations combine the loads applied to the Basic Load Cases, along with multiplying factors to apply to the model for solution and results. Most standard code combinations are already built into RISA-3D. Apply the ASCE minimum design loads and then modify them. On the Spreadsheets menu choose Load Combinations. Currently, there is no data available for the spreadsheet. Generate the load combinations using the LC Generator: On the Window toolbar, click the Load Combination Generator button Generate the Load Combinations: Click on the Gravity tab. In the Region list, select United States. In the Code list, select 2005 ASCE ASD. Under Roof Live Load Options, select RLL (Roof Live Load), SL (Snow Load), and RL (Rain Load). .

Click Generate. Next, click on the Wind tab.

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Under Wind Load Options, click 2D Only.

Click Generate. Lastly, click on the Seismic tab.

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Because you did not apply any earthquake loads to your structure, it is appropriate to leave both the Seismic Load Options and the Overstrength LC Options set to None. For more information on the Wind Load Options and Seismic Load Options refer to the Generating Building Code Combinations section of RISA-3D General Reference. Finally, click Close. The following Load Combinations spreadsheet will be generated.

The generated combinations may be edited in the spreadsheet. Each field is described below: Description Solve A descriptive label of your choice. Enter any descriptive label, and it will be displayed with the results when the load combination is solved. This check box indicates whether this combination is to be included in the Batch or Envelope solution (that will be performed later). All of your combinations are currently selected, indicating that they are to be included. The PDelta flag indicates what type of P-Delta analysis you wish to run. PDelta calculations account for the secondary effects resulting from load eccentricities due to model deflections. The SRSS field is used to combine response spectra analysis results for different directions by taking the square root of the sum of the squares. The remaining fields define the actual combinations, with pairs of BLC columns and Factor columns. The values are exactly as listed in the code.

PDelta

SRSS (the remaining fields)

Note: Instead of using categories, as shown, you may also call out loads by the BLC number. For example, instead of using LL, you could reference the same load by typing the BLC number (3). Other options include nesting one combination within another and including response spectra results. For more information, refer to Help or the RISA-3D General Reference.

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Before moving on, make the following changes to the spreadsheet. Assuming you do not have a snow load, or rain load, remove the unnecessary combinations from the list by deleting those lines from the spreadsheet. First, select the rows to be deleted: Select rows 4 and 5 (load combinations ASCE 3(b)(a) and ASCE 3(c)(a)) by clicking directly on row 4 (the row label), then drag down to row 5. Release the mouse. These lines should now be shaded yellow, as shown below. Note: If the cells are highlighted in magenta, you selected cells from within the spreadsheet, not the row label.

Now, delete rows 4 and 5: On the Window toolbar, click Delete Lines .

Note: After deleting rows, the row numbers will renumber. The rows are now deleted, leaving you with the remaining combinations. Next, delete combinations 5 (ASCE 4 (b)(a)) and 6 (ASCE 4 (c)(a)), this time using a different method: Under the Description column, place your cursor in the ASCE 4 (b)(a) cell (the fifth row down). Press the F4 key two times to delete this load combination as well as ASCE 4 (c)(a). Repeat to delete combinations 7 (ASCE 6 (C)) and 8 (ASCE 6(e)). The remaining load combinations are sufficient for your steel and wood members. However, you will need to add more load combinations for the design of your concrete members. Click the Load Combination Generator button again.

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Generate the Load Combinations: Click on the Gravity tab. In the Region list, select United States. In the Code list, select 2005 ACI Strength. Uncheck the SL (Snow Load) and RL (Rain Load) checkboxes so you dont generate unnecessary Load Combinations this time.

Click Generate. Next, click on the Wind tab. Under Wind Load Options, click 2D Only.

Click Generate and then click the Close button.

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The Load Combinations spreadsheet will now include your ACI load combinations. With the requirements of the AISC 13th Edition Steel Code and the ACI 318-08 Concrete Code, you will need to include P-Delta effects in your results. This is not included by default, but you can include it in the Load Combinations spreadsheet. Use your cursor to highlight the PDelta column. Click CTRL + F to open the Block Fill dialog box. Type Y into the dialog box and click Ok. This will fill in the P-Delta column with Y, representing a Yes, include P-Delta effects for all the load combinations.

View more load combination data: On the Load Combinations spreadsheet, click the Design tab to view more load combination data.

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The data from the Design tab is described below: ASIF Used to enter the allowable stress increase factor (ASIF) for the design of hot rolled steel per AISC 9th Edition specifications. Since you are using the ASCE load combinations, this increase factor (usually 1.333 for wind or seismic loads) will not be used. An entry in this field greater than 1.0 is also used to indicate whether the seismic provisions of the LRFD code are to be used. The load duration factor used only in timber design. This factor is dependent on the load with the shortest duration that is present in the load combination. Used to set the allowable bearing stress factor which will be used for the soil bearing check in Footing design. This factor is only available when you have installed a current copy of the RISAFoot program. This check box indicates whether the load combination is for service level loads. This will affect the stiffness used for concrete members during the solution. The remaining fields define which material types will be designed and/or checked for that load combination. Therefore, you will never get an NDS wood code check for the strength level load combinations used for concrete design.

CD

ABIF

Service

The remaining fields

Review, then close the spreadsheet. Review the information on your spreadsheet. Click Close to close the spreadsheet.

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Displaying Loads
RISA-3D provides easy ways to view your loads using the loads display buttons described below. The loads can be displayed as Basic Load Cases, Load Categories, or Load Combinations.
Switch Load button alternates between the three different display modes:

Display Loads button Turns the display mode on and off.

Basic Load Cases Load Combinations Load Categories

To view the basic load cases, first select the entire model: On the Selection toolbar, click Select All not appear, click the Display Loads button To view the load combinations: On the Window toolbar, click the Switch Loads button Select your load combination: one time. . to turn them on.

On the Window toolbar, click the Display Loads list and select BLC 2:Wind Load. If your loads do

The Display Loads list changes to display all of the load combinations (instead of the basic load cases). Also, the list displays the loads as they are factored into the load combinations.

Select LC 6:ASCE 6 (a).

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Using the load display techniques described above provide a great way to verify the loads on your model. Note: The magnitudes of the loads represent the factored combination. For example, the displayed floor load magnitude is the combination of the dead and live loads multiplied by their factors.

When you are finished viewing the load combinations, view the load categories: On the Window toolbar, click the Switch Loads button one more time. The Display Loads list will again change, now displaying the Load Categories. View the loads by category by selecting them from the list. This concludes Tutorial 3. The next tutorial demonstrates how to solve the model. You may save your model to be used as the starting point for the next tutorial, or begin the next tutorial using the .r3d starter file in the RISA-3D Tutorials folder. To save the model: On the File menu, click Save As and enter a file name.

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Tutorial 4 Solving & Results


In this tutorial, you will solve the model defined in the last tutorial and review the results. Make sure you start off correctly by opening the file mentioned next. This tutorial continues where the previous tutorial ended, so follow these steps to get your model up and running: If you are continuing from the previous tutorial: From the Window menu, select Single View. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button toolbar. Skip ahead to the next page. -OR- If you are starting here from scratch, follow the steps below to load the starter file provided by RISA Technologies: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. Click Open Model . Double-click the Tutorials folder, select Tutorial 4 Starter.r3d and click Open. Click Close (or Cancel) to exit the Global Parameters dialog box. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar button toolbar. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Close Your screen should look like this: to close it. to activate the Drawing to activate the Drawing

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Solving the Model


In this tutorial, you will solve a few single load combinations, then solve all of the combinations and look at the enveloped results. On the RISA toolbar, click Solve .

Click Single Combination. In the Single Combination list, select 4: ASCE 4(a)(a).

Click Solve. RISA-3D reports the solution steps as they occur. When the solution is complete, the Results toolbar is displayed to the right of the model view for access to other results. You may view results in the spreadsheets, plotted on the model view, or review the details for each member, as described below.

Using the Results Toolbar


The results spreadsheets may be accessed from the Results menu or the Results toolbar. For now, use the Results toolbar to quickly review the results. Later, you will click on spreadsheets to review the data. While in the spreadsheets, you may refer to the Status bar for an explanation of any active cell. Use the scroll bars to view information not displayed in the window. The keyboard can be useful to move your cursor around in the spreadsheets. Use the PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN keys to move your cursor up or down a page at a time, or the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW keys to move your cursor up or down one line at a time. The HOME and END keys move your cursor to the top (HOME) or bottom (END) of the spreadsheet. The Window toolbar also provides helpful tools that allow you to locate and manipulate the spreadsheet data. You can use the Find feature to locate specific results or the Sort feature to sort the results. The Exclude feature allows you to hide results that are not of interest. Now that you have an idea of what results are available, in the next section you will see how easily and quickly you can manipulate them.

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On the Results toolbar, select Joint Deflections to review the results. Next, select Member Forces to view the Member Section Forces spreadsheet. (Note that seven locations are listed for each member. This is because you specified seven sections when defining the Global Parameters settings.) A powerful feature of the spreadsheets is that the data can be sorted various ways. Next, you will use the Sort feature to sort the strong axis moment results. Under the z-z Moment column, click any cell. On the Window toolbar, click Sort Click Sort Abs Max to Abs Min. to access the sorting options.

Click OK. The members are now sorted according to their absolute maximum z-axis bending moment value. Review the remaining spreadsheet data: On the Results toolbar, select Member Stresses to view the Member Section Stresses spreadsheet. Select Member Torsion to view the Member Torsion Stresses spreadsheet, including warping and shear stresses for the members that warp. Select Member Deflections to view the Member Section Deflections spreadsheet. This spreadsheet also shows the deflections as a ratio of member length (the L/y Ratio) providing an easy check against deflection criteria, such as L/360. Select Suggested Shapes to view the Suggested Shapes spreadsheet for redesign (you will use this spreadsheet later). Review the Design Results data: Select Design Results and choose the Hot Rolled Steel tab. The data relating to the AISC code checks is presented here; i.e., ratio of actual to allowable stresses. (Any failing members would be denoted with red text.) The allowable stresses, Cb and Cm values, and controlling equation are listed. If you were performing LRFD-based design, the member strengths would also be listed here (along with the code check value). Select the Cold Formed Steel tab to view the cold formed steel code checks. The design strengths Pn, Mny, and Mnz are listed, along with the code check values and controlling equation. Factored design stresses and controlling equation are also listed.

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Select the Wood tab to view the wood code checks for our glulam members. The factored design stresses and controlling equation are also listed. Select the Concrete Beams tab. Notice that there are no results for this load combination. This is because when you defined this load combination, the check box for concrete design was not selected. Later, when you solve batch and envelope solutions you will see how this prevents you from getting unnecessary steel or wood code checks for load combinations that are specifically intended for concrete design. Now, finish reviewing the Results toolbar data: On the Results toolbar, select Plate Stresses to view the Plate Principal Stresses spreadsheet. Select Plate Forces to view the Plate Forces spreadsheet. Select Plate Corner Forces to view the Plate Corner Forces spreadsheet. Select Wall Panel Design to view the Wall Panel Design spreadsheet. Select Material TakeOff to view the Material Takeoff spreadsheet.

Graphic Results
Since you have solved the model, you now have several more plotting options. But, you must first close all the spreadsheets, turn off the joint labels, and return to the model viewing options: On the Window menu, select Single View. All the open spreadsheets will be closed. Click Joint Labels to turn off the joint labels. to close the toolbar.

Finally, on the Results toolbar, click Close

Plotting Deflected Shapes


Another important feature that makes quick review possible is the ability to view deflected shapes. You will utilize this feature next. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options box. Click the Deflection Diagrams tab. Under Show Deflected Shape For, click Load Combination (pick from list at bottom). The combination you solved will now appear in the list at the bottom. Click OK. to open the Set Options for Current View dialog

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Your screen should now look like this:

This is a simple representation of the model deflection under these loads. Next, you will use some of RISA-3D's more advanced graphics features. On the Window toolbar, click Render two times.

Animation
Now, you can go a step further and animate this deflected shape plot. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options Diagrams tab. again. Make sure you are still on the Deflection

Click the Animate This Deflected Shape button. A progress bar indicates that the animation is rendering, the speed of which will depend on the speed of your computer. Once your new animation displays, you can close the dialog box. Click OK to close the dialog box. Once the animation begins, you can change the speed using the Faster or Slower buttons. The deflected shape animation is a powerful tool that allows you to clearly see how the model is deflecting, and helps you identify parts of the structure that may have been incorrectly modeled or loaded. When you are finished watching the animation, close the window: Click Close to close the animation window.

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Color-Coding Member Results


You can also display members and highlight areas of concern. To demonstrate this, perform a plot of the model with each member color-coded by axial stress. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options to return to the Set Options for Current View dialog box. You should still be on the Deflection Diagrams tab. Click Dont Show Deflected Shape to turn off the deflected shape. Next, click the Members tab. Under Draw Members As, select Color Coded. Under the Color Basis list, select Compression. Click OK. The color legend appears in the upper right side of the model view window. With the color-coded members you can quickly identify members that require further attention. Lastly, display moments and reactions in the model view. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options Under Draw Members As, select Wireframe. Under Member Results, in the Diagram list, select z-z Moment. Also, select the Magnitudes check box. Now, click the Joints tab. In the Show the Reactions section, select the Y Direction check box. Then, select the Include the Magnitudes check box. Click OK. The moment diagrams and reactions are now plotted with magnitudes, as shown below: again. You should still be in the Members tab.

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Member Detail Report


Next, use the member detail report to take a closer look at some members. From the Results menu, select Members - Member Detail. Click OK to display a report on member M1 (which is the crossbeam on the middle right). The report looks like this:

This detailed report displays all the forces, stresses, and deflections for any individual member.

Click on any diagram in the report to enlarge (see below).

Click the local y-axis (Dy) deflection diagram (top center diagram). The deflection diagram for member M1 will display:
The buttons across the top allow you to close the diagram, view the previous member or the next member, or print.

Allows you to retrieve the absolute maximum value and its location.

This slider allows you to retrieve values at 97 sections. This is based on the number of Internal Sections set in the Solution tab of Global Parameters.

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Besides the many ways to navigate these diagrams that are described above, you can also access diagrams for other values without returning to the model view or the detail report. Click the list containing y Deflection. The entire list of available diagrams will display. Select z-z Moment to display the z-z moment values for member M1.

Feel free to try any of the options or view another diagram from the list. When you are finished, click Close to close any diagrams you may have open. You will be returned to the member detail report. Scroll down in the detail report to view code check information: code check value along with the controlling equation and all of the design values. Finally, click Close to close the detail report. You may also open the member detail report by clicking on a member in the model view. On the Selection toolbar, click the Detail button. The cursor will now change to . Click on any member to generate a report for that member. Try clicking on a few members to see the various detail reports. You may also open detail reports from within any spreadsheet. From the Results menu, select Members - Design Results. When the spreadsheet displays, click the Hot Rolled Steel tab. On the Window toolbar, click Detail Report for Current Item.

Plotting Plate Results


Before viewing the plate results, close any extra windows, turn off the joint labels, and set the plot options as follows: On the Window menu, select Single View to close the extra windows you may have open. Click Joint Labels to to turn off the joint labels.

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On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options

. Select the Plates tab.

Try contouring using the Wireframe and the Color Fill options to see the difference. Begin with the Wireframe option: Under Wireframe, select the Contours check box. In the Contouring Control section, in the Value list, select Mx.

Contours refers to the color coding to be displayed on the plates (or panels, or solids), where different colors represent different magnitudes for the particular result being contoured. Under Wireframe, the contours are displayed as lines. Under Color Fill, the contours are displayed as colorfilled areas.

Contouring Control sets the value to be contoured (for either Wireframe or Color Fill mode).

Click OK.

Wireframe Contour

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The colored lines represent certain values of Mx and the contouring enables you to see graphically how the Mx moment is distributed on the floors. Next, try the color filled contour. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options Click OK. to return to the plot options for the plates.

Under Color Fill, in the Color Basis list, select Contours.

Color Fill Contour

This color fill gives a more colorful representation of the Mx distribution. Note that for the previous wireframe contour, each line represented a specific value; however, for the color filled contouring, the colors represent a range of values (as displayed in the legend).

Printing Graphic Results


Print your results: On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options Under Draw Members As, click Rendered. Click OK. On the RISA toolbar, click Print . The Graphic Print Options dialog box will appear. . Then, click the Members tab.

Click Landscape (paper orientation).

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This dialog box allows you to customize your printout by: scaling fonts and symbols for labels and legends, including the title bar, or adding any comments.

Click Continue. The Print dialog box will display. Select your printer, then click OK and the plot will be printed.

Tiling Results Windows


Window tiling provides some very useful options within RISA-3D. On the RISA toolbar, click the Tiling button. The Window Tiling dialog box will appear. Use the scroll bar to view the entire list of tiling options. Select Plate Results. Click OK to accept your tiling selection. On the RISA toolbar, click the Tiling button again. This time, select Three Results Views. This tiling option allows you to display three views at once. Click OK.

Batch Solution
The Batch solution option allows you to solve multiple combinations concurrently. When using this option, the results for each will be recorded and can then be viewed in the results spreadsheets and organized either by load combination or by item. On the RISA toolbar, click Solve again. Select Batch Solution of Marked Combinations. Then, click Solve. A message will display notifying you that the results will be cleared. Select Yes. Note: Whenever you solve the model, RISA-3D will display a message notifying you that the results will be cleared (this alleviates the possibility of you having results data that does not match the input data). If you prefer to disable the warning message, you may do so in the Preferences settings (on the Tools menu, click Preferences). After the solution is performed, RISA-3D does retain the decomposed stiffness matrix, so as long as the data items you edit do not impact the stiffness matrix, subsequent solutions will be much faster.

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With the Batch solution complete, you may now choose different load combinations when plotting results. Each view may show results from a different combination. Click in the lower left view to make it the active window. On the Window toolbar, click Plot Options . You should still be on the Members tab.

In the Combination to Use for Results Display list, select 8: ACI 9-1 (a). Click OK. The lower left view now shows results for Load Combination 8. On the Results menu, select Reactions. For the Batch solution, the spreadsheets display all results for each load combination. Currently, the results are grouped by combination. All reactions for Load Combination 1 are listed first, then for each combination thereafter. The combination number is listed in the first column. You can also group the results so that all the reactions for joint N1 are together, then N2, etc. On the Results menu, select Results Presentation - Batch Results Listed By Item to display them joint by joint. The first column shows the load combination. Now, take a closer look at your concrete results. On the Results menu choose Members - Design Results. Click the Concrete Beams tab. Take a moment to browse these beam results. This spreadsheet presents a maximum code check for the top reinforcing (negative bending), the bottom reinforcing (positive bending), and beam shear. In addition, the factored beam capacities are given for each critical location. Notice that no governing load combination is listed for the concrete code check. This is because the rebar layout for a concrete beam is always based on an envelope of the design forces. Next, click the Concrete Columns tab.

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The column design results are similar to the beam, except that the bending and shear results are given for biaxial loads. On the Window toolbar, click the Detail Report for Current Item button. This will display an envelope detail report for the concrete column that looks like this:

Because this detail report is based on moment and shear envelopes, it is somewhat different that the one you just reviewed for a steel member. Scroll down to take a look at the Span Information and reinforcing steel. In concrete design, each column or beam is divided into spans, depending on how many points of support it has. This portion of the detail report also contains information on the reinforcing steel required for each region of each span.

Envelope Solution
An envelope solution is different from a single combination or a batch solution because it only stores the maximum and minimum values. Each of the spreadsheets will contain minimum and maximum values for each load combination included. Because the rest of the data is not stored, the detail reports and the deflected shapes are not available when this solution type is selected. Solve the model again, this time as an envelope solution: First, select Single View from the Window menu to return back to the model view. Click Solve .

Select Envelope of Marked Combinations, then click Solve. Click Yes to agree to clear the results. Explore several of the spreadsheets to see how the results differ from the Batch solution.

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Code Check Results


The program offers several ways to review the code check results. You can use a tiling option to organize your screen to include spreadsheet results as well as graphical model views showing the design data. Change the tiling options: Click the Tiling button. Select Member Steel Results, then click OK. Notice the red members in the model view indicating that you have members that are failing the code check. The worst case results are now being reported in the spreadsheet, as a result of the envelope solution you ran. The columns labeled LC report the load combination that generated the controlling values. Other results, such as the member forces, display maximum and minimum results in order to capture the worst of both negative and positive results.

Optimizing Member Sizes


The Suggested Shapes spreadsheet reports RISA-3Ds recommendations for alternate shape sizes, along with the member that is controlling the design. Note: If you are already using the optimum shape for a section set or member, it will not be listed on this spreadsheet. Click the Suggested Shapes spreadsheet to make it active. Uncheck all the boxes in the Use Suggested? column except that in row 4 for the Glulam section.

On the Window toolbar, click Replace and Resolve

. Then, click Yes to agree to resolve.

Excluding Results
Next, you will use the Steel Code Checks spreadsheet to sort the members and hide the results for members that have a code check value lower than 0.7. This exemplifies how you can cut down the amount of data for review and verification in your spreadsheets, making it more manageable. Click on the Envelope AISC 13th(360-05): ASD Steel Code Checks spreadsheet to make it the active window. Click and drag the lower right corner of the window to enlarge it, so that you can view more of the results.

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Now, sort the results based on the maximum code check to see which members are closest to failure. On the Envelope AISC 13th(360-05): ASD Steel Code Checks spreadsheet, click anywhere in the Code Check column. On the Window toolbar, click Sort , then select Sort Max to Min, and click OK.

Now, look for the last member with a code check value that is 0.7 or higher (which is M11 in row 3). In the Code Check column, click in row 3 to make M11 the active row, as shown in the image below.

On the Window toolbar, click Exclude After

. All rows below the active cell (M11) will be to retrieve

deleted from the spreadsheet (keep in mind, you can always click Unexclude them).

Printing Reports and Spreadsheets


Next, you will explore printing options for the spreadsheets. Because you have excluded some results from the spreadsheet, note that the excluded information will not print. On the RISA toolbar, click Print to open the Data Printing dialog box.

Click Print Current Spreadsheet, and click OK.

Allows you to print selected lines in a spreadsheet (select the lines you would like printed, then click Print ). Select this option to print a single spreadsheet. This option allows you to print an entire report of your input and/or output.

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Once you select the printing option you prefer, the Print dialog box will display:

On the Print dialog box, select a printer, and click OK. The printer will then print your spreadsheet or report.

Printing Graphical Results


You can also graphically select items you would like to print using the graphical exclude feature. On the Window menu, select Single View. On the Window toolbar, click Member Labels On the Selection toolbar, click Unselect All . to display the member labels.

Then, make your selection of the items you would like to print: Click on the wall, one concrete member, one steel member, one wood member, one cold formed steel member, two joints, and two plates. Your screen should now look something like this:

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This next step will exclude the unselected items from the results: On the Selection toolbar, click Exclude. This will automatically open the Exclude Results Confirmation dialog. Click Yes to continue. Now it is time to print: On the RISA toolbar, click Print Click Print a Report Instead. The Report Printing dialog box will display. As demonstrated below, you can select a standard report (by making a selection from the Report Name list) or you can build your own customized report (by making selections from all the available criteria). In the Report Name list, select All Output. Notice that when you make this selection, items under Report Sections move from the Available Report Sections column to the Sections in Current Report column. Before you print, go ahead and remove a few items from the report. Under Report Sections, in the Sections in Current Report list, double-click Story Drift. It will now move to the other column. Also double-click Member Torsion, Frequencies, and Mode Shapes to remove them from the list so they will not be printed. The dialog box should now look like this: .

To move a section from one column to the other: highlight the section, and click the Add and Remove buttons. Shortcut: Double-click an item to move it from one column to the other. To adjust the printing order, use the Up and Down buttons.

Print your customized report: Click the Print button (at the bottom of the Report Printing dialog box). The Print dialog box will display. Click OK. Click Close to close the Report Printing dialog box.

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This concludes Tutorial 4. The next tutorial demonstrates how to solve a dynamic analysis of the model. Note: The Tutorial 5 starter file contains additional load combinations that were not created as part of Tutorial 3 or 4. You will use these additional load combinations to explore the dynamic solution. Exit the file without saving. On the File menu, click Exit.

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Tutorial 5 Dynamic Analysis


In this tutorial, you will perform a dynamic solution on the model you updated in the last tutorial. Make sure you start off correctly by opening the file mentioned next. Note: The Tutorial 5 starter file contains additional load combinations that were not created as part of Tutorial 3 or 4. You will use these additional load combinations to explore the dynamic solution. Follow the steps below to load the starter file for this tutorial: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. Click Open Model . Double-click the Tutorials folder, select Tutorial 5 Starter.r3d and click Open. Click Close (or Cancel) to exit the Global Parameters dialog box. On the Window toolbar, click the Graphic Editing Toolbar toolbar. On the Data Entry toolbar, click Close Your screen should look like this: to close it. button to activate the Drawing

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Dynamic Solution
In addition to static solutions, RISA-3D can also perform a dynamic analysis to calculate the modes and frequencies of your model. This then can be used in a response spectra analysis which uses the frequencies to calculate forces, stresses, and deflections in your model. On the RISA toolbar, click Solve .

Click Dynamics (Eigensolution/Response Spectra), then click Solve. The Dynamics dialog box will display, with several options.
For the Eigensolution options, simply specify how many modes you want calculated, and which load combination should be used for mass calculation. Be sure to use the Accelerated solver as it is an advanced solver and will run the solution quicker.

For a detailed description of all available options, refer to the Help sections on Dynamic Analysis and Response Spectra Analysis. Not all features are covered in this tutorial.

Now, using the Eigensolution options, solve for three modes using load combination 1 to calculate mass. In the Eigensolution section, in the Load Combination for Mass list, select 1: ASCE 1(a). Click Accelerated Solver. Click Start Solution and the dynamic solution will begin. The term dynamic analysis typically means the analysis of a model for dynamic loading, including the calculation of stresses and displacements. For RISA-3D, the analysis of a model for dynamic effects is considered to be composed of two parts: the dynamic analysis and the response spectra analysis. The dynamic analysis you are performing now refers to the calculation of the modes and frequencies of vibration for the model. The response spectra analysis uses these modes to calculate forces, stresses, and deflections in the model. Once the dynamic analysis is complete, the Frequencies and Participation spreadsheet will display.

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Frequencies and Mode Shapes


This spreadsheet lists the frequencies and periods calculated for the model. The last three columns are the modal participation percentages (which will not be available until after you perform the Response Spectra Analysis). You can also review the mode shapes graphically. Set up your screen a bit differently to look at the mode shapes. On the RISA toolbar, click the Tiling button, select Three Input Views, then click OK. Click Close Click Close to close the model view on the right and the bottom of the workspace. to close the Results toolbar.

You should be left with just this upper left model view:

Now change to an isometric view: On the Window toolbar, click Isometric The Plot Options dialog box will appear. Click the Joints tab. Click to clear the Show Joints check box. Click the Deflection Diagrams tab. Under Show Deflected Shape For, click Mode Shape. Then, click the Animate ALL the Mode Shapes button. A message will display alerting you that this may take a while (however, it should not for just three modes). Click Yes. Three different progress bars will display, one after the other, as the three different animations are being built. After the animations are built and the progress bars no longer display. Click OK to close the Plot Options dialog box. On the Window menu, click Tile Horizontal. , then click Plot Options .

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When you have finished viewing the animations, change to a single view: On the Window menu, select Single View.

Response Spectra Analysis


Solve the model again, this time for Response Spectra Analysis results: Click Solve .

Once again, select Dynamics (Eigensolution/Response Spectra), then click Solve. The Dynamics dialog box will appear. Begin defining the solution. Specify the current combination method and damping ratio: In the Eigensolution section, in the Number of Modes list, type 85. In the Response Spectra Analysis section, in the Combination Method list, select CQC. In the Damping Ratio (%) box, type 5. For this RISA-3D analysis, you will use the ASCE 2005, Parametric Design Spectra. See Figure 11.4-1 in the ASCE 7-05 for the equations used to build the spectra. Select the X Direction Analysis? check box. Then, in the Spectra to be Used box, select ASCE 2005, Parametric Design Spectra. Then, select the Use Dominant Mode for Signage? check box. This specifies that RISA-3D automatically detect and use the dominant mode for signage. Select the Z Direction Analysis? check box. In the Spectra to be Used box, select ASCE 2005, Parametric Design Spectra. Then, select the Use Dominant Mode for Signage? check box.

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In the Response Spectra Analysis section, each direction offers multiple analysis options. The first field is a list of the available spectra in the RISA-3D spectra library.

The Combination Method option gives you control over how the individual modal results will be combined together. Most building codes require you to use the CQC method of combination. The Use Dominant Mode for Signage option uses the sign convention of the dominant mode to set the sign convention of all other modes. This can help avoid confusion when comparing dynamics results or when viewing the deflected shape. For a detailed description of all available options, refer to the Help sections on Dynamic Analysis and Response Spectra Analysis. Not all features are covered in this tutorial.

You have specified the spectra to be applied in the X and Z directions, and use the dominant mode for results signs. You can now start the solution: Click the Start Solution button. When this solution is complete, this Frequencies and Participation spreadsheet will display with mass participation percentages in the SX Participation and SZ Participation columns.

Modal Participation
The modal participation percentages are now recorded for the X and Z directions and summed at the bottom of the spreadsheet. Note: Make sure the participation for each direction totals to 90% or more! For this model, you have met these criteria, but if you are running a model where the participation total is less than 90%, you must return to the dynamics dialog box, increase the number of modes and rerun the dynamic solution and also the RSA. The final step is to include these RSA results with the static loads in a set of load combinations to obtain the final, overall model solution.

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Scaling Factors
Next, you will explore the calculation of the spectra scaling factors. The actual procedure will not be detailed here--only a quick overview (for a detailed example of the procedure, search the Help index using the keywords Scaling Factor, then select Dynamic Analysis- Response Spectra - RSA Scaling Factor). The following overview of the procedure is based on the requirements in Chapter 12 of the ASCE 7-05. If you are not familiar with these requirements, or if you use another building code, refer to the code you will be using to understand the basis for the procedure. There are two reasons for having to calculate scaling factors: First, if a normalized spectra was used to calculate the spectral results, you must scale the normalized results to match your site-specific and structure-specific criteria. Second, the ASCE sets minimum values for the Seismic Response Coeffiecient, Cs, which limits the value of the design base shear. In summary, what has to be done is:

Calculate the static design base shear (V). Obtain the unscaled RSA Elastic Response base shear. Scale the RSA base shear such that the program-calculated value matches that calculated per the ASCE 7-05 hand-calculation methods.

Note: Remember that you can get the details for the scaling factor calculation from the Help file as described above. RISA-3D has a feature that will automatically calculate the Equivalent Lateral Force Base Shear and scale your RSA results to match. This feature is described in the next section.

Load Combinations with RSA Results


These scale factors will now be applied to your spectral results so you can combine them with your static results. To see how this is done, return to the Load Combinations spreadsheet: On the Spreadsheets menu, select Load Combinations. Notice the spreadsheet has some additional load combinations not seen in the previous tutorials. These have been entered as examples to demonstrate how to apply the RSA results to your load combinations:

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Notice on the last two lines, the spectra analysis results (SX and SZ) have been combined with the combination of loads previously defined in Load Combination 2 (L2). Using 100% dynamic response in one direction with 30% in the other direction is a common way of accounting for directional effects from RSAs in two directions at the same time. An alternative to this method is an SRSS combination, which is discussed in more detail in RISA-3D General Reference. The only problem is that the SX and SZ entries reflect the full unscaled spectra results. Therefore, you must scale them down using the SFX and SFZ scaling factors that you calculated in the previous section. On the Window toolbar, click the Spectra Scaling Factor button The Spectra Scaling Factor dialog box will display: .

Now, have RISA-3D calculate the base shear values and scale the RSA results to match. In the Base Shears section, on the Static Base Shear row, click Calculate. The Seismic Loads dialog box will display. In the Seismic Weight LC list, select 3: ASCE 3 (a)(a) and click Calc Loads.

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RISA-3D will calculate the static base shear based on the ASCE 7-05 code. The Seismic Loads dialog box should look like this:

Click OK to return to the Spectra Scaling Factor dialog box. In the Base Shears section, on the Unscaled Base Shear row, click Calculate. RISA-3D has now calculated the unscaled base shear and you are ready to scale the RSA results to match the Unscaled Base Shear and Static Base Shear. Under Scaling Factor, click Program Calculated. Then, in the same area, click Calculate.

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The Spectra Scaling Factor dialog box should look like this:

Once you have completed the calculations, apply the scaling factors to current load combinations: Select the Apply SF to Current RSA Load Combinations check box. Click OK. Review the load combinations below and see how the SF scale factors allow the RSA load combinations to more closely reflect the code required load combinations.

Now that you have added the dynamic results to your load combinations, you may run a solution that includes them. On the Window toolbar, click Solve Envelope. When the solution is complete, click the Tiling button, select Member Steel Results and click OK.

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You are now finished with Tutorial 5. If you want more practice, you can go back and increase member sizes, rerun the dynamics, solve different load combinations, or experiment with the plot in any way you like. To exit RISA-3D, on the File menu, select Exit.

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Tutorial 6 - Interoperability

Tutorial 6 Interoperability
RISA-3D has several options for importing or exporting projects to and from other industry software. This tutorial will introduce you to several of those options and explore how to make these options assist your modeling.

RISA-Revit Structure Link


Because the RISA-Revit link is a bi-directional exchange link, new models can be created in either RISA3D or Revit Structure and edited in either program. The model will update in both programs as you move between the two during your design process. Start by exploring the BIM exchange file export options from RISA-3D to Revit Structure. If you do not have the RISA-Revit link, you may download it at no cost from our website. Below are instructions on how to install the link. Exit RISA-3D, and download the RISA-Revit link: Click Close to exit RISA-3D if you have it open. Go to http://www.risa.com/partners/prt_revit.html, click Downloads, and then select the RISARevit version you want to download. Download and install the link. Follow the steps below to load the RISA-3D starter file for this tutorial: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. On the File menu, click Open . Double-click the Tutorials folder. Select Tutorial 6 Starter.r3d and click Open. Click Close (or Cancel) to exit the Global Parameters dialog box. Solve the model and save: Click Solve to solve the model. Select a Batch solution. Your model should look like the following image:

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On the File menu, click Save As and enter a new file name. On the File menu, click Export, then select BIM Exchange File, and designate a name for your exchange file. On the File menu, click Exit to close RISA-3D. Next, open Revit Structure and import this exchange file: Open a new file in Revit Structure. On the Main menu, click Save, and specify Tutorial_6.rvt as the file name. Note: This tutorial is based on the RISA interface with Revit Structure 2011, which is identical to the procedure for the RISA-Revit 2010 link. Open a 3D Analytical view. On the Main menu, click Add-Ins, and select Import from RISA.

Click RISA-3D, and then click Browse to locate the BIM exchange file (.exc), as shown below.

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Once in Revit Structure, you can modify your model and then export back to RISA-3D. Because of its two-way functionality, you can modify the model in either program and the other will recognize the updates. This was just a basic description of the RISA-Revit Link export option. For more information, download the documentation from the RISA website specific to the link and how to use it. Go to the RISA website: http://www.risa.com/partners/prt_revit.html, click Downloads, under RISARevit Link Documentation, select a document to download, either RISA-Revit Link Documentation or RISA-Revit Quick Tips.

CIS/2 Translator
The RISA CIS/2 Translator is a tool for importing or exporting data from RISA to the CIM steel part 21 file format. You may download this translator at no cost from the RISA website. To download and install the translator: Click Close to exit RISA-3D if you have it open. To download the translator, go to http://www.risa.com/products.html, click RISA CIS/2 Translator. Install the translator. To open the RISA CIS/2 Translator: On the Start Menu, select All Programs, click RISA, and then click RISA CIS/2 Translator. A dialog box will display. Enter the following information to match the image below:

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Run the export: Click RUN. The .stp file is now available to import into your steel detailing software. This was a very basic description of the CIS/2 Translator. For more detailed information on the translator and how to use it, refer to the RISA CIS/2 Translator General Reference, available for download from the RISA website: http://www.risa.com/d_documentation.html.

RISA-3D & CAD


RISA-3D offers a DXF import/export feature that provides two-way compatibility with any other program that can read and write DXF files--this includes most major CAD programs and many analysis programs. With this feature, RISA-3D produces CAD-quality drawings that include your beam sizes, camber, stud layout, end reactions, etc. Follow the steps below to load the RISA-3D starter file: Double-click the RISA-3D icon to start the program. On the File menu, click Open . Double-click the Tutorials folder. Select Tutorial 6 Starter.r3d and click Open. Click Close (or Cancel) to exit the Global Parameters dialog box. Solve the model and save: Click Solve to solve the model. Select a Batch solution. Your model should look like the following image:

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Tutorial 6 - Interoperability

On the File menu, click Save As and enter a new file name. On the Main menu, click File, click Export, and select DXF File. Enter the file name Tutorial 6.dxf and click Save. The Export DXF File dialog box will display. Enter the information shown below and click OK.

You should be able to open this DXF file with any standard drafting package. It will include simple model geometry to assist you with your drafting. Similarly, you can import a DXF file into RISA-3D for analysis. On the RISA toolbar, click New Model to create a new model. Because you want to import geometry rather than start from scratch, click Close to exit the Starting a Model dialog box. On the File menu, click Import, then select DXF File. Select the tutorial file you recently exported and saved. The Import DXF File dialog box will open.

Click OK. This will now create the model from the imported DXF file.

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Tutorial 6 Interoperability

Conclusion
Congratulations on completing your introductory tour of RISA-3D! The time you invested in performing these tutorials is time well spent. We are confident that the knowledge gained by taking the time to step through these tutorials will increase your productivity, and allow you to complete future projects more quickly and efficiently. If you have any questions or comments, please contact us by phone at (800) 332-7472, fax at (949) 9515848, or email at info@risatech.com.

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons


RISA Toolbar

Button

Title New Model Start a new model Open Model Open an existing model Save Save current model Copy Copy to the clipboard Print Print a report or graphic image Undo Undo the last operation Redo Reverse the most recent undo operation Set Global Parameters Define Units Define units to be used Shape Database Edit the shape database Moving Load Patterns View/edit the moving load patterns Response Spectra Library Edit the response spectra library Rebar Layout Create and edit a rebar layout

Label in RISA-3D Start a new model Reload a previously saved model Save the current model Copy to the clipboard Print a report or graphic image Undo the last operation Reverse the most recent undo operation Set Global Parameters Define units to be used Edit the Shape Database View/edit the moving load patterns Edit the response spectra library Create and edit a rebar layout

Shortcut (CTRL+N)

(CTRL+S) (Ctrl+C) (Ctrl+P) (Ctrl+Z) (Ctrl+Y)

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Project Grid Open project grid spreadsheet High Level Generation New Model View Create a new model view Open Spreadsheets Select spreadsheets to open Refresh Refresh all windows with current data Basic Load Case Open the basic load case spreadsheet Load Combinations Open the load combinations spreadsheet Solve Perform the analysis and design calculations Browse Results Select results to browse Erase Results Erase all solution results Data Entry toolbar Turn the spreadsheet shortcuts window on or off Results toolbar Turn the results shortcuts window on or off Help View help topics Tiling

Project grid spreadsheet Perform High Level Generation operations Create a new model view Select spreadsheets to open Refresh all windows with the most current data Open the Basic Load Case (BLC) spreadsheet Load combinations spreadsheet Perform the analysis and design calculations Select results to browse Erase all solution results Turn the spreadsheet shortcuts window off or on Turn the results shortcuts window off or on View Help topics Tile Window Options

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Window Toolbar
in Model View

Button

Title Plot Options Display plot options Rotate buttons

Label in RISA-3D Bring up the plot options dialog Rotate the view counterclockwise about the X axis Rotate the view clockwise about the X axis Rotate the view counterclockwise about the Y axis Rotate the view clockwise about the Y axis Rotate the view counterclockwise about the Z axis Rotate the view clockwise about the Z axis

Shortcut F2

View buttons Isometric Display an isometric view XY Planar Display an XY planar view XZ Planar Display an XZ planar view YZ Planar Display a YZ planar view 3 buttons below are collectively called Zoom buttons Zoom In Zoom Out Box Zoom Zoom IN (closer view) on the model (+) Zoom OUT (view farther away) on the model (-) Draw a box around the part of the model to be zoomed PLUS (+) MINUS (-) Snap to an Isometric View Snap to an XY Planar View Snap to an XZ Planar View Snap to an YZ Planar View

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Redraw Redraw full model view Graphic Editing Activate the graphic editing (or drawing) toolbar Save or Recall View Save or recall view states Clone View Make an exact copy of current model view 3 buttons below collectively refer to Loads Display

Redraw full model view Activate the Graphic Editing toolbar Save or recall view states Clone (make an exact copy of) the current model view Ctrl+G

Display Loads Toggle display of the loads (LC or CAT) Loads List lists the available loads Switch Loads Switch loads display (combinations or categories) Rendering Toggle between wireframe and rendering of beams and plates Joint Labels Joint labels toggle Boundary Conditions Toggle display of the boundary conditions Member Labels Member labels toggle Member Color Basis Toggle display of member color coding I End-J End Toggle display of member I end, J end representation

Toggle display of the loads (LC or CAT)

Switch loads display between combinations and categories Toggle between wireframe and rendering of beams and plates Toggle the joint labels Toggle display of the boundary conditions Toggle the member labels Toggle display of member color coding

Toggle display of member I end, J end representation

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Show Member Results Toggle display of member results (only available after solution) Wall Panel Label Toggle display of wall panel labeling options Diaphragm Display Toggle display of the diaphragms Show Deflection Diagram Toggle display of deflection diagram Distance Tool Initializes the Distance tool which can be used to measure the distance between two nodes

Toggle display of member results (only available after solution) Toggle display of wall panel labeling options

Toggle display of the diaphragms Toggle display of deflection diagram

Initializes the Distance tool which can be used to measure the distance between two nodes (see the Status bar for the distance result)

F5

in Spreadsheet View

Button

Title New Line Insert a new line before the current line Delete Line Delete the current line Repeat Line Repeat the current line Sort Find Fill Fill the currently marked block

Label in RISA-3D Insert a new line before the current line Delete the current line Repeat the current line Sort based on values in the current column Find an item in the current spreadsheet Fill the currently marked block

Shortcut F3

F4 F8 F9 F5 Ctrl+F

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Math Perform math on the currently marked block Mark Lines Mark all the lines

Perform math on the currently marked block Mark all the lines

Ctrl+M

Delete the currently marked Delete Lines Delete the currently marked lines lines Unmark Lines Unmark all the lines Paste Paste from the clipboard UnMark all the lines Paste from the clipboard

Ctrl+D

Ctrl+L Ctrl+V

Save As Default Save the current data as the default Help Help on the current window

Save the current data as the default Help for the current window SHIFT+F1

These additional buttons appear after results are generated Replace and Resolve Replace current shapes and then solve again Only available while in the Suggested Shapes spreadsheet - Replace current shapes and then solve again Available in most Results spreadsheets - Exclude all results after the current item Available in most Results spreadsheets - Un-Exclude all previously excluded results

Exclude After Exclude all results after the current item Unexclude Un-Exclude all previously excluded results

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Drawing Toolbar

Button

Title Draw New Members Draw New Plates Draw New Wall Panels Draw New Solids Modify Boundary Conditions Joint Loads or Moments Apply joint loads or moments to joints Distributed Loads Apply distributed loads to members Point Loads or Moments Apply point loads or moments to members Member Area Loads Apply member area loads Surface Loads to Plates Apply surface loads to plates Surface Loads to Wall Panels Apply surface loads to wall panels Linear Translation Move Move via linear translation the currently selected part Rotational Move Move via rotation the currently selected part Scale Factor Move Move via a scaling factor the locations for the currently selected joints.

Label in RISA-3D Draw new members Draw new plates Draw new wall panels Draw new solids Modify boundary conditions Apply joint loads or moments to joints Apply distributed loads to members Apply point loads or moments to members Apply member area loads Apply surface loads to plates Apply surface loads to wall panels Move via linear translation the currently selected part of the model Move via rotation the currently selected part of the model Move via a scaling factor the locations for the currently selected joints

Shortcut

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Linear Offset Copy Copy the currently selected part using linear offsets Rotational Offset Copy Copy the currently selected part using rotational offset Mirror Image Copy Mirror image copy of the selected part Model Merge Perform a model merge on all or part of the model Delete Delete parts of the model Modify Drawing Grid Modify the drawing grid and snap points Drawing Grid
Toggle the drawing grid on or off

Make copies of the currently selected part of the model using linear offsets Make copies of the currently selected part of the model using rotational offset Make a mirror image copy of the currently selected part of the model Perform a model merge on all or part of the model Delete parts of the model Modify the drawing grid and snap points Toggle the drawing grid on or off Toggle the universal snap points on or off

Universal Snap Points Toggle the universal snap points on or off

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Selection Toolbar
Button Title Select All Select the entire model Box Select Draw a box around the part to be selected Polygon Select Draw a polygon around the part to be selected (double click to end) Line Select Draw a line through the beams and plates to be selected Unselect All Unselect the entire model Box Unselect Draw a box around the part to be unselected Polygon Unselect Draw a polygon around the part to be unselected (double click to end) Line Unselect Draw a line through the beams and plates to be unselected Invert Selected Invert the selected areas of the model Criteria Selection Select or unselect based on other criteria Save/Recall Selection Save or recall selections of the model Label in RISA-3D Make the entire model selected Draw a box around the part of the model to be selected Draw a polygon around the part to be selected (double click to end) Draw a line through the beams and plates to be selected Make the entire model UNselected Draw a box around the part of the model to be UNselected Draw a polygon around the part to be unselected (double click to end) Draw a line through the beams and plates to be UNselected Invert the selected state of the model Select or unselect based on other criteria Save or recall selection states for the model Ctrl+I Ctrl+U Shortcut CTRL+A

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Appendix A RISA-3D Toolbar Buttons

Lock Unselected (unlocked) or (locked) Lock the unselected parts of the model

Lock the unselected part of the model

Ctrl+L

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