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CHEMICAL COMPOUND CONSTITUENT OF PLANT AND ANIMALS CARBOHYDRATE A carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen,

and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. (Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4.) Carbohydrates are not technically hydrates of carbon. Structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are classified according to the number of single carbohydrate molecules in each chemical structure. Carbohydrate compounds having just one carbohydrate molecule are called monosaccharides; compounds with two carbohydrate molecules are called dissarcharides; and those compounds containing more than two carbohydrate molecules are named polysaccharides. All carbohydrates either are monosaccharides or can be hydrolyzed (broken down) into two or more monosaccharides. For further understanding of these different classifications of carbohydrates, the monosaccharides and disaccharides can be grouped together and compared with the polysaccharides. This can be done because monosaccharides and disaccharides have certain things in common. For one, they are both water soluble. In addition, they have a sweet taste and a crystalline structure. The monosaccharides and disaccharides are called sugars and all share the suffix, -ose, meaning sugar. Polysaccharides, in contrast to mono- and disaccharides, are insoluble in water, do not taste sweet and do not form crystals. Also, they do not share a suffix and have no group name (such as sugars, in the case of mono-arid disaccharides). They are sometimes called starches, but this is technically incorrect because there are many other classifications of polysaccharides besides starches (cellulose and glycogen being two and dextrin being another). Monosaccharides These are the only sugars that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. Disaccharides and polysaccharides must be ultimately broken down into monosaccharides in the digestive process known as hydrolysis. Only then can they be utilized by the body. Three monosaccharides are particularly important in the study of nutritional science: glucose, fructose and galactose. Glucose (also known as dextrose or grape sugar) This monosaccharide is the most important carbohydrate in human nutrition because it is the one that the body fuses directly to supply its energy needs. Glucose is formed from the hydrolysis of di- and polysaccharides, including starch, dextrin, maltose, sucrose and lactose; from the monosaccharide fructose largely during absorption; and from both fructose and galactose in the liver during metabolism. Glucose is the carbohydrate found in the bloodstream, and it provides an immediate source of energy for the body's cells and tissues. Glucose is also formed when stored body carbohydrate (glycogen) is broken down for use. In the plant world, glucose is widely distributed. It is found in all plants and in the sap of trees. Fruits and vegetables are wholesome food sources of glucose. It is also present in such unwholesome (to humans) substances as molasses, honey and corn syrup. Fructose (also known as levulose or fruit sugar) Fructose, a monosaccharide, is very similar to another monosaccharide, galactose. These two simple sugars share the same chemical formula; however, the arrangements of their chemical groups along the chemical chain differ. Fructose is the sweetest of all the sugars and is found in fruits, vegetables and the nectar of flowers, as well as in the unwholesome (to humans) sweeteners, molasses and honey. In humans, fructose is produced during the hydrolysis of the disaccharide, sucrose. Galactose Galactose differs from the other simple sugars, glucose and fructose, in that it does not occur free in nature. It is produced in the body in the digestion of lactose, a disaccharide. Disaccharides Disaccharides, on hydrolysis, yield two monosaccharide molecules. Three particular disaccharides warrant discussion in a lesson on nutritional science: sucrose, maltose and lactose. Sucrose The disaccharide, sucrose, consists of one molecule of each of two monosaccharidesglucose and fructose. Sucrose is found in fruits and vegetables and is particularly plentiful in sugar beets (roots) and sugarcane (a grass). Refined white and brown sugars are close to 100% sucrose because almost everything else (including the other kinds of sugars present, the vitamins, the minerals and the proteins) have been removed in the refining process. Maple syrup and molasses are, like refined sugars, unwholesome sweeteners; both contain over 50% sucrose. It almost goes without saying that any foods, so-called, containing significant amounts of refined sugar are high in sucrose. Maltose (also known as malt sugar) This disaccharide, unlike sucrose, is not consumed in large amounts in the average American diet. It is found in malted cereals, malted milks and sprouted grains. Also, corn syrup is 26 percent maltose and corn sugar is 4 percent maltose. None of these "foods" is wholesome, with perhaps, the exception of sprouted grains. Maltose occurs in the body as an intermediate product of starch digestion. (Starch is a polysaccharide.) When maltose is hydrolyzed, it yields two molecules of glucose. Lactose (also known as milk sugar) This disaccharide is found only in milk. Human milk contains about 4.8 g per 100 ml and cow's milk contains approximately 6.8 g per 100 ml. When lactose is hydrolyzed it yields one unit of the monosaccharide glucose and one unit of the monosaccharide galactose.

The enzyme lactase is needed to digest lactose, and this enzyme is not present in most, if any, people over age three. This is one of the many reasons why milk is an unwholesome food for people over three years of age. Polysaccharides Like the disaccharides, the polysaccharides cannot be directly utilized by the body. They must first be broken down into monosaccharides, the only sugar form the body can use. Polysaccharides contain up to 60,000 simple carbohydrate molecules. These carbohydrate molecules are arranged in long chains in either a straight or in a branched structure. There are four polysaccharides that are important in the study of nutritional science: starch, dextrin, glycogen and cellulose. Starch Starch is abundant in the plant world and is found in granular form in the cells of plants. Starch granules can be seen under a microscope and they differ in size, shape and markings in various plants. The starch granules of wheat, for example, are oval-shaped; whereas the starch granules of corn are small, rounded and angular. These starch granules are laid down in the storage organs of plantsin the seeds, tubers, roots and stem pith. They provide a reserve food supply for the plant, sustain the root or tuber through the winter and nourish the growing embryo during germination. Most starches are a mix of two different molecular structures, amylose and amylopectin. The former has a linear structure and the latter has a branched or bushy structure. The proportion of the two fractions varies according to the species of plant. For example, potato starch and most cereal starches have approximately 15-30% amylose. But the waxy cereal grains, including some varieties of corn plus rice and grain sorghum, have their starch most entirely as amylopectin. The starches in green peas and in some sweet corn varieties are mainly amylose. The polysaccharides, as mentioned earlier, are not water soluble as are the mono- and disaccharides. Though not water soluble, starches can be dispersed in water heated to a certain temperature. The granules swell and gelatinize. When cooled, this gelatin sets to a paste. The jelling characteristics of starches are considered to result from the amylose present, while amylopectin is considered to be responsible for the gummy and cohesive properties of the paste. Dextrin There are several "varieties" of this polysaccharide. Dextrins are most commonly consumed in cooked starch foods, as they are obtained from starch by the action of heat. Dextrins are intermediary products of starch digestion, also, and are formed by the action of amylases on starches. They render the disaccharide maltose on hydrolysis. Glycogen Glycogen is the reserve carbohydrate in humans. It is to animals as starch is to plants. Glycogen is very similar to amylopectin, having a high molecular weight and branched-chain structures made up of thousands of glucose molecules. The main difference between glycogen and amylopectin is that glycogen has more and shorter branches, resulting in a more compact, bushlike molecule with greater solubility and lower viscosity (less stickiness or gumminess). Glycogen is stored primarily in the liver and muscles of animals. About two-thirds of total body glycogen is stored in the muscles and about one-third is stored in the liver. Cellulose Like starch and glycogen, cellulose is composed of thousands of glucose molecules. It comprises over 50% of the carbon in vegetation and is the structural constituent of the cell walls of plants. Cellulose is, therefore, the most abundant naturally-occurring organic substance. It is characterized by its insolubility, its chemical inertness and its physical rigidity. This polysaccharide can be digested only by herbivores such as cows, sheep, horses, etc., as these animals have bacteria in their rumens (stomachs) whose enzyme systems break down cellulose molecules. Humans do not have the enzyme needed to digest cellulose, so it is passed through the digestive tract unchanged. PROTEIN Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids; however, in certain organisms the genetic code can include selenocysteine andin certain archaeapyrrolysine. Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by posttranslational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. Sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable protein complexes. A. Simple Proteins 1. Albumins: blood (serumbumin); milk (lactalbumin); egg white (ovolbumin); lentils (legumelin); kidney beans (phaseolin); wheat (leucosin). Globular protein; soluble in water and dilute salt solution; precipitated by saturation with ammonium sulfate solution; coagulated by heat; found in plant and animal tissues. 2. Globulins: blood (serum globulins); muscle (myosin); potato (tuberin); Brazil nuts (excelsin); hemp (edestin); lentils (legumin). Globular protein; sparingly soluble in water; soluble in neutral solutions; precipitated by dilute ammonium sulfate and coagulated by heat; distributed in both plant and animal tissues. 3. Glutelins: wheat (glutenin); rice (oryzenin). Insoluble in water and dilute salt solutions; soluble in dilute acids; found in grains and cereals.

Prolamines: wheat and rye (gliadin); corn (zein); rye (secaline); barley (hordein). Insoluble in water and absolute alcohol; soluble in 70% alcohol; high in amide nitrogen and proline; occurs in grain seeds. 5. Protamines: sturgeon (sturine); mackerel (scombrine); salmon (salmine); herring (clapeine). Soluble in water; not coagulated by heat; strongly basic; high in arginine; associate with DNA; occurs in sperm cells. 6. Histones: Thymus gland; pancreas; nucleoproteins (nucleohistone). Soluble in water, salt solutions, and dilute acids; insoluble in ammonium hydroxide; yields large amounts of lysine and arginine; combined with nucleic acids within cells. 7. Scleroproteins: Connective tissues and hard tissues. Fibrous protein; insoluble in all solvents and resistant to digestion. a. Collagen: connective tissues, bones, cartilage, and gelatin. Resistant to digestive enzymes but altered to digest gelatin by boiling water, acid, or alkali; high in hydroxylrpline. b. Elastin: Ligaments, tendons, and arteries. Similar to collagen but cannot be converted to gelatin. c. Keratin: Hair, nails, hooves, horns, and feathers. Partially resistant to digestive enzymes; contains large amounts of sulfur, as cystine. B. Conjugated Proteins 1. Nucleoproteins: cytoplasm of cells (ribonucleoprotein); nucleas of chromosomes (deoxyribonucleoprotein) viruses, and bacteriophages. Contains nucleic acids, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Present in chromosomes and in all living forms as a combination of protein with either RNA or DNA. 2. Mucoprotein: saliva (mucin); egg white (ovomucoid). Proteins combined with amino sugars, sugar acids, and sulfates. 3. Glycoprotein: bone (osseomucoid); tendons (tendomucoid); carilage (chondromucoid). Containing more than 4% hexosamine, mucoproteins; if less than 4%, then glycoproteins. 4. Phosphoproteins: milk (casein); egg yolk (ovovitellin). Phosphoric acid joined in ester linkage to protein. 5. Chromoproteins: hemoglobin; myoglobin; flavoproteins; respiratory pigments; cytochromes. Protein compounds with such nonprotein pigments as heme; colored proteins. 6. Lipoproteins: serum lipoprotein; brain, nerve tissues, milk, and eggs. Water-soluble protein conjugated with lipids; found dispersed widely in all cells and all living forms. 7. Metallo proteins: ferritin; carbonic anhydrase; ceruloplasmin. Proteins combined with metallic atoms that are not parts of a nonprotein prosthetic group. C. Derived Proteins 1. Proteans: edestan (from elastin) and myosan (from myosin). Results from short action of acids or enzymes; insolvent in water. 2. Proteases: intermediate products of protein digestion. Soluble in water; uncoagulated by heat; and precipitated by saturated ammonium sulfate; result from partial digestion of protein by pepsin or trypsin. 3. Peptones: intermediate products of protein digestion. Same properties as proteases except that they cannot be salted out; of smaller molecular weight that proteases. 4. Peptides: intermediate products of protein digestion. Two or more amino acids joined by a peptide linkage; hydrolyzed to individual amino acids. LIPID Lipids constitute a broad group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.[4][5] Lipids may be broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment. Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups.[4] Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits). Simple Lipids 1. Triglycerides, neutral fats: Found in adipose tissue, butterfat, lard, suet, fish oils, olive oil, corn oil, etc. Esters of three molecules of fatty acids plus one molecule of glycerol; the fatty acid may all be different. 2. Waxes: beeswax, head oil of sperm whale, cerumen, carnauba oil, and lanolin. Composed of esters of fatty acids with alcohol other than glycerol; of industrial and medicinal importance. Compound Lipids 1. Phospholipids (phosphatides): Found chiefly in animal tissues. Substituted fats, consisting of phosphatidic acid; composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphoric acid bound in ester linkage to a nitrogenous base. 2. Lecithin: Found in brain, egg yolk, and organ meats. Phosphatidyl choline or serine; phosphatide linked to choline; a lipotropic agent; important in fat metabolism and transport; used as emulsigying agent in the food industry. 3. Cephalin: Occurs predominantly in nervous tissue. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine; phosphatide linage to serine or ethanolamine; plays a role in blood clotting. 4. Plasmalogen: Found in brain, heart, and muscle. Phosphatidal ethanolamine or choline; phosphatide containing an aliphatic aldehyde.


Lipositol: Found in brain, heart, kidneys, and plant tissues together with phytic acid. Phosphatidyl inositol; phosphatide linked to inositol; rapid synthesis and degradation in brain; evidence for role in cell transport processes. 6. Sphingomyelin: Found in nervous tissue, brain, and red blood cells. Sphingosine-containing phosphatide; yields fatty acids, choline, sphingosine, phosphoric acid, and no glycerol; source of phosphoric acid in body tissue. 7. Glycolipids: a. Cerebroside: myline sheaths of nerves, brain, and other tissues. Yields on hydrolysis of fatty acids, sphingosine, galactose (or glucose), but not fatty acids; includes kerasin and phrenosin. b. Ganglioside: brain, nerve tissue, and other selected tissues, notably spleen; contains a ceramide linked to hexose (glucose or galactose), neuraminic acid, sphingosine, and fatty acids. c. Sulfolipid: white matter of brain, liver, and testicle; also plant chloroplast. Sulfur-containing glycolipid; sulfate present in ester linkage to galactose. d. Proteolipids: brain and nerve tissue. Complexes of protein and lipids having solubility properties of lipids. Terpenoids and Steroids 1. Terpenes: Found in essential oils, resin acids, rubber, plant pigments such as caotenese and lycopenes, Vitamin A, and camphor. Large group of compounds made up of repeating isoprene units; Vitamin A of nutritional interest; fat soluble Vitamin E and K, which are also related chemically to terpenes. 2. Sterols: a. Cholesterol: found in egg yolk, dairy products, and animal tissues. A consituent of bile acids and a precursor of Vitamin D. b. Ergosterol: found in plant tissues, yeast, and fungi. Converted to Vitamin D2 on irradiation. c. 7-dehydrocholesterol: found in animal tissues and underneath skin. Converted to D3 on irradiation. 3. Androgens and estrogens: (Sex hormones) Found in ovaries and testes. 4. Adrenal corticolsteroids: adrenal cortex, blood. Derived lipids 1. Fatty acids: occur in plant and animal foods; also exhibit in complex forms with other substances. Obtained from hydrolysis of fats; usually contains an even number of carbon atoms and are straight chain derivatives. Classification of fatty acids is based on the length of the carbon chain (short, medium, or long); the number of double bonds (unsaturated, mono-, or polyunsaturated); or essentiality in the diet (essential or non-essential). A current designation is based on the position of the endmost double bond, counting from the methyl (CH3) carbon, called the omega end. The most important omega fatty acids are: Omega 6 - linolein and arachidonic acids and Omega 3 - linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. NUCLEIC ACID Nucleic acids are biological molecules essential for known forms of life on this planet; they include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Together with proteins, nucleic acids are the most important biological macromolecules; each is found in abundance in all living things, where they function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information. Nucleic acids were discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869.[1] Experimental studies of nucleic acids constitute a major part of modern biological and medical research, and form a foundation for genome and forensic science, as well as the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.


SOIL, ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Soil Soil is a natural body that consists of layers (soil horizons), composed primarily of minerals, which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other physical characteristics. [1] The result, soil, is the end product of the influence of the climate (temperature, precipitation), relief (slope), organisms (flora and fauna), parent materials (original minerals), temperature, and time. In engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material. Strictly speaking, soil is the depth of regolith that influences and has been influenced by plant roots and may range in depth from centimeters to many meters. Soil is composed of particles of broken rock (parent materials) that have been altered by chemical and mechanical processes that include weathering (disintegration) with associated erosion (movement). Soil is altered from its parent material by the interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.[2] It is a mixture of mineral and organic materials that are in the form of solids, gasses and liquids.[3][4] Soil is commonly referred to as earth or dirt; technically, the term dirt should be restricted to displaced soil.[5] Soil forms a structure filled with pore spaces that can be thought of as a mixture of solids, water and air (gas). [6] Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system.[7] Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm.[8] Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Tertiary and none is older than the Pleistocene.[9] On a volume basis a good quality soil is one that is 45% minerals (sand, silt, clay), 25% water, 25% air, and 5% organic material, both live and dead. The mineral and organic components are considered a constant while the percentages of water and air are the only variable parameters where the increase in one is balanced by the reduction in the other. Given time, the simple mixture of sand, silt, and clay will evolve into a soil profile that consists of two or more layers called horizons that differ in one or more properties such as texture, structure, color, porosity, consistency, and reaction. The horizons differ greatly in thickness and generally lack sharp boundaries. Mature soil profiles in temperate regions may include three master horizons A, B and C. The A and B horizons are called the solum or true soil as most of the chemical and biological activity that has formed soil takes place in those two profiles.[10] The pore space of soil is shared by gasses as well as water. The aeration of the soil influences the health of the soil's flora and fauna and the emission of greenhouse gasses. Of all the factors that influence the evolution of soil, water is the most powerful due to its effect on the solution and precipitation of minerals, plant growth, the leaching of minerals from the soil profile and the transportation and deposition of the very materials of which a soil is composed. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL Permeability (the rate at which water moves through the soil) and Water-Holding Capacity (WHC; the ability of a soils micropores to hold water for plant use) are affected by The amount, size and arrangement of pores Macropores control a soils permeability and aeration. Micropores are responsible for a soils WHC Porosity is in turn affected by Soil texture Soil structure Compaction Organic matter Soil texture (the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay) is important in determining the water-holding capacity of soil: 1. Fine-textured soils hold more water than coarse-textured soils but may not be ideal 2. Medium-textured soils (loam family) are most suitable for plant growth - Sands are the largest particles and feel gritty - Silts are medium-sized and feel soft, silky, or floury - Clays are the smallest sized particles and feel sticky and are hard to squeeze. - Relative size perspective: Sand (house) > Silt > Clay (penny) Four main types of soil structure (the arrangement of aggregates in a soil): Platy - common with puddling or ponding of soils Prismatic (columnar) common in subsoils in arid and semi-arid regions Blocky common in subsoils especially in humid regions Granular (crumb) common in surface soils with high organic matter content Properties of soil particle size Sand Porosity Permeability Water holding capacity mostly large pores rapid limited Silt small pores predominate low to moderate medium Clay small pores predominate slow very large

Soil particle surface



very large

Soil Compaction destoys the quality of the soil because it restricts rooting depth and decreases pore size. The effects are more waterfilled pores less able to absorb water, increasing runoff and erosion, and lower soil temperatures. To reduce compaction: Add organic matter Make fewer trips across area Practice reduced-till or no-till systems Harvest when soils are not wet Chemical Properties of Soil 1. pH 2. Salinity (EC) 3. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 4. Organic matter 5. C:N ratio (Carbon to Nitrogen) Soil pH

A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil. Neutral = 7.0 Acidic < 7.0 Alkaline > 7.0 Logarithmic scale which means that a 1-unit drop in pH is a 10-fold increase in acidity.

Soil pH and plant growth Affects availability of plant nutrients (in general, optimal pH is between 5.5-7.5) Low pH soils (<6.0) results in an increase in Al. Aluminum is toxic to plants Affects availability of toxic metals (in general, more available in acidic soils) Affects the activity of soil microorganisms, thus affecting nutrient cycling and disease risk Increasing soil pH: Liming materials (pure calcium carbonate or dolomitic lime) will increase soil pH. 1. Lime is a certified organic product 2. Slow-release product. Do not add every year. 3. 15-25 lbs lime per 1000 sq ft is recommended Wood ashes are another product to raise soil pH. They also are a source of K, Ca, and Mg. Some composts also can increase soil pH. Gypsum is calcium sulfate. It is not a substitute for lime, and has little effect on soil pH. Gypsum only improves structure in soils that have extremely high sodium contents (rare in the NW). Decreasing soil pH: Some plants thrive under acidic conditions (ex. rhododendrons, blueberries, and azaleas). Elemental sulfur is often recommended (50 lb S per 1000 sq. ft). Ammonium and ammonium-forming N fertilizers will also result in a decrease in soil pH. Soil salinity Potential problem in irrigated soils due to high evaporation rates and low annual rainfall leaving salts to accumulate. Salts can come from irrigation water, fertilizers, composts, and manure. Salts can be leached by slowly applying excess water. o Three inches removes about 50% of the soluble salts. o Five inches removes about 90%. Soil Salinity and Interpretation Conductivity (mmho/cm) 4 or above 2 to 4 less than 2 Interpretation Severe accumulation of salts. May restrict growth of many vegetables and ornamentals. Moderatre accumulation of salts. Will not restrict plant growth, but may require more frequent irrigation. Low salt accumulation. Will not affect plants.

Cation-Exchange Capacity A cation is a positively charged ion. Most nutrients are cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, K +, NH4 +, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. These cations are in the soil solution and are in dynamic equilibrium with the cations adsorbed on the surface of clay and organic matter. CEC is a measure of the quantity of cations that can be adsorbed and held by a soil. CEC is dependent upon the amount of organic matter and clay in soils and on the types of clay. In general, the higher OM and clay content, the higher the CEC.

WATER Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces.[1][2] Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface,[3] and is vital for all known forms of life.[4] On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[5][6] Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Different Kinds Of Water Fresh Water Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface and underground and typically contains less than 1% sodium chloride. More than 70% of worlds fresh water is consumed by agriculture. Only 2.75 percent of the water on Earth is fresh water, about twothirds of it is frozen in glaciers, a quarter is groundwater and only 0.005 percent of it is surface water. Fresh water may be either hard or soft. Hard water is rich in calcium and magnesium salts and is uneasy to work with. Soft fresh water, on the other hand, contains no calcium or magnesium ions and can be used for household purposes and even drinking, if clean. Brackish Water Brackish water is the type of water that has salinity between that of fresh water and seawater. Normally, brackish water contains between 1 and 2.5% sodium chloride, either from natural sources around otherwise fresh water or by dilution of seawater. There is high biological activity in brackish water and this can be significantly modified by higher concentrations of nutrients. The main environmental factors responsible, single-handedly or in combination, for these differences are the salinity, the degree of pollution, and the prevalence of silt. Brackish water is unreceptive to the growth of most terrestrial plant species. IN case of lack of proper management, brackish water can be detrimental to the environment. Seawater Seawater typically contains about 3.5% sodium chloride, although the salinity may be weak in some areas as a result of dilution with fresh water or concentrated by solar evaporation in others. Seawater is normally more corrosive than fresh water, because of the higher conductivity and the penetrating power of the chloride ion through surface films on a metal. The rate of corrosion is controlled by the chloride content, oxygen availability, and the temperature. Distilled/ Demineralized Water Distilled water basically stands for the water that is ripped of its impurities through the process of distillation. The process involves boiling water and then condensing the steam into a clean container. However, apart from distillation, the total mineral content of water can also be removed by mixed-bed ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electro-dialysis. Demineralized water finds specific purpose in boilers, storage batteries and chemical processes. Steam Condensate Water condensed from industrial steam is called steam condensate. It is almost as pure as distilled water, but is contaminated by other gases present in its atmosphere such as carbon dioxide. Some additives that are added deliberately include amines and other chemicals. Boiler Feed Water The feed water make-up for boilers is always softened and subsequently de-aerated. The quality varies from a high level of dissolved solids (e.g., Zeolite-Treated), to very pure demineralized feed for high-pressure boilers. It tends to be highly corrosive, because of its softness, until thoroughly de-aerated. This is the reason why boiler feed water is commonly known as de-aerated water. Potable Water Potable water is fresh water that is sanitized with oxidizing biocides such as chlorine or ozone to kill bacteria and make it safe for drinking purposes. By definition, certain mineral constituents are also restricted. They are supplied through public or privatedispensing systems and contain a chain of source to destination supply units, water treatment plants and other features. Potable water is a basic necessity and considered a rightful amenity for every citizen. Cooling Water Cooling water is used for cooling down surfaces of engines and other components which tend to overheat. Cooling is very necessary as the overheating can cause subsequent changes in the stability and structure of the device. Cooling water can have different compositions based on the level of heat and also composition of the surface and corrosive problems.

Waste Water Waste water is any water that is discarded after use. Sanitary waste from private or industrial applications is contaminated with fecal matter, soaps, detergents, etc. Industrial wastes from chemical or petrochemical sources can contain high levels of specific contaminants, which greatly complicate the removal of these impurities by natural methods and cause problems for the environment. Chemical and physical properties Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky; seawater in the oceans; icebergs in the polar oceans; glaciers and rivers in the mountains; and the liquid in aquifers in the ground. At high temperatures and pressures, such as in the interior of very large planets, it is argued that water exists as ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and at even higher pressures as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. [12] The major chemical and physical properties of water are: Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. It is tasteless and odorless. The intrinsic colour of water and ice is a very slight blue hue, although both appear colorless in small quantities. Water vapour is essentially invisible as a gas.[13] Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Infrared light is strongly absorbed by the hydrogen-oxygen or OH bonds. Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it carries a slight negative charge, whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. As a result, water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment. Water also can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (four) for a molecule of its size. These factors lead to strong attractive forces between molecules of water, giving rise to water's high surface tension[14] and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees.[15] Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. Substances that dissolve in water, e.g., salts, sugars, acids, alkalis, and some gases especially oxygen, carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water-loving) substances, while those that are immiscible with water (e.g., fats and oils), are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) substances. All the major components in cells (proteins, DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water. Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increases significantly with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride. The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, on the top of Mt. Everest water boils at 68 C (154 F), compared to 100 C (212 F) at sea level. Conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid. At 4181.3 J/(kgK), water has a high specific heat capacity, as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJmol1), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature. The maximum density of water occurs at 3.98 C (39.16 F).[16] It has the anomalous property of becoming less dense, not more, when it is cooled down to its solid form, ice. It expands to occupy 9% greater volume in this solid state, which accounts for the fact of ice floating on liquid water, as in icebergs. Its density is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.428 lb/cu ft or 8.3454 lb/US gal) liquid (at 4 C; ice has a density of 917 kg/m3).[17] Water is miscible with many liquids, such as ethanol, in all proportions, forming a single homogeneous liquid. On the other hand, water and most oils are immiscible, usually forming layers according to increasing density from the top. As a gas, water vapor is completely miscible with air. Water forms an azeotrope with many other solvents. Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. As an oxide of hydrogen, water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compounds burn or react with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds. Water is not a fuel, it is an end-product of the combustion of hydrogen. The energy required to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis or any other means is greater than the energy that can be collected when the hydrogen and oxygen recombine.[18] Elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium, sodium, calcium, potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water, forming hydroxides. Being a flammable gas, the hydrogen given off is dangerous and the reaction of water with the more electropositive of these elements may be violently explosive. IMPORTANCE OF WATER TO LIVING THINGS Water is the common name applied to the liquid form (state) of the hydrogen and oxygen compound H2O. Pure water is an odorless, tasteless, clear liquid. Water is one of nature's most important gifts to mankind. Essential to life, a person's survival depends on drinking water. Water is one of the most essential elements to good health -- it is necessary for the digestion and absorbtion of food; helps maintain proper muscle tone; supplies oxygen and nutrients to the cells; rids the body of wastes; and serves as a natural air

conditioning system. Health officials emphasize the importance of drinking at least eight glasses of clean water each and every day to maintain good health. Since water contains no calories and can serve as an appetite suppressant and helps the body metabolize stored fat, it may possibly be one of the most significant factors in losing weight. In his book, titled "The Snowbird Diet" Dr. Donald Robertson says the body will not function properly without enough water and discusses the importance of drinking plenty of water for permanent weight loss: "Drinking enough water is the best treatment for fluid retention; the overweight person needs more water than the thin one; water helps to maintain proper muscle tone; water can help relieve constipation; drinking water is essential to weight loss." Water is a key component in determining the quality of our lives. Today, people are concerned about the quality of the water they drink. Although water covers more than 70% of the Earth, only 1% of the Earth's water is available as a source of drinking. Yet, our society continues to contaminate this precious resource. Water is known as a natural solvent. Before it reaches the consumer's tap, it comes into contact with many different substances, including organic and inorganic matter, chemicals, and o ther contaminants. Many public water systems treat water with chlorine to destroy disease-producing contaminants that may be present in the water. Although disinfection is an important step in the treatment of potable water, the taste and odor of chlorine is objectionable. And, the disinfectants that are used to prevent disease, can create byproducts which may pose significant health risks. Today, drinking water treatment at the point-of-use is no longer a luxury, it is a necessity! Consumers are taking matters into their own hands and are now determining the quality of the water they and their families will drink by installing a drinking water system that will give them clean, refreshing, and healthier water. Properties: The freezing point of water is 0 C (32 F), and its boiling point is 100 C (212 F). Water reaches its maximum density at 4 C (39 F) and expands upon freezing. Water combines with salts to form hydrates and reacts with metal oxides to form acids (see Acids and Bases). Occurrence: Water is the only substance that occurs at ordinary temperatures in all three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. As a solid, ice, it forms glaciers, frozen lakes and rivers, snow, hail, and frost. It is liquid as rain and dew, and it covers three-quarters of the earth's surface in swamps, lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water also occurs in the soil and beneath the earth's surface as a vast groundwater reservoir. As gas, or water vapor, it occurs as fog, steam, and clouds. Water in Life: Water makes up 50 to 90 percent of the weight of living things. Protoplasm is a solution of water and fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and salts. Water transports, combines, and chemically breaks down these substances. Water also aids the metabolic breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates. Natural Water Cycle: The continuous movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere is the hydrological cycle. Water vapor from water and land surfaces and from living cells circulates through the atmosphere and falls as rain or snow. When it reaches the earth, water either flows into streams and then into oceans or lakes, or it enters, or infiltrates the soil. Some water becomes soil moisture, which may evaporate directly or move up through the roots of plants and be released by leaves. Some water percolates downward, accumulating in the so-called zone of saturation to form the groundwater reservoir, the upper surface of which is the water table. Under natural conditions, the water table rises in response to inflowing water and then declines as water drains into natural outlets such as wells and springs. Composition: Because water dissolves numerous substances in large amounts, pure water rarely occurs in nature. Precipitation absorbs carbon dioxide and other gases, as well as traces of organic and inorganic material from the atmosphere. Because water reacts with minerals in the soil and rocks, surface and groundwater may contain many different dissolved substances. Surface waters may also contain domestic sewage and industrial wastes. Groundwater from shallow wells may contain nitrogen compounds and chlorides, but water from deep wells generally contains only dissolved minerals. Seawater contains many soluble compounds in addition to salt. Water Purification: Impurities are removed from water by screening, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, or irradiation. See also Sewage Disposal. Aeration saturates water with air, usually by spraying fountains of water into the air. Aeration removes odors and tastes caused by decomposing organic matter, industrial wastes, and some gases. Various salts and metals cause hardness in water. Hardness may be removed by boiling, by adding sodium carbonate and lime, or by filtering through natural or artificial zeolites. Water Desalinization: Three desalinization processes, which involve evaporating salt water and then condensing the resulting steam, are known as multiple-effect evaporation, vapor-compression distillation, and flash evaporation. Freezing is another desalinization method, based on the different freezing points of fresh and salt water. Ice crystals are separated from the salt brine, washed, and melted into fresh water. In reverse osmosis, pressure forces fresh water through a membrane that does not allow minerals to pass. In electrodialysis, the positive and negative ions of the dissolved salt are removed from water by an electric current through special membranes. These fine drinking water systems reduce a wide range of contaminants of health concern for a low cost per gallon. The superior effectiveness of solid carbon block systems is confirmed by testing and certification by NSF International; independent laboratory tests; certification by the State of California Department of Health Services; and more importantly, by the more than two million satisfied customers throughout the world. The performance of the solid carbon block filter technology exceeds that of all other filter types and meets only the highest standards for quality!

AIR Air is a precious resource that most of us take for granted. Air supplies us with oxygen, which is essential for our bodies to live. Without it, we would die within minutes. Pure air is a mixture of several gases that are invisible and odourless. It consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and less than 1% of argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases as well as varying amounts of water vapour. Adults breathe in about 10-20 cubic metres of air every day. Thats about 20,000 breaths. Children breathe almost twice that amount because they are smaller, and their respiratory systems are still maturing. Components of air There are five major components of air: nitrogen (78.0842%), oxygen (20.9463%), water vapor (about 1%), argon (0.93422%), and carbon dioxide (0.03811%). Trace components of air make up another 0.002%. Out of all the components of air, the one that animals (including humans) need to survive is oxygen, while the components of air that plants require are carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The respiration of animals consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct, while plants consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. The world's ecosystems depend on this balance. The components of air may be altered by human activity, such as the burning of fossil fuels, which has increased the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Air has been a subject of study for scientists for hundreds of years. Like other gases, air behaves according to Boyle's Law, which states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional in a closed system where the total quantity of gas and its temperature remain fixed. This means that you can decrease the volume of air by compressing it, but its pressure will increase proportionally. Air can be pumped into an elastic membrane, like a balloon, to inflate it. Because the pressure exerted outwards by the air inside a balloon is roughly equivalent to the pressure exerted on the balloon by the outside, it remains inflated. However, this only holds true when the air pressure of the air originally put in the balloon is similar to the ambient air around it. If a balloon is filled with air from the upper atmosphere, then brought down to sea level, it will shrink. If if it filled with air from sea level and brought to a very high altitude, it will pop. This is what happens to balloons that are accidentally released into the sky. Air remains in the Earth's atmosphere because the gravity of the Earth is sufficient to hold gas particles close to its surface. Lighter gases, such as hydrogen, have long ago escaped from the Earth's pull, being light enough that thermal excitation is sufficient to them to escape away into space. Properties of air Weight: Because the weight of air varies with pressure and temperature it has to be defined accurately. The following figures may be used. The weight of dry air (no moisture content) at 0 deg C and under a normal atmospheric pressure of 1013 mbar is 1.293 kg/m3. Pressure: Air is under pressure; this is caused by gravity. Air pressure at sea level is approximately 1013 mbar, which is about the same as 14.7 psi. The reason for this pressure is because there is so much air stacked up on top of it. If you were higher up, say in and aeroplane, the air pressure outside the 'plane would be much lower. Temperature: Air has temperature, an obvious statement really. Like most things around us, air expands when it gets hot and contracts when it gets cold. Temperature has an effect on Volume, and that Volume has an effect on Pressure. Volume: Air occupies a specific volume. This volume is inter-related with pressure and temperature. If you squeeze air into a smaller space the air gets hotter. This is easily demonstrated when you pump up a bicycle tyre. The harder you pump, the hotter the air gets and the hotter the hand pump gets. Air usually contains some Water Vapour: Air behaves a bit like a sponge, if there's any water around it will try to absorb it. Like a sponge it can only hold just so much water before it becomes saturated. Again like a sponge, if you squeeze it (compress it) the water will drip out. Air usually has some Velocity: You can see this every day, leaves getting whipped up by the breeze and being blown down a road. Outside air velocity is a function of wind strength. The velocity of air in a room may be low at 0.25 m/s or much higher in a compressed air pipe. In engineering terms air is a fluid and has fluid properties.