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SENSORY MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT What does sensory motor foundation skills mean?

Sensory motor foundation skills rely on the interaction of sensation and movement. We receive sensory information from our bodies and the environment through our sensory systems (vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, vestibular, and proprioception). This sensory information then needs to be organized and processed to be able to produce an appropriate motor or movement response to be successful in daily tasks at home or at school. What are the sensory motor foundation skills? The following are sensory motor foundation skills that can influence learning and behavior to increase success at school: 1. Sense of Proprioception (Body Awareness) Receiving adequate proprioceptive sensory information from your muscles and joints allows you to know where each part of your body is and grade movement to refine gross and fine motor control. A student with poor body awareness may:

appear clumsy have difficulty maintaining posture in seat at desk have difficulty getting dressed press too hard or too soft on pencil

2. Vestibular Sense (Perception of Movement) To perceive movement accurately you need to receive adequate information from your vestibular sense. The vestibular system helps you to know whether you are moving or the earth is moving. It also generates the muscle tone needed to move smoothly and efficiently in the school environment. A student who has difficulty processing movement information may:

lose balance easily not be able to keep up with others in gym class or on the playground be fearful of or not tolerate movement

3. Sense of Touch (Perception of Touch) Sense of touch involves interpreting touch information on the skin. A child with tactile discomfort (tactile defensiveness) may have difficulty interpreting protective touch information. For example, a student with tactile discomfort may avoid playing in sand, avoid finger painting, and /or may over or under react to painful touch experiences such as getting a paper cut. A child with tactile discrimination difficulty may have trouble cutting with scissors or grasping a pencil. 4. Sense of Vision (Visual Acuity and Visual Perception) The sense of vision includes being able to see objects clearly at a distance and near (visual acuity) and being able to interpret what the eyes see (visual perception). It enables the student to discriminate between letters, numerals, and words that are similar in formation. The sense of vision influences writing skills such as sizing of letters, spacing of letters and words on the writing line, organizing work on a piece of paper, and copying from the chalkboard or from a book to a piece of paper. 5. Motor Planning When given an unfamiliar task, motor planning is the ability to develop an idea, organize and utilize the materials needed for the task, and then sequence the steps necessary to complete the task. A student with poor motor planning may:

seem accident prone struggle to master new skills have difficulty sequencing steps needed to complete tasks in the classroom or gym

6. Gross Motor Coordination Gross Motor Coordination is the ability to use large muscle groups for stability (maintaining positions and posture) and mobility within the school environment. Examples include sitting properly in a chair, walking in the classroom and the hallways, climbing the stairs, and running at recess or in physical education class, etc. 7. Bilateral Motor Coordination Bilateral motor coordination is the ability to use both sides of the body together to produce a coordinated movement such as a student alternating his/her feet to walk upstairs or manipulating scissors with one hand while turning the paper with the other hand to cut.

8. Fine Motor Coordination Fine motor coordination is the ability to use the small muscle groups of the body for skilled work in the classroom such as grasping a pencil, handwriting, cutting with scissors, using a glue stick, coloring with crayons and colored pencils, etc. 9. Visual Motor Control Visual motor control is the ability to integrate visual input with a motor output to perform eye-hand and eye-foot tasks. Visual motor control is an underlying skill required for refined eye-hand coordination tasks such as handwriting. It influences a childs ability to reproduce letters and numerals, color within the lines, trace objects, keep letters/words on the writing line, organize written work on paper, and complete classroom projects and written work on time.

ERIKSONS STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Like Piaget, Erik Erikson (1902-1994) maintained that children develop in a predetermined order. Instead of focusing on cognitive development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development has eight distinct stage, each with two possible outcomes. According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interactions with others. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time. Trust Versus Mistrust. From ages birth to one year, children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s). If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore an sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world. If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities. Initiative vs. Guilt. Around age three and continuing to age six, children assert themselves more frequently. They begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain followers, lacking in selfinitiative. Industry vs. Inferiority. From age six years to puberty, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. They initiate projects, see them through to completion, and feel good about what they have achieved. During this time, teachers play an increased role in the childs development. If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore may not reach his potential. Identity vs. Role Confusion. During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. This sense of who they are can be hindered, which results in a sense of confusion ("I dont know what I want to be when I grow up") about themselves and their role in the world. Intimacy vs. Isolation. Occurring in Young adulthood, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful completion can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Generativity vs. Stagnation. During middle adulthood, we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair. As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. If we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our pasts, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessnes

PSYCHOANALYTIC DEVELOPMENT THEORY Psychoanalytic theory refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychoanalytic andpsychodynamic psychotherapy. First laid out by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work (see psychoanalysis). Psychoanalytic theory came to full prominence as a critical force in the last third of the twentieth century as part of 'the flow of critical discourse after the 1960's. [1] Freud ceased his analysis of the brain and his physiological studies in order to turn his focus to the study of the mind and the related psychological attributes making up the mind, something not many psychologists were willing to do. His study then included recognizing childhood events that could potentially lead to the mental functioning of adults. He examined the genetic and then the developmental aspects that made the psychoanalytic theory become what it was.[2] Definition The method of psychological therapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts, in order to free psychic energy for mature love and work. Another definition can be the theory of personality developed by Freud that focuses on repression and unconscious forces and includes the concepts of infantile sexuality, resistance, transference, and division of the psycheinto the id, ego, and superego.

Psychology Theories Much of what we know about human thought and behavior has emerged thanks to various psychology theories. For example, behavioral theories demonstrated how conditioning can be used to learn new information and behaviors. Psychology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories. Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human thought and behavior. By learning more about these theories, you can gain a deeper and richer understanding of psychology's past, present and future The Beginnings Freud first began his studies under and collaboration with Dr. Josef Breuer, especially when it came to the study on Anna O. [3] The relationship between Freud and Breuer was a mix of admiration and competition, based on the fact that they were working together on the Anna O. case and must balance two different ideas as to her diagnosis and treatment. Today, Breuer can be considered the grandfather of psychoanalysis. [4] Anna O. was subject to both physical and psychological disturbances, such as not being able to drink out of fear. [5] Breuer and Freud both found that hypnosis was a great help in discovering more about Anna O. and her treatment. The research and ideas behind the study on Anna O. was highly referenced in Freuds lectures on the origin and development of psychoanalysis. Basic Ideas The psychoanalytic theory consists of the ideas of based around personality, such as the division of the psyche into the id, ego, andsuperego, repression, transference, dream-interpretation, and the Oedipus complex, just to name a few. For more detail, seepsychoanalysis or psychodynamic theory.