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Chapter One
Chapter One
Geographic Information System(GIS) 1.1 Introduction A Geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store,
Geographic Information System(GIS)
1.1 Introduction
A Geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate,
analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimes
used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the
academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems. In the
simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database
technology.
A Geographic Information System (GIS) should be thought of as being much more than
means of coding, storing, and retrieving the data about the aspects of earth’s surface,
because these data can be accessed, ,transformed, and manipulated interactively for studying
environmental process, analyzing the results for trends ,or anticipating the possible results
of planning decisions.
1.2 Definition Of GIS
“In common parlance, a geographic information system or GIS is a configuaration of
computer hardware and software specifically designed for the acquisition, maintainance and
use of cartographic data.”
C. Dana Tomlin
“A geographic information system(GIS) is an information system that is designed to work
with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is botha
database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of
operations for working data. In a sense, a GIS may be thought of as a higher-order map.”
jeffery Star and John Estes
“GIS is A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and
displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purpose.”
Peter A.Burrough ,1986
“GIS is a computer based system that provides for sets of capabilities to handle
georeferenced data: data input, data management(data storage and reteival), manipulation
and analysis and data output.”
Arnoff, 1989
Finally, we can say, A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software,
and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically
referenced information.
1.3 History of GIS: In the London City Cholera was spread out in 1854. Soho a
1.3 History of GIS:
In the London City Cholera was spread out in 1854. Soho a British researcher noticed that,
cholera is more spread in some water pump area. From this Soho confirm that, cholera
spread from some polluted water pump. Then he showed by the map through the collection
of information about the disease & the affected people. As a result the problem can be
identified & necessary steps have been taken. This work gets praised in London. In the
following shows in the amp the location of water pump & the amount of cholera death.
Most of the GIS scientist think about Soho’s spatial & non-spatial data presentation is
introduction of GIS.
GIS and map analysis developments began around the same time as related developments in
computer cartography and spatial statistics. They were promoted by the limitations of hard-
copy maps, problems with overlaying data sets and the increasing size and number of
available data sets (Tomlinson, 1988).
The initial development (in the 1960’s) were technical and were aimed at developing a set
of spatial data handling and analysis tools that could be used with geographical database for
repeated problem solving (Tomlinson, 1988).
One of the first systems called GIS appeared in Canada in 1964. Godchild (1995) considers
that the roots of current GIS lie in the 1960s, and then pioneering work by the US Bureau of
Census that lead to the digital input of in 1970 Census.
In turn, these developments influenced work at the Harvard Graphics Laboratory, which led
directly to the production of some of the first commercial GIS software, including the
package ARC/INFO.
CGIS: AS Early GIS.
The Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS) used data collected for the Land
Inventory System and was developed as a result of the requirements of the Canadian
Agriculture and Development Act. It was designed to produce maps of the crops that areas
of land were capable of producing and to map land capability for forestry (based on soil,
climate, drainage and physical land characteristics).
Over the years CGIS has been modified and improved to keep pace with technology and the
equipments are now. For example, microcomputers are now used for data input analysis.
However, the overall components of CGIS have remained constant. There is a subsystem for scanning input
However, the overall components of CGIS have remained constant. There is a subsystem for
scanning input and raster editing that allows editing and verification of scanned images and
some auto-processing. Additional subsystems include the interactive digitizing and editing
subsystem and a cartographic output subsystem.
The Development of ESRI
Years
Development of ESRI.
1969
ESRI founded by Jack and Laure Dangermond as a privately held consulting
group in Redlands, California.
1970
ESRI is involved in applications such as site selection and urban planning which
lead to the development of many of the technical and applied aspects of GIS.
1981
ARC/INFO GIS for minicomputer launched. Later the product is shifted to
UNIX workstations and PCs the ESRI user conference attracts 18 participants.
1991
ARCVIEW is launched (desktop mapping and GIS tool)
1995
SDE (a client-server product for spatial data management) and business map (a
consumer mapping product) are launched.
1998
Arc Data online (Internet mapping and data site) launched.
1999
Arc Info 8 release. Arc News circulation exceeds 200000.
2000
Geography network for publishing, sharing and using geographic information on
the Internet launched.
2001
ESRI celebrates 32 years providing software and services to the GIS industry
(Source: adapted from ESRI, 2001)
1.4 Development of GIS: The Stage of GIS Development Stage and Date Description Characteristics 1. Early
1.4
Development of GIS:
The Stage of GIS Development
Stage and Date
Description
Characteristics
1.
Early
1960s
Pioneering
 Individual personalities important.
1975
Mainframe-based systems dominant.
2.
1973
early
Experiment
Local experimentation and action.
1980s
and Practice
GIS fostered by national agencies.
3.
1982
late
Commercial
Increasing range of vendors.
1980s
dominance
Workstation and PC systems becoming
available.
4. 1990s
User
Embryonic standardizations.
dominance,
Vendor
Systems available for all hardware
platforms.
competition
Internet mapping launched.
[Sources: adapted from Tomlinson, 1990; Coppock and Rhind, 1991.]
1.5
GIS in Bangladesh:
In Bangladesh there is a growing application of GIS in land inventories, the population
census, urban planning, forestry, petroleum and gas exploration industries, utilities,
transportation systems and so on, where the data banks contain location references such as a
district, or the actual boundaries of land parcels.
 GISs are run on the all spectrum of computer systems ranging from personal
computers (PCs) to multi user supercomputers, and are available in a wide variety of
software languages. There are number of tools that are essential for effective GIS
establishment which are computer, digitizer, GPS (Global Positioning System),
plotter, and network. CD-ROM drive, printer and of course software which links all
of the equipment to run properly. Canada has been a pioneer in the development of
GIS. The Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS). Initiated in 1963 by the
Agriculture Rehabilitation and Development Agency, was the first operational land
resources GIS.

Rajdhani Unnoyan Kartipakkha (RAJUK) installed GIS in 1993.In this organization the main field of GIS application is urban planning. Here, the GIS activity mainly concentrates on mapping and data management for development planning of Dhaka Metropolitan Area. RAJUK also prepared urban landuse planning map and infrastructure map at strategic 1:50000 to detail 1:3960 using spatial and attribute data. In 1995 Roads and Highways Department (RHD) under an Institutional Development Components (IDC) Project sponsored by Overseas Development Agency (ODA) completed GIS mapping programmes to create national transport network. In 1996 the project also successfully built a comprehensive e geographical database for the road and rail sectors, which started operation in 1997. Survey of Bangladesh (SOB) mainly installed GIS technology for making and publishing digital maps. For this reason SOB works in cooperation with other national organizations like SPARRSO, BBS, DLRS and international organizations like JICA (Japan International cooperation Agency), IGN of France. ITC of Netherlands and Ordinance Survey of England. The major GIS installed in 1991) activities of SPARRSO are to facilitate remote sensing and other spatial and attribute data for various applications in environment and resource sectors. The successful projects of SPARRSO in this regard are Crop, Forest cover mapping, Shrimp Culture Potentiality Mapping, Census Mapping, Monitoring of Ecological Changes, and landuse Mapping. Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI) render supports for preparing Thana Land and Soil Utilization Guides including a soil database, soil fertility and land use monitoring. Salinity monitoring and preparation of soil and land use related maps. All these activities of mapping and monitoring systems are GIS related. Surface Water modeling Center (SWMC) is using GIS as a data processing, modeling and planning tool. By using GIS, SWMC is succeeded in monitoring optimum operation of Karnafuli Hydro Power Station, arsenic contamination of groundwater and crop damage assessment. They are also successful in GIS based software development. Interactive Information System (IIS) is one of the key development software, which combines topographic maps prepared under

Geographical Information System and field information of channels, structures, roads, embankments, homesteads stored in a Rational Database Management System (RDMS). The Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO) prepared and updated National Water Resources Database (NWRD) for preparing the national Water Policy adopted by the Government of Bangladesh. The database is designed with SQL (Structural Query Language) in back-end and GIS based graphical user interfaces in front-end. The primary activity of NWRD is to meet the demand of water resource planners for a consolidated and reliable data bank. All the universities of Bangladesh installed GIS for their academic curriculum in order to create skilled manpower for the country. The department of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University set up GIS lab in 1992. The following year several other university departments established GIS lab. These are the department of Geography and Environment, University of Dhaka; the department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Rajshahi University; Urban and Rural Planning Discipline. Khulna University; the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (URP) and Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). Recently the department of Geology and the department of Soil. Water and Environment, both form Dhaka University and the department of Geography, Chittagong University also established GIS lag for research purposes. Some other GIS installed organizations and companies are Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA). Bangladesh Water Board (BWBD), CIPROCO Computers Ltd. Cooperation of American Relief in Everywhere (Care), Directorate of Land Records and Surveys (DLRS). Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Development Design Consultants (DDC). Department of Environment (DOE). GEOSRV Ltd. Geographical Solutions Research Center (GSRC) Ltd. International Center for Diarrhoea Disease Research. Bangladesh (ICDDR.B). Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Natural Resources Programs (NRP), Bangladesh Project of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, the Mappa etc.

Field of Activities Organizations application Agriculture Environment Monitoring, evaluation and management Monitoring, modeling and management for
Field
of
Activities
Organizations
application
Agriculture
Environment
Monitoring, evaluation and management
Monitoring, modeling and management for
land degradation: weather and climate
modeling, prediction and forecasting; river
and coastal erosion modeling; flood
management
BARC,SRDI,MOA,
SPARRSO,EGIS,
SWMC,DOE,MOA,
CARE.
Health
Areal Distribution of different diseases in
relation to environmental factors.
Management, Planning, map prepare for site
specific matching.
Development of plans, maintenance,
management; infrastructure development
programme, Land Registration
Different sites problem solution from
personal to national level
ICDDR,B;DPHE
Forestry
DOF
Regional/Loc
RAJUK,DLRS,
al Planning
SPARRSO,
LGED,CARE
Research and
Educational
institutions
education
and
consultant
Organizations
Resource
Management,
planning,
monitoring,
SPARRSO,DOF,BCAS,
recording
EGIS,LGED.
Social studies
Demographic
trends
and
developments
BBS,
Educational
analysis
institutions
Transport
planning and management SOB,LGED,RHD
network
Others
Thematci mapping, Topographical mapping,
Site and Location Information, Service,
Consultancy etc.
SOB,LGED,DLRS,WAR
PO,Bangalapedia,
different firms companies
Fig: Major uses of GIS in Bangladesh

1.6 Importance of GIS

GIS is important for presenting river erosion, population distribution, utility services(water connection, gas system, telephone, electricity, swearage system etc.), landuse change ,chief election commission(CEC),resource identification, manipulate spatial, analyse spatial, visualized data(i.e. maps, graphs, tables, animation etc.) and so on.

GIS can integrate and relate any data with a spatial component, regardless of the source of the data. For example, you can combine the location of mobile workers, located in real-time by GPS devices, in relation to customers' homes, located by address and derived from your customer database. GIS maps this data, giving dispatchers a visual tool to plan the best routes for mobile staff or send the closest worker to a customer. This saves tremendous time and money.

Rather than working hard to understand data, GIS puts data to work for user. GIS can provide you with powerful informationnot just how things are, but how they will be in the future based on changes you apply. It has been used to solve problems as diverse as

  • Determining where to place self-service coin counting machines

  • Visualizing and planning how to improve the yield of crops in a traditional Tuscan vineyard

  • Sharing and managing information for an entire city enterprise Geographical information science draws on disciplines as diverse as cartography, cognitive science, computer science, engineering, environmental science, geodesy, landscape architecture, law, photogrammetry, public policy, remote sensing, statistics and surveying. Geographical information Science involves the study of fundamental issues arising from the creation, handling, storage and use of geographical information (Longely et al., 2001).

Importance

  • A tax assessor’s office produces land use maps for appraisers and planners.

  • An engineering department monitors the condition of roads and bridges and produces planning maps for natural disasters.

  • A water department finds the valves to isolate a ruptured water main.

  • A police department studies crime pattern to intelligently deploy its personnel and to monitor the effectiveness of neighborhood watch programs.

 Wastewater department priorities areas for repairs after an earthquake.  A telecommunications company studies the
Wastewater department priorities areas for repairs after an earthquake.
A telecommunications company studies the terrain to find locations for new cell
phone towers.
A hydrologist monitors water quality to protect public health.
A pipeline company finds the least-cost path for a new pipeline.
A electric utility models its circuits to minimize power loss and to plan the
placement of new devices.
Meteorologists issues warnings for counties in the path of a severe storm.
A business evaluates locations for new retail outlets by considering nearby
concentrations customers.
A police dispatcher finds the fastest route to an emergency.
An emergency management agency plans relief facilities by modeling demand and
accessibility.
A fire fighting team predicts the spread of a forest fire using terrain and weather
data.
A water resource manager traces upstream to find the possible sources of a
contaminant.
1.7 Applications of GIS:
GIS finds its application in all those areas where professionals are involved in management
and planning utilizing analysis of large amount of geographical data that relates to space,
typically involving positional data. Positional data determine where things are or perhaps,
where they were or will be. In other words, it is dealing with questions related to geographic
space. Some of the typical applications may be as under.
(i) A forest manager may want to optimize production of timber using data on soil and
current tree stand distribution under a number of operational constraints.
(ii) A geologist may be interested in identifying the best dam site by analyzing the
earthquake data of the area, and rock formation characteristics.
(iii) A geoinformatics engineer may want to determine the best sites for his company’s relay
stations taking into account the land prices, topography, etc.
The areas of GIS applications are unlimited as it can be used for management and planning
The areas of GIS applications are unlimited as it can be used for management and planning
that may be required in any field, e.g., civil engineering, urban planning, forestry,
environmental management, flood control, natural disaster management, natural resources
management, military, biology, geology, mining, hydrology, etc.
GIS is used to study the phenomena which are man-made or natural. Urban planning
essentially requires a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between various
entities such as road connectivity, schools, hospitals, police stations, etc., with respect to
human settlements.
On the other hand, in geomorphology, ecology, and soil studies, natural phenomena, such as
rock formation, plate tectonics, distribution of soils, are analyzed. GIS applications also
consist of study of both natural as well as man-made entities together.
The study of effect of human activity on the environment, referred to as environmental
impact assessment involves analysis of data about both natural and man-made features. A
study on the growing industrial units in an area is a problem of environmental impact
assessment.GIS has distinct application in feasibility studies such as site suitability and
simulation studies in erosion modeling.
Major areas of Practical Application of GIS
vehicle routing and scheduling
location analysis, site selection
development of evacuation plans
Natural resource-based
management of wild and scenic rivers, recreation resources, floodplains, wetlands,
agricultural lands, aquifers, forests, wildlife
Environmental impact analysis (EIA)
Land parcel-based
zoning, subdivision plan review
land acquisition
Facilities management
locating underground pipes, cables
balancing loads in electrical networks
Environmental Resource Management Environmental applications lend themselves very well to GIS because they often require the
Environmental Resource Management
Environmental applications lend themselves very well to GIS because they often require the
integration of numerous different data sets during the analysis, since environmental systems
tend to be complex and composed of inter-related sub-systems. Particular applications
include river channel maintenance, coastal defense, forestry and national park management.
Emergency Planning and Routing
The provision of optimum locations for emergency service centres can also be aided by GIS
analysis of the various parameters such as access to roads, population density and various
health indicators. Network analysis can be utilised to define optimum routes, such as
shortest or fastest, for the routing of emergency service vehicles.
Provision of Health, Educational or Retail Services
Consideration of the spatial distribution of different sectors of the population, their health
and socio-economic characteristics and the accessibility to transport routes plus the location
of existing facilities are required prior to the effective location of new facilities or the
allocation of new services.
Facility Management for the Utilities
The utility industries tend to have vast numbers of facilities to manage in order to provide
large customer regions with an efficient and reliable service. Gas, water, electricity and
sewage utilities for instance own a lot of land, buildings, cables, pipes and other physical
facilities which need monitoring, maintaining and managing in order to provide an effective
service.
Highway Maintenance and Accident Monitoring
Roads and motorways need to be maintained and monitored for accident trouble spots. GIS
are ideal for representing the spatial relationships between sections and storing the
associated information tied to each section of road. Maintenance records can also be
incorporated into the GIS and so provide up to date displays of the state of the road network
and the sections which require immediate maintenance.
Market Analysis
The spatial distribution of the population and particularly the different age groups and socio-
economic sectors are essential information to the market analyst attempting to discover the most suitable place
economic sectors are essential information to the market analyst attempting to discover the
most suitable place to launch a new product or sell a particular brand. The effectiveness of
any given marketing stratey can also be modeled and evaluated.
Population Analysis and Prediction
The spatial distribution of the population and the predicted level of a population are
essential information to planners and developers when deciding what type of facilities need
to be constructed now in order to best suit the needs of the future population. Census data
thus provide an important input to GIS.
1.8 Advantages of GIS
The GIS can be used in variety of applications in different ways. The versatile use of GIS
can nt be genralised.However an effort has been made to clear the basic concept of the
advantages of GIS:
GIS have a number of advantagre compared to the traditional mapping systes.
Traditional maps are static, with fixed projection, scale and coordinate systems, it is
difficult to combine multiple map sheet and overlays are restricted.
They are difficult to copy and share between many users. It is easy to update data in
GIS, analyse spatial data and convert new scale or coordinate systems.
Maps are easily combined and overlaied offering various types of information.
Densities quantities and pattern of a specific items in a specific area can be easily
derived and terrain models can be generated to aid 3D visualization.
Simultaneous and multiple user accessed by multiple user.
This can be ensure that organizations and single users use the most up to date
information and therefore make better and less time consuming decisions.
Geospatial data is better maintained and easier to search, analyze and represent
leading to more added value products.
Data is digitally organized in GIS. So the user has no need to store numerous maps,
datasheet and charts.
There is no need to manual check, the search is done automaticallly by computers,
making work easier, cost effective and less time consuming. Interactive maps provide
information about how geographical features interact with others. Users Can point
the location and retrive information, perform editing and analysis, discover new
relationship between object and phenomena. Access of geographic information is
easy and there is a range of tools which give the capability to interact with the map
contents.
1.9 Limitation GIS A GIS has many benefitial applications; However, like other technological systems, there are
1.9 Limitation GIS
A GIS has many benefitial applications; However, like other technological systems, there
are also some limitattions to its use. The following are some example
Data for a specific area may lack spatial or temporal continuty.
GIS data are relatively expensive than traditional data
Additionally, privacy and security issues can sometimes limit distribution of data.
Collecting the data can be very time consuming
GIS often relies on the quality of avialable data which may introduce serious errors.
GIS dat may also be subjected to misuse or misinterpretation
GIS shows only spatial relationshipsbut does not necessarily explain them or provide
absolute solutions, which is the actual need of the users
GIS has its Origin in the earth science and computer science.Therefore solution
derieved from GIS may not be appropiate for humanities science/ research.
Learning time on GIS software and systems can be long, because its easily becomes
the objestive of the study rather than just a tool.
GIS integrates several individual subjects which demands proper knowledgeon all of
integrated disciplines.
GIS needs specialised somputer equioement and software (although this is
increasongly becoming less important)
Chapter Two
Chapter Two
2.1 Components of GIS The GIS is constitute of five key components, namely, Hardware, Software, procedure,
2.1 Components of GIS
The GIS is constitute of five key components, namely, Hardware, Software, procedure, data
and users. These fiv components need to be in balance to function information system
satisfactorily.
Computer Hardware:
The general hardware component of a geographical information system is the computer or
central processing unit. It is linked to a disk drive storage unit, which provides space for
storing data and programs. A digitizer, scanner and other device is used to convert data from
maps and documents into digital form and send them to computer. A digitizer board is a flat
board used for vectorisation of any map object. A plotter or other kind of display device is
used to present the result of the data processing and a tape device is used for storing data or
programs on magnetic tape.
Hardware
Users
Software
Data
Procedure
Fig: Key components of GIS
Computer Software:
The GIS software includes the programs and the user interface for driving the hardware.
GIS software is essential to generate, store, analyze, manipulate and display geographic
information or data. A good GIS software requires user friendliness, functionalities,
compatibilities, updatability, documentation, cost effectiveness. The following is a list of
GIS software producers and their main products.
Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI): ArcInfo, ArcView.
Autodesk: AutoCAD Map
Clark Labs: IDRISI
International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences: ILWIS
Mapinfo Corporation: Mapinfo.
Bentley Systems: Microstation.
PCI Geomatics: PAMAP
TYDAC Inc. : SPANS
Data: Data is the most important component of a GIS. Geographic data and related tabular data
Data:
Data is the most important component of a GIS. Geographic data and related tabular data
can be collected in house, compiled to custom specifications and requirements, or purchased
from a commercial data provider. A GIS can integrate spatial data with other existing data
resources, often stored in a DBMS. The integration of spatial and tabular data stored in a
DBMS is a key functionality afforded by GIS.
People:
GIS technology has limited value without the people who manage and develop plans for
applying it to real world problems. GIS user range from technical specialists who design
and maintain the system to those who use it to help them perform their everyday work. The
identification of GIS specialist's vs. end users is often critical to the proper implementation
of GIS technology. This is what called 'brain ware' which is equally important as the
Hardware and software. Brain ware refers to the purpose and objectives, and provides the
reason and justification, for using GIS.
Procedure:
A successful GIS operates according to a well designed implementation plan and business
rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization.
For many years, though GIS has been considered to be too difficult, expensive, and
proprietary. The advent of graphical user interface (GUI), powerful and affordable hardware
and software, and public digital data has broadened the range of GIS application and
brought GIS to mainstream use.
2.2 Processes of GIS: Input data for GIS cover all aspects of capturing spatial data and
2.2 Processes of GIS:
Input data for GIS cover all aspects of capturing spatial data and the attribute data. The
sources of spatial data are existing maps, aerial photographs, satellite imageries, field
observations, and other sources (Fig. 8.4). The spatial data not in digital form are converted
into standard digital form using digitizer or scanner for use in GIS.
The digital spatial data in an acceptable format and the attribute data are stored in the
computer memory and managed by DBMS which is a part of GIS, for analysis and
producing the results in users-desired formats
Data Collection and Data Capture or Data Input
Data Storage and Data Retrieval or Data Management
Data Update and Data Manipulation
Data Query and Data Analysis
Data Presentation or Displaying
Fig. : Flow chart of the processes of GIS.
Data collection:
GIS data are collected by various methods and techniques. GIS data are collected from
hardcopy maps, aerial photographs, satellite image, GPS, various reports & publications.
Data storage and retrieval:
The collected GIS data are stored into the computer and these data are used in GIS software
for creating huge data storage. These data are saved in a specific space in computer from
which the user can use those data as user’s wishes.
By using these data, maps are represented with charts, tables, information’s and so on. The
storage data can be transformed with other users and stored data can be copied into CD for
selling or other purposes.
Data Update/ Manipulation: It is an important step for GIS data processing. The saved data can
Data Update/ Manipulation:
It is an important step for GIS data processing. The saved data can be edited or changed or
enlarged or purified for updating. The spatial & non-spatial data are represented in a same
list for enlarging & purifying the data. All these processes have been done by GIS software.
Data Analysis:
After creation of a database in a GIS using any DBMS, the data is to be analyzed for
specific purposes. The storage data are analyzed. These database of the computer helps to
create different maps, graphs, charts, tables, diagrams etc. with different signs and colors for
making easy understanding. There are a wide range of functions available for data analysis
in most GIS packages, including measurement techniques, query on attributes on proximity
analysis, overlay operations, and analysis of models of surfaces and networks.
Data Presentation:
The last stage of GIS data processing is data presentation. After completing data
manipulation and analysis, GIS represents results into maps that is very attractive &
information based.
2.3 Essential elements of GIS:
The key elements are a computer system, geo spatial data and users. A computer system for
GIS consists of hardware, software and procedures designed to support the data capture,
processing and analysis, modeling and display of geo spatial data.
Computer System
Hardware & Software for
Capture,Storage,
Processing,Analysis,
Display etc.
Geospatial Data
Users
Maps, Aerial Photographs,
Satellite, Images, Statistics
Tables etc.
Design
of
Standards,
Updating,
Analysis
and
Implementation
Fig. 01: Key Components of GIS
2.4 Principal Functions of GIS The functions of GIS hardware and software can be divided into
2.4
Principal Functions of GIS
The functions of GIS hardware and software can be divided into several basic groups:
Data
Updating and
acquisition,
Manipulation
revising
verification
and editing
Retrieval
Compilati
Storage
and
on
output
Fig: Principal Functions of GIS
Data Capture:
Data used in GIS often come from many types, and are stored in different ways. A GIS
provides tools and a method for the integration of different data into a format to be
compared and analysed. Data sources are mainly obtained from manual digitization and
scanning of aerial photographs, paper maps, and existing digital data sets. Remote-sensing
satellite imagery and GPS are promising data input sources for GIS.
Database Management and Update:
After data are collected and integrated, the GIS must provide facilities, which can store and
maintain data. Effective data management has many definitions but should include all of the
following aspects: data security, data integrity, data storage and retrieval, and data
maintenance abilities.
Geographic Analysis:
Data integration and conversion are only a part of the input phase of GIS. What is required
next is the ability to interpret and to analyze the collected information quantitatively and
qualitatively. For example, satellite image can assist an agricultural scientist to project crop
yield per hectare for a particular region. For the same region, the scientist also has the
rainfall data for the past six months collected through weather station observations. The
scientists also have a map of the soils for the region which shows fertility and suitability for
agriculture. These point data can be interpolated and what you get is a thematic map
showing isohyets or contour lines of rainfall.
Presenting Results: One of the most exciting aspects of GIS technology is the variety of different
Presenting Results:
One of the most exciting aspects of GIS technology is the variety of different ways in which
the information can be presented once it has been processed by GIS. Traditional methods of
tabulating and graphing data can be supplemented by maps and three dimensional images.
Visual communication is one of the most fascinating aspects of GIS technology and is
available in a diverse range of output options.
Data Capture an Introduction:
The functionality of GIS relies on the quality of data available, which, in most developing
countries, is either redundant or inaccurate. Although GIS are being used widely, effective
and efficient means of data collection have yet to be systematically established. The true
value of GIS can only be realized if the proper tools to collect spatial data and integrate
them with attribute data are available.
Manual Digitization:
Manual Digitizing still is the most common method for entering maps into GIS. The map to
be digitized is affixed to a digitizing table, and a pointing device (called the digitizing cursor
or mouse) is used to trace the features of the map. These features can be boundary lines
between mapping units, other linear features (rivers, roads, etc.) or point features (sampling
points, rainfall stations, etc.) The digitizing table electronically encodes the position of the
cursor with the precision of a fraction of a millimeter. The most common digitizing table
uses a fine grid of wires, embedded in the table. The vertical wires will record the Y-
coordinates, and the horizontal ones, the X-coordinates.
The range of digitized coordinates depends upon the density of the wires (called digitizing
resolution) and the settings of the digitizing software. A digitizing table is normally a
rectangular area in the middle, separated from the outer boundary of the table by a small
rim. Outside of this so-called active area of the digitizing table, no coordinates are recorded.
The lower left corner of the active area will have the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0. Therefore,
make sure that the (part of the) map that you want to digitize is always fixed within the
active area.
Scanning System:
The second method of obtaining vector data is with the use of scanners. Scanning (or scan
digitizing) provides a quicker means of data entry than manual digitizing. In scanning, a
digital image of the map is produced by moving an electronic detector across the map
surface. The output of a scanner is a digital raster image, consisting of a large number of
individual cells ordered in rows and columns. For the Conversion to vector format, two
types of raster image can be used.
Chapter Three
Chapter Three
3.1 GIS Data and classification: GIS Data Geographic data in digital form are representations of the
3.1 GIS Data and classification:
GIS Data
Geographic data in digital form are representations of the real world. It describes real-world
features and phenomena coded in specific ways in support of GIS and mapping applications
using the computer. The digital geographic data must be organized as a geographic
database. Roughly two-thirds of the total cost of implementing a GIS involves building the
GIS database which should be accurate and has a significant impact on the usefulness of the
GIS.
Geographic data consists of spatial data and non-spatial data. The spatial data give
information about the geometrical orientation, shape and size of a feature, and its relative
position with respect to the position of other features. Spatial data is described by its x and y
coordinates. The non-spatial data, also known as attribute data, are information about
various attributes like length, area, population, acreage, etc. Normally the spatial and non-
spatial data are stored separately in a GIS, and links are established between the two at the
time of processing and analysis.
The spatial data is normally available in analog form as maps but now the maps are also
available directly in digital format. In GIS, both types of the spatial data are handled
differently.
The non-spatial data describe the attributes of a point, along a line, or in a polygon. In
other words they describe what is at a point (e.g., a hospital), along a line (e.g., a canal), or
in a polygon (e.g., a forest). The attributes of a soil category may be depth of soil, texture,
type of erosion, or permeability. The non-spatial data, mostly available in tabular form, are
also converted into digital format for use in GIS.
GIS Data Non-Spatial Data (Attribute Data) : a) Nominal Spatial Data b) Ordinal c) Numerical &
GIS Data
Non-Spatial Data (Attribute Data) :
a)
Nominal
Spatial Data
b)
Ordinal
c)
Numerical &
d)Conditional.
Vector Data :
i. point,
Raster Data
ii. line,
iii. polygon.
Fig : Types of GIS Data
Spatial Data
Place base view of any place is called spatial data e.g. River, Canal, house, hill – mountain,
cultivate land, vegetation etc. of any places. Generally spatial data of earth surface remain
viewed in a certain place. In following shows a figure on the basis of spatial data. All GIS
software has been designed to handle spatial data. Spatial data are characterized by
information about position, connections with other features and details of non-spatial characteristics (Burrough, 1986), Spatial data
information about position, connections with other features and details of non-spatial
characteristics (Burrough, 1986),
Spatial data is as a series of thematic layers.
i.
Raster Data
ii.
Vector Data
i.Vector data:
A coordinate-based data model that represents geographic features as points, lines and
polygons. Each point feature is represented as a single coordinate pair, while line and
polygon features are represented as ordered lists of vertices. Attributes are associated with
each feature, as opposed to a raster data model, which associates attributes with grid cells.
Vector Data are three types i.e.
point,
line
polygon.
o Points: Points are used to represent features that are too small to be represented as
areas. An example is a postbox.
Lines: Lines are used to represent features that are linear in nature, for example roads
or rivers. They can be used to represent linear features that do not exist in reality,
such as administrative boundaries or international borders.
Polygon or Areas: Areas are represented by a closed set of lines and are used to
define features such as fields, buildings or administrative areas. Area entities are
often referred to as polygons. As with line features, some of these polygons exists on
the ground, while others are imaginary.
o
o
Two types of polygon can be identified: (a) Island polygon. (b) Adjacent polygon. Fig.: Components to
Two types of polygon can be identified:
(a) Island polygon.
(b) Adjacent polygon.
Fig.: Components to represent geography data
Fig.: Vector Data
Raster data: A spatial data model that defines space as an array of equally sized cells
Raster data: A spatial data model that defines space as an array of equally sized cells
arranged in rows and columns. Each cell contains an attribute value and location
coordinates. Unlike vector structure, which stores coordinates explicitly, raster coordinates
are contained in the ordering of the matrix. Groups of cells that share the same value
represent geographic features.
3.2
GIS data sources and data acquisition method:
Analogue
Maps
Reports and
Aerial
Publications
Photographs
SOURCES
OF GIS
DATA
Geographic
Positioning
Satellite Image
System (GPS)
Fig. : Sources of GIS Data
The data for GIS collected from different sources as shown in fig. are discussed below.
Satellite Imagery
Remote sensing data in the form of satellite imagery is an important element of the
organization of any GIS database as it makes possible repetitive coverage of large areas.
Satellite imagery can be used as a raster backdrop on vector GIS data. Satellite images can
support numerous GIS applications including environmental impact analysis, site evaluation
for large facilities, highway planning, development and monitoring of environmental
baselines, emergency and disaster response, agriculture, and forestry. Satellite images are
also useful for urban planning and management.
In addition to image analysis, satellite images are used to generate thematic information resulting into thematic
In addition to image analysis, satellite images are used to generate thematic information
resulting into thematic maps.
Existing Maps
Paper maps are the most important source of data for GIS. Maps of various scales, sizes,
formats, and time periods showing different features are available for large portion of the
Earth, and these are major sources of data for the GIS database. The information available
on a paper map is converted into digital form by the process of digitization for use in GIS.
The advanced countries like U.S.A. also have the digital maps, which can directly be used in
G1S without going into the process of digitization.
Aerial Photographs and Digital Orthophotographs
Aerial photograph y is the art of taking photograph of any feature, landscapes or
phenomenon on the earth surface for the purpose of building maps with the help of a camera
which may be mounted on any aerial platform or held in hand.
Another major source of data for a GIS application is the aerial photographs. Aerial
photographs rectified for relief displacement or radial distortions are known as orthophotos.
An orthophoto is geometrically equivalent to a conventional line map, and represents
planimetric features on the ground in their true orthographic positions. Due to this,
orthophotos possess the advantage of line maps, such as, ability to make measurements of
distances, angles, and areas. However, orthophotos unlike line maps also contain the images
of an infinite number of ground objects, and therefore, most of the time they need
conversion into theme maps.
At present with the given computer power, its storage capacity, and speed, it has become
possible to have digital orthophotos commercially. The digital orthophotos provide all
information of a photograph, but at the same time allow the registration of vector maps used
in GIS. The schematic representation of remote sensing processes and its subsequent use in
Geographic Information System (GIS) environment.
Attribute Data
Attribute data for a GIS are mainly tabular data collected by sampling. The tabular data
which are tables consisting of rows representing samples and columns representing
parameter values can be incorporated into GIS as rational tables.
Survey Data and Records
Some survey data and records about rock types, soil types, elevation, population, and other features are
Some survey data and records about rock types, soil types, elevation, population, and other
features are collected by the related national agencies of a country and maintained in the
form of maps and tables. These data can be incorporated into a GIS.
Libraries: Libraries remain one of the best places to locate digital and paper sources. Often
local public libraries and university libraries are among the best places to gain access to
local sources.
Other Sources
Conventionally, terrain data can be obtained by field surveying using grid leveling. Stadia
tachometry or other field surveying methods. These methods have been replaced by the new
generation surveying instruments, such as electronic tachometer or total station and the
Global Positioning System (GPS) for collecting location as well as attribute data. Another
source of GIS data could be the internet/WWW. Almost all analog or digital data available
for use in a GIS may have limitations, and pose problems while organizing the GIS
database.
3.3
GIS Data Acquisition Method:
Data acquisition in GIS refers to all aspects of collecting spatial data from all available
sources as discussed in Sec. 9.5, and converting them to a standard digital form. This
requires tools such as interactive computer screen and mouse, digitizer, word processors and
spreadsheet programs, scanners (in satellites or aircrafts for direct recording of data or for
converting maps and photographic images), and devices necessary for reading data already
written on magnetic media as tapes or CD-ROMs.
Digital terrain data may be acquired by a variety of methods, depending on factors such as
the location and the size of the area of interest, the purpose of terrain modeling, and the
technical resources available. The ground survey methods are generally employed for large-
scale terrain modeling for site planning and design. At smaller scales covering larger
geographic areas, aerial photographs or satellite images are most suited.
Table: Geospatial Data Acquisition Methods Data Source Methods Equipments Cost 1) Analogue i)Manual Digitizer Cheap Map
Table: Geospatial Data Acquisition Methods
Data Source
Methods
Equipments
Cost
1)
Analogue
i)Manual
Digitizer
Cheap
Map
digitizing
ii)
Semi
Scanner
High
automatic
scanning
2)
Aerial
i)Analytical
Analogue
High
photograph
photogrammetry
Stereoploter
ii)Digital
Digital
photo
Very high
photogrammetry
work station
3)
Satellite
i)Visual
Image
zoom
Cheap
Image
interpretation
scope
ii) Digital Image
processing
method
Image
High
processing
system
3.4
GIS Data model:
A set of guidelines to convert the real world to the digitally and locally represented spatial
object consisting of the attributes and geography.
Spatial data models
Digital geographic data represents real-world features and phenomena in numeric form
coded in a specific way to support GIS and mapping applications using computer. To make
the geographical data useful, it should be encoded in digital form, and organized as a digital
geographic database that creates a perception of the real world similar to the perception
created by the paper maps.The conventional paper map represents a general-purpose
snapshot or static view of the real world at a given time whereas the digital geographic
database allows a range of operations such as sorting, processing, analyzing, and visualizing
the spatial data thereby allowing the data to be a dynamic, together with the necessary tools
for interacting with the data to perform certain specific objectives.
The ways of representing data are known as data models. The data model represents the linkages
The ways of representing data are known as data models. The data model represents the
linkages between the real-world domain of geographical data and the computer (or GIS
representation of the features). The process of linkages involves
(i) Identifying the spatial features from the real world that are of interest in the context to an
application and choosing how to represent them in a conceptual model,
(ii) Representing the conceptual model by an appropriate data model by choosing between
raster or vector approach, and
(iii) Selecting an appropriate spatial data structure to store the model within the computer.
The spatial data structure, which is the core of the model, is the physical way in which
entities are coded for the purpose of storage and manipulation.
Real-world features can be represented as object and phenomena. While objects are discrete
and definite, such as buildings, roads, cities, and forests, phenomena are distributed
continuously over a large area, such as topography, population, temperature, rainfall, and
noise levels. Consequently there can be two following distinct approaches of representing
the real world in geographic database.
(i) Object-based model
(ii) Field-based model.
Fig. : Modeling approaches for the real world]

Object-based Model

In object-based model, the geographic space is treated to be filled by discrete and identifiable objects. An object which is a spatial feature, has identifiable boundaries, relevance to some intended application, and can be described by one or more characteristics known as attributes. The spatial objects may be classified as (i) Exact objects (ii) Inexact objects or fuzzy entities. Spatial objects are said to be exact objects if they represent discrete features such as buildings, roads, land parcels. The spatial objects, which have identifiable boundaries, but not well defined, are called inexact objects or fuzzy entities. The characteristics of the inexact objects change gradually across the assumed boundaries between neighbouring spatial objects. Landform features and natural resources belong mostly to this class of objects. Soil types, forest stands, wildlife habitats are some of the examples of inexact objects. Data in object-based model are obtained by field surveying methods or photogrammetric method, map, aerial photointerpretation, remote sensing, or map digitization. Depending on the nature of the objects and the geographical scale of recording, spatial objects are represented as graphical elements of points, lines, and areas (polygons). Field-based Model The field-based model treats geographic space as populated by one or more spatial phenomena of real-world features varying continuously over space with no obvious or specific extent. Data for spatial phenomena structured as fields, can be acquired either directly or indirectly by aerial photography, remote sensing, map scanning, and field measurements made at selected or sampled locations, such as topographic data for triangulated irregular networks (TIN). The data can also be generated using indirect data acquisition methods by applying mathematical functions, such as interpolation, reclassification, or resampling, to the measurements made at selected or sampled locations. Topographic data such as contours and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are examples of data usually obtained by indirect methods of measurements. Spatial phenomena are represented as which can be thought of being made up of spatial data units in the form of either regular tessellations or irregular tessellations.

At the database level, data in object-based spatial databases are mostly represented in the form of
At the database level, data in object-based spatial databases are mostly represented in the
form of coordinate lists (i.e., vector lines), and the spatial database is generally called as the
vector data model. A spatial database when structured on the field-based model, the basic
spatial units are the different forms of tessellation by which phenomena are depicted. The
most commonly used type of tessellation is a finite grid of square and rectangular cells, and
thus, field-based databases are generally known as the raster data model.
Fig.: Representation of exact objects
GIS Data Features:
There are two data features in GIS:
(i)Attributes data (non-spatial/thematic data)
(ii) Spatial data
Attribute data Model
These characteristics can be quantitative and/or qualitative in nature. Attribute data is often
referred to as tabular data. The coordinate location of a forestry stand would be spatial data,
while the characteristics of that forestry stand, e.g. cover group, dominant species, crown
closure, height, etc., would be attribute data. Other data types, in particular image and
multimedia data, are becoming more prevalent with changing technology. Depending on the
specific content of the data, image data may be considered either spatial, e.g. photographs,
animation, movies, etc., or attribute, e.g. sound, descriptions, narration's, etc.
Vector Data Model
Positional data in the form of X,Y coordinates. Each feature has a coordinate or string of
coordinates to represent a particular location within a specific spatial referencing system.
Spatial objects are thus defined by points and lines, in a similar way to conventional paper
maps and drawings. Examples of data in vector format include site plans, ordnance survey
maps and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings.
The vector data model represents each feature as a row in a table, and feature shapes
The vector data model represents each feature as a row in a table, and feature shapes are
defined by x,y locations in space (the GIS connects the dots to draw lines and outlines).
Features can be discrete locations or events, lines, or polygons.
This electric utility map uses points, lines, and polygons to represent buildings, streets, and
electrical facilities.
Locations such as the address of a customer or the spot a crime was committed are
represented as points having a pair of geographic coordinates. Lines, such as streams or
roads, are represented as a series of coordinate pairs. Polygons are defined by borders and
are represented by closed polygons.
Fig.:Vector Data Model
A vector structure can provide a flexible and accurate representation of an object due to the
fine resolution obtainable with coordinate points. Vector structures also tend to incorporate
the topology and other spatial relationships between the individual entities and are therefore
ideally suited to representing linked networks such as pipe or road systems. It is very
accurate for the measurement of areas or lengths and ideal where there is a requirement for
cartographic-quality pen plots. Computer data storage is very economical but certain
operations such as overlay analysis and proximity calculations have high computational
requirements, which result either in slow operations or high hardware specification
requirements. Manipulation and analysis of digital images, which are essentially raster, is
not feasible.
The secondary vector data structure that is common among GIS software is the computer-
aided drafting (CAD) data structure. This structure consists of listing elements, not features,
defined by strings of vertices, to define geographic features, e.g. points, lines, or areas.
There is considerable redundancy with this data model since the boundary segment between two polygons can
There is considerable redundancy with this data model since the boundary segment between
two polygons can be stored twice, once for each feature. The CAD structure emerged from
the development of computer graphics systems without specific considerations of
processing geographic features. Accordingly, since features, e.g. polygons, are self-
contained and independent, questions about the adjacency of features can be difficult to
answer. The CAD vector model lacks the definition of spatial relationships between features
that is defined by the topologic data model.
Advantages:
Data can be represented at its original resolution and form without generalization.
It accurately represents true shape and size.
Representing non-continuous data.
Conserving disc space.
Creating aesthetical map.
Accurate geographic location of data is maintained.
Disadvantages:
The location of each vertex needs to be stored explicitly.
For effective analysis, vector data must be converted into a topological structure.
Spatial analysis and filtering within polygons is impossible.
Raster Data Model:
In raster data model land cover are represented a single square cell, each cell have a value
corresponding to its land cover type.
General characteristics of raster data Model
In raster datasets, each cell (which is also known as a pixel) has a value. The cell values
represent the phenomenon portrayed by the raster dataset such as a category, magnitude,
height, or spectral value. The category could be a land-use class such as grassland, forest, or
road. A magnitude might represent gravity, noise pollution, or percent rainfall. Height
(distance) could represent surface elevation above mean sea level, which can be used to
derive slope, aspect, and watershed properties. Spectral values are used in satellite imagery
and aerial photography to represent light reflectance and color.
The area (or surface) represented by each cell consists of the same width and height and
The area (or surface) represented by each cell consists of the same width and height and is
an equal portion of the entire surface represented by the raster. For example, a raster
representing elevation (that is, digital elevation model) may cover an area of 100 square
kilometers. If there were 100 cells in this raster, each cell would represent one square
kilometer of equal width and height (that is, 1 km x 1 km).The dimension of the cells can be
as large or as small as needed to represent the surface conveyed by the raster dataset and the
features within the surface, such as a square kilometer, square foot, or even a square
centimeter. The cell size determines how coarse or fine the patterns or features in the raster
will appear. The smaller the cell size, the smoother or more detailed the raster will be.
However, the greater the number of cells, the longer it will take to process and it will
increase the demand for storage space. If a cell size is too large, information may be lost or
subtle patterns may be obscured.
Advantages:
The geographic location of each cell is implied by its position in the cell matrix.
Accordingly, other than an origin point.
Rapid computation.
Representing multiple feature type.
The inherent nature of raster maps, e.g. one attribute maps, is ideally suited for
mathematical modeling and quantitative analysis.
Disadvantages
The cell size determines the resolution at which the data is represented.;
 It is especially difficult to adequately represent linear features depending on the cell resolution. Accordingly,
It is especially difficult to adequately represent linear features depending on the cell
resolution. Accordingly, network linkages are difficult to establish.
3.5 Database management system:
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the
creation, maintenance, and the use of the database of an organization and its end users. It
allows organizations to place control of organizationwide database development in the
hands of Database Administrators (DBAs) and other specialist. DBMSes may use any of a
variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems,
a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way.
A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management,
and retrieval of data in a database. DBMS are categorized according to their data structures
or types. It is a set of prewritten programs that are used to store, update and retrieve a
Database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs
the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information
systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's information requirements
change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the
existing system.
Database Management System Structure
naive
application
casual
data
users
programmers
users
administrator
application
system
database
query
programs
calls
scheme
data manipulation
query
data definition
language
processor
language
precompiler
compiler
application
database
program
manager
DBMS
object code
file manager
data
files
data
dictionary
C391-1,
Introduction H.F. Korth and A. Silberschatz. Database System Concepts, McGraw -Hill, 1986.
21
Fig. Database Management System
Functions of DBMSs
The functions of a DBMS can be summarized as: o o o o o o o
The functions of a DBMS can be summarized as:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
File handling and file management
Adding, updating, and deleting records
Information extraction from data.
Maintenance of data security and integrity
Application building.
Specifying the database structure
data definition language
Manipulation of the database
query processing and query optimization
Integrity enforcement
integrity constraints
Concurrent control
multiple user environment
Crash recovery
Security and authorization.
Types of DBMS
A DMBS manages information that is organized using a database structure or model. This is
analogous to the way in which spatial data are organized in a GIS according to a spatial data
model (e.g., raster or vector). Although new forms of database structure are being developed
all the time, there are three fundamental ways of organizing information that also reflect the
logical models used to model real world structures as below:
o
o
o
Hierarchical database structure
Network database structure
Relational database structure.
The object-oriented database structure is an emerging trend in GIS and a topic of current
research. Of these four database structures, the relational database structure is most widely
used.
I) Hierarchical Database Structure
A data may have a multi-layered data with a direct relationship between each layer, similar
to a tree like structure. The relationship between two successive layers is known as parent-
child or one to many relationship. For such type of data, hierarchical database provides a
quick and convenient means of data access. Here each part of the hierarchy can be reached
using a key or criterion, and that there is a good correlation between key and associated
using a key or criterion, and that there is a good correlation between key and associated
attributes.
The above figure illustrates the concept of hierarchical database. Here a map M consist of
two polygons I and II. Each polygon consists of lines, and each line has a pair of points.
Advantage of hierarchical database:
The main advantage of hierarchical database is that it is simple and provides easy access
through keys defining the hierarchy. Further, it is easy to expand by adding more attribute
and formulating new decision rules. The success of data retrieval in a hierarchical database
depends upon the prior knowledge of structure of all possible queries.
Disadvantages of hierarchical database:
One of the biggest disadvantages of hierarchical database is the repetitive data. Referring to
above Fig., it can be seen that each pair of points is repeated twice and that for line 13, the
coordinates c and d are repeated four times. This is a simple wastage and causes large
redundancy of data in case of large databases. In hierarchical structures, the access within
the database is restricted to paths up and down the hierarchy levels.
ii) Network Data Structures
Many a times, a single entity may have many attributes, and each attribute is linked to many
entities. To accommodate these relationships, each piece of data can be associated with an
explicit computer structure called pointer which directs it to all the other pieces of data to
which it relates (Fig. 9.19). Here rather than being restricted to a branching tree structure,
each individual data is linked directly without the existence of a parent-child relationship. Such a data
each individual data is linked directly without the existence of a parent-child relationship.
Such a data structure is called Network data structures.
Fig. :Network data structures
Sometimes in order to reduce both redundancy and linkage, a compact network structure
known as ring pointer structures are used, so that each entity appears once. In Fig., each
point is having many linkages or point. Fig. shows the ring pointer structure, where the flow
is simplified.
Fig.: Ring pointer structure
iii) Relational Database Structure
In relational database structure, data are organized in a series of two-dimensional tables,
each of which contains records for one entity (Fig. 9.21). These tables are linked by
common data known as key. It is possible to make query on individual or a group of tables.
Each table contains data for one entity. In the first table, the entity is ‘landtitle’. In the
second and third tables, the entities are ‘parcel’ and ‘owner’. The data are organized into
rows and columns, with columns containing the attributes of the entity. Each column has a
distinctive name, and here every entry in a single column must be drawn from the same
domain. A domain may be all integer values, dates, phone, number, or a text). Within a
domain. A domain may be all integer values, dates, phone, number, or a text). Within a
table, the order of columns has no significance. These can be only one entry per cell, and
each row must be distinctive to make possible use of entries in a row. The attribute values in
the rows are called tuples.
Network structures are useful when the relations or linkages are specified before hand. They
avoid data redundancy and make good use of available data. Hence, they allow greater
flexibility of search than hierarchical structures. The disadvantage of network structure is
that for large databases, the number of pointers can become large, and can become a
substantial part of the database. Further, these pointers have to be maintained every time a
change to the database is made. Building and maintenance of pointer structures may be a
considerable overhead for the database system.
3.6 Georeferencing:
A referencing system
is
to locate
a
feature on the earth surface or two dimensional
representation of this surface such as a map. There are three types of georeferencing.
Georeferencing co-ordinate system
Rectangular co-ordinate system
Non-coordinate system
1. Georeferencing coordinate system:
The geographic coordinate system is the only system that defines the true geographical
coordinate in term of latitude and longitude. In this system of coordinates, the earth is
defined by a reference surface using latitude and longitude. The value of latitude lies
between 0⁰ to ±90⁰.
.2.Rectengular coordinate system:
Since most of spatial data available for use in GIS exist in two dimensional form, a
referencing system that uses rectangular coordinates is most suited. This requires a map
graticule or grid, placed on top of the map. The graticule is obtained by projecting the lines
of latitude or longitude from our representation of the world as a globe on to a flat surface
using a map projection. The simplest rectangular square grid is the most widely used
coordinate system for small areas. For larger areas certain established cartographic
projections such as the Universal Transverse Mercator Projection (UTM) are commonly
used. This projection uses multiple cylinders that touch the globe at 6⁰ intervals of longitude
and dividing the globe into 60 projection zones, avoiding the pole To avoid extreme
distortions that occur in the polar areas, the projection zones are limited between 84⁰N to 80⁰S.
distortions that occur in the polar areas, the projection zones are limited between 84⁰N to
80⁰S.
.3.Non-coordinate system:
In non-coordinate system, spatial coordinate system is done using descriptive codes rather
than coordinates. Most widely used postal code which is appended to a postal address, is
one of the examples of georeferencing using codes. This codes may be completely numeric,
such as 267667(PIN Code in India) or alpha numeric such as DL3 6KT (Postcode in UK).
This basis purpose of such codes is to increase the efficiency of mail sorting and delivery
rather than to be an effective spatial referencing system for GIS. This system has the
following advantages:
(a) Provide coverage of all areas where people reside and work.
(b)Individual codes do not refer to a single address.
(c)Provide a degree of confidentiality for data released using this as referencing system.
3.7 Digitizing:
The process of converting paper maps into digital files is called digitalization. Digitizing is
the process of racing paper maps in to a computer format.
Process of digitizing: When used a digitizing table, the paper map is carefully taped down
on the table’s surface. This grid senses the position at the crosshair on a hand-held cursor.
When the cursor button is depressed, the system records a point at the location in the GIS
database. The operator also identifies the type of feature being digitized on this attribute. In
this way map feature can be traced into the system. A process more commonly used today is
to first digitize the entire paper map using a scanner. Light sensors in the scanner encode the
map as a large array of dots. High resolution scanner can capture data as resolution as fine
as 2000 dots must but maps and drawing a typically scanned at 100-100depi. The image of
the map is then processed and displayed on the computer scanner. This raster map is then
processed and displayed on the computer scanner. This raster map is then registered to the
coordinate system of the GIS and the map features manually traced as vectoring. This is
often called heads-up digitizing as opposed to table digitizing for various reasons. Vectoring
software is available to help speed the process of converting raster map features vector
format. This software work automatically. Further manual digitizing on screen is usually
needed to complete the data entry process.
3.8 DEM, DTM, TIN Digital Elevation Model DEM is digital representation of topographic surface with the
3.8
DEM, DTM, TIN
Digital Elevation Model
DEM is digital representation of topographic surface with the elevation or ground
height above any geodetic datum. A DEM is a digital model or 3-D representation of a
terrain surface commonly for a planet (including earth), man and asteroid, created from
terrain elevation data.
DEM by which continuous surface as terrain surface can be represented. DEM is used to
interpreted elevation at arbitrary location using limited number of 3-D terrain point.
A DEM can be represented as a raster DEM is referred as secondary (compound) DEM.
DEM’s are commonly built using remote sensing technique. But they may also be built
from land surveying.
The quality of DEM is a measure of how elevation is at each pixel (absolute accuracy) and
how accurately is the morphology presented (relative accuracy). Several factors play an
important role for quality of DEM derived product-
Terrain roughness
(b)Sampling density
Pixel size
(d)Interpolation algorithm
(e)Vertical algorithm
(f)Terrain analysis algorithm characteristics of DEM
Characteristics of DEM:
A DEM can be described by three elements
Block
Profile
Elevation point
Block: A block is used to describe the physical extend of a DEM.
Profile: A profile is a linear array of sampled elevation point
Elevation point: Elevation point is three types;
1.
Rectangular
2.
First point along a profile
3.
Corner point
(d)A DEM is usually georeferenced either in geographic (latitude, longitude) or UTM (Universal Transverse interactions) (e)
(d)A DEM is usually georeferenced either in geographic (latitude, longitude) or UTM
(Universal Transverse interactions)
(e) DEM data are comparatively simple
(f)Spacing of the profile i expressed in terms of Arc second, Arc minute. (g)Spacing of the
profile express in m when georeferenced in m UTM.
Some image of DEM are given below:
DTM
A statistical representation of the continuous surface of the ground by a large number of
selected points with known x, y, z co-ordinate system.
DTM is to representation or extract topographic information from the DTM.DTM includes
contour lines, profile, drainage system, slope, shade and shadow slope stability etc.
Millar and Flamme was first used this word DTM in 1958.
Some image of DTM are given below:
Characteristics of DTM: 1. Slope and aspects: Slope: Ratio or gradient of vertical change over horizontal
Characteristics of DTM:
1.
Slope and aspects:
Slope: Ratio or gradient of vertical change over horizontal distance.
Aspects: Azimuth that the surface slope faces.
2.
Drainage network: Network: Spatial relation of nodes or points which are linked to each
other.
3.
Catchment area
4.
Shading: Shade is defined as the reduction of reflection from the illuminate light due to
the effect of the terrain relief. The shade is normally calculated as cosine of the angle
between the illuminated light and the normal vector of the terrain surface, on the assumption
of an ideal diffuse reflection surface.
5.
Shadow: A shadow is an area directs light from a light source cannot reach due to the
obstruction by an object.
TIN
TIN is a DEM with a network at randomly located at terrain features.
The TIN which approximates with a set of non overlapping triangles is made of node and
edges. TIN suitable for represents of complex terrain. It is easier to perform spatial
analysis. It is situated for specific application such as generation of shaded relief map The
method of data acquisition the TIN approach the TIN data is collected more efficiently by
terrain and map digitizing the elevation methods.
Some image of TIN below:
chapter Four
chapter Four
Project-One: Bangladesh We prepared Bangladesh map showing the division boundary from a supplied map which is
Project-One: Bangladesh
We prepared Bangladesh map showing the division boundary from a supplied map which
is shown in next page.
Description of Bangladesh:
Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country on 16 December 1971
following a nine-month War of Liberation. Dhaka (previously spelt Dacca) is its capital.
Official name People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh)
Capital Dhaka. Government Parliamentary form of government, President is head of the
State and47Prime Minister is head of Government. Geographical location: In south Asia,
between 2034 to 2638 north latitude and 8801 to 9241 east longitude. Max)mu- extension is
about 440 km in E-W direction and 760 km in NNW-SSE direction. Time; GMT +6.00
hours. Area and Boundaries Area: 147570 sq. km. Boundaries: West Bengal (India) on the
west; West Bengal, ASSAM and Meghalaya (all the Indian state3) in the north; Indian states
of Assam, TRIPURA and Mizoram together with Myanmar on the east; and BAY of
BENGAL on the south.
Map: Bangladesh political map
Map: Bangladesh political map

Project two: Dhaka City

Dhaka, formerly Dacca, is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is located in the geographic center of the country in the great deltaic region of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Dhaka is served by the port of Narayanganj, located 16 km (10 mi) to the southeast. The city is within the monsoon climate zone, with an annual average temperature of 25 deg C (77 deg F) and monthly means varying between 18 deg C (64 deg F) in January and 29 deg C (84 deg F) in August. Nearly 80% of the annual average rainfall of 1,854 mm (73 in) occurs between May and September.

Dhaka is located in one of the world's leading rice- and jute-growing regions. Its industries include textiles (jute, muslin, cotton) and food processing, especially rice milling. A variety of other consumer goods are also manufactured here. The Muslim influence is reflected in the more than 700 mosques and historic buildings found throughout the city. Dhaka is divided into an old city and the new city, and many residential and industrial communities.

Dhaka was founded during the 10th century. It served as the Mogul capital of Bengal from

  • 1608 to 1704 and was a trading center for British, French, and Dutch interests before

coming under British rule in 1765. In 1905 it was again named the capital of Bengal, and in

  • 1956 it became the capital of East Pakistan. The city suffered heavy damage during the

Bangladesh war of independence (1971). The romanized spelling of the Bengali name was

changed from Dacca to Dhaka in 1982.

Map: Dhaka city map
Map: Dhaka city map

Project Three: Chittagong City

We prepared Chittagong City map by using Arc View GIS 3.3 software. Here we show the different feature by different color

. Description of Chittagong City:

Chittagong is the second largest city in Bangladesh.The area of Chittagong City is 154 sqkm and population is about 50lakh. It is the Commercial Capital City of Bangladesh. The surrounding mountains and rivers make the city attractive. Karnaphuli River falls in Chittagong. The largest land port of the country, "Chittagong Port", situated in Chittagong. That's why Chittagong is the city for export and import. Most of the large industries of Bangladesh are situated in Chittagong. Chittagong, is an ideal vacation spot. Its green hills and forests, its broad sandy beaches and its fine cool climate always attract the holiday- makers. Described by the Chinese traveler poet, Huen Tsang (7th century A D) as "a sleeping beauty emerging from mists and water" and given the title of "Porto Grande" by the 16th both the descriptions even today. It combines the busy hum of an active seaport with the soothing quiet of a charming hill town. Chittagong is the country's chief port and is the main site for the establishment of heavy, medium and light industries. Bangladesh's only steel mill and oil refinery are also located in Chittagong.

Map: Chittagong city map
Map: Chittagong city map

Project Four: South America

We prepared SouthAmerica map showing the boundary from a supplied map.

Description of South America

South America is the southern continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. South America was named in 1580 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias

Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a New World unknown to Europeans. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface. As of 2005, its population was estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and

North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America

Map: Map of South Asia
Map: Map of South Asia
Conclusion The term GIS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays
Conclusion
The term GIS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes,
shares, and displays geographic information for informing decision making. GIS is a
relatively broad term that can refer to a number of technologies and processes, so it is
attached to many operations, in engineering, planning, management, and analysis.
Nowadays, GIS technologies have been applied to diverse fields to assist experts and
professionals in analyzing various types of geospatial data and dealing with complex
situations. No matter in ecology, agriculture, public health, tourism, or transportations, GIS
plays an essential role to help people collect, analyze the related spatial data and display
data in different formats.
References:  Longey,P.A;Goodchild,M.F and Maguire,D.J,(2005) Geographic information system and Science,Chichester, Wily  Chandra, A.M & Ghosh,
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