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INSTITUT PERGURUAN TUN HUSSEIN ONN 83000, BATU PAHAT, JOHOR PRACTICAL SCIENCE 2 CHEMISTRY 2 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS NAME

E MOHD NOOR FAIZAL BIN ISMAIL COURSE PPISMP SC/BI/BM AMBILAN JULAI 2009 NO I/C 890706-11-5481 LECTURER ENCIK AHMAD SHUKRI BIN AHMAD@ ABD. HALIM SUBMIT DATE 05 FEBRUARY 2010

SEMESTER 2 Practical Science 2 (Experiment 5) Topic : Qualitative analysis Purpose : To determine the cations and anions of inorganic substances Theory : Chemical analysis is the process by which we can find out the composition of a substance by breaking it down into its constituents. Qualitative analysis is used to find the elements present in a given compound or mixture. Reactions of the cations and anions with specific reagents enable its identity to be obtained. Materials : Dilute hydrochloric acid, distilled water, aqueous sodium hydroxide, aqueous ammonia, aqueous ammonium chloride, aqueous iron(III) chloride, aqueous silver nitrate, dilute niric acid, aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate and potassium chromate(VI) and lime water. Apparatus : Boiling test, test tube, litmus paper, bunsen burner, wooden splinter, filter paper, conical flask, and filter funnel Control variable : Room temperature Manipulative variable : Lime water, litmus paper, wooden splinter Response variable : Colour changes precipitate formed, cloudy lime water. Procedure : 1. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to small amount of solid KA 1, and then that sample is warmed gently. Then, litmus paper is used to detect if that solution is acid or alkali. Lime water also used to detect the present of carbon dioxide. 2. Solids KA 1 and KA 2 are simple salts. To identify the cations and anion of KA 1, the following experiments are carry out. 3. The solid KA 1 is dissolved in distilled water in conical flask. Then, the mixture of distilled water and KA 1 is filtrate by using filter paper into another conical flask. 4. The product of filltration is separate into six part, which is put it into six different test tube for tests. 5. An aqueous sodium hydroxide is added into first test tube and after that, add in excess. 6. For the second test tube, an aqueous ammonia is added and the followed by aqueous ammonium chloride in excess. 7. For the third test tube, an aqueous iron(III) chloride is added and then warm gently. Then, litmus paper is used to detect if that solution is acid or alkali

8. After that, an aqueous silver nitrate is added into forth test tube and then followed by dilute nitric acid. 9. An aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate is added into the fifth test tube 10. For the last test tube, aqueous potassium chromate(VI) is added and followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. 11. All the observation and deduction are recorded in the table below 12. The steps from 1 to 11 is repeated for KA 2 Results : Tests of KA 1 Test (c) add dilute hydrochloric acid to a small amount of solid KA 1, then warm gently (d) dissolve solid KA 1 in distilled water and filter. Use separate portions of the filtrate for test (i) to (vi) i. Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then in excess ii. Add aqueous ammonia, then in excess followed by aqueous ammonium chloride iii. Add aqueous iron(III) chloride, then warm iv. Add aqueous silver nitrate, followed by dilute nitric acid v. Add aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate vi. Add aqueous potassium chromate(VI) followed by dilute hydrochloric acid Observation Solid of KA 1 dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and more soluble in warm condition White precipitate formed and insoluble in excess Deduction Meaning that, the solid of KA 1 is a salt in organic form Magnesium(II) ion, Mg2+, and calcium(II) ion, Ca2+

White precipitate formed and insoluble in excess but soluble in ammonium chloride Litmus paper change from blue to red Black precipitate

Magnesium(II) ion, Mg2+, aluminium(III) ion, Al3+, plumbum(II) ion, Pb2+ The moist chlorine gas will show the acidity properties Ag+ + SO32- Ag2 SO3 Mg2+ + HPO42- MgHPO4 2CrO42- + 2H+ Cr2O72- + H2O (orange) CrO42- (yellow) Reduction : Cr2O72- Cr3+ Oxidation : O2 2O2- + 4e-

White precipitate

Green precipitate and yellow precipitate

Identity of KA 1: Magnesium(II) ion salts (MgSO3)

Tests of KA 2 Test (c) add dilute hydrochloric acid to a small amount of solid KA 1, then warm gently Observation Solid of KA 2 dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and more soluble in warm condition. Lime water turn to milky Deduction Meaning that, the solid of KA 2 is a salt in organic form CuCO3 + HCl CuCl2 + CO2 + H2O Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ Blue precipitate and insoluble in excess

(d) dissolve solid KA 1 in distilled water and filter. Use separate portions of the filtrate for test (i) to (vi) i. Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then in excess ii. Add aqueous ammonia, then in excess followed by aqueous ammonium chloride iii. Add aqueous iron(III) chloride, then warm iv. Add aqueous silver nitrate, followed by dilute nitric acid v. Add aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate vi. Add aqueous potassium chromate(VI) followed by dilute hydrochloric acid

Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ Blue precipitate and dissolve in excess Yellow precipitate formed and changed to reddish White precipitate Cu2+ + Cl- CuCl2 (yellow) If react : Ag+ + CO32- Ag2CO3 Also react : 2AgNO3 + CuCl2 2AgCl + Cu(NO3)2 Cu2+ + HPO42- CuHPO4 (blue complex) Cr2O72- + H2O CrO42-

Light blue solution formed Yellow precipitate formed

Identity of KA 2: Copper (II) ions, Copper Carbonate (CuCO3)

Discussion : 1. The potassium chromate (VI) K2CrO4 given was replaced by potassium dichromate (VI) K2Cr2O7 2. The lime water prepared in this experiment was very saturated so that it was very sensitive to detect the carbon dioxide, CO2 and turns milky 3. The same dropper which being used in this experiment were used several times with the same chemical substances. 4. The changes of SO32- to S was the reduction process because of the decreasing of the oxidation number. SO32X(+1) + 3(-2) = -2 X =4 4. The chemical substances used had been oxidized by the oxygen. 5. Carbon dioxide, CO2 in air diffuse with the lime water and made it turn milky faster 6. The observations of the chemical substances were not effective ang gave the inaccurate results of the experiments. S X=0

Conclusion : KA 1 is a magnesium(II) ion salts (MgSO3) and KA 2 is a Copper(II) ions in (CuCO3)