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HISTOEY OF THE COUNCILS OF THE CHURCH.

PRINTED BT MORRISON ASD GIBB,

FOB

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH.

LOKDON I SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO. LIMITED.

NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBKER'B soys. TOBOHTO : THE WILLABD TEACT DEPOSITOEV.

A HISTORY

H on

COUNCILS OF THE CHURCH.

FROM THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

BY THE

RIGHT REV. CHARLES JOSEPH HEFELE, D.D.,

LATE BISHOP OF EOTTESTBdC,

FOBJtEXLY FBOFKSSOK OF THEOLOGY Df THE TCITKEsnT OF TTBCSCKK.

VOLUME IV.

AJ). 451 TO A.D. 680.

WILLIAM R CLARK,

MX. Boat. LLJX, D.CL,

. X.T.

EDINBURGH:

T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STR

1895.

APR 1 5

PREFACE.

must be confessed that students of the Councils of the

Church experience a relaxation of interest when they have

passed the great Council of Chalcedon. Those, however, who

persevere in their studies will certainly confess that they are

IT

amply rewarded for their pains.

It is not merely that the

history of the Church is continuous, and that the whole can

be understood only as we understand the parts ; but there is

a living interest in the questions and problems which were

perpetually coming up for solution in the Church ; and the

principal controversy handled in the present volume, that of the Three Chapters, is full of instruction in many ways.

In regard to the translation, it may be remarked that no

attempt has been made to render the names of ancient places

and persons in a uniform manner.

Such an attempt would

not only savour of pedantry, but would also be inconvenient

to the reader.

Those forms have been adopted which are

generally understood, and, for the sake of clearness, sometimes

two forms have been given.

It is hoped that this volume will be found to be as accu-

Every care has been taken to avoid

mistakes. If any remain, the Editor will be grateful for

rate as its predecessors.

corrections.

He must add that his special thanks are due to

an accomplished friend who has kindly compiled the Index.

A fifth volume will bring the work to the close of the

seventh Council, the last acknowledged as ecumenical by the

The publication of this final volume of the

whole Church.

English translation must depend upon the demand for that

which is now issued.

Advent, 1894.

W. R C.

CONTENTS.

BOOK XII.

THE LATER SYNODS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY.

SEC. 209. The First Decade after the Council of Chalcedon,

.

,,

,,

210. Irish Syuods under Patrick,

211. Synods in Gaul,

460 and 475,

Rome,

Spain, etc., between the

.

Years

,,

212. Synods at Aries on

the Doctrine of Grace,

in the Years

,,

,,

,,

,,

213.

214.

215.

216.

475-480,

Synods on the Affairs of the Greek and Oriental Churches, Religious Conference at Carthage, A.D. 484, .

Synod in the Lateran at Rome, A.D. 487 or 488,

Synods in Persia and at Constantinople,

.

.

.

.

.

PAGE

1

7

10

20

24

35

38

.40

,, 217. The two Roman Synods under Pope Gelasius. The Gelasiau

Decree de libris recipiendis, .

218. The last Synods of the Fifth Century, ,, 219. Belgium Conference in the Kingdom of Burgundy, at Lyons,

,,

42

47

53

BOOK XIII.

THE SYNODS OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE SIXTH CENTURY TO THE OUTBREAK OF THE CONTROVERSY OF THE THREE

CHAPTERS.

SEC. 220. The Roman Synods under Pope Symmachus, A.D. 501-504, .

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

221. Byzacene Synod, A.D. 504 or 507,

222. Synod at Agde (Agatha), A.D. 506,

223. Supposed Synod at Toulouse, Conciliabulum at Antioch, A.D.

.

.

.

.

.

.

'

507 and 508,

224. First Synod of Orleans, A.D. 511,

.

.

.

225. Oriental Synods on the Monophysite Question, 226. Two British Synods, A.D. 512 and 516,

227. Synod at Agaunum or S. Moritz, between 515 and 523,

.

.

.

228. Synods in Illyria and Epirus, and at Lyons, in the Years

515 and 516,

vii

58

.75

76

86

.87

.92

93

94

98

Vlll

CONTENTS.

SEC. 229.

Synods at Tarragona, A.D. 516, and at Gerunda, A.D. 517,

,, 230. Two Gallican Synods between 514 and 51",

.

.

.

.

,,

,,

,,

,,

231. Synod at Epaon, in Burgundy, A.D. 517,

232. Synod at Lyons, A.D. 517,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

233. Synods at Constantinople, Jerusalem, Tyre, Syria, Rome, and

Epirus, in connection with the Monophysites,

234. Synods in Wales and at Tournay,

.

.

A.D. 518-520,

.

PAGE

102

106

107

.114

116

.123

, , 235. Synodal Letter of the African Bishops banished to Sardinia

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

from the Year 523,

236. Synods at Junca and Sufes in Africa,

237. Synods at Aries, Lerida, and Valencia, A.D. 524 (546),

238. Synod at Carthage, A.D. 525,

239. Synod at Carpentras, A.D. 527,

240. Synod at Dovin, in Armenia, A.D. 527,

241. Second Synod of Toledo, A.D. 527 or 531,

242. Second Synod at Orange, and Synod at Valence, A.D. 529,

243. Second Synod at Vaison, A.D. 529,

244. Synods at Rome, Larissa, and Constantinople, A.D. 531,

245. Religious Conference at Constantinople, A.D. 533, and the

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

alleged Roman Synod under Pope John II.,

246. Synod at Marseilles on account of Bishop

A.D. 533,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Contumeliosus,

.

247. Second Synod at Orleans, A.D. 533,

248. Synod at Carthage, A.D. 535,

125

130

131

138

.143

145

.148

152

169

171

176

.181

185

188

,, 249. Synod at Clermont, in Auvergne (Concilium Arvemense),

A.D. 535,

,,

250. Synods at Constantinople

and Jerusalem, A.D. 536,

 

.

251. Third Synod at Orleans,

A.D. 538,

.

.

.

,,

252. Synods at Barcelona and in the Province of Byzacene,

 

,,

253. Fourth Synod at Orleans, A.D. 541,

,,

254. Synods at Antioch and Gaza, A.D. 542,

.

.

,,

255.

Edict of Justinian against Origen,

,,

256. Synod at Constantinople on account of Origen, A.D. 543,

,,

257. The Fifteen Anathematisms on Origen,

.

.

BOOK XIV.

.

.

.

.

.

190

192

.204

209

210

215

217

221

221

THE CONTROVERSY OF THE THREE CHAPTERS AND

THE FIFTH (ECUMENICAL SYNOD.

CHAPTEK I.

EVENTS PRECEDING THE OPENING OF THE FIFTH SYNOD.

SEC. 258.

Origin of the Controversy of the Three Chapters,

,,

259. Pope Vigilius and his Judicatum of April 11, 548,

.

.

229

.

.

249

CONTENTS.

ix

SEC. 260. Opposition to the Judicatum, 261. The Judicatum is withdrawn, and a great Synod proposed, .

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

262. Synod at Mopsuestia, A.D. 550,

262s.The African Deputies,

263. Second Imperial Edict against the Three Chapters,

264. Protest, Persecution, and two Flights of the Pope,

265. New Negotiations for gaining over Pope

Vigilius,

.

.

.

.

.

.

266. Vigilius gives and recalls his Assent to the holding of an

(Ecumenical Synod,

CHAPTER II.

PAOE

259

265

265

268

269

278

283

286

THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE FIFTH OECUMENICAL SYNOD.

SEC. 267. The First Session and the Acts of the Synod, .

.

,,

,,

,,

,,

268. Second and Third Sessions on the 8th and 9th of May, 269. Fourth Session on the 12th or 13th of May,

270.

271. Sixth Session on 19th May,

272. The Constitutum of Vigilius, 14th May 553, .

.

.

.

Fifth Session on 17th May,

,,

,,

273. Seventh Session, 26th May,

274. Eighth and Last Session, 2nd June 553,

.

.

.

.

.

.

289

302

305

307

312

.316

323

326

CHAPTER III.

RECOGNITION OF THE FIFTH OECUMENICAL SYNOD AND FURTHER

COURSE OF THE CONTROVERSY ON THE THREE CHAPTERS.

SEC. 275. Synod at Jerusalem, A.D. 553. The Emperor endeavours to

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

compel the recognition of the Fifth Synod, .

.

.

276. Pope Vigilius confirms the Fifth Synod, 277. Many Westerns refuse to recognise the Fifth Synod, .

.

.

.

.

278. The Schism in Upper Italy.

.Tuscany and France are also

against the Fifth Synod,

343

345

351

354

279. Victories of the Longobardi. Partial Union of the Milanese, 356

280. Attempts at Union with the See of Grado,

281. Gregory the

Great works

for Union.

.

.

Synods of

.

the

357

Schismatics,

282. The

Union of the

extended,

283. End of the Schism,

 

358

Province of Milan

is renewed

and

 

362

363

CONTENTS.

BOOK XV.

INTERVAL BETWEEN THE FIFTH AND SIXTH (ECUMENICAL SYNODS, UNTIL THE BEGINNING OF THE MONOTHELITE

CONTROVERSIES.

CHAPTEE I.

THE SYNODS UNTIL THE END OF THE SIXTH CENTURY.

SEC. 284. The Frankish Synods about the middle of the Sixth

285. The Synods between the Years 560 and 575, .

,, 286. The Synods between the Years 575 and 589,

.

Century,

.

.

,,

,,

287. Spain becomes Catholic at the Third Synod of Toledo, A. D. 589,

288. The last Synods of the Sixth Century,

.

.

CHAPTEE II.

.

PAGE

366

.380

.399

416

422

THE SYNODS NOT RELATING TO MONOTHELITISM

BETWEEN THE YEARS 600 AND 680.

SEC. 289. Synods between the Years 600 and 630,

.

.

.

,,

290. Synods not referring to Monothelitism, between A.D. 633

and 680,

INDEX,

430

449

493

HISTORY OF THE COUNCILS.

BOOK XII.

THE LATER SYNODS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY.

SEC. 209. The First Decade after the Council of Chalcedon.

1VTO Synod of great importance was held during the forty-

-L'

Council of

although the number of ecclesiastical assemblies held during

this period was by no means small. It was natural that soon

after the holding of the fourth (Ecumenical Council several

These would meet for

provincial Synods should assemble.

one of two purposes, either to give their solemn assent to the

decrees of the Council, or else, where the Monophysites had

the upper hand, to make their public protest against them. The ancient Libellus Synodicus l mentions several small Synods

belonging to this epoch, which were held at Alexandria, Con- stantinople, Eome, and Antioch ; but neither the exact time

of their assembling is given, nor the subject of their trans-

nine years which

elapsed between the

the end of

close of the

Chalcedon and

the fifth century,

actions. 2

We know more of a Gallican Synod which was

year 451, and so a few weeks

held towards the end of the

after the close of the Council of Chalcedon, at Aries, under

the presidency of Ravennius, the archbishop of that diocese.

This Synod gave its assent in the most forcible terms to the

The synodal letter addressed to

Epistola dogmatica of Leo.

the Pope is No. 99 among the Letters of Leo the Great, and

his answer of January

27, 452, is No. 102. 3

1 On this book cf. vol. i. p. 78.

- Mansi, t. vii. p. 870 ; Hardouin, t. v. p. 1526.

8 Leonis Opp. ed. Bailer, t. i. p. 1107 ; also in Mansi, t. vi. p. 161.

2

HISTORY OF THE COUNCILS.

A Council was held at Alexandria, under the Patriarch

Proterius, about the same time, only a little later (A.D. 452),

and gave its assent to the decrees of Chalcedon, and deposed

Timothy ^Elurus, 1 who, as priest, was the spiritual head of

the Egyptian Monophysites, as well as four or five bishops

and several monks among his followers.

We do not possess

the Acts of this assembly ; but they are referred to by the Egyptian bishops in a communication still in existence which

they addressed, several years afterwards, to the Emperor Leo. 2 Martene and Durandus believed that they had discovered

a fragment relating to a Synod held about this time at Frejus.

This fragment, which is reproduced in the collection of Coleti, 3

belongs, however, as Mansi 4 has shown, to the Synodal Letter of the Concilium Valentinum (at Valence) of the year 374,

which we have already mentioned (vol. i. p. 288).

Mention

has also been made (vol. iii. p. 167) of the so-called second

Council of Aries, which some have assigned to the year 452, but which probably belongs to the year 443. Another

Gallican Synod of this period held at Narbonne under the

presidency of Eusticus, the archbishop of that

place,

is

ordinarily assigned to the year 452 ; 5 but which the Ballerini

The occa-

have more accurately assigned to the year 458. 6

sion of its being held was a complaint brought by two priests,

Sabinian and Leo, against several persons, apparently of dis-

tinction, accusing them of adultery. In order to examine into the matter, Eusticus assembled his suffragan bishops and

other eminent persons (honorati) ; but the two priests lacked

the courage to follow up their accusation, and Rusticus there- fore, with the assent of his Synod, inquired of Pope Leo the

Great whether they were to be punished or not.

He also

subjoined a further series of questions on canon law, and indicated his wish to resign. This gave occasion to the Pope

for the composition of his 167th epistle, in which he solves

the canonical difficulties brought before him, dissuades

Eusticus from resigning, and in regard to the two priests

1 See vol. iii. p.

450.

3 See vol. i. p. 71.

2 Mansi, t. vii. p. 525 ; Hardouin, t. ii. p. 692.

4 Mansi, t. vii. p. 871.

5 Mansi, t. vii. p. 898 ; Walch, Histor. der Kirchenvers. S. 314.

THE FIRST DECADE AFTER THE COUNCIL OF CIIALCEDON.

6

gives his judgment that, as their complaints had been made

treat them

in

gently, ne didbolus, qui decepit adulteros, de adulterii eocultet

ultoribus. 1

To the same year, 458, belongs that Roman Synod of

the interests of chastity, Rusticus should

which Pope Leo the Great speaks in his

166th letter to

Bishop Neo of Ravenna, and which formerly was erroneously

assigned to the year 451 or 452. 2 This Synod gave decisions on several questions : that (1) those who had been taken captive in childhood, and did not remember whether they had

been baptized or not, should institute as careful inquiries as might be possible, in order to ascertain the fact. Should

these inquiries lead to no result, they might without hesita-

tion receive holy baptism.

(2) Those, on the contrary, who

had been baptized by heretics, should not be rebaptized, but

the power of the Holy Ghost should be imparted to them by

the laying on of hands by the bishop. 3

In the year 453 the epistle of Leo to the Council of

Chalcedon (see vol. iii. p. 443) was read at a new Synod,

probably at Constantinople ; but the second part of it, con-

taining the protest against the 28th canon of Chalcedon, was

nevertheless kept back.

This we learn from the 127th letter

of Leo to Bishop Julian of Cos. 4

In the same year, 453, on the 4th of October, the elec-

tion of a new bishop, Talasius, for Angers (Andegavum) in

Gaul, gave occasion for the holding in this city of a provincial

Synod, at which seven bishops were present.

These were

Eustochius of Tours, Leo of Bourges, Victorius of Mans,

Chariaton, Rumorius, Viventius (the sees of these unknown),

and the newly-elected Talasius of Angers. The presidency properly belonged to Bishop Eustochius, but in the Acts, Leo of Bourges is named primo loco ; and it is probable that the latter

was requested, as

as being invited from another province

1 Leonis Opp. ed.

Bailer, t. i. p. 1415 sq. ; Mausi, t. vi. p. 397 sqq., and

Sirmond, Concilia Gallice, t. i. p. Ill sqq. 2 By Baluze in Mansi, t. vii. p. 871.

1408, Not. 21.

Correctly by Bailer. I.e. pp. 1405

and

3 We learn this from the 166th letter of Leo the Great, already mentioned.

Bailer. I.e. p. 1405 sqq.; Mansi, t. vi. p. 387.

4 Bailer, t. i. p. 1246 sqq. ; Mansi, t. vi. p. 266, and t. vii. p. 899.

4

HISTORY OF THE COUNCILS.

a matter of courtesy, to assume the presidency.

They drew

up twelve canons, which are preserved in all the collections of

Councils, 1 and contain the following provisions :

1. Clerics must not appeal to the secular tribunals with-

out the consent of their bishops, and must take no journey without their permission, or without commendatory letters from them.

2. Deacons must honour priests.

3. Every act of violence and maiming of the members is

forbidden. 2

4. Clerics must avoid familiarity with strange women.

If they are themselves unmarried, they must for attendants

have only their sisters or aunts or mothers.

Whoever dis-

regards this prohibition, shall be raised to no higher grade,

and, if he is already ordained (i.e. if he has already received

an ordo major), he shall not discharge his sacred functions. If clerics have assisted in delivering over their towns to the

enemy, or in their being taken by them, they shall not only

be excommunicated, but it is forbidden to others to eat with

them.

5. The same punishment shall be inflicted on those who

abandon a course of penitence already begun ; and so with

women who, of their own accord, fall away from a state of

virginity dedicated to God.

6. Any one who marries the wife of another during his

lifetime shall be excommunicated.

7. Clerics who abandon their office, and take service in

war, shall be deposed by the Church which they abandoned.

8. Monks who travel about unnecessarily shall, unless

they amend, be rejected from communion by their abbots

and by priests.

9. Bishops are not permitted to confer higher orders upon

the clerics of other dioceses.

10. Laymen or clerics who have been ordained as servers

1 Mansi, t. vii. p. 899 sqq. ; Hardouin, t.

OallicE, t. i. p. 116 sqq.

xvi. p. 394.

Cf. on this Synod

ii. p. 777 sqq. ; Sirmond, Concilia

also Tillemont, Mtmoires, etc. t.

- Instead of the ordinary

text,

"Ut a violentia et crimine

abstineatur,' Hardouin

preferred, " Ut a vinolentia et crimine perpotationis,"

perputationis

etc. Perputatio=membri amputetio. Du Cange, Glossar. s.h.v.

THE FIRST DECADE AFTER THE COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON.

5

at the altar (deacons), and refuse to fulfil their office, must

be punished.

Laymen are not to be excommunicated unless

their offence is proved.

(That

entirely corrupt text of the second half of our canon, appears

from the heading and the notes of Sirmond. 1

this

is

the sense

)

of

the

11. Only one who has been married but once, and with a

virgin, can be made a deacon or a priest.

12. All who

confess their fault

shall be admitted to

penance, and shall receive absolution in proportion to the

greatness of their offence, and according to the judgment of

the bishop.

The same which is contained in the first canon of this

Synod of Angers was ordained about the same time by

another Gallican Synod in the province of Tours, in a brief

There were present the

bishops already named, Eustochius, Leo, and Victorius, and

is indicated in the

Codex Remensis, which adds to the subscription of the synodal

el ceteri qui adfuerunt episcopi sub-

epistle these words :

scripserunt?

besides these perhaps some others, as

synodal

letter which still exists. 2

Another Gallican Synod was held in the sacristy of the

church of Aries on New Year's Day, probably in the year

455 (Concilium Arelatense, iii.).

This Synod was occasioned

by a quarrel which had broken out between the convent of

Le'rins, 4 at the head of which stood Abbot Faustus, after- wards, as leader of the semi-Pelagians, the celebrated bishop

of Riez, and Bishop Theodore of Frejus, in whose diocese

Lerins was situated.

The question arose with reference to

their mutual rights, and the contention had become so violent

To put an end to the

that it had excited great animosity.

dispute, the Metropolitan, Ravennius of Aries, summoned