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Unit 4

Mechanical Science ; manual valves and dampers

This unit introduces some fundamental concepts and use of manual valves and dampers including the theory, operation, principles, construction and application of these components. Unit Objectives: Desired outcome: Basic component knowledge (BCK), describe basic construction, application, and operation of basic plant components listed. Power plant fundamentals (PPF), explain the principles associated with manual valves and describe the following. Enabling statements: * Manual valves (such as gate, globe, butterfly, ball, check, needle, diaphragm-operated, plug, pressure relief, and safety) BCK & PPF. a. Limitations of the different types of valves (BCK0 b. Types (BCK & PPF) c. Components (such as handle, stem, packing gland, valve disk, valve body and valve seat) (PPF) d. Failure mechanisms and symptoms (such as thermal binding, leakage, and difficult to operate) (PPF) f. Function (isolation, throttling, relief, draining, and venting) (PPF) g. Operating characteristics (such as valve application) (PPF & BCK) h. Position indication (such as local, remote, and process parameters) (PPF) * Dampers (pneumatic, hydraulic, fire, and ventilation). (BCK) Note: The content of this course is the property of Bismarck State College and is protected by copyright law. Bismarck State College gives visitors and students permission to copy documents from this course for study purposes only. Distribution or retrieval for commercial use is strictly prohibited without prior written permission from Bismarck State College. Bismarck State College

Manual valves:

Manual valves are used throughout the nuclear plant on virtually all systems and some test equipment. They come in many different types and sizes to suit the particular application. Knowledge of these plant components is required in order to perform your job in almost all positions of employment in the physical plant. In order for the student to understand the discussion of manual valves, it would be good to know the definitions of the words we will be using throughout this unit.

Valve: A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or process. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of the following functions: Stopping and starting fluid flow Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow Controlling the direction of fluid flow Regulating downstream system or process pressure Relieving component or piping over pressure Define the following terms as they relate to valves: Disc Seat/backseat Throttle Actuator

Bonnet Packing gland Stem seat Manual operation Valve body o Disc: for a valve having a bonnet, the disc is the third primary principal pressure boundary. The disc provides the capability for permitting and prohibiting fluid flow. With the disc closed, full system pressure is applied across the disc if the outlet side is depressurized. For this reason, the disc is a pressure-retaining part. Discs are typically forged, and in some designs, hard-surfaced to provide good wear characteristics. A fine surface finish of the seating area of a disc is necessary for good sealing when the valve is closed. Most valves are named, in part, according to the design of their discs. o Seat/Backseat: the seat or seal rings provide the seating surface for the disc. In some designs, the body is machined to serve as the seating surface, and seal rings are not used. In other designs, forged seal rings are threaded or welded to the body to provide the seating surface. To improve the wear resistance of the seal rings, the surface is often hard faced by welding and then, machining the contact surface of the seal ring. A fine surface finish of the seating area is necessary for good sealing when the valve is closed. Seal rings are

not usually considered pressure boundary parts because the body has sufficient wall thickness to withstand design pressure without relying upon the thickness of the seal rings. o Throttle: the term throttle indicates the ability to control flow. Some valves are specifically made to perform this task; other valves demonstrate poor characteristics in throttling or controlling flow in a valve. o Actuator / Handle: the actuator operates the stem and disk assembly. An actuator may be a manually operated hand wheel, manual lever, motor operator, solenoid operator, pneumatic operator, or hydraulic ram. In some designs, the actuator is supported by the bonnet. In other designs, a yoke mounted to the bonnet supports the actuator. Except for certain hydraulically controlled valves, actuators are outside of the pressure boundary. Yokes, when used, are always outside of the pressure boundary. o Bonnet: the cover for the opening in the valve body is the bonnet. In some designs, the body itself is split into two sections that bolt together. Like valve bodies, bonnets vary in design. Some bonnets function simply as valve covers, while others support valve internals and accessories such as the stem, disk, and actuator. The bonnet is the second principal pressure boundary of a valve. It is cast or forged of the same material as the body and is connected to the body by a threaded, bolted, or welded joint. In all cases, the attachment of the bonnet to the body is considered a pressure boundary. This means that the weld joint or bolts that connect the bonnet to the body are pressure-retaining parts. Valve bonnets, although a necessity for most valves, represent a cause for concern. Bonnets can complicate the manufacture of valves, increase valve size, represent a significant cost portion of valve cost, and are a source for potential leakage. o Packing gland: most valves use some form of packing to prevent leakage from the space between the stem and the bonnet. Packing is commonly a fibrous material (such as flax) or another compound (such as Teflon) that forms a seal between the internal parts of a valve and the outside where the stem extends through the body. Valve packing must be properly compressed to prevent fluid loss and damage to the valves stem. If a valves packing is too loose, the valve will leak, which is a safety hazard. If the packing is too tight, it will impair the movement and possibly damage the stem. o Manual: manual actuators are capable of placing the valve in any position, but do not permit automatic operation. The most common type of mechanical actuator is the hand wheel. This type includes hand wheels fixed to the stem, hammer hand wheels, and hand wheels connected to the stem through gears. o Stem: the rod by means of which the disk or plug is moved to open and close a valve. o Valve body: this is the main casing which contains the seat, maintains the pressure boundary around the internal components. it allows for the hook up to piping and the bonnet bolts to it.

Below is a drawing of a gate valve with the components we defined above for valves pointed out.

Valve principles:
Although designs vary greatly, all valves share the similarity that as they are opened, flow increases and differential pressure (DP), or head loss, decreases. Closing valves causes DP and backpressure across valves to increase, while flow and downstream pressure decrease. Valves are installed in piping systems to control the flow of fluids through the system. The control of fluid includes actions such as starting and stopping flow, controlling flow rate by throttling, maintaining direction of flow, and relieving high system pressure. No single valve can perform all of these functions in an efficient manner The basic components of a valve have common nomenclature regardless of the type: body, bonnet, disc, seat rings, and stem.

Each type of valve has its own flow characteristics and fluid dynamics. This is what sets up the good / bad characteristics of each valve type. Construction and materials of valves depends on the system in which they are being used. System factors including pressure, temperature, flow rates, type of fluid, or if the system is safety related (as in nuclear safety) etc. determine this. The construction materials, design, testing, and other requirements may fall under the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, fire codes, or other valve related codes. All installed valves in a system affect the system flow resistance and set the dynamic pumping and head requirements of a system. The more valves in a system flow path the greater the pumping requirements. Flow control valves have the most effect on system resistance during operation.

Valve types:
Globe Plug Needle Diaphragm Check Safety / relief Poppet valve Globe valves: A globe valve is a linear motion valve used to stop, start, and regulate fluid flow. A Z-body is illustrated in the figure below. globe valve Gate Ball Butterfly Pinch Stop check Reducing

As shown in the figure, the globe valve disk can be totally removed from the flow path or it can completely close the flow path. The essential principle of globe valve operation is the perpendicular movement of the disk away from the seat. This causes the annular space between the disk and seat ring to gradually close as the valve is closed. This characteristic gives the globe valve good throttling ability, which permits its use in regulating flow. flow. Therefore, the globe valve may be used for both stopping and starting fluid flow and for regulating

When compared to a gate valve, a globe valve generally yields much less seat leakage. This is because the disk-to-seat ring contact is more at right angles, which permits the force of closing to tightly seat the disk. Globe valves can be arranged so that the disk closes against or in the same direction of fluid flow. When the disk closes against the direction of flow, the kinetic energy of the fluid impedes closing but aids opening of the valve. When the disk closes in the same direction of flow, the kinetic energy of the fluid aids closing but impedes opening. This characteristic is preferable to other designs when quick-acting stop valves are necessary. Globe valves also have drawbacks. The most evident shortcoming of the simple globe valve is the high head loss from two or more right angle turns of flowing fluid. Obstructions and discontinuities in the flow path lead to head loss. In a large high-pressure line, the fluid dynamic effects from pulsations, impacts, and pressure drops can damage trim, stem packing, and actuators. In addition, large valve sizes require considerable power to operate and are especially noisy in high-pressure applications. Other drawbacks of globe valves are the large openings necessary for disk assembly, heavier other valves of the same flow rating, and the cantilevered mounting of the disk to the stem. Gate valve: A gate valve is a linear motion valve used to start or stop fluid flow; however, it does not regulate or throttle flow. The name gate is derived from the appearance of the disk in the flow stream. The disk of a gate valve is completely removed from the flow stream when the valve is fully open. This characteristic offers virtually no resistance to flow when the valve is open. Hence, there is little pressure drop across an open gate valve. When the valve is fully closed, a disk to-seal-ring contact surface exists for 360, and good sealing is provided. With the proper mating of a disk to the seal ring, very little or no leakage occurs across the disk when the gate valve is closed. See the drawing on the next page for a gate valve. weight than

Gate valves are usually used only as isolation valves and are normally either fully closed or fully open dependent upon their specific application. Plug type and ball type valves: Plug and ball valves are used only to stop or start fluid flow. The names are derived from the shape of the disk that resembles a plug or ball. Plug valves and ball valves offer little resistance to flow when open, are relatively fast acting, and can be designed for use at any system pressure. The primary disadvantages of plug and ball valves are cost; relatively rapid wear and corrosion of plug-tobody or ball-to-body seats; and inability to regulate flow. See drawings below of plug and ball type valves

Needle valve:
A needle valve, is used to make relatively fine adjustments in the amount of fluid flow.

The distinguishing characteristic of a needle valve is the long, tapered, needle- like point on the end of the valve stem. This "needle" acts as a disk. The longer part of the needle is smaller than the orifice in the valve seat and passes through the orifice before the needle seats. This arrangement permits a very gradual increase or decrease in the size of the opening. Needle valves are often used as component parts of other, more example, they are used in some types of reducing valves. complicated valves. For

Most constant pressure pump governors have needle valves to minimize the effects of fluctuations in pump discharge pressure. Needle valves are also used in some components of aut omat i c combustion control systems where very precise flow regulation is necessary. See the drawing below for a needle valve.

Needle valve

Butterfly valve:
A butterfly valve, is a rotary motion valve that is used to stop, regulate, and start fluid flow. Butterfly valves are easily and quickly operated because a 90 o rotation of the handle moves the disk from a fully closed to fully opened position. Larger butterfly valves are actuated by hand wheels connected to the stem through gears that provide mechanical advantage at the expense of speed. Butterfly valves possess many advantages over gate, globe, plug, and ball valves, especially for large valve applications. Savings in weight, space, and cost are the most obvious advantages. The maintenance costs are usually low because there are a minimal number of moving parts and there are no pockets to trap fluids. Butterfly valves are especially well-suited for the handling of large flows of liquids or gases at relatively low pressures and for the handling of slurries or liquids with large amounts of suspended solids. Butterfly valves are built on the principle of a pipe damper. The flow control element is a disk of approximately the same diameter as the inside diameter of the adjoining pipe, which rotates on either a vertical or horizontal axis. When the disk lies parallel to the piping run, the valve is fully opened. When the disk approaches the perpendicular position, the valve is shut. Intermediate positions, for throttling purposes, can be secured in place by handle-locking devices. See the drawing below.

Diaphragm valve:
A diaphragm valve is a linear motion valve that is used to start, regulate, and stop fluid flow. The name is derived from its flexible disk, which mates with a seat located in the open area at the top of the valve body to form a seal. Diaphragm valves are, in effect, simple "pinch clamp" valves. A resilient, flexible diaphragm is connected to a compressor by a stud molded into the diaphragm. The compressor is moved up and down by the valve stem. Hence, the diaphragm lifts when the compressor is raised. As the compressor is lowered, the diaphragm is pressed against the contoured bottom in the straight through valve.

Diaphragm valves can also be used for throttling service. The weir-type is the better throttling valve but has a limited range. Its throttling characteristics are essentially those of a quickopening valve because of the large shutoff area along the seat. A weir-type diaphragm valve is available to control small flows. It uses a two-piece compressor component. Instead of the entire diaphragm lifting off the weir when the valve is opened, the first increments of stem travel raise an inner compressor component that causes only the central part of the diaphragm to lift. This creates a relatively small opening through the center of the valve. After the inner compressor is completely open, the outer compressor component is raised along with the inner compressor and the remainder of the throttling is similar to the throttling that takes place in a conventional valve. Diaphragm valves are particularly suited for the handling of corrosive fluids, fibrous slurries, fluids, or other fluids that must remain free from contamination. see illustration below radioactive

Pinch valves: They simplest of any valve design. It is simply an industrial version of the pinch cock laboratory to control the flow of fluids through rubber tubing. used in the

Pinch valves are suitable for on-off and throttling services. However, the effective throttling range is usually between 10% and 95% of the rated flow capacity. Pinch valves are ideally suited for the handling of slurries, liquids with large amounts of suspended solids, and systems that convey solids pneumatically. Because the operating mechanism is completely isolated from the fluid, these valves also find application where corrosion or metal contamination of the fluid might be a problem. See the drawing on the next page.

The pinch control valve consists of a sleeve molded of rubber or other synthetic material and a pinching mechanism. All of the operating portions are completely external to the valve. The molded sleeve is referred to as the valve body. Pinch valve bodies are manufactured of natural and synthetic rubbers and plastics which have good abrasion resistance properties. These properties permit little damage to the valve sleeve, thereby providing virtually unimpeded flow. Sleeves are available with either extended hubs or clamps designed to slip over a pipe end, or with a flanged end having standard dimensions. Check valves: Check valves are designed to prevent the reversal of flow in a piping system. These valves are activated by the flowing material in the pipeline. The pressure of the fluid passing through the system opens the valve, while any reversal of flow will close the valve. Closure is accomplished by the weight of the check mechanism, by back pressure, by a spring, or by a combination of these means. The general types of check valves are swing, tilting-disk, piston, butterfly, and stop. A swing check valve is illustrated in figure 24. The valve allows full, unobstructed flow and automatically closes as pressure decreases. These valves are fully closed when the flow reaches zero and prevent back flow. Turbulence and pressure drop within the valve are very low. Types of check valves: o Swing o Tilting-disk o Lift check o Piston, o Butterfly o Stop

Swing check valve: It is a check valve in which the disc, the movable part to block the flow, swings on a hinge or trunnion, either onto the seat to block reverse flow or off the seat to allow forward flow. The seat opening cross-section may be perpendicular to the centerline between the two ports or at an angle. Although swing check valves can come in various sizes, large check valves are often swing check valves. The flapper valve in a flush-toilet mechanism is an example of this type of valve. Tank pressure holding it closed is overcome by manual lift of the flapper. It then remains open until the tank drains and the flapper falls due to gravity. Another variation of this mechanism is the clapper valve, used in applications such firefighting and fire life safety systems. A hinged gate only remains open in the inflowing direction. The clapper valve often also has a spring that keeps the gate shut when there is no forward pressure. Below is an example of a swing check. With hinged trunnion mechanism for the disc.

Additional articulation can be added by a ball a socket arrangement for the arm to disc connection.

Tilting disc: The tilting disk check valve, illustrated in below, is similar to the swing check valve. Like the swing check, the tilting disk type keeps fluid resistance and turbulence low because of its straight-through design.

1. 2. 3. 4.

The cover Body Cover bolting Disc pins: the disc pins are centered in position with two flanges and can be easily removed for maintenance of the valve. 5. Seat ring 6. Disc Lift check A lift check valve, illustrated in Figure 24, is commonly used in piping systems in which globe valves are being used as a flow control valve. They have similar seating arrangements as globe valves. Lift check valves are suitable for installation in horizontal or vertical lines with upward flow. They are recommended for use with steam, air, gas, water, and on vapor lines with high flow velocities. These valves are available in three body patterns: horizontal, angle, and vertical. See drawing on next page.

Lift check valves are similar in configuration to globe valves, except that the disc or plug is automatically operated. The inlet and outlet ports are separated by a cone shaped plug that rests on a seat typically metal; in some valves, the plug may be held on its seat using a spring. When the flow into the valve is in the forward direction, the pressure of the fluid lifts the cone off its seat, opening the valve. With reverse flow, the cone returns to its seat and is held in place by the reverse flow pressure. Piston check valve:

A piston check valve is essentially a lift check valve. It has a dashpot consisting of a piston and cylinder that provides a cushioning effect during operation. Because of the similarity in design to lift check valves, the flow characteristics through a piston check valve are essentially the same as through a lift check valve. Piston check valves are used primarily in conjunction with globe and angle valves in piping systems experiencing very frequent changes in flow direction. Valves of this type are used on water, steam and air systems. See illustration below.

Flow from this direction opens the valve

Butterfly check valve:

Butterfly check valves have a seating arrangement similar to the seating arrangement of butterfly valves. Flow characteristics through these check valves are similar to the flow characteristics through butterfly valves. Consequently, butterfly check valves are quite frequently used in systems using butterfly valves. In addition, the construction of the butterfly check valve body is such that ample space is provided for unobstructed movement of the butterfly valve disk within the check valve body without the necessity of installing spacers. The butterfly check valve design is based on a flexible sealing member against the bore of o the valve body at an angle of 45 . The short distance the disk must move from full open to full close inhibits the "slamming" action found in some other types of check valves. See figure below.

Opening flow

Stop check:

A stop check valve is a combination of a lift check valve and a globe valve. It has a stem which, when closed, prevents the disk from coming off the seat and provides a tight seal (similar to a globe valve). When the stem is operated to the open position, the valve operates as a lift check. The stem is not connected to the disk and functions to close the valve tightly or to limit the travel of the valve disk in the open direction. With the figure on the next page, each of the stop valve functions is described with an illustration.

Closing flow

Non-Return Valve function: stem in open position; plug at the top, fluid flows in flow direction

Non-Return Valve function: stem in open position; plug closes in the event of backflow

Stop Valve function: stem in closed position; plug seals tight

Another type of check valve is the ball float valve. These are also used as a metering device but can also be used as a check valve. When flow is going in the correct direction the ball floats off the seat and allows flow. If a reverse unwanted flow occurs, the ball goes to the seat and seals off. These can also be used to vent systems of air and when water hits the ball, it goes up against the seat and seals off the system. The drawings below are spring tensioned ball checks.

Safety and relief valves:

Definitions and general information: Definitions: Set pressure: in pounds per square inch gage, is the inlet pressure at which the pressure relief valve is adjusted to open under service conditions. In a safety or safety relief valve in gas, vapor, or steam service, the set pressure is the inlet pressure at which the valve pops under service conditions. In a relief or safety relief valve in liquid service, the set pressure is the inlet pressure at which the valve starts to discharge under service conditions Safety valve: an automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve, and characterized by rapid full opening or pop action. It is used for steam, gas or vapor service. Relief valve: an automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve, which opens in proportion to the increase in pressure over the opening pressure. It is used primarily for liquid service. Safety relief valve: an automatic pressure actuated relieving device suitable for use as either a safety or relief valve, depending on application.

Pressure relief valve: is a pressure relief device which is designed to reclose and prevent the further flow of fluid after normal conditions have been restored. Set Pressure: in pounds per square inch gage, is the inlet pressure at which the pressure relief valve is adjusted to open under service conditions. In a safety or safety relief valve in gas, vapor, or steam service, the set pressure is the inlet pressure at which the valve pops under service conditions. In a relief or safety relief valve in liquid service, the set pressure is the inlet pressure at which the valve starts to discharge under service conditions. Differential Set Pressure: the pressure differential in pounds per square inch between the set pressure and the constant superimposed back pressure. It is applicable only when a conventional type safety relief valve is being used in service against constant superimposed back pressure. Overpressure: is a pressure increase over the set pressure of a pressure relief valve, usually expressed as a percentage of set pressure

Accumulation: is the pressure increase over the maximum allowable working pressure of the vessel during discharge through the pressure relief valve, expressed as a percent of that pressure or in pounds per square inch. Blowdown: is the difference between actual popping pressure of a pressure relief valve and actual reseating pressure expressed as a percentage of set pressure or in pressure units.
Lift: is the actual travel of the disk away from closed position when a valve is relieving.

Back Pressure: is the static pressure existing at the outlet of a pressure relief device due to pressure in the discharge system. Constant Back Pressure: back pressure which does not change appreciably under any condition of operation whether the pressure relief valve is closed or open.

General information Relief and safety valves prevent equipment damage by relieving accidental over pressurization of fluid systems. The main difference between a relief valve and a safety valve is the extent of at set-point pressure. A relief valve gradually opens as the inlet pressure increases above the set point. A relief valve opens only as necessary to relieve the over-pressure condition. A safety valve rapidly pops fully open as soon as the pressure setting is reached. A safety valve will stay fully open until the pressure drops below a reset pressure. The reset pressure is lower than the actuating pressure set point. The difference between the actuating pressure set point and the pressure at which the safety valve resets is called blowdown. Relief valves are typically used for incompressible fluids such as water or oil. Safety valves are typically used for compressible fluids such as steam or other gases. Most relief and safety valves open against the force of a compression spring. The pressure set point is adjusted by turning the adjusting nuts on top of the yoke to increase or decrease the spring compression. Types of safety and relief valves: Below is a chart of the different type of safety and relief valves.

Over pressure valves

Relief valves

Safety valves

Spring loaded

Balanced bellows


Direct loaded

Buckling pin and rupture disc

Pilot operated

Supplementary loaded

Types of safety and relief valves

Relief valves:

Spring-loaded pressure relief valve: is held closed by the tension of the spring against the pressure of the contents of the tank. When pressure within the tank exceeds the tension of the spring, the valve is forced open and the contents are vented. When the pressure drops below the tension of the spring, the valve closes to contain any remaining liquid. The system then can continue operations. This is an advantage of a spring-loaded pressure relief valve. See illustration below.

Buckling Pin: The Buckling Pin valves relieve pressure at set point with predetermined accuracy and dependability. The valves consist of a piston on seat, restrained from movement by a slender round pin known as the buckling pin. The piston and seat have a bubble-tight seal while under pressure. The pin will buckle at set point from an axial force applied by the system pressure acting on the piston. Each valve is self-contained and self-actuating. When the pin is buckled, the valve is full open in a matter of milliseconds. The pin is external to the system being protected and is tightly held in place at both pin ends. See illustration.

Rupture disc:

These can be used in a standalone Pipe section in which when the set pressure is reached, the material in the disc ruptures and relives the pressure and will continue to discharge until isolated and replaced. Rupture discs are also used to protect the internals of a safety or relief valve from corrosion by isolating the valve until the set pressure is reached. In this case the rupture disc has to rupture first then exposing the safety or relief valve and then the valve will perform its function. In either case the disc must be replaced after normal conditions have been re-established. This is a drawback to using them. See drawing below.

Balanced Bellows Valve: includes an interior tube of a material folded into an accordion or bellows-like configuration. High pressure compresses the bellows to the point that a relief opening is created. The bellows serves the same principle as the spring in the spring-loaded valve but is less susceptible to corrosion. The valve will close when excess pressure is relieved. See illustration below.

Safety valves:

Safety valve: valve which automatically, without the assistance of any energy other than that of the fluid concerned, discharges a quantity of the fluid so as to prevent a predetermined safe pressure being exceeded, and which is designed to re-close and prevent further flow of fluid after normal pressure conditions of service have been restored. Note; the valve can be characterized either by pop action (rapid opening) or by opening in proportion (Not necessarily linear) to the increase in pressure over the set pressure. See illustration below.

the the by a direct mechanical loading device. (such as a weight, lever plus weight, or a spring). See picture below.

Direct loaded safety valve: valve in which the loading due to fluid pressure underneath valve disc is opposed only

Assisted safety valve: valve which by means of a powered assistance mechanism, may additionally be lifted at a pressure lower than the set pressure and will, even in the event of a failure of the assistance mechanism, comply with all the requirements for safety valves given in the standard. These type valves are replacing the current pressurizer relief valves in nuclear plants in Europe. (NRC NUREG/IA-0034)

Supplementary loaded safety valve: valve that has, until the pressure at the inlet to the safety valve reaches the set pressure, an additional force, which increases the sealing force. Note; this additional force (supplementary load), which may be provided by means of an extraneous power source, is reliably released when the pressure at the inlet of the safety valve reaches the set pressure. The amount of supplementary loading is so arranged that if such supplementary loading is not released; the safety valve will attain its certified discharge capacity at a pressure not greater than 1.1 times the maximum allowable pressure of the equipment to be protected. Pilot operated safety valve: safety valve, the operation of which is initiated and controlled by the fluid discharged from a pilot valve, which is itself, a direct loaded safety valve subject to the requirement of the standard.


The pressure is supplied from the upstream side (the system being protected) to the dome often by a small pitot tube. The downstream side is the pipe or open air where the PORV directs its exhaust. The upstream pressure tries to push the piston open but it is opposed by that same pressure because the pressure is routed around to the dome above the piston. The area of the piston exposed to pressure is larger in the dome than it is on the upstream side; the result is a net sealing force. F = PA (Force = Pressure x Area) The pressure from the pitot tube to the dome is routed through the actual control pilot valve. There are many designs but the control pilot is essentially a conventional pressure relief valve with the special job of controlling pressure to the main valve dome. When the pilot valve reaches set pressure it opens and releases the pressure from the dome. The piston is then free to open and the main valve exhausts the system fluid. The control pilot opens either to the main valve exhaust pipe or to atmosphere.

Nuclear safety related systems safety and relief valves fall under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code requirements.

Poppet valve:
A poppet valve (also called mushroom valve) is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. The shaft guides the plug portion by sliding through a valve guide. In most applications a pressure differential helps to seal the valve and in some applications also open it. Presta and Schrader valves used on pneumatic tires are examples of poppet valves. Below is an example of an air operated poppet valve

Valve seat

Poppet valves are often used in reducer applications as well as input devices into a system. Poppet valves are also used in most piston engines to open and close the intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head. The valve is usually a flat disk of metal with a long rod known as the valve stem attached to one side. Below is an example of a combustion engine poppet valve. More on this when we cover diesel engines in the class.

Reducing / regulating valves:

Reducing / regulating valves can be found all over the nuclear plant. They may be used on gas, steam, water and hydraulic systems. You will see them on welding systems, instrument air, demineralization water systems, seal water systems etc. The basic function of a reducer is to take a higher supplied fluid pressure and convert it to a lower pressure as required by the system.

Figure 16 from the DOE hand book shows how an auxiliary valve controls the steam pressure applied to the operating piston of

the main valve. If pressure on the downstream side goes down, the auxiliary valve will open applying more upstream pressure to the piston opening the poppet valve further, allowing pressure to return to the set pressure on the downstream side.

Valve comparison and flow dynamics:

In the chart below you will find information comparing the various valve types. In order for the student to understand what is being compared, some definitions are required. Equal Percentage: equal increments of valve travel produce an equal percentage in flow change. Linear: valve travel is directly proportional to the valve stoke. Quick opening: large increase in flow with a small change in valve stroke. Vena Contracta: The vena contracta is where the jet of flowing fluid is the smallest immediately downstream of the trim's throttle point. At the vena contracta, the fluid's velocity is the highest and the fluid's pressure is the lowest. Cavitation: is a two stage phenomena with liquid flow. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles in the liquid as the fluid passes through the trim of the valve and the pressure is reduced below the fluid's vapor pressure. The second stage is the collapse of the vapor bubbles as the fluid passes the vena contracta and the pressure recovers and increases above the vapor pressure. The collapsing bubbles are very destructive when they contact metal parts and the bubble collapse may produce high noise levels.

Nuclear plant valve engineering and quality assurance: NRC regulatory guide 1.2 (quality group classifications and standards for water, steam, and radioactive waste containing components of nuclear power plants) provides guidance on standers for the design and construction of valves. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code , Section III , Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components, * Class 2, Class 3, ASME B31 .1 (R e f. 8), apply to valves. *See 10 CFR 50.55a for guidance regarding the ASME Code and addenda to be applied. *Other regulatory guides or Commission regulations cover the specific applicability of code cases, where appropriate. Applicants proposing the use of code cases not covered by guides or regulations should demonstrate that an acceptable level of quality and safety would be achieved. ASTM and ANSI standards also apply to all valve materials used on nuclear plant systems. In general, these codes and regulation set the standards of the various valve construction, tractability, test requirements, control, and other requirements for the various nuclear safety related systems at a nuclear plant. Valve symbols found on plant piping and instrumentation diagrams(P&IDs):

Valve Position indication:

It would not be totally incorrect to say that there are as many kinds of valve position indicators that there are valve manufacturers or different types or construction of valves. But, in an attempt to help the student understand valve position and valve position indicators for manual valves we will list general guidelines in this section. Valves without any indicator: in order to check the position of a valve without an indicator, (this applies only to valves that have rising stems when open i.e. gate, globe, needle, pinch, and diaphragm. And, only if the valve is in the full open or shut position. To check a valve open. Since valves that are fully open are normally placed against the back seat, to check it open, you attempt to turn it in the closed direction (clockwise) until you feel the valve come off the back seat and it starts to rotate. Then place the valve back against the back seat by rotating counter clockwise). Valves are kept on the backseat when open to help protect the packing form full system pressure. You can also look at the valve stem if visible and see it is in the extended position which tells you the valve is open. This is not a positive check however and the first step must be completed any way. This just helps you confirm in your mind that the valve is open. To check a valve shut you look at the valve stem and it should be in the retracted position. You then apply shutting force by turning in the clockwise position and feel the valve against the seat. Do not try to open it. Valves with rising stem visual indicators: With rising stem valves an arrow device can be attached to the stem in some manner with a scale attached to a non-moving part, as the valve changes position the arrow will point to some % of open or closed on the scale. in the same manner, electrical indication can be accomplished by attaching a cam gear, roller, potentiometer, or other device to the stem. This then triggers its no-moving counterpart(or Itself) to generate an electronic signal With indication locally or remote or both. For those valves without rising stems, such as ball, butterfly, and plug, The handle is youre key to knowing the valve position. When the handle is in alignment with the piping, the valve is open. When the handle is perpendicular to the pipe the valve is closed. Pointers are sometimes attached or molded into the handle and on the housing showing position. Electronic devices may also be installed on these valves such as limit, potentiometer or other which can give local and/or remote indication. In the case of the butterfly, valve position may be gear driven by the manual actuator or an arrow may be machined into the stem end which can be seen from above pointing to position on the actuator casing.

Valve failure mechanisms:

Manual valve failures can be categorized by the following: Failure to open. Hard to open. Failure to close. hard to close. Leaking through. Packing failure or out of proper adjustment / Flange leakage.

o Failure to open: can be caused by. Thermal binding of the disc to seat interface(worst on gate valves). Packing gland adjusted too tightly (poor maintenance practices). Improper stem lubrication; (including spalling and galling). Stem breakage. o Hard to open: can be caused by. Thermal binding of the disc to seat interface(worst on gate valves). Packing gland adjusted to tightly (poor maintenance practices). Improper stem lubrication; (including spalling and galling). o Failure to close: Trash under the disc to seat. Improperly adjusted packing. Stem breakage. Improper stem lubrication. o Hard to close: Improperly adjusted packing. Improper stem lubrication. thermal binding of seat to disc inter face (gate valve). o Leaking through: Trash between disc and seat. Flow cutting of disc or seat.

o Packing and flange leakage. Improperly adjusted packing. Packing gland needs adjustment. Improperly installed flange gaskets or flange cutting by system pressure.

Dampers are related to valves in that they control flow of fluids (gases, air, etc.) Dampers are found throughout the nuclear plant in ventilation systems, fire systems, gas cooling systems, boilers, etc. They may be controlled manually, electrically, pneumatically, hydraulically, or spring loaded (most popular for fire dampers) Pneumatic dampers: a pneumatic signal inflates and deflates a series of bladders to control damper position. No motors or linkages are required. Electric; a motor controls damper position through linkage. Hydraulic; cylinders control damper position. Spring loaded thermal link controlled dampers. When the thermal link melts; the damper is driven shut by spring and / or gravity. (usually for the guillotine type damper) Many plant systems require dampers to control or shut off the flow of gases. The degree of effectiveness in which this is done influences the operation of the complete system. It is imperative that the dampers are properly designed and engineered so they will effectively complement other system components and withstand the high temperature, pressure and corrosive gas common in todays process systems. (fire, flue gas on boilers, ventilation etc.) Types of dampers: o Louver o Butterfly

o o o o

Guillotine Diverter Radial vane Poppet damper Louver: the louver type of damper consists of several blades mounted parallel across a duct, with centrally pivoted shafts extending out through a frame and driven by a linkage. Louver dampers are versatile, able in theory to handle any application in the power plant.

Advantages: Fit anywhere in ducting, at any altitude. Compact, no bonnet, little external clearance needed. Lightweight. Drive and linkage more readily accessible. Control function simple with opposed blades. Thin metal blade construction gives quick response to thermal transients. Fast opening and closing. Low leakage to outside environment. Good modulation and control characteristics. Actuation power requirements are low. Normally does not require a support structure. Disadvatages:

Large leakage perimeter. Leakage through seals goes downstream inside the duct. Comparatively high pressure drop because of blade and seal obstruction of flow. Obstructions such as seals, shafts, stops, and fasteners tend to catch ash and scrubber slop. Inherent flimsiness of long thin blades tends to promote flutter. Blades and seals, always in the flow, tend to corrode and erode more Blades can buckle and wrap, causing leakage and lockup. Bearing troubles are possible. Inadequate drive power and blade strength to crush through concretions and force a seal. Larger flange-to-flange required to contain blade(s) in full open position. Sealing problems in dirty applications. More moving parts and thus increased maintenance can be a stack damper for a boiler important.

Butterfly: or wafer damper where leakage is not all-

Advantages: lightweight simple,

quickly actuated comparatively low in cost. Disadvantages: Its frame shape is a handicap in power plant work, where much of the ducting is rectangular. high leakage blade flutter tendency of the blade to warp large clearance needs for the open blade. The frame of most butterfly dampers is light, so twisting and distortion are dangers.

Guillotine: The guillotine damper, or slide gate damper, has the main function of isolation of equipment to permit inspection, maintenance, or repair in addition to process isolation. Occasionally, guillotine dampers are specified for bypass ducts, if operation requirements allow enough time for the slow-moving blade to travel across the opening.

Advantages: Good isolation. Low pressure drop across the wide open damper. Short space needed along the duct. Lower pressure drop than multi-blade louvers Less required space along duct (flange-to-flange) Ability to cut through particulate deposits Less seal air required for 100% isolation More dependable seal design Fewer moving parts thus less maintenance Disadvantages: Flow modulation is not recommended, not intended for control service. Movement is slow not suitable for emergency bypass. The damper is heavy. A large structure outside the duct is necessary to support the drive and the retracted blade. The drive usually more susceptible to wear and corrosion than is the louver damper. May require external support structure.

Diverter: Diverter dampers are a common way to divert a flow of gas from one outlet to another. Diverter dampers are simple and can withstand high temperatures. The blade is located out of the gas stream, so erosive particles do not impact directly on the surface.

Advantages: Good isolation Low pressure drop across the wide open damper Flow modulation may be possible Good for high temperature applications Blade can be insulated to mitigate condensation Seal air requirements lower than with louver type

Disadvantages: Movement is slow A large frame structure required Sensitivity of attitude is higher than for the louver damper Linkages exposed to flow Generally more costly than either the louver or guillotine on a per unit basis Radial vane: Radial vane louver dampers have cantilevered or center-supported radial blades spaced around a circular frame are rotated by a linkage outside the ring frame. The blades usually turn in the same direction, so this damper imparts whirl to the air.

Poppet damper: the Poppet damper resembles a globe valve, with a short lift directly from a circular port. The seating must be tight, and an anti-rotation guide for the disc spindle makes certain that the disc seal surface will repeat its positioning on the seat at each closing. Little used at nuclear plants.

Fire dampers: a ventilation damper located within ventilation system ductwork at the point where the ductwork penetrates a fire rated barrier. Applicable codes, Regulatory guide 1.189: (fire protection for nuclear power plants) lists requirements for fire protection at nuclear power plant and applicable sections of 10CFR 50 sections and appendices. It is designed and tested to remain in the open position during normal operation and to automatically close during a fire on either side of the fire barrier. Automatic closure is typically initiated by the melting of a fusible link on the damper. In the closed position, it retards or prevents the passage of heat and flame across the fire barrier, inside the duct, thereby preventing spread of fire from one side of the barrier to the other. A fire damper is not credited with preventing the spread of smoke through ductwork. Fire dampers must remain operational at all times. Fire dampers shall be deemed operational when the following conditions are met: Fire dampers are properly installed in all required openings. Each fire damper is Listed or Approved and is in good repair. Fire dampers are normally open, and are arranged for automatic closure (with actuation by heat, for example). NOTE: A fire damper in the closed position due to abnormal conditions may be considered operable from a fire protection standpoint, but the closed position of the damper may make the ventilation system inoperable. Fire dampers must be capable of maintaining system integrity during a fire for 75% of the time of the rated fire wall that they are penetrating. The hourly rating for a fire damper comes from the UL555 Fire Endurance Test and indicates how long a damper will block a fire. Fire dampers in the United States are rated either 112 or 3 hours. Any fire rated partition with less than a 3 hour rating requires an 112 hour rated fire damper. Any fire rated partition with a 3 hour or more rating requires a 3 hour rated fire damper. These requirements are based on recommendations made by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).

Fusible links for triggering the damper closure are set to 165 degrees for closure unless otherwise engineered and approved. This concludes our lecture on manual valves and dampers.