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# Slope Stability

## Types of Slope Failures

Falls Slope failures consisting p g of soil or rock fragments that droprapidly down a slope l Most often occur in steep rock slopes Usually triggered by water pressure or seismic activity

Topless Similar to a fall, except that it begins with a mass of rock of stiff clay rotating away from a l t ti f vertical joint

Slides Slope failures that p involve one ore more blocks of earth that move d downslope b l by shearing along well defined surfaces or thin shear zones

Spreads Similar to translational slides except that the block separate and move apart as they also t th l move outward Can be very destructive

Flows Downslope movement of p earth where earth resembles a viscous fluid fl id Mudflow can start with a snow avalanche, or be in avalanche conjuction with flooding

## Types of Slides Rotational slides

Most often occur in homogeneous materials such as fills or soft clays

Translational slides
Move along planar shear surfaces

## Compound slides Complex and composite slides

The driving force (g g (gravity) overcomes the y) resistance derived from the shear strength of the soil along the rupture surface g p

## Slope stability analysis

Calculation to check the safety of natural slopes, slopes of excavations and of compacted embankments. t d b k t The check involves determining and comparing the shear stress de eloped developed along the most likely rupture surface to the shear strength of soil.

Factor of Safety
Fs =

f d

Fs = factor of safety with respect to strength f = average shear strength of the soil

d = average s ea st ess de e oped a o g t e potential failure su ace a e age shear stress developed along the pote t a a u e surface f = c + tan
c = cohesion = angle of friction

## = average normal stress on the potential failure surface

similarly

d = cd + tan d
subscript 'd' refer to p p potential failure surface c + tan cd + tan d

Fs =

when Fs = 1, the slope is in a state of impending of failure. In general Fs > 1.5 is acceptable

Stability of Slope
Infinite slope without seepage Infinite slope with seepage Finite slope with Plane Failure Surface (Cullman s (Cullman's Method) Finite slope with Circular Failure Surface (Method of Slices)

Infinite slope
L d a Na F H b Tr A N r R Ta c F W B

Fs =

H cos2 tan

tan tan

For granular soils, c=0 Fs is independent soils c 0, of height H, and the slope is stable as long as <

L d a Na Ta H T b r A N r R c W B
Direction of seepage

Fs F =

## Finite slope with Plane Failure Surface

B W
Ta

Na

cr =

+ d
2 4c sin cos 1 cos( ) (

H
Tr

f = c + tan
unit weight of soil =

Nr

Hcr =

Slope Failure
O

Base Failure
L L O

Midpoint circle

## Slopes in Homogeneous Clay (=0)

For equilibrium, resisting and driving moment about O: MR = Md c dr 2 = W1l1 W2 l 2 cd W l W l = 11 2 2 2 r

f = cu

O C D

## Radius = r l2 F A cd B W2 E cd Nr (normal reaction) l1 W1 cd H

Fs =

f
cd

cu cd

critical when Fs is minimum, trials to find critical plane solved analitically by Fellenius (1927) and Taylor (1937)

Hcr =

cu m presented graphically by Terzaghi &Peck, 1967 in Fig 11.9 Braja m is stability number

f = c + tan

## c d = H f ( , , , ) c = f ( , , , ) = m Hcr where m is stability number

Method of Slices
For equilibrium Nr = Wn cos n
n=p

Fs =

( c L
n =1

+ Wn cos n tan )
n

n=p

W
n =1

sin n

Ln

## bn where b is the width of nth slice cos n

Bishop Method
Bishop (1955) refine solution to the previous method of slices. In his method, the effect of forces on the sides of each slice are accounted for some degree .
n=p

Fs =

( cb
n =1

+ Wn tan )
n

1 m ( n )

n=p

W
n =1

sin n

## where m ( n ) = cos n + tan sin n Fs

The ordinary method of slices is presented as learning tools. It is rarely used because is too tools conservative

Computer Programs
STABL GEO-SLOPE etc

Bibliography
Holtz, R.D and Kovacs, W.D., An Introduction to Geotechnical An Engineering Das, B.M., Soil Mechanics Das, B.M., Advanced Soil Mechanics